WorldWideScience

Sample records for band practice coal

  1. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  2. Australian coal production marketing and ownership practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author explains his belief that instability of coal pricing has led to ownership changes and, besides high costs, is one of the contributors to that low profitability has been the low prices achieved for coal versus other energy sources. These low prices are, in turn, a reflection of the underlying supply/demand cycle. This paper examines Australia's coal performance in world markets during the 1980's and then the other marketing factors which lead to the authors' conclusion

  3. Investigation of W-band dielectric constant of coals by free space method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cheng-yan; Fan, Wei; Hu, Wei; Yang, Chuan-fa; Liu, Ling-yu; Chang, Tian-ying; Cui, Hong-liang

    2015-11-01

    The dielectric constant of Shandong anthracite coals of China was studied in the frequency range of 75~110 GHz (W-band), using the free space method for the first time. The measurement system is based on the Vector Network Analyzer of Agilent Technology and a VDI extension module with frequency range from 75 GHz to 110GHz. The dielectric constants of coals were calculated from the scattering parameters by implementing an algorithm. Correctness of the test results is verified by measuring the dielectric constant of air and timber. The dielectric constant of each selected coal with different moisture contents is investigated. It is found that both the real and imaginary parts of selected coals exhibit an apparent increasing trend with increasing water content of coals. The real part of coals with different water content varies from 2.61 to 4.97, and the imaginary part from 0.06 to 0.41 at the frequency of 110 GHz. We also obtained the diversification of the dielectric constant by increasing the frequency at the W-band. The real part of coals with different frequency varies from 3.85 to 3.91, and the imaginary part from 0.32 to 0.37 at W-band.

  4. MAINTENANCE OF THE COAL SAMPLE BAND AND DATABASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Davis; David C. Glick

    1997-04-30

    This project provides coal samples and accompanying analytical data for research by DOE contractors and others. All 56 samples have been purged with argon before storage, and the 33 samples in the DECS series are heat-sealed in foil laminate bags and stored under refrigeration. Eleven DECS samples have been collected under the current contract. The program of organic geochemical analyses for the contract was completed during the quarter, and its results (pyrolysis-GC/MS, and NMR spectroscopy by CPMAS and DDMAS) on 21 samples as well as standardized liquefaction results on 28 samples are summarized in this report. Samples and data continue to be distributed from the DOE Coal Sample Bank and Database to other DOE contractors.

  5. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  6. Coal waste management practices in the USA:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoginder P. Chugh; Paul T. Behum

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of coal waste management practices with two case studies and an estimate of management cost in 2010 US dollars. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining. Processing plant clean coal recovery values run typically 50%–80%. Trace metals and sulfur may be present in waste materials that may result in leachate water with corrosive charac-teristics. Water discharges may require special measures such as liner and collection systems, and treatment to neutralize acid drainage and/or water quality for trace elements. The potential for variations in coal waste production and quality depends upon mining or processing, plus the long-term methods of waste placement. The changes in waste generation rates and engineering properties of the coal waste during the life of the facility must be considered. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures. Development of impoundments is critical and require considerations of typical water-impounding dams and additional requirements of coal waste disposal impoundments. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.

  7. The potential of multidiurnal MODIS thermal band data for coal fire detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzer, C.; Hecker, C.; Zhang, J.; Wessling, S.; Wagner, W. [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of our analyses of multidiurnal low-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal data for coal fire-related thermal anomaly detection. Results are presented for data of the Jharia coal mining region of India. We combine three relatively new approaches: first, we use low-resolution MODIS data for coal fire area analyses, which has only been undertaken by a few authors. Second, we analyse data from four different times of day (morning, afternoon, evening and predawn) and for three different bands (MODIS bands 20, 32 and a ratio thereof); and third, we use an unbiased automated algorithm for thermal anomaly extraction of local thermal anomalies. The MODIS data analysed stem from the years 2001 and 2005. Our analyses indicate that MODIS multidiurnal data, and especially bands 20, 32 and ratio bands thereof, have a high potential for the detection of coal fire zones and coal fire hot spot zones, as well as for regular thermal monitoring activities. However, the data are not suitable for a quantitative coal fire analysis concerning fire outline, fire temperature or fire classification into surface and subsurface fires. We used higher-resolution ASTER and LANDSAT data from 2005 and 2002 for general orientation and later comparison of thermal anomaly extraction results. We also used high-resolution Quickbird data for the characterization of individual anomalous thermal clusters. Comparisons demonstrate that even low-resolution thermal sensors such as MODIS can support coal fire detection and zonation into warm and very hot zones.

  8. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  9. Origin of banded structure and coal lithotype cycles in Kargali coal seam of East Bokaro sub-basin, Jharkhand, India: Environmental implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Chandra Tewari; Zahid A Khan

    2015-04-01

    The Kargali seam of Early Permian Barakar cyclothems of East Bokaro sub-basin of Jharkhand, India is 12–30 m thick, splits into two parts, and extends throughout the length of the basin. It is made up of interbedded sequences and variable proportions of Vitrain, Clarain, Durain and Fusain. Application of embedded Markov chain model rejects the phenomenon of randomness in the repetition of coal lithotypes. The preferential upward transition path for coal lithotypes that can be derived for the Kargali top coal seam is: Vitrain → Clarain → Durain ↔ Fusain → Vitrain, and for the Kargali bottom coal seam is: Clarain ↔ Vitrain → Fusain → Durain → Clarain. By and large, the cyclic repetition of coal lithotypes is similar in the Kargali bottom and top seams. Among the noteworthy features are two-way transitions between Durain and Fusian in Kargali top and between Clarain and Vitrain in the case of Kargali bottom coal seam. Entropy analysis corroborates Markov chain and indicates the presence of type A-4 asymmetrical cycles of coal lithotypes. It is suggested that the banded structure of a coal seam is not a random feature and follows a definite cyclic pattern in the occurrence of coal lithotypes in vertical order and is similar to that described in Australian and European coal seams. Asymmetrical cyclic sequences are a normal, rather than an unusual condition, within coal seams. It is visualized that a gradual decline of toxic environment and ground water level resulted in the coal lithotype cycles in the Kargali seam of East Bokaro sub-basin. The close interbedding of Vitrain and Clarain is suggestive of seasonal fluctuation in anaerobic and aerobic conditions during peat formation.

  10. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins

  11. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrico, B.A.; Ryon, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins.

  12. Cooling water practices at coal and gas based power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is used for a number of diverse purposes in a power plant. In most cases, the water cannot be used as such and requires treatment to ensure higher efficiency and protection of equipment. Corrosion, scale deposition and fouling have since long posed as challenges to the technical expertise of cooling water chemists at industrial and utility power plants. The study of the raw water, water samples from the CW tower basin and clarified water of various coal and gas based power stations has indicated that problem of corrosion and scale formation are linked with the quality of raw water and operating parameters. The present paper deals with the different cooling water treatment practices being followed at various power stations and which have been quite helpful in improving the quality of water and reduce scale promotion, thereby improving heat transfer of condenser and heat exchangers, and in addition to prevent corrosion in the pipelines, water boxes, tube plates and condenser tubes. The above said studies constitutes a part of the Research work being carried out by corrosion group of Research and Development Centre, NTPC under the project entitled evaluation of standards for cooling water treatment which has been sanctioned under CBIP (Central Board of Irrigation and Power) action plan by Department of Power to Research and Development Centre of NTPC in the 8th plan period. (author)

  13. Structural insights from boron tribromide ether cleavage into lignites and low maturity coals from the New Zealand Coal Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Ether functionalities form an important cross-linking structure within the macromolecular organic matrix of lignites and coals. To obtain a deeper insight into the complex internal structure of such macromolecules and the maturation related changes of the ether compounds within the network...... structure, boron tribromide (BBr3) ether cleavage was applied to a series of lignite and coal samples of different maturity (R0 0.27–0.80%) obtained from coal mines and natural outcrops from the North and South Island of New Zealand. Terminal ether-bound alcohols rapidly decrease during diagenesis and occur...... important cross-linking substructures within the macromolecular matrix of lignites and coals being sterically protected within the macromolecular network during the maturation process. Additional cross-linking substructures were (poly)ether aromatics, esters and ketones...

  14. Practical use of mathematical methods of optimizing coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaziszyn, I.; Lojek, M.; Postrzednik, S.

    1977-12-01

    Using the method of planned experiment, the interdependence of coke quality and composition of coal blend charged in the coke ovens has been investigated. In the mathematical equations the following factors defining mechanical strength of coke were used: M10, M20, M40, percentage of coke with grain size over 60mm and IRSID factor (for coke with size over 60mm and with size from 20 to 60mm). Four types of coal were used to prepare the coal blends. Usefulness of the method of planned experiment has been tested in the laboratory and in industrial plants. This method can be successfully used in the calculation of quality factors of coke and in optimizing these factors by changing the composition of the coal blend. The model of the coal blend composition in the form of diagrams or tables is not complicated to use but it is correct only when it is applied to the types of coal and conditions of coking taken into account when the model was constructed. An individual model should therefore be worked out for each carbonization plant and for each coal blend.

  15. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Khaled M.; Murphy Michael M.; Lawson Heather E.; Klemetti Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are:(1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting;(2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load—external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing;(3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration;(4) potential rib insta-bility occurred when certain geological features prevailed—these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata;(5) 47%of the stud-ied rib spall was classified as blocky—this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards;and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  16. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  17. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Maturation-related changes in the distribution of ester-bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2009-01-01

    A rank series of lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels (vitrinite reflectance (R0): 0.27–0.8%) from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components (fatty acids and alcohols) during....... One possible reason for this discrepancy could be extremely different amounts of short and long chain fatty acids in the original source organic matter of these samples. However, another intriguing explanation could be the incorporation of immature bacterial biomass from deep microbial communities...... in the immature lignite samples are also visible in the alkene distribution from the open system pyrolysis experiments of the organic matrix before and after saponification....

  20. Changes in bulk properties and molecular compositions within New Zealand Coal Band solvent extracts from early diagenetic to catagenetic maturity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, T.T.A.; Zink, K.G.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Sykes, R.; Wilkes, H.; Horsfield, B. [GFZ German Research Center of Geoscience, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The bulk properties and bitumen molecular compositions of a rank-series of 38 humic coals from the New Zealand Coal Band (Cretaceous-Cenozoic) have been analysed to investigate early maturation processes affecting coaly organic matter through diagenesis to moderate catagenesis (Rank(S-r) 0.0-11.8, R-o 0.23-0.81%). The samples comprise a relatively restricted range of vitrinite rich coal types formed largely from higher land plant material under relatively oxic conditions, but with a significant contribution from microbial biomass. With increasing rank, total organic carbon contents show a general increase, whereas moisture and asphaltene contents decrease. Bitumen yields also decrease through the stages of diagenesis and early catagenesis (Rank(S{sub r}) < 9, R{sub o} < 0.55%), indicating partial loss of initial bitumen during early maturation. Thermal generation of hydrocarbons begins slowly at Rank(S{sub r}) about 5-6 (R{sub o} about 0.40%) as indicated by the constant occurrence and gradual increase of isoprenoids (e.g., pristane and phytane) and hopanoids in their more mature alpha beta configuration. This early phase of catagenesis, not previously recognised in New Zealand coals, is followed at Rank(S{sub r}) about 9 (R{sub o}) about 0.55%) by the main catagenesis phase characterised by a more rapid increase in the generation of hydrocarbons, including total n-alkanes, isoprenoids and alpha beta-hopanes. Changes in the maturity of New Zealand coals can be traced by the Carbon Preference Index and several hopane maturity parameters, including 22S/(22S + 22R), {alpha} {beta}/({alpha}{beta} + {beta}{alpha}) and {beta} {beta}/({alpha}{beta} + {beta}{alpha} + {beta}{beta}).

  1. Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L.; Tselev, A.; Jesse, S.; Okatan, M. B.; Proksch, R.; Mathews, J. P.; Mitchell, G. D.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kalinin, S. V.; Ivanov, I. N.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between local mechanical (elasto-plastic) and structural (composition) properties of coal presents significant fundamental and practical interest for coal processing and for the development of rheological models of coal to coke transformations. Here, we explore the relationship between the local structural, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of coal using a combination of confocal micro-Raman imaging and band excitation atomic force acoustic microscopy for a bituminous coal. This allows high resolution imaging (10s of nm) of mechanical properties of the heterogeneous (banded) architecture of coal and correlating them to the optical gap, average crystallite size, the bond-bending disorder of sp2 aromatic double bonds, and the defect density. This methodology allows the structural and mechanical properties of coal components (lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals) to be understood, and related to local chemical structure, potentially allowing for knowledge-based modeling and optimization of coal utilization processes.

  2. Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between local mechanical (elasto-plastic) and structural (composition) properties of coal presents significant fundamental and practical interest for coal processing and for the development of rheological models of coal to coke transformations. Here, we explore the relationship between the local structural, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of coal using a combination of confocal micro-Raman imaging and band excitation atomic force acoustic microscopy for a bituminous coal. This allows high resolution imaging (10s of nm) of mechanical properties of the heterogeneous (banded) architecture of coal and correlating them to the optical gap, average crystallite size, the bond-bending disorder of sp2 aromatic double bonds, and the defect density. This methodology allows the structural and mechanical properties of coal components (lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals) to be understood, and related to local chemical structure, potentially allowing for knowledge-based modeling and optimization of coal utilization processes. (paper)

  3. Practical application of mathematical methods to determine the composition of coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaziszyn, I.; Postrzednik, S.

    1977-01-01

    By using the method of planned experiment the dependence of quality parameters of coke on the composition of the coal mixture used for coking was worked out. The suitability of this method for coal mixtures in pilot kilns and industrial plants was checked.

  4. Regulations and Practice on Flue Gas Denitrification for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Zhao Guohua

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, according to the relative up-to-date regulations and standards, the maincontrol measure for Nox emission of coal-fired power plants is, in principle, low Noxcombustion. However, in recent years, more and more newly approved coal-fired plantswere required to install flue gas denitrification equipment.

  5. Maturation related changes in the distribution of ester bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, C.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Horsfield, B. [German Research Cemter of Geoscience GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Several lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components during increasing maturation. Ester bound alcohols are found to be present in highest amounts in the very immature lignite samples but show a rapid decrease during early diagenesis. Ester bound fatty acids also show an initial exponential decrease during diagenesis but reveal an intermittent increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference index of fatty acids (CPIFA) parameter is introduced. For the long chain fatty acids the CPIFA decreases with increasing maturity. During diagenesis, the same trend can be observed for the short chain fatty acids but the intermittent increase in the amounts of short chain fatty acids is also accompanied by high CPIFA values. This indicates less altered organic biomass at this maturation level and is in contrast to the mature CPIFA signal of the long chain fatty acids of the same samples. Thus could be due to extremely different amounts of short and long chain fatty acids in the original source organic matter or it could due to the incorporation of immature bacterial biomass from deep microbial communities containing C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acids as main cell membrane components. Deep microbial life might be stimulated at this interval by the increasing release of thermally generated potential substrates from the organic matrix during early catagenesis. The high amounts of alcohols in the immature lignite samples are also visible in the alkene distribution from the open system pyrolysis experiments of the organic matrix before and after saponification.

  6. Practical use of mathematical methods for determining the composition of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaziszyn, I. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze, Poland); Lojek, M.; Postrzednik, S.

    1977-12-01

    By applying planned experiment methods relationships were worked out between quality coefficients of coke and the composition of a coal blend. The suitability of this method for blends carbonized in experimental furnaces and under industrial conditions was verified.

  7. Structural and stress analysis of mining practice in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Waclawik, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří; Grygar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 255-265. ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : horizontal stress * structural analysis * mine roadway stability * coal mining * rock burst Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_15_Waclawik_255-265.pdf

  8. Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Beasley, G.A. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. A Rubber Band Ethics Model for Computing and Information Technology Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative model for analyzing and describing the role of ethics and the manner in which it is applied in the general field of information technology is presented. Current practices and existing behavior rules that are related to economical and social issues are discussed with specific reference to computing technologies such as the internet. A theoretical model for computing and controlling drifts in ethical practices is then delivered to account for continuously changing socio-economical factors. The circle-ellipse model used proved to be a new and innovative yet simple way for predicting and analyzing ethics in an ever developing environment.

  10. 配型煤炼焦技术的研究与实践%Research and Practice of Coal Blending Coking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽

    2013-01-01

    Coal blending coking technology could improve the adhesion of coal, enhanced coke strength, high quality coal resource saving. Paper analyzed properties of coking coal blending for coking coal mechanism, introduced Nippon Steel iftted with Sumitomo Metal and coal briquette coke making process, as well as various coking plants matched the result through the coke oven experiment and the production practice which the coal coking obtained.%配型煤炼焦技术可以改善煤料的粘结性,增强焦炭强度,节约优质煤资源。文章分析了配型煤炼焦对炼焦煤料性能的影响机理,介绍了新日铁配型煤和住友金属配型煤炼焦工艺,以及各焦化厂通过焦炉实验和生产实践总结的配型煤炼焦的结果。

  11. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire ex-tinguishing, the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine. The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation, namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district, increasing the air pressure of the working face, and filling the ground surface fractures. A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire. When the measures fail to in-crease the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber, the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  12. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire extinguishing,the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine.The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation,namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district,increasing the air pressure of the working face,and filling the ground surface fractures.A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire.When the measures fail to increase the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber,the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  13. Assessing the Temperature Dependence of Narrow-Band Raman Water Vapor Lidar Measurements: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Walker, Monique; Cardirola, Martin; Sakai, Tetsu; Veselovskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band detection of the Raman water vapor spectrum using the lidar technique introduces a concern over the temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum. Various groups have addressed this issue either by trying to minimize the temperature dependence to the point where it can be ignored or by correcting for whatever degree of temperature dependence exists. The traditional technique for performing either of these entails accurately measuring both the laser output wavelength and the water vapor spectral passband with combined uncertainty of approximately 0.01 nm. However, uncertainty in interference filter center wavelengths and laser output wavelengths can be this large or larger. These combined uncertainties translate into uncertainties in the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement of 3% or more. We present here an alternate approach for accurately determining the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement. This alternate approach entails acquiring sequential atmospheric profiles using the lidar while scanning the channel passband across portions of the Raman water vapor Q-branch. This scanning is accomplished either by tilt-tuning an interference filter or by scanning the output of a spectrometer. Through this process a peak in the transmitted intensity can be discerned in a manner that defines the spectral location of the channel passband with respect to the laser output wavelength to much higher accuracy than that achieved with standard laboratory techniques. Given the peak of the water vapor signal intensity curve, determined using the techniques described here, and an approximate knowledge of atmospheric temperature, the temperature dependence of a given Raman lidar profile can be determined with accuracy of 0.5% or better. A Mathematica notebook that demonstrates the calculations used here is available from the lead author.

  14. Studying religious music at the grassroots level: a look into the discourse practices of Christian metal bands online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Jousmäki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious issues are studied in various ways, most prominently by sociologists of religion. This paper suggests that in today’s world of globally intersecting webs of people, places, ideas and action, scholars and readers interested in religion will find themselves benefiting from cross-disciplinary approaches which help them to conceptualize and describe today’s phenomena at different levels. This paper describes how the emerging discipline of the sociology of language and religion may be applied to studying Christian metal bands’ discourse online. Although previous studies give a good idea of the structures, practices and tendencies in and related to Christian metal, little is reported on what happens at the very micro-level of Christian metal – for example, how they represent themselves to their audiences, what they sing about, and what else they say and, importantly, how they say it. To fill this gap, Christian metal bands’ online presence is examined with a particular interest in how the bands utilize online spaces to build up Christian metal identity and culture with the help of textual, discursive, and multimodal resources. This includes a look at the online self-representation of Christian metal bands, a more detailed investigation of the uses of the Bible on bands’ websites, as well as perspectives on an important part of Christian metal; namely the lyrics.

  15. Practices to control rock burst in deep coal mines of Upper Silesian coal basin and their applicability for Disergarh seam of Raniganj coalfield

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníček, Petr; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Singh, R.; Sinha, A.

    New Dehli: ISRM, Indian National Group of International Society for Rock Mechanics, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, 2010 - (Sharma, K.; Ramamurthy, T.; Kanjlia, V.; Gupta, A.), s. 1-16 ISBN N. ISSN N. [ISRM International Symposium 2010 and Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium /6./. New Dehli (IN), 23.10.2010-27.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rock burst * Upper Silesian coal basin * Raniganj coalfield Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  16. Design and practice of filling mining coal under buildings in Tianjia coal mine%田家煤矿建筑物下充填开采设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传兵; 李志佩; 王龙珍

    2015-01-01

    Based on the full analysis of the specific geological and mining conditions of coal under building village of the East Wing of Tianjia coal mine, analyzed the feasibility of the various mining schemes, and predicted the subsidence of every mining scheme by the mining subsidence prediction software, and determined the final choice of "paste filling material expansion of coal mining technology". The practice results showed that the filling mining method is feasible, reasonable exploitation of valuable coal resources, and to protect the integrity and the safety of surface building (structure) and maintains the long-term development of enterprises and social stability.%在充分分析田家煤矿东翼村庄下压煤具体地质采矿条件的基础上,对各开采方案的可行性进行了分析,并结合沉陷预计软件对开采方案进行了预计,确定最终选用“浆体材料膨胀充填采煤技术”。实践结果表明该充填法开采是可行的,既合理开采了宝贵的煤炭资源,又完整保护了地表建(构)筑物的安全,保持企业的长远发展和社会稳定。

  17. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  18. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  19. Practically Efficient Blind Speech Separation Using Frequency Band Selection Based on Magnitude Squared Coherence and a Small Dodecahedral Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small agglomerative microphone array systems have been proposed for use with speech communication and recognition systems. Blind source separation methods based on frequency domain independent component analysis have shown significant separation performance, and the microphone arrays are small enough to make them portable. However, the level of computational complexity involved is very high because the conventional signal collection and processing method uses 60 microphones. In this paper, we propose a band selection method based on magnitude squared coherence. Frequency bands are selected based on the spatial and geometric characteristics of the microphone array device which is strongly related to the dodecahedral shape, and the selected bands are nonuniformly spaced. The estimated reduction in the computational complexity is 90% with a 68% reduction in the number of frequency bands. Separation performance achieved during our experimental evaluation was 7.45 (dB (signal-to-noise ratio and 2.30 (dB (cepstral distortion. These results show improvement in performance compared to the use of uniformly spaced frequency band.

  20. Practical recommendations for increasing transparency in international gas and coal markets. Report by IEA, IEF and OPEC to G20 Finance Ministers, May 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-26

    The communique from the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting held on 5 November 2012 in Mexico City included the following passage: ''We welcome the report prepared by the IEA, the IEF and the OPEC on increasing transparency in international gas and coal markets and ask these organizations to propose practical steps by mid-2013 that G20 countries could take to implement them.'' The attached joint paper represents a collaborative effort by the three international organizations to fulfill the request from the G20. The joint paper was submitted to the G20 on 24 May 2013.

  1. Development of soil nematode communities on coal-mining dumps in two different landscapes and reclamation practices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2002), s. 167-171. ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Nematoda * succession * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2002

  2. One-man band

    OpenAIRE

    Stillman, R.

    2013-01-01

    This website presents practice-based research related to solo simultaneous instrumental performance ('one-man band'). The site was conceived as a creative and widely accessible platform for music and ideas resulting from one-man band activates carried out between 2008 and 2013. Central to this project is an interest in how one-man band technique informs compositional process, including studio production. Through presentation and analysis of the author’s own creative practice, the site exp...

  3. Practical management tasks in the field of industrial safety in German coal mines; Fuehrungspraxis Arbeitssicherheit im deutschen Bergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, R.J. [Bergbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Bochum (Germany). Hauptverwaltung

    1998-06-01

    The following aspects of industrial safety in coal mining are discussed: Responsibility, leadership, corporate culture and corporate identity. Further issues are quality management, industrial safety management, panel/hierarchy organisation, lean management, cooperative leadership, qualification and chance management. (MSK) [Deutsch] Im Folgenden werden hinsichtlich der Arbeitssicherheit im Bergbau die Punkte Verantwortung, Fuehrung sowie Unternehmenskultur und Unternehmensgrundsaetze behandelt. Weitere Themenpunkte sind: Qualitaetsmanagement, Arbeitssicherheitsmanagement, Stab-Linien-Organisation, Lean-Management, Mitarbeiterbeteiligung, Qualifizierung und Chance-Management. (MSK)

  4. POSSIBILITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE COAL MINING INDUSTRY OF THE FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kozarević

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current business environment and growing exposure to a wide range of risks require companies (especially the large ones to raise a question of risk management, start treating it as a particular business function that needs special attention and for which they have to seek proper solutions within their organizational structure. This particularly affects the coal industry, where risk exposure is rather evident and makes risk management one of the key management issues in general. A central point of the analysis includes companies in the coal industry of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (F BiH, where the management needs to be greatly concerned about protection against risks that affect this industry much more than other industries, in particular pure risks (those that involve only the possibility of loss and no possibility of gain . And if we add the so - called emerging or “newly developing” risks, which are still unknown even to risk management experts, it is clear that management of large companies have to take care of risk management culture development and seek adequate organizational solutions. On the basis of the conducted empirical research, the paper will show and appropriately explain the descriptive analysis results, accordingly used for establishment of the level of risk management efficiency in the coal mines of the F BiH and identification of certain weaknesses, whose elimination could significantly improve the process and increase the level of economic protection for these companies.

  5. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  6. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site

  7. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  8. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  9. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Working at the coal face: The contribution of Programme Tutors in supporting practice-based learning in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    McDonagh, Lin; Draper, Jan; Davies, Gillian; Mowbray, Wendy; Gallagher, Donna

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning-funded project to explore key features of effective support for pre-registration nursing students in practice settings. Background The cultivation of positive practice learning environments for students of nursing, including high quality learning support, has been long established as a thorny issue for nurse educators and practitioners. Indeed it was a key theme for the very first nursing research serie...

  11. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  12. Early oil well drilling equipment and production practices. [Information helpful in locating abandoned well sites by identification of discarded parts: such abandoned wells are potential hazards in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston K.H.; Heemstra, R.J.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of early-day cable tool drilling rig construction and drilling practices is presented. Intimate descriptions of various parts of drilling rigs and prime movers are given as to materials of construction as well as to their use. The body of material is broken down into two main categories: well drilling methods, and well completion and production methods. This information is largely directed to the need for locating abandoned wellsites by identification of equipment parts and layouts. These abandoned wells are potential hazards to people in the coal industry if they intersect coal seams under development. The material is well illustrated from documented sources and general nomenclature is given.

  13. Raw coal mud test of Luling coal preparation plant and flotation process reforming practice research%芦岭选煤厂原煤的泥化试验及浮选工艺改造实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新春; 范肖南

    2013-01-01

      芦岭选煤厂入洗原煤泥化严重,通过对入选原煤的粒度组成和浮选系统的煤泥的粒度组成进行了分析,并对煤泥进行了X射线衍射分析,研究了颗粒的粒度分布和煤泥中的矿物质种类和含量。通过方案的比较分析后对煤泥水处理系统进行了改造,使浮选精煤的灰分得到一定的降低,提高了精煤的产率和回收率,提高了选煤厂的经济效益。%Luling coal preparation plant into serious washing raw coal slime, Through to the selected raw coal particle size composition and composition of granularity of coal slime flotation system is analyzed, Of coal slime and X ray diffraction analysis, studied the particle size dis-tribution and mineral type and content of coal slime. By comparing with the scheme of slime water treatment system is reformed after analyzing, make the ash content of flotation plant must be reduced, increased the cleaned coal production rate and recovery rate, improve the economic benefit of coal preparation plant.

  14. DUAL BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jithu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The WLAN and Bluetooth applications become popular in mobile devices, integrating GSM and ISM bands operation in one compact antenna, can reduce the size of mobile devices. Recently, lot many investigations are carried out in designing a dual band antennas with operating frequencies in GSM band and in ISM band for mobile devices. Printed monopoles are under this investigation. In this paper, dual-band printed monopoles are presented to operate at GSM band i.e. 900 MHz and ISM band i.e. 2.4 GHz. We intend to observe the antenna characteristics on the network analyzer and verify the theoretical results with the practical ones.

  15. Coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  16. The Band Pass Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano, Lawrence J.; Terry J. Fitzgerald

    1999-01-01

    The `ideal' band pass filter can be used to isolate the component of a time series that lies within a particular band of frequencies. However, applying this filter requires a dataset of infinite length. In practice, some sort of approximation is needed. Using projections, we derive approximations that are optimal when the time series representations underlying the raw data have a unit root, or are stationary about a trend. We identify one approximation which, though it is only optimal for one...

  17. Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  18. Perspective on coal waste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Hu, Z. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Inst. of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration

    2009-07-01

    Coal is China's most important energy resource. However in the process of coal mining and processing, coal wastes are generated, which is the main environmental pollution source in mining areas. The management of coal wastes has becomes an important priority in China. This paper discussed the current situation regarding coal waste management in China. The paper focused on the problems in coal waste management, and particularly on the characteristics and status of the environmental pollution resulting from coal waste piles. The successes and failures of reclaiming coal waste piles through afforestation were also discussed. The topics that were addressed included the volume of coal waste produced; the structure of coal gangue flows; risks from coal waste piles and the impact on air, water, soil and public safety; the current regulatory framework; status of current research; restoration practice of coal waste pile; and the weakness of current work. The focus and future efforts of research activities for coal waste management were also identified. It was concluded that much work remains to be done in coal waste management in China and that there is a need to further improve the regulatory and institutional management. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  20. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NOx removal. Most other plants are using low NOx burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  1. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110359 Feng Lijuan(Graduate School,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China);Guo Dali Experimental Study on the Stress Sensitivity of Coal and Its Impact on the Filtration of the Fracturing Fluid(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(2),2010,p.14-17,4 illus.,5 tables,9 refs.)Key words:coal seam,stressIn the paper,the relationship between the stress and permeability in the coal r

  2. Coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal- and gas-fueled cogeneration plants develop rapidly and according to all the scenarios will continue to grow with ever improving power generation effect in counterpressure mode. As there is no 'cooling water waste', a greater percentage of houses should be heated electrically. The coal combustion technologies mentioned here will probably converge around 53-55% coefficient of performance. Emission requirements can be fulfilled by use of modern coal technologies. Coal will stay as a competitive fuel for cogeneration as other more advanced technologies are often yet at the demonstration stage. (EG)

  3. Research on drawing coal effects in the dipping and steep--dipping coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 王窈惠

    2002-01-01

    Controllable drawing roof coal mining method is applied either to rently inclined seam or to big dipping seam. This paper sums up four corresponding methods according to conditions of our country, and analyses the coal-recovering effects and proves applicated conditions and measures for improving by "drawing coal theory of the ellipsoid". Its conclusion basically consists with practice. This work is of guiding meaning for designing drawing coal technology.

  4. Ultra-supercritical (USC) technology. The best practical and economic way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianxiong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    China is the largest coal producer and consumer with largest coal power capacity in the world. By the end of 2010, the total installed power capacity in China was 962,190 MWe, in which coal fired power capacity was 706,630 MWe, accounting for over 73.4%. China has been the largest CO{sub 2} emission country as well and its huge coal power capacity is the largest CO{sub 2} emission source. How does China reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants is an austere challenge now we are facing. How does China reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants? There are three ways to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants: (1) carbon capture and storage (CCS); (2) co-firing biomass with coal; (3) much improvement of efficiency. For the first option of CCS, the technology is still under development and there are still several uncertainties today to be widely used for coal fired power plants in the short term. For the second option of biomass co-firing, it can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in a way, but it is difficult to implement it in China without strong support of incentive policy. Therefore, the third option of improvement of efficiency is the only but also the best and feasible economic option for China to much reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants. This paper will discuss how China to take a active policy to strongly promote the application of supercritical (SC)/Ultra supercritical (USC) technology. Only in 4 years from 2007 to 2010, ordered capacity of coal fired SC/USC units was 482 units with installed capacity of 230,060 MWe, in which, 1,000 MWe USC with 600 C steam parameters was almost 100 units with 100,000 MWe in which 33 units have been in operation. Today, China has been a country with the largest SC/USC units and capacity. The fast application of SC/USC units for coal fired power plants has resulted in energy saving and reduction of emissions. The average coal consumption in China reduced from 366

  5. 湖南煤矿复杂煤层条件下实施综采对策%Countermeasure on practicing fully-mechanized mining technology under complicated seam conditions in Hunan coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青锋

    2014-01-01

    Taking Hunan coal mines practicing fully -mechanized mining technology as the engineering background,the paper analyzes problems of practicing fully -mechanized mining technology and proposes the countermeasures of solving these problems,which originate from coal mining technology conditions,middle -small geological exploration technology,mining roadways layout of complicated seam,roadways fast driving technology,excavating fully -mechanized mining technology through the fault and fast moving technique of working faces.Results show that the coal faces which are successful practiced conventional machine mining technology can be completely practiced fully-mechanized mining technology,and that it is worthy of support from several aspects such as policy and fund.%以湖南煤矿实施综合机械化开采工艺为工程背景,从煤矿开采技术条件、中小型地质构造探测技术、复杂煤层回采巷道布置、巷道快速掘进技术、综采过断层技术、采面快速搬家技术等方面分析了湖南煤矿复杂煤层条件下实施综合机械化采煤工艺存在的问题,并提出了解决这些问题的对策。研究结果表明,在现已成功实施普通机械化采煤工艺的采煤工作面是完全可以实施综合机械化采煤工艺的,值得从政策、资金等方面予以支持。

  6. Gastric Banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  7. STUDIES ON THE LAW OF ROOF-COAL MOVEMENT BY USING THE ROOF-COAL CAVING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海戈; 徐秉业; 沈新普; 王志勤

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the law of roof-coal movement has been investigated through the fieldmeasurement, theoretical analysis and numerical calculation. Several results, which are of im-portant values for caving process, design of the supports, controlling end-face stability, raisingrecovery rate, realizing working face high output and other related aspects in practice, havebeen obtained. These results mainly include the following: roof-coal breaking curve of soft-coalseam, roof-coal movement curve of soft-coal and medium-hard coal seam, and roof-coal move-ment equation. The roof-coal caveability has been analyzed.

  8. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  9. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111830 Cai Hou’an(State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safety Mining,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin The Discovery of Thrust Nappe Structure in Zhangwu-Heishan Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance for Coal-Searching(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.1-6,5 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:coalfield prediction,nappe structure,Liaoning Province Zhangwu-Heishan area in west Liaoning Province is an important perspective area for alternative resources in the periphery of Fuxin Basin.Based on r

  10. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122522 Guo Dongxin ( School of Energy Resource,China University of Geosciences,Bei-jing 100083,China );Tang Shuheng Sequence Strata and the Coal Accumulation of Wunite Coafield,Inner Mongolia ( Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155 / P,39 ( 6 ), 2011,p.1-5,5illus.,16refs. ) Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Inner Mongolia Based on the study of the stratigraphy sequence of the Bayanhua Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Wunite coafield ,

  11. Storage of N{sub 2}, He and CH{sub 4} in coal: Study and application in a practical case in the central Asturian coal basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro Garcia, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, C/ Julian Claveria s/n, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Alvarez Fernandez, M.I.; Gonzalez Nicieza, C. [Department of Mining Engineering, Mining Engineering School, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Asturias (Spain); Alvarez Vigil, A.E. [Department of Mathematics, Mining Engineering School, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Asturias (Spain); Lopez Gayarre, F. [Department of Construction and Manufacture Engineering, Engineering School of Gijon, Campus de Viesques, 33201 Asturias (Spain)

    2010-01-07

    The behaviour of different gases (He, N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) in coal was analyzed using a device for treating raw coal, designed for taking samples in the mine. This device was subsequently used to transport the samples and inject them with the gases under study. Experiments were conducted under different pressures, and a clear relationship was found between the drop in pressure and the occupation of different storage levels. On analysing the pressure evolution it was found that helium rapidly stabilised due to the characteristics of this gas. As for the other gases, N{sub 2} showed a percentage fall much lower than that of CH{sub 4}. In order to compare the storage capacity of different materials with respect to these gases, experiments were performed with different materials which form the mine's ceiling and walls. It was shown that the fall in pressure is very inferior. A fitting equation relating the evolution of pressure with time is proposed which may be used to define the time needed for the gas to stabilize in the coal. A normalized equation, very similar to that proposed by Langmuir, is likewise obtained to characterize the adsorption and desorption processes. (author)

  12. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 数据挖掘技术在煤矿企业中的实践探索%Practice and Exploration of Data Mining Technology in Coal Mining Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡勇; 梁修荣

    2013-01-01

    所谓数据挖掘实际上就是在大量的信息中寻找有价值且具有潜在规律数据的复杂过程,涉及到多种学科和科技知识的运用,目前已经在很多企业得到了广泛的应用,特别是煤矿企业,不仅仅涉及到企业内部的管理,比如CRM客户关系管理系统,还涉及到煤矿安全管理方面。文章的重点就是分析数据挖掘技术在煤矿企业的一些实际的应用。%Data mining is actually a lot of information to find the complex process of valuable and potentially law data. It involves the use of a wide range of disciplines and scientific and technological knowledge. At present wide range of applications in many companies, especially coal mining enterprises. It involves not only the internal management of enterprises, such as CRM customer relationship management system, also involved in the coal mine safety management. The focus of this paper is to analyze the data mining technology in some practical applications of coal mining enterprises.

  14. The Moral Ends of Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical framework through which to reimagine and revitalize contemporary music education practices, using the large ensemble paradigm called "band" as the primary unit of analysis. Literature suggests that band places too much emphasis on teacher control and external measures of validation. Critics propose replacing…

  15. Permeability Prediction in Deep Coal Seam: A Case Study on the No. 3 Coal Seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkun Guo; Yuanping Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata tem...

  16. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132555 Bao Yuan(School of Resources and Geosciences,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Wei Chongtao Simulation of Geological Evolution History of the Upper Permian Coal Seam No.8in Shuigonghe Syncline,Zhina Coalfield,Guizhou Province(Coal Geology&Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,40(6),2012,p.13-16,23,1illus.,1table,17refs.)

  17. 浅析计算机网络控制下的煤矿风险管理实践%Analysis of the Coal Mine Risk Management practices Under the Control of the Computer Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清团

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the coal mine risk management study to focus on the support of the computer network control, and a brief analysis of First under the control of the computer network, the overall design objectives of the risk management system in coal mine. In turn, starting from the point of view of the structural design, made detailed instructions for the computer network control under the influence of coal mine risk management system module implementation issues of the application functionality. On this basis, the key technologies involved in the practical application of the risk management system in coal mine commenced a detailed analysis and study, the above problems is of great significance to further improve the quality of the work and effectiveness of the coal mine risk management and hope to the future research and practical work carried out to provide reference and help.%本文以煤矿风险管理为研究对象,着眼于计算机网络控制支持,首先针对计算机网络控制下,煤矿风险管理系统的总体性设计目标进行了简要分析。进而从结构设计的角度上入手,针对计算机网络控制影响下,煤矿风险管理系统各模块应用功能的实现问题做出了详细说明。在此基础之上,针对煤矿风险管理系统实践应用中所涉及到的关键技术展开了详细分析与研究,以上问题对于进一步提高煤矿风险管理工作质量与有效性而言有着重要意义,希望能够为今后相关研究与实践工作的开展提供一定的参考与帮助。

  18. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  19. Coal 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  20. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO2 and NOx as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NOx cleaning system. Most other plants use low NOx burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  1. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  2. Coal contracting strategies for a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired power plants provide the most competitive source of electricity in most power markets. This presentation will identify changes that have been occurring in regional coal markets during the 1980s and the 1990s, the evolution of purchasing practices and strategies resulting from these and the impact that utility deregulation will have on future purchasing

  3. Clinical utility of FISH analysis in addition to G-banded karyotype in hematologic malignancies and proposal of a practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Won Kyung; Lee, Jin Young; Mun, Yeung Chul; Seong, Chu Myong; Chung, Wha Soon; Huh, Jungwon

    2010-01-01

    Background Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis can provide important information in the management of patients with hematologic malignancies. However, FISH performed in addition to G-banded karyotype can be labor-intensive and expensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether FISH gives additional information in the setting of adequate conventional cytogenetics in cases of hematologic malignancies. Methods Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from 135 patients at diagnosi...

  4. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  5. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  6. Microstructural blending of coal to enhance flowability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Chakra, H.; Tuezuen, U. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering

    2000-09-11

    Coal-fired power stations for electricity generation are well known to suffer from chronic problems in coal handling and flow affecting the operation of pulverisation mills and combustors. The economic impact of coal handling facilities can be significant, resulting in total shutdown of the power generating plant in some extreme cases. In coal-fired power generation, optimal operation of the combustors requires the ash content of pulverised coal not exceed 20%. Excessive ash content would result in lower calorific value. Therefore, the overall profitability of the market coal tends to be strongly effected by the ash content of the raw coal. However, the flowability of coal tends to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the constituent particles, as well as the presence of high fines fraction. The experimental work described in this paper aims to illustrate how flowability can be enhanced by optimising particle size distribution and particle surface moisture in blends of raw and washed coals. The results of the flowability tests obtained with ''microstructurally'' blended samples indicate that to ensure flowability in process vessels, it is necessary to blend according to important microstructural criteria as well as minimising ash content. Microstructural blending is not included in current industrial practice, which only blends washed and raw coals to produce high calorific value and low ash content. The work presented here establishes methodology for microstructural blending to enhance bulk flowability. (orig.)

  7. The practice of fully-mechanized coal mining for belt of fault in steeply dipping seam%大倾角条件下综采工作面过断层回采实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅

    2012-01-01

    In fully mechanized working, the faul is very prone to cause spalling and roof falling accident, especially in the qualita- tive difference of fault and steeply dipping seam , the more difficult conditions bring great pressure and more difficulties to the safety production, gequan coal mine, through long and short range of chemical grouting and strengthening measures of fully - mechanized coal mining technology , realizing the Safety mining and passing the belt of fault successful, avoiding the Fully mecha- nized moving and roof accidents, acquiring the precious experience and practice.%综采工作面遇断层时,极容易出现片帮、冒顶等顶板事故,尤其是在落差大于采高、大倾角工作面等困难条件下,给安全生产带来巨大的压力和困难,葛泉矿通过长短距离注浆加固、严格的回采工艺措施,实现了大倾角条件下综采工作面顺利通过大落差断层,避免了工作面搬家,杜绝了顶板事故,取得了宝贵的现场经验。

  8. The Practice of Reducing Medium Consumption in Coal Preparation Plant of Dongtan Coal Mine%东滩煤矿选煤厂降低介质消耗的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦士庆; 周广文; 陈盼盼

    2016-01-01

    According to the problem of higher medium consumption in Dongtan coal preparation plant , Through to the old and new systems of production process and the influencing factors of dielectric recovery and dielectric loss of library management is analyzed, targeted to improve medium water production technology, perfect medium medium equipment recycling effect, related measures, such as strengthen the media li-brary management will eventually dielectric loss from the original 2.9 Kg/fell to about 1.5 Kg/t now, obtains the good economic benefit.%针对东滩矿选煤厂重介系统介质消耗量偏大的问题,通过对新老系统的生产工艺、影响介质回收的因素及介质库管理损失进行分析,针对性采取改进脱介水生产工艺、完善脱介设备的介质回收效果、加强介质库管理等相关措施,最终将介质损耗从原来的2.9kg/t降至现在的1.5kg/t左右,取得良好的经济效益。

  9. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  12. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  13. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  14. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  15. Practical Limits in the Sensitivity-Linearity Trade-off for Radio Telescope Front Ends in the HF and VHF-low Bands

    CERN Document Server

    Tillman, R H; Brendler, J

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescope front ends must have simultaneously low noise and sufficiently-high linearity to accommodate interfering signals. Typically these are opposing design goals. For modern radio telescopes operating in the HF (3-30 MHz) and VHF-low (30-88 MHz) bands, the problem is more nuanced in that front end noise temperature may be a relatively small component of the system temperature, and increased linearity may be required due to the particular interference problems associated with this spectrum. In this paper we present an analysis of the sensitivity-linearity trade off at these frequencies, applicable to existing commercially-available monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers in single-ended, differential, and parallelized configurations. This analysis and associated findings should be useful in the design and upgrade of front ends for low frequency radio telescopes. The analysis is demonstrated explicitly for one of the better-performing amplifiers encountered in this study, the Mini-Ci...

  16. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  17. Coal wizards of Oz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornsby, D.T.; Partridge, A.C. [Australian Coal Preparation Society, Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    The first of two parts of a paper discusses how the Australian coal industry has grown to become the world`s largest coal exporter. Bar charts show coal product, exports, and consumption of metallurgical and steaming coal for the years 1987 to 1996. The importance of coal preparation is discussed. 8 figs., 2 photos.

  18. 云冈矿8814面综合机械化采煤工程实践%Yungang mine 8814 comprehensive mechanized coal mining engineering practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙志强

    2014-01-01

    为了保证综采工作面的安全生产,针对煤层赋存情况,进行了回采巷道支护参数选择、制定了采煤机合理的进刀和割煤方式;根据顶板情况,确定了适合顶板管理的移架方式和端头支护形式及超前支护距离,确保了回采工作的安全高效。%In order to ensure the safety of fully mechanized working face production,in view of the occurrence of coal seam,the mining roadway supporting parameters selection,formulate the reasonable way of feed and cutting coal shearer;According to roof condition,determined the suitable way of moving frame and roof management end supporting form and lead supporting distance,ensure the safety of recovery working efficiency.

  19. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140318Chen Xinwei(Reserves Evaluation Center of Xinjiang,Urumqi 830000,China);Li Shaohu Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy Based on Jurassic Outcrop in Kuqa-Bai Coalfield(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,32(1),2013,p.77-82,2illus.,12refs.,with English abstract)Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Xinjiang

  20. Coal-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

  1. 极破碎顶板松软煤层支架选型及抱采工艺实践%Practices on Hydraulic Powered Support Selection and Holding Mining Technology Applied to Seam with Extreme Broken Roof and Soft Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪建明; 李桂臣

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the coal mining wall spalling and the roof falling at the front of the powered support in the coal mining face in an extreme broken and soft seam, taking the fully mechanized top coal caving mining in No. 9 extreme broken and soft seam as an engineering background, the paper analyzed the features of the conventional fully mechanized top coal caving mining technique. In combination with the site engineering practices, a study on a holding mining top coal caving mining technique with non beam distance was conducted. The features would be that with the length expansion of the powered support beam, thus a coal mining operation could be con- ducted under the non beam end distance. The expansion beam with a distance of 800 mm could ensure the pilot support. With the spade plate to level the top coal and the powered supports moved forward with pressures, the coal wall spalling could be applied for coal mining. According to the echnioue feafures, the rational three machines matched technology was provided for the coal mining technique and applied to the industrial trial in Luling Mine under the special geological conditions. The coal production of the coal mining face could be reached at 100 000 t per month with good benefits.%为解决极破碎松软厚煤层工作面煤壁片帮和架前端冒顶难题,以芦岭煤矿极松软9煤综放开采为工程背景,分析了传统综放开采工艺特点,结合现场工程实践,研究了无梁端距抱采放项煤工艺,其特点是通过加长顶梁实现无梁端距条件下采煤,设置800mm伸缩梁保证超前支护,借助铲煤板铲平顶煤,带压移架,充分利用煤壁片帮进行采煤。针对此工艺特点,提出了该回采工艺合理的“三机”配套技术,并在芦岭煤矿特定地质条件下开展工业性试验,煤炭月产量达10万t,效果良好。

  2. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  3. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  4. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx. Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO2-removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 40% reduction

  5. Coal blending and coal homogenisation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toerslev Jensen, P. [I/S ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Blending is becoming increasingly important as a way of improving the quality of coal fired in power plants. This paper gives a basic description of the purposes of coal blending. Although indices for estimating (properties, slagging and fouling propensity, reactivity, etc.) of coal and coal blends exist, these are not considered reliable for coals of widely different origin, and experience will be emphasised as a better tool. The pros and cons of different blending methods are discussed together with the environmental impact of coal blending facilities. Finally, the blending facilities of ELSAM, a power pool serving the western part of Denmark, are described. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Plant Practice of Reduction of Media Consumption in Tongxin Coal Preparation Plant%同忻选煤厂降低介耗的生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁全山

    2014-01-01

    In terms of technology and management, the causes of high media consumption were studied in Tongxin Coal Preparation Plant. The paper proposed some measures, including controlling quality of magnetite powder, strengthening work efficiency of medium draining screen and magnetic separator, setting wet de-shiming process, avoiding accidents such as moving, falling, dripping, leaking, and spilling, reducing accident rate and unnecessary discharge of materials and media. Through these improvement and transformation, the production of Tongxin Coal Preparation Plant goes smoothly with accident rate, media consumption, and cost decreasing significantly, which has achieved great economic and social benefits.%从技术和管理两方面对同忻选煤厂介耗偏高的原因进行分析并提出方案,包括控制磁铁矿粉的质量,强化脱介筛和磁选机工作效率,设置原煤湿法脱泥工艺环节,避免“跑、冒、滴、漏、撒”事件发生、降低事故率减少无谓排料排介等。通过以上环节的完善和改造,同忻选煤厂的生产日趋平稳,事故率大幅降低,介耗量显著减少,生产成本显著降低,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益。

  7. Prospecting for coal in China with remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-long; WAN Yu-qing; SUN Sun-xin; BAO Gui-bao; KUANG Jing-shui

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, coal resources are increasingly in great demand. As a result, the remaining coal reserves diminish gradually with large-scale exploitation of coal resources. Easily-found mines which used to be identiffed from outcrops or were buried under shallow overburden are decreasing, especially in the prosperous eastern regions of China,which experience coal shortages. Currently the main targets of coal prospecting are concealed and unidentified underground coal bodies, making it more and more difficult for coal prospecting. It is therefore important to explore coal prospecting by taking advantage of modern remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Given a theoretical basis for coal prospecting by remote sensing, we demonstrate the methodologies and existing problems systematically by summarizing past practices of coal prospecting with remote sensing. We propose a new theory of coal prospecting with remote sensing. In uncovered areas, coal resources can be prospected for by direct interpretation. In coal beating strata of developed areas covered by thin Quaternary strata or vegetation, prospecting for coal can be carried out by indirect interpretation of geomorphology and vegetation. For deeply buried underground deposits, coal prospecting can rely on tectonic structures, interpretation and analysis of new tectonic clues and regularity of coal formation and preservation controlled by tectonic structures. By applying newly hyper-spectral, multi-polarization, multi-angle, multi-temporal and multi-resolution remote sensing data and carrying out integrated analysis of geographic attributes,ground attributes, geophysical exploration results, geochemical exploration results, geological drilling results and remote sensing data by GIS tools, coal geology resources and mineralogical regularities can be explored and coal resource information can be acquired with some confidence.

  8. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  9. Evaluation of ecological consequences of coal mine closure in Kuzbass coal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemerovo region (otherwise called Kuzbass) is the most industrially developed and urbanized region of Siberia, Russia. The main industrial branch of Kuzbass is coal output. Open pits and underground mines of Kuzbass produce about 40% of total amount of coal in Russia and more than 70% of coking coal. In the current process of the coal industry's restructuring, the closing of many unprofitable coal enterprises is associated with radical changes in their influence on the environment. The task to provide a probable forecast of ecological consequence of mine closure is both practically significant and complicated. In order to find some scientific approach to solve named problem the authors made in the paper the first attempts to analyze of accessible closed mines data in Kuzbass, to classify coal mines (working and closed) with respect to there negative influence on soil, water and atmosphere and to obtain some numerical estimates of possible bounds of this influence. 7 refs

  10. Coal mine subsidence and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground coal mining has occurred beneath 32 x 109m2 (8 million acres) of land in the United States and will eventually extend beneath 162 x 109m2 (40 million acres). Most of this mining has taken place and will take place in the eastern half of the United States. In areas of abandoned mines where total extraction was not achieved, roof collapse, crushing of coal pillars, or punching of coal pillars into softer mine floor or roof rock is now resulting in sinkhole or trough subsidence tens or even hundreds of years after mining. Difference in geology, in mining, and building construction practice between Europe and the United States preclude direct transfer of European subsidence engineering experience. Building damage cannot be related simply to tensile and compressive strains at the ground surface. Recognition of the subsidence damage role played by ground-structure interaction and by structural details is needed

  11. Effect of Nature of Coal on Carbothermal Reduction of Barites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Agarwal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the effect of nature of coal on the carbothermal reduction of barite by using different types of coal. Usually in industrial practices, the reductive operations are carried out by using any type of cheap and easily available coal, but the extent of reduction rarely exceeds 35-40%. After admixing the steam coal in matrix, yields have been found to increase to the order of 51 to 53%. The obtained results prove to be quite economical in industrial practices.

  12. Coal processing and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, H.-D.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that the rising price of oil as well as supply concerns have lead to an increase in the use of coal. It is shown that in order for coal to take a greater role in energy supply, work must commence now in the areas of coal extraction and processing. Attention is given to new technologies such as coke production, electricity and heat generation, coal gasification, and coal liquifaction. Also covered are a separator for nitrogen oxides and active coal regeneration. Finally, the upgrading of coal is examined.

  13. 煤矿生活污水资源化工程实践%Engineering practice of domestic sewage resource recycling in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晨钟; 吕华浦

    2012-01-01

    The design and operational situation of domestic sewage resource recycling engineering of Jining Coal Mine Ⅲ is introduced. A 3-stage treatment process has been used:stage one is rotating flow desanding physico-chemical treatment, stage two carrousel oxidation ditch biochemical treatment, and stage three advanced treatment of micro-flocculation filtration+biological activated carbon filter+disinfection. The water quality after treatment is better than the third class requirements of Surface Water Environment Quality Standard (GB 3838-2002). This watercan all be used as circulating cooling make-up water of power plants,to achieve zero discharge of domestic sewage,and achieved good economic and environmental benefits.%介绍了济宁三号煤矿生活污水资源化工程的设计与运行情况.采用三级处理工艺,即一级旋流除砂物化处理、二级卡鲁塞尔氧化沟生化处理、三级微絮凝过滤+生物活性炭过滤+消毒的深度处理,处理后水质优于地表水环境质量标准GB 3838-2002Ⅲ类要求,全部用于电厂循环冷却水系统补充水,实现生活污水零排放,取得了较好的经济效益和环境效益.

  14. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  15. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  16. Analysis of the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining Анализ современной практики страхования инвестиционных проектов в угледобыче

    OpenAIRE

    Gusak Andrey S.; Kabanov Anatoliy I.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining. It studies experience of countries with developed coal industry, namely, United States, Australia and China. It analyses offers of state and private insurers that provide services in insuring commercial and non-commercial (political) risks for investment projects in coal mining. It determines main types of insurance protection, which started to be widely used when insuring real investments, and analyses s...

  17. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  18. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A, Part 1. Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report evaluates the state of the art and effectiveness of physical coal cleaning as a potential strategy for controlling SO/sub x/ emissions in coal fired power generation. Coal properties which are significantly altered by physical coal cleaning were determined. The effects of the changes in properties as they relate to pulverized coal firing, fluidized bed combustion and low Btu gasification for combined cycle powered generation were studied. Available coal washability data were integrated by computer with U.S. coal reserve data. Approximately 18% of the demonstrated coal reserve were matched with washability data. Integrated data appear in the Appendix. Current coal preparation practices were reviewed. Future trends were determined. Five process flow sheets representing increasing levels of cleaning sophistication were prepared. The clean product from each flow sheet will meet U.S. EPA New Source Performance Standards. Capital and operating costs for each case were estimated. Environmental control technology and environmental impact associated with current coal preparation and cleaning operations were assessed. Physical coal cleaning is widely practiced today. Where applicable it represents the least expensive method of coal sulfur reduction. Developmental physical and chemical coal cleaning processes were studied. The chemical methods have the advantage of being able to remove both pyritic sulfur and organic sulfur present in the coal matrix. Further R and D efforts will be required before commercialization of these processes.

  19. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  20. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  1. Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

  2. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  3. Solar coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  4. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    While the black coal markets are expanding worldwide in 2011, the consumption of black coal in Germany stagnated in spite of positive economic impacts. A strong long-term decline may be expected by the structural change in the energy sector and the energy policy turnaround in Germany. Also, the accelerated phasing out nuclear power in 2011 brought any increases for the black coal. Now the discharge of domestic black coal until 2018 has become definitive. The imported coal now covers almost 80 % of the German black coal market.

  5. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  6. Coal desulfurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  7. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  8. Permeability evolution model and numerical analysis of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    by flowing liquid nitrogen through gas production well in Wangyingzi mine, Liaoning province, is simulated and the results include: 1 When liquid nitrogen(LN2 is injected into a rock at warm reservoir temperature, heat from the rock will quickly transfer to the liquid nitrogen resulting in rapid cooling and contraction of coal bed. The nearer the position is to bore hole, the bigger the shrinkage deformation and thermal stress and coal fail when tension stress sufficiently built up. In this paper the tension failure band after 10 days' LN2 cooling is 0.65 m. 2 In tension failure area the cracks from cooling stimulation lead to the significant growth of permeability. The maximum permeability for element is 1.97×105 times more than that before cooling. 3 Apart from the bore hole, the thermal tensile stress leads to the growth of permeability at a rate of 1%~14%, far less than that in the tension failure area. 4 With increasing time the failure area gradually slowly grows up. It indicates that the longer cooling time does not mean better effects. 5 The cooling fracturing area is found to have a 1.0 m band. In practical engineering the pressure in hole bore and phase transition of water also influences the deformation and failure of coal, which leads to much more failure zone of cooling. 6 The evolution process of permeability of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid introgen cooling can be better reflected by the model in this paper. This study is hoped to provide a simple but reasonable description of the permeability evolution of rocks subject to liquid nitrogen cooling.

  9. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  10. Land use and coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve and the Hanford National Environmental Research Park were established to promote the use of the Hanford Site for ecological research, especially studies related to energy technologies and their potential for environmental impacts. Coal is currently regarded as the most dependable interim source of energy in the United States. To meet expected demands, coal needs to be mined in large quantities and may be mined predominantly in locations of sparse precipitation. Often the most economical way to extract coal is through surface mining. It is expected that following coal extraction the pits will be filled with overburden, graded to approximate original contour, native topsoil applied to prescribed depths and planted with climatically adapted herbs, shrubs or trees. Because primary productivity in dry regions is characteristically low, it is realistic to expect, if the above procedure is followed, that the revegetated surfaces will also produce little phytomass in the years following restoration. Appropriate data are needed for accurate estimation of the economic feasibility of a particular restoration practice or its alternative. Research programs are discussed briefly

  11. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  12. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  13. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  14. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  15. One of parameters reflecting coal reservoir permeability - block coal rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H. [China Coal Research Institute, Xian (China)

    2001-12-01

    The permeability of coal reservoir depends to a large extent on the coal body texture. The coal body texture determines the block coal rate derived from sieve experiment. Hence the block coal rate can reflect the permeability of the coal reservoir as a whole. In the mining areas of the central part of Liaoning, the block coal rate is found to have a direct relationship with coal permeability. This has provided an example that block coal rate can be used as one of the parameters for evaluating coal reservoir. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Coal consumption and economic growth in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the causality issue between coal consumption and economic growth for Taiwan. The co-integration and Granger's causality test are applied to investigate the relationship between the two economic series. Results of the co-integration and Granger's causality test based on 1954--1997 Taiwan data show a unidirectional causality from economic growth to coal consumption with no feedback effects. Their major finding supports the neutrality hypothesis of coal consumption with respect to economic growth. Further, the finding has practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning, as coal conservation is a feasible policy with no damaging repercussions on economic growth

  17. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  18. Fluorine in Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbeer, W.G.; Swaine, D.J.; Goodarzi, F. (CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology)

    1994-08-01

    Fluorine was determined in 57 samples of coals from western Canada and the Yukon (47 bituminous, 4 subbituminous, 6 lignite) by a pyrohydrolysis method. The range of values is 31-930 ppmw F in dry coal, the lowest values being mainly for the low-rank coals. For bituminous coals most values are in the range 31-580 (mean 174) ppmw F. 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  20. Coal`s role in Mexican power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, G. [Commision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1995-09-01

    Coal currently only fulfils a small proportion of Mexico`s power requirements, but it plans to increase capacity quite substantially in the next few years. The construction of the Petacalco power station and related port infrastructure will mean good opportunities for coal exporters in the vicinity. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  2. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  3. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  4. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  5. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  7. Application of inelastic neutron scattering and prompt neutron activation analysis in coal quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles are assessed of the determination of ash content in coal based on the measurement of values proportional to the effective proton number. Discussed is the principle of coal quality assessment using the method of inelastic neutron scattering and prompt neutron activation analysis. This is done with respect both to theoretical relations between measured values and coal quality attributes and to practical laboratory measurements of coal sample quality by the said methods. (author)

  8. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1990-12-01

    To ENDOR and ESE we have added another advanced EPR technique. VHF-EPR, as a tool with which to observe coal molecular structure, especially organic sulfur. We have constructed a unique VHF EPR instrument operating at the W-band (96 Ghz), one of only two such instruments in the world, and the only one studying coal. We are employing this instrument, as well as collaborating with scientists at Cornell University, who have a 250 GHz spectrometer, to develop a clearer understanding of the relationships between the VHF EPR spectra we observe from Illinois coal and the organic sulfur species present in it. Efforts in this quarter focussed on three area: recruitment of personnel (especially a new postdoctoral fellow) to join the coal research team work on improving the W-band spectrometer, and studies of vitrinite, sporinite, and fusinite macerals at G-band (250 GHz). All three areas have shown good progress. This report will discuss in detail the main features of the W-band instrument, stressing its unique engineering features as well as comparing it to the few other instruments in the world operating in the VHF frequency range (90--250 GHz). Preliminary analysis of the 250 GHz data on macerals obtained by density gradient centrifugation from an Illinois {number sign}6 coal gives the first indication that at the very highest frequencies, there may be a separation of the heteroatom VHF EPR signals into a sulfur and on oxygen-containing component. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  11. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  12. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  13. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    DOE's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of DOE's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and ERDA. The Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, had started work in the 1930's. Current work is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, especially boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, and gasoline, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is supporting the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Each of these processes are described briefly.

  14. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  15. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1990-09-01

    A nondestructive method to determine the atomic and molecular structures present in the organic (maceral) components of whole coal and coal products has been sought for many years. This program of research is designed to address that analytical need by applying advanced electron magnetic resonance techniques to the determination of coal molecular structure. Structural information has be obtained by using the naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal as observation posts'' from which to survey neighboring atoms through the electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction. Such an overall approach has been termed ELECTRON SPIN MAPPING of coal structure. New techniques like 2-dimensional ENDOR and ESE spectroscopies and multifrequency EPR, including the world's first S-band ESE spectrometer and one of the first W-band instruments, which we have developed in our laboratory, were employed in the determination. The materials studied were well separated macerals obtained by density gradient centrifugation techniques from Illinois {number sign}6 coals, a well as whole Illinois {number sign}6, {number sign}5, and Argonne Premium Sample Coals. model compounds, chosen to represent molecular structures typical of those believed to exist in coal also were studied by the various electron magnetic resonance (EMR) methods. Utilizing the various EMR methods available in our laboratory, we studied approaches to determine parameters that direcly reflect the atomic and molecular structure of coal. The naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal were utilized as probes of their local environment, which they reflect through hyperfine interactions with neighboring 1 > 0 nuclei (eg, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C).

  16. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    OpenAIRE

    C.F. Rodrigues; C. Laiginhas; Fernandes, M; Lemos de Sousa, M. J.; M.A.P. Dinis

    2014-01-01

    After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM) commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1) how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2) how to determ...

  17. Photonic band gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented

  18. Theory of gas extraction from coal seams and its use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xi-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Gas extraction is one of the main measures of control and use of gas of coal mines.At present,the design method is under the experimental period and do not satisfy the need of practice.In this paper,the theory of gas extraction of coal seams based upon Darcy law was studied.Mathematical model of gas extraction of coal seams was established and two kinds of solving approaches based on computer software and linear approximation were given.The rightness and the validities of the model were examined with a practical example.Results obtained can be used to determine and optimize the parameters related etc.

  19. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are co...

  20. Flat Band Quastiperiodic Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Danieli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in their band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states, which can be understood through local rotation to a Fano structure. We present extension of these quasi-1D FB structures under incommensurate lattices, reporting on the FB effects to the Metal-Insulator Transition.

  1. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  2. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  3. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  4. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  5. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  6. An LCA study of an electricity coal supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2014-01-01

    emissions. However, the energy consumption for this subsystem is significant (excluding the mine mouth case, and transportation distance is found to have a substantial effect on the oil consumption and non-coal energy consumption. (5 In electricity coal supply chain, the biggest environmental impact of waste gas emissions is GWP, followed by EP, AP, POCP and ODP, and regional impact is greater than the global impact. Practical implications: The model and methodology established in this paper could be used for environmental impact assessment of waste gas emissions in electricity coal supply chain and sensitivity analysis in China, and it could supply reference and example for similar researches. The data information on life cycle inventory, impact assessment and sensitivity analysis could supply theory and data reference for waste gas emissions control in electricity coal supply chain. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to study the environmental influence of electricity coal supply chain by employing a LCA approach from life cycle of electricity coal.

  7. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  8. Coal in a hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-05-01

    The editor of World Mining Equipment discusses the tangled position of the European coal industry, affected by concerns over acid rain and carbon dioxide emissions, and by subsidies. He outlines the debate in the UK about gas versus coal and about coal subsidies in Germany (which could affect mines in other European countries). The requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to minimise the problem of acid rain will have a direct bearing on coal mining firms and equipment manufacturers so it is possible that the only future for the industry lies with clean coal technologies. Even here, there is no easy answer as it is not clear how developing nations will be able to pay for these more expensive clean coal systems. 2 photos.

  9. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  10. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  11. Coal and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  12. Development of Sintered Iron Driving Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Khanna

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation reports some detailed studies carried out on the development testing and proving of sintered Iron Driving Bands. Sintering studies on two different types of iron powders together with a few Fe-Cu compositions have been made and based on the results there of, parameters for development iron driving bands have been standardised. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that substitution of copper by sintered iron is highly practicable alternative.

  13. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  14. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  15. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)

    2001-05-01

    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  16. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  17. Bioremediation potential of coal-tar-oil-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioremediation of coal tar oil contaminated soil was investigated in 90 day laboratory simulation experiments. The effect of soil moisture, humic acid amendment, and coal tar oil concentration on the rate of disappearance of individual coal tar oil constituents (PAHs and related compounds) was determined by methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatography. Mass balance experiments determined the fate of both the individual 14C-labeled PAHs phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, and the total coal tar oil carbon. Mineralization, volatilization, incorporation into microbial biomass, disappearance of individual coal tar oil constitutents, and the distribution of residual 14C-activity in different soil fractions were measured. The rate of disappearance of coal tar oil constituents increased with increasing soil moisture over the experimental range. Humic acid amendment initially enhanced the rate of disappearance, but decreased the extent of disappearance. The amount of contamination removed decreased at higher coal tar oil concentrations. The practical limit for biodegradation in the system tested appeared to be between 1.0 and 2.5% coal tar oil. Mineralization accounted for 40 to 50% of the applied coal tar oil. Volatilization was a minor pathway of disappearance

  18. One-Dimensional Anisotropic Band Gap Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The band gap structure of one-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal has been studied by means of the transfer matrix formalism. From the analytic expressions and numeric calculations we see some general characteristics of the band gap structure of anisotropic photonic crystals, each band separates into two branches and the two branches react to polarization sensitively. In the practical case of oblique incidence, gaps move towards high frequency when the angle of incidence increases. Under some special conditions, the two branches become degenerate again.

  19. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  20. Practical Study on Benchmarking Management of Same Business Classification in Coal Enterprise%煤炭企业同业分类对标管理实务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏立功

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced the basic connotation and main contents of the benchmarking in the same business, analyzed the basic conditions and method of the coal mine classification and provided the main index value, benchmarking bar, and prospect of the benchmarking in the same business classification, and introduced the application of the basic conditions and method of the coal mine classification management in coal mine.%介绍了同业分类对标的基本内涵和主要内容,分析了煤矿分类基本条件和方法,提出了同业分类对标的主要指标值、对标的标杆,并介绍了同业分类对标管理在煤炭企业的具体应用。

  1. Application of laser microprobe (LAMMA 1000) to "fingerprinting" of coal constituents in bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Hercules, D.M.; Morelli, J.J.; Sellers, G.A.; Mattern, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A laser microprobe (LAMMA-1000) microchemical analysis of vitrinites of different morphologies but similar reflectances within the same bituminous coal bed indicates distinct "fingerprint" spectra. The banded form of vitrinite contains Li, Ti, Ba, Sr, F, and Cl which were not detected in the nonbanded vitrinite. These differences may indicate a different plant source or the introduction of these elements from fluids mobilized during diagenesis. The nonbanded vitrinite (called corpocollinite), which was contained in a pyrite coal-ball seed fern permineralization of Myeloxylon, may have been protected from influx of these elements due to entrapment by pyrite during an early peat stage. An ion at M/Z 65, which is characteristic of the banded vitrinite, may indicate C5H5+ and, perhaps a difference in the chemical structure of the two vitrinites. These results demonstrate that "fingerprint" spectra can be obtained from vitrinite macerals by LAMMA and that these "fingerprints" have genetic implications. ?? 1987.

  2. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  3. Hydrogen production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

  4. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows data of current and projected SO2 emissions, ambient pollution in major Asian cities; Benefits of natural gas Use in Power Generation; Efficiency of thermal power plants in India and China. It discusses Coal Benefitiation meaning use of high efficiency coal technologies i.e. reducing particulate emissions

  5. The coal deal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reports on the Katowice 2001 coal mining show in Poland. A wide array of mining equipment manufacturers supported the vent including companies from Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, Sweden, the USA and the UK. There was a particular focus on underground coal although other sectors, such as copper mining, were also represented.

  6. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Finkelman, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    Coal is one of the most complex and challenging natural materials to analyze and to understand. Unlike most rocks, which consist predominantly of crystalline mineral grains, coal is largely an assemblage of amorphous, degraded plant remains metamorphosed to various degrees and intermixed with a generous sprinkling of minute syngenetic, diagenetic, epigenetic, and detrital mineral grains, and containing within its structure various amounts of water, oils, and gases. Each coal is unique, having been derived from different plant sources over geologic time, having experienty -45ced different thermal histories, and having been exposed to varying geologic processes. This diversity presents a challenge to constructing a coherent picture of coal geochemistry and the processes that influence the chemical composition of coal.Despite the challenge coal presents to geochemists, a thorough understanding of the chemistry and geology of this complex natural substance is essential because of its importance to our society. Coal is, and will remain for sometime, a crucial source of energy for the US and for many other countries (Figure 1). In the USA, more than half of the electricity is generated by coal-fired power plants, and almost 90% of the coal mined in the USA is sold for electricity generation (Pierce et al., 1996). It is also an important source of coke for steel production, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and even perfumes ( Schobert, 1987). It may also, in some cases, be an economic source of various mineral commodities. The utilization of coal through mining, transport, storage, combustion, and the disposal of the combustion by-products, also presents a challenge to geochemists because of the wide range of environmental and human health problems arising from these activities. The sound and effective use of coal as a natural resource requires a better understanding of the geochemistry of coal, i.e., the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the coal that control its

  7. 突出矿井煤层气开发与安全高效采煤一体化模式的研究与实践%Research and Practice on Integrated Mode of CBM Development and Safe-Efficient Coal Mining in Outburst Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚权

    2014-01-01

    For solving the technical problem of the coordinated development of CBM and coal in outburst mines, an integrated mode of CBM development and safe-efficient coal mining in outburst mines was proposed on the basis of many years’ research and practice, by utilizing the gas content measurement technology, CBM productivity prediction technology, surface gas drainage technology and other gas control technologies and in combination with the gas occurrence management platform, the corresponding technical system was formed, and the connotation of “assuring coal mining by gas production and promoting gas production by coal mining” was interpreted. This research result has been successfully applied in west shaft area of Sihe Mine, the gas control level was significantly increased and good social and economic benefits were achieved.%为解决煤与瓦斯突出矿井煤层气与煤炭协调开发这一技术难题,在多年研究和实践的基础上,利用瓦斯含量测定技术、井下煤层气抽采产能预测技术,以及地面井抽采等多项瓦斯治理技术,结合煤层瓦斯赋存管理平台,提出了突出矿井煤层气开发与安全高效采煤一体化模式,形成了相应的技术体系,诠释了“以采气保采煤,以采煤促采气”的内涵。研究成果成功应用于寺河矿西井区,显著提高了矿井瓦斯灾害治理水平,并取得了良好的经济和社会效益。

  8. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  9. Coal resources of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  10. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  11. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  12. Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of coal: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potgieter-Vermaak, S.; Maledi, N.; Wagner, N.; Van Heerden, J.H.P.; Van Grieken, R.; Potgieter, J.H. [University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-02-15

    The advances in the characterization of amorphous carbons by Raman spectroscopy over the last four decades are of interest to many industries, especially those involving the combustion, gasification and pyrolysis of coal. Many researchers report on the Raman character of the natural organic matter in carbon-containing compounds, such as coal, and relate the Raman bands to the structural order of the amorphous carbons. The basis of most of these studies evolved around the assignment of the G (graphitic, similar to 1580 cm{sup -1}) band to crystalline graphite and any other bands, called D bands, (disorder, various from 1100 to 1500 cm{sup -1}) to any type of structural disorder in the graphitic structure. Concerning coal analysis, the information gained by Raman investigations has been used to describe char evolution as a function of temperature, the presence of catalysts and different gasification conditions. In addition, researchers looked at maturation, grade, doppleritization and many more aspects of interest. One aspect that has, however, not been addressed by most of the researchers is the natural inorganic matter (NIM) in the carbon-containing compounds. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) has many advantages over other characterization tools, i.e. in situ analysis, nondestructive, no sample preparation, low detection limit, micrometer-scale characterization, versatility and sensitivity to many amorphous compounds. This paper reviews the work published on the Raman characterization of the natural organic matter (NOM) of coals and reports on preliminary results of the NIM character of various South African coals, whereby various inorganic compounds and minerals in the coal have been characterized.

  13. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  14. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Responsibility for the design, construction, and operation of these facilities is given and progress in the quarter is summarized. Several supporting or complementary projects are described similarly. (LTN)

  15. 煤矸石山综合治理技术模式与实践%Technology mode and practice of comprehensive treatment on piles of coal gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安永兴; 梁明武; 赵平

    2012-01-01

    煤矸石对环境有严重的污染,是井采煤矿废弃物治理的难点.通过对煤矸石山治理技术进展的分析综述,提出煤矸石山综合治理新技术模式以及成功经验,并以山西某矿务局煤矸石山综合治理工程案例进行验证,表明浅层喷射注浆灭火与客土喷播恢复植被是煤矸石山综合治理的有效模式.%Coal gangue as one of the major pollutants has been a hard nut in the management of well coal mining waste. By reviewing the latest technology development, this paper put forward a new technology and successful experience on the comprehensive treatment on piles of coal gangue, which was verified by a Bureau of Mines in Shanxi Province. Therefore, it can be concluded that shallow jet grouting fire and external-soil spray seeding vegetation restoration is effective mode on the comprehensive treatment on piles of coal gangue.

  16. 煤炭企业节能减排工作的探索与实践%Exploration and Practice of the Coal Enterprises Energy-saving Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏钦

    2013-01-01

      煤炭是我国的主要能源,煤炭企业在快速发展的同时,面临着资源浪费和环境污染问题,煤炭企业节能减排工作势在必行。实施技术改造和升级,淘汰落实产能和耗能设备,采取改善水源循环新方法,实现矿区水资源的高效利用,逐步消灭地面矸石山,使固体废物达到综合利用,是煤炭行业在集约、低碳、高效、循环发展的过程中找到的一套切实可行的新方法。%Coal is China's main energy. With the rapid development, coal enterprises face problems of resources waste and environmental pollution, so energy conservation is imperative for coal enterprises. Implementing the technological transformation and upgrading, eliminating the energy-production and energy-consuming equipment, taking the new way to improve water circulation, achieving efficient utilization of water resources in mine, gradually eliminating ground gangue hill, and achieving the comprehensive utilization of solid waste is a set of feasible new method for the intensive, low-carbon, efficient, cycle development process of coal industry.

  17. Attitudes toward Women Coal Miners in an Appalachian Coal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Roger B.; Stout-Wiegand, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In a coal mining community, a survey revealed that the level of negative sentiment toward women coal miners was substantial and varied by gender role. Male coal miners were negative toward female co-workers, but they supported women's right to coal mine jobs, while female homemakers did not. (Author/CH)

  18. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market

  19. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  20. Band-selective radiofrequency pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geen, Helen; Freeman, Ray

    A theoretical treatment is given of the general problem of designing amplitude-modulated radiofrequency pulses that will excite a specified band of frequencies within a high-resolution NMR spectrum with uniform intensity and phase but with negligible excitation elsewhere. First a trial pulse envelope is defined in terms of a finite Fourier series and its frequency-domain profile calculated through the Bloch equations. The result is compared with the desired target profile to give a multidimensional error surface. The method of simulated annealing is then used to find the global minimum on this surface and the result refined by standard gradient-descent optimization. In this manner, a family of new shaped radio-frequency pulses, known as BURP ( band-selective, uniform response, pure-phase) pulses, has been created. These are of two classes—pulses that excite or invert z magnetization and those that act as general-rotation πr/2 or π pulses irrespective of the initial condition of the nuclear magnetization. It was found convenient to design the latter class as amplitude-modulated time-symmetric pulses. Tables of Fourier coefficients and pulse-shape ordinates are given for practical implementation of BURP pulses, together with the calculated frequency-domain responses and experimental verifications. Examples of the application of band-selective pulses in conventional and multidimensional spectroscopy are given. Pure-phase pulses of this type should also find applications in magnetic resonance imaging where refocusing schemes are undesirable.

  1. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  2. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam: a case study on the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pinkun; Cheng, Yuanping

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress. PMID:24396293

  3. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  4. Strategies for Washing Australian Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, W.L.A.; Swanson, A.R. [Downer EDI Engineering Projects Pty. Ltd. QCC, East Maitland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This article represents a distillation of QCC's experience over the last 20 years in developing coal-washing circuits to optimize coal recoveries for a wide range of Australian coals. The article will look at typical washabilities and product types to capture the general washing requirements. The major processing equipment will be reviewed as to their typical usage in the Australian context. From this background the processing circuits and strategies commonly used will be discussed for the relevant coal types, including hard coking coal, semi-hard coking coal, PCI, export thermal, and domestic thermal coal from the major producing regions in NSW and Queensland.

  5. Analysis of coal degasification curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.

    1983-03-01

    Discussed is use of mathematical models in analysis of thermal decomposition of coal (coal degasification). A mathematical model of coal mass changes (reduction) caused by emission of gaseous and liquid gasification products is described. Simplifying assumptions used by the model are given (e.g. linear temperature increase). The curve which characterizes thermal coal decomposition is characterized by three parameters. Formulae which describe these parameters are given. Using the model, kinetics of coal degasification characteristic of the specific coal type is determined. Combined use of mathematical modeling and derivatography in analyses of thermal coal decomposition during degasification is evaluated. 4 references.

  6. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  7. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1 how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2 how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS, able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  8. Retardation of the spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, X.; Drysdale, D. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Department of Civil Engineering and Building Science

    1995-12-31

    The effect of five retardants on a bituminous coal has been investigated in a temperature-controlled oven. The activation energy of oxidation in the coal inhibited by one of the retardants increases by up to 20kJ/mol, in comparison to that of the coal wetted with water. The factors affecting inhibition are considered. A kinetic interpretation of the retardation mechanism is proposed, and the possibility of using the most effective retarder in practice is discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Future prices of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ippolito, M.

    It is not the price of such energy in itself which is important, but relative prices between different sources: in the circumstances, coal prices. No more important are the instantaneous prices such as they appear on the to-day market, but the price ratio, in a long-dated view. So, in this article, future costs of coal development are tried to be evaluated and conditions of the stability are defined. The strategies of the concerned people and the geopolitic factors are not forgotten. In those conditions, new markets for coal and concerned stakes are reviewed.

  10. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  11. Farewell, king coal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining provided the power for the industrial development of the West, at great cost to the health of the workforce and, from industrial pollution, of the population. Medical appreciation of the diseases of miners was slow to develop and has been marked by controversy relating to the roles of coal and quartz and the causation of emphysema. Research by the MRC and the British coal industry resolved these issues as the industry itself declined. However, from the research has come an understanding of the influence of inhalation of different inhaled pollutants on human health that has been applied to predicting and preventing possible hazards of developing nanotechnologies. PMID:26856364

  12. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  13. Palynology of the coal-bearing strata of Santofirme (Oviedo, Northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, V.

    1984-01-01

    In the immediate vicinity of Santofirme, 16 km south-east of Oviedo, there is an 18 km/sup 2/ outcrop of material from the Carboniferous period which forms a syncline running north-east to south-west and which, in places, is covered with Permo-Triassic and Tertiary material from the Depresion de Llanera. The series consists of regularly alternating layers of lutite and sandstone with bands of coal and a few lime bands in the lower section. Twenty-one of the coal bands, grouped together in eight packets, are worked by Minas de Villabona SA. All the coal bands in the western flank of the syncline have been tested. Most of the samples were collected from four drillings carried out by ENADIMSA in 1982; those remaining were taken from the surface at the Arroyo Socavon and La Tejera opencast sites.

  14. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  15. 特厚煤层综放开采冲击地压防治技术与实践%Technology and Practices on Mine Pressure Bumping Prevention and Control of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining in Ultra Thick Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周澎

    2011-01-01

    According to the serious mine pressure bumping, gateway repair difficulty and other production problems of No. 250102 fully mechanized top coal caving mining face in Huating Mine, a series technical research and the prevention and control practices was conducted. The analysis showed that the deep mining depth, seam with pressure bumping tendency, hard and thick sandstone roof and irrational width of the gateway coal pillars would be main influence factors to cause the pressure bumping in the coal mining face. The comprehensive index was applied to judge the pressure bumping danger index as 0. 89 of the fully mechanized top coal caving mining face and the mining face would have a strong pressure bumping danger. Based on the early prediction, the micro seismic method was applied to monitor and measure the bumping danger zone. As for the bumping danger zone, the pressure releasing blasting in the gateway side wall, deep borehole blasting in the roof, dynamic water injection (8 ~ 13 MPa) and static water injection as well as other pressure releasing and danger control measures were comprehensively applied to reduce the mine pressure bumping behavior strength and to effectively reduce the pressure bumping occurred in the fully mechanized top coal caving mining face.%基于华亭煤矿250102综放工作面冲击地压显现强烈、巷道返修难度大,开展了一系列技术研究和防治实践.分析表明,大采深、煤层具有冲击倾向性、坚硬厚层砂岩顶板、护巷煤柱留宽不合理是导致该工作面发生冲击地压的主要因素,并采用综合指数法判定该综放面冲击危险指数0.89,具有强冲击地压危险性.在早期预测的基础上,采用微震法对冲击危险区域进行监测.对具备冲击危险的区域,综合采用巷帮煤体卸压爆破、顶板深孔爆破、动压注水(8~13 MPa)与静压注水等卸压解危措施,削弱了冲击地压显现强度,有效降低了综放工作面冲击地压的发生.

  16. Task 1.13 -- Data collection and database development for clean coal technology by-product characteristics and management practices. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-08-01

    Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification is the focus of this task by the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The primary goal of this task is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on CCT (Clean Coal Technology) by-products to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Supporting objectives are (1) to fully utilize information from previous DOE projects, (2) to coordinate with industry and other research groups, (3) to focus on by-products from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification, and (4) to provide information relevant to the EPA evaluation criteria for the Phase 2 decision.

  17. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  18. Research and practice on the lean management system of coal production%煤炭生产精益化管理体系的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱拴刚

    2015-01-01

    应用精益化管理的理念、工具和方法,从煤炭生产的生产组织、设备运营、成本管控、科技创新、文化建设等方面进行诊断分析,建立了神东煤炭集团精益化管理体系,并在生产矿井进行推行,取得良好效果,为煤炭生产企业精益化管理推行提供理论参考。%Based on the concept and method of lean management , the coal production and management was analyzed from the aspects of production organization , equipment operation , cost control , scientific and technological innovation and cultur-al construction , and the lean management system was built and extended in Shendong Coal Group .The research can pro-vide theoretical references for the spread of lean management in coal production enterprises .

  19. Coal Industry Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privatization of the British hardcoal mining industry enters into the final stage. The statutory basis will be created by the 'Coal Industry Bill' being discussed at present in Parliament and which will probably be signed by the Queen in summer 1994 and then become a law. The 'Coal Industry Bill' stipulates in detail in which way British Coal will be dissolved and which competences will be transferred to the newly created coal authority. The allocation of powers and responsibilities to successor organizations will be determined as well as the role of the state for e.g. pension and concessionary commitments. Another important subject is the distribution of the charges for mining damages, and reclamation and environmental protection. (orig.)

  20. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  1. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make the band tighter or looser any time after you have this surgery. It may be tightened or ... Having problems eating Not losing enough weight Vomiting after you eat Outlook (Prognosis) The final weight loss with ...

  2. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy ... Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous system (CNS) and collect waste products, as well as ...

  3. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for ili...

  4. Hard Pressed for Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Higher prices and the worst snowstorms in 50 years have strained China’s coal supply to the limit There’s little coal left. Jiang Zhangshui wears an expression of worry on his face.As president of Zhejiang Tianma Thermal Power Co. Ltd., he’s had to keep his eyes on the snow falfing in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. During a lull in the storm he drives to the airport and flies to Beijing. Like his counterparts at many other

  5. Progress in the research and application of coal mining with stowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junker Martin; Witthaus Holger

    2013-01-01

    The development and achievements of modern coal mining with stowing are discussed in this paper.The necessity of developing coal mining with stowing is briefly summarized and internal damage within the strata and external damage on surface induced by longwall working with caving are discussed.Technological features of coal mining with pneumatic stowing in Germany,and fully mechanised coal mining with solid dense stowing in China,are discussed.In German hard coal mining stowing technologies are for technical,infrastructural and economical reasons not applicable.The discussion includes the stowing material transportation system,the stowing machine,and processes at the face.Progressiveness and application universality of China's fully mechanised coal mining with solid dense stowing are illustrated through practical examples with different conditions.Obviously,the fully mechanised coal mine with solid dense stowing can be improved by automaion systems.This paper discusses further developmental potential of the technology.

  6. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  7. practice and research of mine water resource recovery engineering of Jining III coal mine%济三煤矿矿井水资源化工程的实践与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晨钟; 吕华浦

    2012-01-01

    基于目前国内矿井水处理技术现状,探索把矿井水资源化利用作为一个系统工程,集成嵌入到煤炭生产过程,作为煤炭开采的必然行为同时进行系统的设计和规划,实现煤炭资源与水资源的同步开采模式。研究实施了矿井水处理系统的信息化管理、矿井水井下处理就地复用及自动化监测和控制、井下突水工作面矿井水的有效分流与处理等关键技术,以及电吸附除盐技术在煤矿高矿化度矿井水处理中的推广应用,为矿井水资源化利用提供有效的途径和技术支持。%Basing on the technology status of mine water treatment in China, this paper explores approaches to realize the pattern, which achieves syn- chronization of coal and water resources mining. This pattern makes mine water resource recovery utilization be integrated and embedded in the process of coal production as a system engineering and a necessary behavior of coal mining, which should be simultaneously designed and planned with coal mining in a systematic way. The information management of mine waters treatment system,the automatic monitoring and control of underground mine water treat- ment and on - site reuse,the effective distributary and treatment of mine water in underground water - inrush working face are studied, which serve as key technologies, as well as the application of electro - sorption desalting technique in high mineralized mine water treatment in coal mine. provide effective approaches and technical sunDorts to the mine water resource recovery utilization.

  8. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  9. Hydrogen Bonds in Coal——The Influence of Coal Rank and the Recognition of a New Hydrogen Bond in Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By means of in-situ diffuse reflectance FTIR, the IR spectra of 6 coals with different ranks were obtained from room temperature to 230 ℃. A new curve fitting method was used to recognize the different hydrogen bonds in the coals, and the influence of coal ranks on the distribution of hydrogen bonds(HBs) in the coals and their thermal stability were discussed. The results show that there is another new HB(around 2514 cm-1) between the -SH in mercaptans or thiophenols and the nitrogen in the pyridine-like compounds in the coals, and the evidence for that was provided. The controversial band of the HB between hydroxyl and the nitrogen of the pyridine-like compounds was determined in the range of 3028-2984 cm-1, and the result is consistent with but more specific than that of Painter et al.. It was found that the stability of different HBs in the coals is influenced by both coal rank and temperature. For some HBs, the higher the coal rank, the higher the stability of them. Within the temperature range of our research, the stability of the HB between the hydroxyl and the π bond increases to some extent for some coals at temperatures higher than 110 or 140 ℃.

  10. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  11. Economics of coal fines utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathi, V.; McHale, E.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the twentieth century, coal has become the major fuel for electric power generation in the U.S. and most of the nonpetroleum-producing countries of the world. In 1998, the world coal-fired capacity for electric power generation was about 815 GW, consuming large quantities of coals of all ranks. Today, coal provides a third of the world`s energy requirements. In fact, coal use for power generation has grown steadily since the oil embargo in 1973 and has seen an even faster rate of growth in recent years. It has been reported that the global demand for new coal will increase by more than 1500 million tons by the year 2000. However, this increased production of coal has its drawbacks, including the concomitant production of coal waste. Reported estimates indicate that billions of tons of coal waste have already been disposed of in waste impoundments throughout the U.S. Further, in the U.S. today, about 20-25 % of each ton of mined coal is discarded by preparation plants as gob and plant tailings. It appears that the most economical near-term approach to coal waste recovery is to utilize the waste coal fines currently discarded with the refuse stream, rather than attempt to recover coal from waste impoundments that require careful prior evaluation and site preparation. A hypothetical circuit was designed to examine the economics of recovery and utilization of waste coal fines. The circuit recovers products from 100 tons per hour (tph) of coal waste feed recovering 70 tph of fine coal that can be used in coal-fired boilers. The present analysis indicates that the coal waste recovery is feasible and economical. In addition, significant environmental benefits can be expected.

  12. Electrofacies analysis for coal lithotype profiling based on high-resolution wireline log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslin, A.; Esterle, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    The traditional approach to coal lithotype analysis is based on a visual characterisation of coal in core, mine or outcrop exposures. As not all wells are fully cored, the petroleum and coal mining industries increasingly use geophysical wireline logs for lithology interpretation.This study demonstrates a method for interpreting coal lithotypes from geophysical wireline logs, and in particular discriminating between bright or banded, and dull coal at similar densities to a decimetre level. The study explores the optimum combination of geophysical log suites for training the coal electrofacies interpretation, using neural network conception, and then propagating the results to wells with fewer wireline data. This approach is objective and has a recordable reproducibility and rule set.In addition to conventional gamma ray and density logs, laterolog resistivity, microresistivity and PEF data were used in the study. Array resistivity data from a compact micro imager (CMI tool) were processed into a single microresistivity curve and integrated with the conventional resistivity data in the cluster analysis. Microresistivity data were tested in the analysis to test the hypothesis that the improved vertical resolution of microresistivity curve can enhance the accuracy of the clustering analysis. The addition of PEF log allowed discrimination between low density bright to banded coal electrofacies and low density inertinite-rich dull electrofacies.The results of clustering analysis were validated statistically and the results of the electrofacies results were compared to manually derived coal lithotype logs.

  13. The Band Members and the Band

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Beck

    2012-01-01

    Generally, teaching in art schools can be characterized by two approaches. In one approach the teaching of skills, particularly media skills, is deemed to be essential for developing an artistic practice. In the other the social processes and cultural exposure that one, by default, encounters in an art school environment are considered to be the most important aspect of art education.

  14. The Band Members and the Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beck

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, teaching in art schools can be characterized by two approaches. In one approach the teaching of skills, particularly media skills, is deemed to be essential for developing an artistic practice. In the other the social processes and cultural exposure that one, by default, encounters in an art school environment are considered to be the most important aspect of art education.

  15. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  16. Mild coal extraction for the production of anode coke from Blue Gem coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney J. Andrews; Terry Rantell; David Jacques; James C. Hower; J. Steven Gardner; Mike Amick [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2010-09-15

    The quality and availability of petroleum coke used in the manufacture of carbon anodes for aluminum production is a growing concern to the industry. Coke quality and yields have progressively declined as changes in refinery practice and the move towards processing an increasing proportion of heavier sour crudes have affected coke properties, resulting in an increase in the metal impurities and sulfur content of the coke. An alternative supply of anode coke is required to supplement or eventually replace calcined petroleum coke. The significant domestic reserves of coal could represent a viable carbon resource for anode production, provided defined coke specifications can be met and at a cost that is economically viable. The principal objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of producing anode grade coke by the UKCAER process for the mild solvent extraction of coal. Blue Gem coal from Eastern Kentucky was dissolved in a high boiling point solvent, the mineral matter and unreacted products removed by filtration, and the clean coal liquid converted to coke. The performance of the coal in solvent extraction was compared to a very reactive coal from Western Kentucky. A simple solvent-extraction screening test was established to assess potential candidate materials and process variables without the need for prolonged and complex routines. The coals were assessed in more detail to determine the optimum process conditions by conducting larger scale extraction tests to yield sufficient material for conversion to coke. The green cokes were calcined and the products characterized. The composition and structure of the calcined cokes were compared to typical petroleum coke and assessed for their use in the fabrication of carbon anodes. 21 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  18. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCunney, R.J.; Morfeld, P.; Payne, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biological Engineering

    2009-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal-before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  19. Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Guide for Authors Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(English Edition), a comprehensive academic periodical of the China Coal Society, covers the fields of coal science and technology including coal geology, exploration,mine survey, mine project assessment, mine construction, coal mining, coal mine electrical machinery,mine safety, coal processing and utilization, coal mine environmental protection, etc. It reflects the latest research results and findings.

  20. Prediction of oxygen concentration and temperature distribution in loose coal based on B P neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jian; WU Guo-guang; XU Hong-feng; MENG Xian-liang; WANG Guang-you

    2009-01-01

    An effective method for preventing spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles on the ground is to control the air-flow in loose coal. In order to determine and predict accurately oxygen concentrations and temperatures within coal stockpiles, it is vital to obtain information of self-heating conditions and tendencies of spontaneous coal combustion. For laboratory conditions, we de-signed our own experimental equipment composed of a control-heating system, a coal column and an oxygen concentration and temperature monitoring system, for simulation of spontaneous combustion of block coal (13-25 ram) covered with fine coal (0-3 mm). A BP artificial neural network (ANN) with 150 training samples was gradually established over the course of our experiment. Heating time, relative position of measuring points, the ratio of fine coal thickness, artificial density, voidage and activation energy were selected as input variables and oxygen concentration and temperature of coal column as output variables. Then our trained network was applied to predict the trend on the untried experimental data. The results show that the oxygen concentration in the coal column could be reduced below the minimum still able to induce spontaneous combustion of coal-6% by covering the coal pile with fine coal, which would meet the requirement to prevent spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles. Based on the predic-tion of this ANN, the average errors of oxygen concentration and temperature were respectively 0.5% and 7 ~C, which meet actual tolerances. The implementation of the method would provide a practical guide in understanding the course of self-heating and spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles.

  1. Coal pyrolysis and char burnout under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Makhadmeh, L.; Maier, J.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2009-07-01

    Coal utilization processes such as combustion or gasification generally involve several steps i.e., the devolatilization of organic materials, homogeneous reactions of volatile matter with the reactant gases, and heterogeneous reactions of the solid (char) with the reactant gases. Most of the reported work about coal pyrolysis and char burnout were performed at low temperatures under environmental conditions related to the air firing process with single particle tests. In this work, coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is investigated by studying coal pyrolysis and char combustion separately in practical scales, with the emphasis on improving the understanding of the effect of a CO{sub 2}-rich gas environment on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. Two coals, Klein Kopje a medium volatile bituminous coal and a low-rank coal, Lausitz coal were used. Coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments were performed for both coals at different temperatures in an entrained flow reactor. Overall mass release, pyrolysis gas concentrations, and char characterization were performed. For char characterization ultimate analysis, particle size, and BET surface area were measured. Chars for both coals were collected at 1150 C in both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres. Besides coal quality, oxygen partial pressure was chosen as a variable to study the effect of the gas environment on char burnout. In general, it is found that the CO{sub 2} environment and coal rank have a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. (orig.)

  2. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  3. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  4. Recent coal-fire and land-use status of Jharia Coalfield, India from satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha, T.R.; Guha, A.; Kumar, K.V.; Kamaraju, M.V.V.; Raju, E.V.R. [NRSC, Hyderabad (India). Geoscience Division

    2010-07-01

    The Jharia Coalfield (JCF) in India is known for its high grade coal and associated coal fires. Before it can be exploited, valuable coal reserves are destroyed in the sub-surface due to fire. The combined act of fire and subsidence has endangered the environmental safety of the JCF, although several methods have been adopted to control the coal fires. Coal fire is a dynamic phenomenon, hence, its location and extent changes with time. To control the coal fires effectively, the status of the fires and the landscape must be assessed periodically. In this study, the thermal band in Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data (daytime) of 29 March 2003 and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data (night-time) of 9 October 2006 are used to delineate the coal-fire areas. The kinetic temperature of the coal fire-affected areas is calculated from Landsat-7 ETM+ data using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-derived emissivity model, and from band 13 of ASTER data with a fixed emissivity value. The study showed that the eastern part of the JCF is more affected by coal fires than the western part. The affected collieries in the eastern part are Kusunda, Lodna, Bararee, Gonudih and Ena. Among all collieries, Kusunda is the most affected by coal fires (29% of the area) and showed a 0.56 km2 increase in fire area from the year 2003 to 2006. During this period, a total increase in coal-fire area of 0.51 km{sup 2} occurs in the JCF. The land-use map prepared from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite-P6 Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor (LISS)-III data showed that 6.9% of the area in the JCF is occupied by mining-related activities, which indicates its vulnerability to environmental degradation.

  5. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  6. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  7. Coal fire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  8. Presence of commercial coal in the Taimyr coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androsov, B.N.

    1980-05-01

    This article presents the results of a geologic expedition to the Far North of the USSR, where coal resources in the Taimyr Peninsula have been discovered. The surface of the basin is 80,000 square kilometers. Maps provide general information on the geological structure of the basin, location of coal deposits, and the richest seams. Geological structure of the basin, strata in which coal deposits are located, and properties of the coal are described (petrographic components, caking and coking properties, calorific value, ash content etc.). The so-called coefficient of coal content which ranges from 3% or below up to 11% is given for individual regions of the basin. The number of coal seams, their thickness and geological disturbances are described. Taimyr coals represent a full range of various ranks from gas coals to anthracite. The Taimyr coals have lower calorific value and lower nitrogen content than coals from the Donetsk basin. The majority of Taimyr coals have low ash and sulfur content. The best outlook for discovering rich seams of coking and fat coal are in the Taimyr-Ozerskii region of the basin particularly in Chernoyarskoe, Ugol'noe, Ozernoe, and Zayach'e. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  9. Banded transformer cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  10. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  11. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  12. China's post-coal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  13. 三交河矿综合信息化管理平台建设与实践%Construction and Practice of Integrated Information Management Platform in Sanjiaohe Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽芳

    2015-01-01

    Combines with the situation of information system construction in Sanjiaohe coal mine of Huozhou coal electricity group,analyzes the existing problems in the system construction.Builds up mine real time data and massive basic data link platform by introducing 3DGIS architecture,uses management method of modern system engineering, researches and develops integrated interface technology of multi -type multi -source data and data specification.Es-tablishes data center and data aggregation pool of mine enterprise.Realizes data application model of unified manage-ment and control and achieves good results.%结合霍州煤电集团三交河矿信息化系统建设情况,分析了该系统建设存在的问题,通过引入3DGIS 架构建立矿井实时数据与海量基础数据衔接平台,利用现代系统工程管理方法,研发了多类型、多源数据的整合集成接口技术和数据规范,建立矿山企业数据中心和数据聚合池,实现了统一管控的数据应用模式,并取得了较好的应用效果。

  14. 潘一选煤厂在煤泥泥化条件下的浮选操作实践%Practice on Flotation Operation under the Condition of Slime Argillization in Panyi Coal Preparation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传志

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the quality of flotation product due to selected raw coal slime argilliza-tion in Panyi Coal Preparation Plant ,combined with the characteristics of flotation technique process ,the condi-tion of best flotation operation has been determined by orthogonal test ,which exerted sufficiently the reducing dust of desliming pit and second flotation ,effectively reduced the influence of slime argillization on flotation and ensured the quality of flotation product .%为解决潘一选煤厂因入选原煤煤泥泥化严重而影响浮选产品质量的问题,结合浮选工艺流程特点,通过正交试验确定了浮选最佳操作条件,充分发挥脱泥池、二次浮选的降灰作用,有效地降低了煤泥泥化对浮选的影响,保证了浮选产品质量。

  15. Sustainable development and upgrading mode of coal industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhenguo

    2012-01-01

    It is an emerging realistic problem on how to promote a high level of technology in the coal industry,find new upgrading powers and create new competitive advantages,which are also the core problems to efficient transformation pattern of economic growth for coal industry in the "twelfth five year" period,involving the key to China's energy supply and energy security.Through field surveys and inductive analyses,analyzing of the content of upgrading the coal industry as an entry point,this paper analyzes the sustainable development mechanisms for the coal industry from the aspects of work force,power,methods,goals,and so on; and puts forward corresponding developmental modes according to the mecha nisms which can improve resource recovery and mineral resources utilization rates by putting them into practice.

  16. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  17. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  18. Coal analysis by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy gamma ray transmission measurements on coal samples from 17 different coal mines in India gave ash contents varying from 13.5 per cent to 42.5 per cent. This variation is due to varying contents of mineral oxides and silicates present in coal. The measured value of ash contents in coal samples of different origin shows good agreement when compared, with the values obtained by chemical method. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Coal and Climate Change. Will Coal Depart or Dominate Global Power Production During the 21st Century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B. [Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-11-11

    At present, coal power production is the most polluting energy resource in terms of sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide and particulate matter emissions, and, as a result, involves the largest external environmental costs among the currently available electricity generation alternatives. Coal is also the most carbon-intensive fossil fuel and its present large-scale combustion practices constitute among the prime impediments to implementing effective climate change control regimes. This article analyses the question whether coal must depart or may still dominate power production during the 21st century, in view of the challenges implied by regional pollution reduction and global warming mitigation. Four main reasons are described why, paradoxically, coal is likely to continue to have a high and perhaps even increasing share in global electricity generation this century: (I) its large resource base; (II) the improving efficiency and competitiveness of conventional and innovative coal technologies; (III) the employability of new coal technologies in conjunction with carbon capture and storage systems; (IV) the improving economics of these advanced clean coal technologies.

  20. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  1. TEKO returns to coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  2. Chemistry of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Further progress has been made in the investigation into uses of residues from hydrogenation of coal in plastic mixtures. Filter residues of oil and rat filtration are suitable as filler for sound barrier plates with particularly good sound attenuation qualities. Success was also achieved in processing coal extracts and coal converted to anthracene oil mixed with commercial plastics into strong sealing material foil. In order to manufacture needle coke of high quality from filtered hard coal tar, a continuous plant was set to work, which can convert about 20 kg/hour of tar filtrate into coke. The calcination of the coke and further processing into experimental electrodes follow. The distillate oils occurring during coking of tar can be converted into isotropic coke after treatment by coking to produce secondary tar. These types of coke can be processed into graphite bodies without binding material, and are suitable for cladding material for nuclear reactors. Experiments for the development of new systems based on waterglass polyisocyanate were successful. They are suitable for solidifying rock in fault zones underground and for sealing against running water. Also single component systems on the basis of polyurethane prepolymers were developed to seal against the ingress of water and to solidify wet rock strata. By using special highly reactive polyoils, polyurethane systems could be formulated, which permit the solidifaction of very loose and wet rock strata. They have good mechanical properties and excellent adhesion to rock and coal. The glue cartridge (KK cartridge) developed from extruded coal-plastic material has continued to prove successful underground. A new resin material was developed for the adhesion anchor on the basis of polyurethane prepolymer.

  3. Natural radioactivity in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  4. Amniotic Band Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Prathvi; Menezes, Leo Theobald; Tauro, Leo Francis; Diddigi, Kumar Arun

    2012-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder without any genetic or hereditary disposition. It involves fetal entrapment in strands of amniotic tissue and causes an array of deletions and deformations. Primary treatment is plastic and reconstructive surgery after birth with in utero fetal surgery also coming in vogue.

  5. The new deal of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO2-free coal: CO2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  6. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern soc

  7. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  8. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  9. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  10. Coal type and burnout performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January--March 1978. [Brief summary of 15 pilot plant projects supported by US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes currently in the pilot plant stage. Fifteen coal liquefaction projects supported by US DOE are described briefly, with flowsheets, funding, history and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  12. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    OpenAIRE

    McCollum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    After years of relatively slow growth, coal is undergoing a renaissance. Some 140 coal power plants are planned, and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the U.S. will consume almost 1,800 million tons of coal in 2030, up from about 1,150 million tons this year. In addition, while EIA’s estimates do not take coal-to-hydrogen production into consideration, several recent studies suggest that if the hydrogen economy ever comes to fruition coal could be a feedstock of choice...

  13. Hydrogasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogasification of coal is a key process in SNG production. The hydrogen required for the process can be produced by steam gasification of the residual coke obtained in hydrogasification as well as by a HTR reactor. Messrs. Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke in Cologne have operated a semi-industrial test plant for coal hydrogasification since 1976. So far, operation of this plant has yielded important information on the correlation between gasifier performance and the main process parameters. A pilot plant on this basis is being planned which will take up operation in 1981. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

  14. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  15. Fluorine in Asturian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Suarez-Fernandez, G.P.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain))

    1994-07-01

    Concentrations of fluorine in Asturian bituminous coals and anthracites have been determined. Fluorine analysis has been carried out by comparing oxygen bomb combustion and pyrohydrolysis methods. Pyrohydrolysis revealed higher values in samples whose ash contents were greater than 25 wt%, which in turn was related to fluorine contents higher than 100 ppm. Good correlation between fluorine and ash content suggests that fluorine is present in these coals in mineral species, and is not probably associated with organic matter. The association of fluorine with phosphorus is also discussed. An excess of fluorine concentration versus phosphorus, corresponding to fluorapatite, has been found. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Reaction engineering in direct coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Y. T.

    Processes for direct coal liquefaction by solvent extraction are considered along with the structure and properties of coal and the mechanism of coal liquefaction, heteroatom removal during liquefaction, kinetic models for donor-solvent coal liquefaction, the design of coal liquefaction reactors, and the refining of coal liquids. Attention is given to the catalytic hydrogenation of coal in the presence of a solvent, the origin and character of coal, laboratory reactors for rate measurements, reaction networks based on lumped fractions, free-radical reaction models, reactor types, the compatibility of coal-derived liquids and petroleum fuels, the stability of coal liquids, thermal cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic cracking, and catalytic reforming.

  17. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  18. The Calculation Model for Operation Cost of Coal Resources Development Based on ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海滨

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and selection of factors influencing operation cost of coal resources development, fuzzy set method and artificial neural network (ANN) were adopted to set up the classification analysis model of coal resources. The collected samples were classified by using this model. Meanwhile, the pattern recognition model for classifying of the coal resources was built according to the factors influencing operation cost. Based on the results achieved above, in the light of the theory of information diffusion, the calculation model for operation cost of coal resources development has been presented and applied in practice, showing that these models are reasonable.

  19. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple of sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  20. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  1. Crossing point temperature of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xuyao; Deming Wang; James A. Milke; Xiaoxing Zhong

    2011-01-01

    A further understanding of the self-heating of coal was obtained by investigating the crossing point temperature (CPT) of different ranks of coal. The tests were carried out using a self-designed experimental system for coal self-heating. 50 g (±0.01 g) of coal particles ranging from 0.18 mm to 0.38 mm in size were put into a pure copper reaction vessel attached to the center of a temperature programmed enclosure. The temperature program increased the temperature at a rate of 0.8 ℃/min. Dry air was permitted to flow into the coal reaction vessel at different rates. The surrounding temperature and the coal temperature were monitored by a temperature logger. The results indicate that CPT is affected by coal rank, moisture, sulfur,and the experimental conditions. Higher ranked coals show higher CPT values. A high moisture content causes a delay phenomenon during the self-heating of the coal. Drying at 40 ℃ decreases the effects of moisture. The reactivity of sulfur components in the coal is low under dry and low-temperature conditions.These components form a film that covers the coal surface and slightly inhibits the self-heating of the coal.The flow rate of dry air, and the heating rate of the surroundings, also affect the self-heating of the coal. The most appropriate experimental conditions for coal samples of a given weight and particle size were determined through contrastive analysis. Based on this analysis we propose that CPTs be determined under the same, or nearly the same conditions, for evaluation of the spontaneous combustion of coal.

  2. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of IGR/IAll and IG+GR/IAll but lower values of ID/I(G+GR, IDL/I(G+GR, IS+SL/I(G+GR, and I(GL+GL'/I(G+GR. The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes Tig, T20%, and Tmax from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of IGR/IAll, IG+GR/IAll, and IS+SL/I(G+GR. Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  3. Clean coal technology - Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, B.C.; Varma, S.K.; Chakrabarti, R.K. [CMPDI, Ranchi (India)

    1997-12-31

    Indian coal reserves are substantial but their quality is poor. Quality is also falling as good reserves are mined out. More positively, sulphur and chlorine contents are low, as in general are toxic trace elements. Ash content of the coal can be reduced by coal preparation, although many customers at present will not pay the cost of coal preparation. Nonetheless plants are being built and their use will increase. Washed coal costs more, but is cheaper to transport and to burn, besides reducing ash quantity. An IGCC demonstration plant is being planned. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Оptimization of humic acids extraction from coal of Oy-karagay field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimum conditions of extraction of humic acids from brown coal of a domestic Oy-Karagay field using the  method of experiment planning were defined: extraction temperature – 80 оC; duration of experiment – 45 minutes; concentration of alkali – 1,0 %; ratio of coal and alkali solution equal 1:25. The experiment realized in these conditions is coordinated with sampled data. The  composition of the humic acids extracted after alkaline processing of brown coal have been  investigated by  IR-spectroscopy. IR spectrum of humic acids contains a band due to the active acidic groups.

  5. Coal and coffee grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landais, C.

    The Sopad Nestle plant in Dieppe is the number 1 plant in France producing soluble coffee and chicory. Since 1983, it recovers and uses a production byproduct, coffee grounds as fuel, with coal, with an ignifluid boiler (hot fluidized bed), built by Fives-Cail-Babcock.

  6. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  7. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  8. Keeping Warm Without Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Heat-pump technology offers a clean heating alternative to coal With no air conditioning or indoor heating, families in southeast Beijing’s Fangzhuang neighbor-hood still enjoy refreshing warm air all year round. The secret is in the pump technology. Heat pumps cool the homes in summer and warm them in winter just like a central air-conditioning system.

  9. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  10. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  11. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with this disease are older than 50. Smoking does not increase your risk of developing this disease, but it may have an added harmful effect on the lungs. If coal worker's pneumoconiosis occurs with rheumatoid arthritis , it is called Caplan syndrome .

  12. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  13. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  14. Iodine-catalyzed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, J.T.; Duffield, J.E.; Davidson, M.G. (Amoco Oil Company, Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.)

    Coals of two different ranks were liquefied in high yields using catalytic quantities of elemental iodine or iodine compounds. Iodine monochloride was found to be especially effective for enhancing both coal conversion and product quality. It appears that enhancement in coal conversion is due to the unique ability of iodine to catalyze radical-induced bond scission and hydrogen addition to the coal macromolecule or coal-derived free radicals. The starting iodine can be fully accounted for in the reaction products as both organic-bound and water-soluble forms. Unconverted coal and the heavy product fractions contain the majority of the organic-bound iodine. The results of iodine-catalyzed coal reactions emphasize the need for efficient hydrogen atom transfer along with bond scission to achieve high conversion and product quality. 22 refs., 12 tabs.

  15. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  16. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR. Eighth quarterly (second annual) report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1990-09-01

    A nondestructive method to determine the atomic and molecular structures present in the organic (maceral) components of whole coal and coal products has been sought for many years. This program of research is designed to address that analytical need by applying advanced electron magnetic resonance techniques to the determination of coal molecular structure. Structural information has be obtained by using the naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal as ``observation posts`` from which to survey neighboring atoms through the electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction. Such an overall approach has been termed ELECTRON SPIN MAPPING of coal structure. New techniques like 2-dimensional ENDOR and ESE spectroscopies and multifrequency EPR, including the world`s first S-band ESE spectrometer and one of the first W-band instruments, which we have developed in our laboratory, were employed in the determination. The materials studied were well separated macerals obtained by density gradient centrifugation techniques from Illinois {number_sign}6 coals, a well as whole Illinois {number_sign}6, {number_sign}5, and Argonne Premium Sample Coals. model compounds, chosen to represent molecular structures typical of those believed to exist in coal also were studied by the various electron magnetic resonance (EMR) methods. Utilizing the various EMR methods available in our laboratory, we studied approaches to determine parameters that direcly reflect the atomic and molecular structure of coal. The naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal were utilized as probes of their local environment, which they reflect through hyperfine interactions with neighboring 1 > 0 nuclei (eg, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C).

  17. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG FuYuan; LIANG ShunLin; LI AiGen

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s, the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detec-tions of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies, the major observational characteristics of DIBs, the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features (e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise), and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  18. Buckets of money for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  19. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  20. Coal availability: issues in assessing US coal reserves and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcombe, R J

    1981-05-01

    There are a number of important uncertainties about the economic significance of US coal resources. These uncertainties can be categorized as affecting: the physical size and location of coal resources and reserves; the regional and local variation in coal quality; and the legal and economic availability of coal resources. A more precise understanding of coal availability is important. Richard Schmidt has suggested that consumer undertainty about reserve magnitude and availability may be exploited by producers in setting contract prices, and it has been suggested that errors in assessing the geological and legal recoverability of coal resources may affect coal prices more significantly than variability in estimates of production and distribution costs. Further, misconceptions about coal availability are more likely to cause underestimates then overestimates of future prices. The objectives of this paper are: to discuss some methods used in modeling the nation's coal reserves; and to identify some of the problems involved. The issue of coal availability is addressed in an effort to suggest the need for a systematic approach to the problem.

  1. Combined ANN prediction model for failure depth of coal seam floors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lian-guo; ZHANG Zhi-kang; LU Yin-long; YANG Hong-bo; YANG Sheng-qiang; SUN Jian; ZHANG Jin-yao

    2009-01-01

    Failure depth of coal seam floors is one of the important considerations that must be kept in mind when mining is carried out above a confined aquifer. In order to study the factors that affect the failure depth of coal seam floors such as mining depth, coal seam pitch, mining thickness, workface length and faults, we propose a combined artificial neural networks (ANN) prediction model for failure depth of coal seam floors on the basis of existing engineering data by using genetic algorithms to train the ANN. A practical engineering application at the Taoyuan Coal Mine indicates that this method can effectively determine the network struc-ture and training parameters, with the predicted results agreeing with practical measurements. Therefore, this method can be applied to relevant engineering projects with satisfactory results.

  2. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  3. Distribution and assessment of Pb in the supergene environment of the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Yuan, Zijiao; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2014-08-01

    Coal mining area is highly subject to lead (Pb) pollution from coal mining activities. Several decades of coal mining and processing practices in dozens of coal mines in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA) have led to the accumulation of massive amounts of coal gangue, which piled in dumps. In order to investigate the impacts of coal gangue dumps on Pb level in the supergene media of the HCMA, a systematic sampling campaign comprising coal gangue, soil, wheat, and earthworm samples was conducted. The average Pb content in the coal mining area soil is 24 mg/kg, which is slightly higher than the associated coal gangues (23 mg/kg) and markedly higher than reference region soil (12.6 mg/kg). Soil in the HCMA present a slight to moderate Pb contamination, which might be related to the weathering and leaching of coal gangue dumps. Lateral distribution of Pb in HCMA soil differed among individual coal mines. The soil profile distribution of Pb depends on both natural and anthropogenic contributions. Average Pb content is higher in roots than in stems, leaves, and wheat husks, while the Pb level in seeds exceeded the maximum Pb allowance for foods (Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods of China, GB 2762-2012). Earthworms in the selected area are significantly enriched in Pb, suggesting higher bio-available Pb level in soil in the HCMA. PMID:24756412

  4. The single electron transfer chemistry of coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Flowers, R.A. II

    1994-12-31

    This research addressed electron donar properties and radical reactions in coal. Solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals were exposed to 4-vinylpyridine vapors and swelled. All of the 4-vinylpyridine could not be removed under vacuum at 100{degree}C. Diffuse reflectance FTIR revealed the presence of poly-(4-vinylpyridine) in the Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak residues after exposure to 4-vinylpyridine. There was little change in the vitrinite radical density or environment. The molecule N,N{prime}-Diphenyl-p-phenylene diamine (DPPD) was exposed to the solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of the above coals. Diffuse reflectance FTIR failed to detect the imine product from radical reaction with DPPD. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport and Wyodak residues. 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) were deposited into coals in pyridine. FTIR indicated complete conversion of TCNQ to a material with a singly occupied LUMO. In TCNE the LUMO is about 30% occupied. TCNQ and TCNE were deposited into the pyridine extracts and residues of Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coals. Only a small amount of the TCNQ and TCNE displayed nitrile shifts in the IR spectrum of a material with an occupied LUMO. It has been concluded that TCNQ must be part of the aromatic stacks in coal and the TCNQ LUMO is part of an extended band.

  5. CSF oligoclonal banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... 1/2015 Updated by: Daniel Kantor, MD, Kantor Neurology, Coconut Creek, FL and immediate past president of ...

  6. Digging Deeper: Crisis Management in the Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara M.; Horsley, J. Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores crisis management/communication practices within the coal industry through the lens of high reliability organization (HRO) concepts and sensemaking theory. In-depth interviews with industry executives and an analysis of an emergency procedures manual were used to provide an exploratory examination of the status of crisis…

  7. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  8. Investigation of processing properties of polyamide filled with hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stabik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to present the influence of contents and kind of hard coal used as powder filler on rheological properties (viscosity of polyamide 6.Design/methodology/approach: Preparation of composite of polyamide 6 with hard coal was carried out on laboratory twin screw extruder. Extruded composite was granulated and in this form was used for MFR analysis. Taking into account MFR results viscosity was calculated. The influence of filler content on viscosity was next searched.Findings: Results of research showed that addition of powdered hard coal to polyamide 6 matrix cause pronounced decrease of MFR index. In this way significant increase of viscous flow was observed. It is often observed phenomenon for polymer composite filled with powder materials.Research limitations/implications: It is necessary to carry out the research with surface modified hard coal with coupling agents which provide better adhesion of polymer matrix to filler.Practical implications: Hard coal used as a filler in composites makes it possible to gain new and cheaper polymeric materials with many possible applications.Originality/value: Investigation described in article shows possibility of hard coal application as innovatory filler of polymers. The influence of this filler on rheological properties indicate that processing of these new materials may be accompanied with some problems.

  9. Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

  10. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  11. Slotted waveguide antennas for practical radar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sekretarov, S. S.; Vavriv, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent results on the development, fabrication, and application of slotted waveguide antenna systems for practical radar systems, including Ka-band helicopter collision avoidance and weather radar, Ku-band surveillance and tracking radar, and X-band airborne SAR system. The corresponding design solutions, antenna characteristics, and test results are presented and discussed.

  12. 大倾角特厚煤层分层开采瓦斯综合治理技术研究及实践%Research and practice on the comprehensive gas control technology of slice mining in steep dipping extra-thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华

    2014-01-01

    根据大倾角特厚煤层分层开采的实际特点,结合某矿B5001工作面的瓦斯涌出规律,进行了包含采前预抽、边采边抽、高位钻孔抽放、采空区插管抽放等方式在内的瓦斯综合治理技术的研究与实践,确定了合理的抽放参数,取得了良好的瓦斯治理效果。%Based on the practical characteristics of slice mining in steep dipping extra-thick coal seam, combing with the gas emission law of B5001 working face, the comprehensive gas control technology , including drainage before the mining, drainage while mining, high drilling drainage, mined-out area buried tube drainage, are researched and practiced. The reasonable drainage parameters are determined. Good controlling effect is obtained.

  13. Coal-fired electricity, environmental regulation, and domestic coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade it appears that utilities will have to effectively separate their power generation business from other regulated functions. Tighter restrictions of sulfur emissions will take effect in 2000 but, as of 1996 only 30 percent of US coal-fired electrical generating capacity had flue-gas scrubbers. New emission standards would likely accelerate the shift to low sulfur coal as the competitive pressures of power markets will restrict capital for investment. If power plants do not retrofit with scrubbers, then based on 1995 coal transactions data for Northern Appalachia, Central Appalachia, and the Illinois Basin, there is the equivalent of 216 million tons of annual shipments from these areas that will have to be replaced by low sulfur coal or be covered by emission permits. In the aggregate only 23 percent of the coal shipped in 1995 from these areas was shipped to power plants equipped with flue-gas scrubber systems. The purpose of this paper is to show the extent of the geographical shift in future coal production that could occur as the regulations are enforced. The paper initially discusses the deregulation of the electrical utility industry and the provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Current composition and historical changes of markets for the four major coal-producing regions--Northern Appalachian, Central Appalachian, Illinois Basin, and Power River Basin--are examined. Data on sulfur content of the coal received at power plants from each of the four major coal-producing regions are presented and used to infer the quality of coal likely to be produced in the immediate future. For each market, volumes of coal used by power plants having flue-gas scrubbers are estimated. Based on these estimates and available low sulfur supplies in each market, the volumes of produced coal are calculated that will not meet the new Clean Air Act standards and will likely not be used in scrubber equipped power

  14. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... were published (35 FR 17097, November 20, 1970) as part of a final rule that implemented requirements... Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in...

  15. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  16. 生物质压块燃料及煤炭燃料在烟叶烘烤中的应用效果对比研究%Practical Effect of Biomass Briquette Fuel and Coal for Tobacco Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭方利; 樊士军; 董艳辉; 姚秦; 卢航; 吴文信

    2014-01-01

    2013年在湖南郴州市对生物质压块燃料及煤炭燃料进行了对比研究,通过试验分析了2种燃料烟叶调制过程控制的特点、能耗成本以及对烟叶经济性状的影响。结果表明:生物质压块用于烟叶烘烤可以充分调控烟叶烘烤工艺,能够降低烟叶烘烤成本,节能减耗,提高烟叶质量。%For tobacco curing,the biomass briquette fuel and coal were compared in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province in 2013.Effect of the different materials on curing process characteristics,energy costs and the economic characters of tobacco leaves were examined.The results showed that biomass briquette used for tobacco baking could fully control tobacco baking process,reduce tobacco baking cost,energy conservation and consumption reduction,improve the quality of tobacco leaves.

  17. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  18. Rate of coal hydroliquefaction: correlation to coal structure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Voorhees, K.J.; Durfee, S.L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out on DOE grant No. FG22-83PC60784. The work was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of a series of coal liquefaction rate measurements on seven different coals from the Exxon sample bank, followed by correlation with parent coal properties. The second phase involved characterization of the coals by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and subsequent correlations of the Py/MS patterns with various liquefaction reactivity parameters. The hydroliquefaction reactivities for a suite of 7 bituminous and subbituminous coals were determined on a kinetic basis. These reactivities were correlated fairly successfully with the following parent coal properties: volatile matter, H/C and O/C ratios, vitrinite reflectance, and calorific value. The total surface areas of the coals were experimentally determined. Reactivity was shown to be independent of surface area. Following completion of the batch reactor experiments, the seven coals investigated were analyzed by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry. The pyrolysis spectra were then submitted to factor analysis in order to extract significant features of the coal for use in correlational efforts. These factors were then related to a variety of liquefaction reactivity definitions, including both rate and extent of liquefaction to solvent solubility classifications (oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, etc.). In general, extent of reaction was found to correlate best with the Py/MS data. 37 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts

  20. A X-ray diffraction analysis on graphene layers of Assam coal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy K Saikia; Rajani K Boruah; Pradip K Gogoi

    2009-01-01

    The so-called turbostatic structure of carbons in coal with randomly oriented stacking of the lamellae (graphene) produces intense peaks, which are the dominant features in its X-ray diffraction profiles. The diffractogram may be conveniently divided into two regions of reciprocal space, the medium S region (1 < S < 3 Å) and a high S region (S > 3 Å) where = 4 -1 sin. To better understand the molecular level structure of high sulphur Assam coal, two coal samples (Tirap-1 and Tirap-2) from Tirap colliery of Makum coalfield, Assam (India) has been interpreted in this study by using the X-ray diffraction profiles. Random layered (graphene) structural parameters of these coals were determined by using X-ray diffraction technique, which showed that the and are 64.99 Å and 22.63 Å for Tirap-2 and 55.54 Å and 23.80 Å for that of Tirap-1 coals respectively. The position of band was found to be at 4.34 Å and 4.13 Å for Tirap-2 and Tirap-1 coals respectively. The number of layers and average number of carbon atoms (N) per aromatic graphene were found to be 21 and 8 for both the coal samples. Proximate, ultimate and ash analysis of the two coal samples were also carried out in this investigation.

  1. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  2. Coal Hydrology Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    United States Bureau of Land Management

    1983-01-01

    In compiling this bibliography, Geological Survey publication lists, existing Geological Survey bibliographies, and the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) data base were searched for pertinent Geological Survey publications that contained information relevant to the hydrology of a coal area. The WRSIC abstracts were used unedited as received from the WRSIC data base. Also included are reports of the Energy Mineral Rehabilitation Inventory and Analysis (EMRIA) program, coa...

  3. Load of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-06-01

    An electric skid steer loader has been developed in the UK by Hay Royds, offering an innovative approach to underground loading. Its compact design makes it ideal for loading thin coal piled at the face to conveyors in restricted headroom conditions. The loader is in operation at Hay Royd`s colliery near Huddersfield in Yorkshire and at Rashiehill mine near Edinburgh. The article describes the design and operation of the skid steer loader. 1 photo.

  4. 1976 Keystone coal industry manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, G.F. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    The manual is the industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the United States and Canada. For its many other users as well, Keystone serves as a comprehensive reference to the production and distribution facilities of the coal industry and is the source of considerable data unavailable elsewhere. Some new features in the 1976 edition are: coal research projects in mining and preparation; the laboratory's role in the coal industry; new concepts requiring pollution controls; a 1975 review of scrubbers; a portfolio of preparation flowsheets; growth of the industrial market; slurry pipeline planning; a new mining capacity survey; a map of 1974 coal production by counties; and a complete listing of smaller coal mining companies.

  5. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  6. Zero emission coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  7. The Magnetic Beneficiation of Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Male, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic demineralization of coal can produce a fuel containing lower leveIs of sulphur and ash forming minerals. The ability of the magnetic separation technique to process material over a wide range of particle sizes (I-1000 µm) and to operate on either liquid or gaseous feed enables a number of possible coal processing applications. These range from dry desulphurization of power station pulverized fuel to the cleaning of solvent refined coals. This article reviews work on the developme...

  8. Coal-shale interface detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  9. Coal-shale interface detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  10. Silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Castranova, V.; Vallyathan, V

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to coal mine dust and/or crystalline silica results in pneumoconiosis with initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. This review presents characteristics of simple and complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) as well as pathologic indices of acute and chronic silicosis by summarizing results of in vitro, animal, and human investigations. These results support four basic mechanisms in the etiology of CWP and silicosis: a) direct cytotoxicity of coal dust or silica, resul...

  11. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  12. Coal pre-feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It examines the feasibility of using coal from the Delbi-Moya reserve for domestic or institutional cooking, industrial process heating and electricity generation. It indicates as coal can be mined from the Delbi reserve at a cost of EB110/tonne, can be processed for EB400/tonne and transported to Addis Ababa for 150/tonne. The wholesale price of coal briquettes in Addis Ababa would be EB750/tonne. Domestic users can save EB475 per year by switching from charcoal to coal briquettes. And for a 50MW plant annual saving would be of the order of EB30 million per year. 11 tab. 4 figs. 6 appendex

  13. World coal perspectives to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Summer 2004, The World Energy Council published a Study on 'Sustainable Global Energy Development: the Case of Coal'. The Study aims at developing an internationally consistent reply to the question whether and to what extent coal use could be economic and sustainable in meeting global energy demand to 2030 and beyond. It covers markets, trade and demand, mining and combustion technologies, restructuring and international policies, and perspectives. It considers both, the contribution that coal could make to economic development as well as the need for coal adapt to the exigencies of security of supply, local environmental protection and mitigation of climate change. (Author)

  14. Gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Stockpiled coal undergoes atmospheric oxidation and desorption processes during open air storage. These processes release gases to the environment which may effect health and safety by their toxicity and flammability. In extreme cases, this could lead to a fire. This report discusses gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles. It covers gas emission mechanisms, and gas sampling and testing methods, before examining in more detail the principal gases that have been emitted. It concludes that there is limited research in this area and more data are needed to evaluate the risks of gaseous emissions. Some methods used to prevent coal self-heating and spontaneous combustion can be applied to reduce emissions from coal stockpiles.

  15. The Global Value of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal plays an essential role in our global energy mix, particularly for power generation; and through that to the alleviation of energy poverty. The use of coal continues to grow rapidly and will continue, together with other fuels, to support world economic and social development particularly in rapidly developing world economies such as China and India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for policy makers the value of coal to world economic and social development and so encourage development of a policy environment that will allow the coal and electricity industries to make the necessary investments in production capacity and CO2 emissions reduction technologies.

  16. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.-H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Venkatadri, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Perez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The progress achieved in leading to effective surface control for selective agglomeration processes was summarized. Several analytical techniques developed in Task 3 were utilized during this quarter to characterize coal samples obtained from agglomeration tests. Surface and near surface (1 {mu}m depth) functional groups were analyzed using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy. Surface composition analyses were conducted using Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer. The results of these analysis are being used to relate the agglomeration results with surface modifications to the properties of coal samples. The development of a method a for direct determination of pyrite using X-ray diffraction was continued. The sample preparation technique was improved in order to increase the reproducibility of the analysis. The contact angle of n-heptane droplets on coal pellets immersed in water were measured. The results of these measurements suggest that high shear mixing is necessary for wetting coal surfaces with n-heptane. Agglomeration tests using n-heptane as agglomerant were carried out this quarter. For Pittsburgh {number sign}8 coal, better performance was obtained using n-heptane than using n-pentane. For Upper Freeport coal, however, lower pyritic sulfur rejection was obtained with n-heptane. A n-heptane to coal ratio between 1.25 and 1.5 was found to produce the best performance results for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. A study of the effect of agglomeration time on the agglomeration process performance for Illinois {number sign}6 coal using n-pentane and n-heptane as agglomerants indicates that no significant gains in performance are possible using agglomeration times longer than 60 seconds. The addition of tall oil as a binding agent after the high shear agglomeration step resulted in a large increase in overall coal yield and energy recovery for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Burnout in Chinese coal mine safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines commonly-suffered job burnout as it relates to the practice of safety supervision in Chinese coal mine enterprises. Commonly-suffered job burnout is a form of job burnout caused by external factors. It is closely related to task characteristics rather than individual idiosyncrasies. To explore the causes of commonly-suffered job burnout, the special attributes (the integrated output attributes, conditional output attributes, and public goods attributes) of coal mine safety output and the inevitability of the invalidation of the bounded authority in safety supervision were analyzed in this study, which reveals the formation mechanism of commonly-suffered job burnout. Moreover, a confirmatory game model was constructed to analyze how the attributes of the safety output and bounded authority of safety supervision act on the safety output. The theoretical connotation of commonly-suffered job burnout was explained based on the job demands-resources theory. A comparative analysis of commonly-suffered job burnout and the job burnout that occurs in the traditional research object was also undertaken from the viewpoint of the job demands, which are determined by the characteristics of the work task and their corresponding coping resources. Policy suggestions were given based on interventions in commonly-suffered job burnout. -- Highlights: •We discuss commonly-suffered job burnout in Chinese coal enterprises. •We analyze the special attributes of coal mine safety output. •We explore two main causes of commonly-suffered job burnout. •We construct a game model to validate how the two causes act on safety output. •We put forward related policy suggestions

  18. The Australian black coal industry: productivity commission inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    February 1999 saw the release of the final report of the Productivity Commission's inquiry into the Australian black coal industry. The report is a comprehensive examination of the state of play of the Australian coal industry, drawing from the Commission's own research, submissions from a range of stakeholders and the results of a benchmarking study which compared Australia's performance with world's best practice. Essentially, the report finds that recent reforms have improved productivity and some parts of the industry now perform very well. However, the report finds that further changes to federal industry awards and state legislation and regulation could significantly improve the performance of the industry overall

  19. 30 CFR 785.13 - Experimental practices mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental practices mining. 785.13 Section 785.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS...

  20. Moving towards a "COAL-PEC"?

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Haftendorn; Christian von Hirschhausen; Franziska Holz

    2008-01-01

    Coal has for many years been considered as a resource of the past and as a result its importance has been underestimated. Yet coal still is the main pillar for generating electricity in most countries: A quarter of the worldwide primary energy consumption is provided by coal. While the world's largest coal producers, China, the USA and India, are at the same time the largest consumers of coal. Smaller producers and consumers of coal engage extensively in international trade. In particular the...

  1. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  2. Coal mining induced land subsidence monitoring using multiband spaceborne differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Huanyin; Liu, Guang; Guo, Huadong; Li, Xinwu; Kang, Zhizhong; Wang, Runfeng; Zhong, Xuelian

    2011-01-01

    The differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR)(DInSAR) technique has been applied to the earth surface deformation monitoring in many areas. In this paper, the DInSAR technique is used to process the spaceborne SAR data including C band ENVISAT ASAR, L band JERS SAR, and ALOS PALSAR data to derive the temporal land subsidence information in the Fengfeng coal mine area, Hebei province in China. Since JERS and ALOS do not have precise orbit, an orbit adjustment must be accomplished before the DInSAR interferogram was formed. Twenty-three differential interferograms are derived to show the temporal change of the land subsidence range and position. At the acquisition time of ENVISAT ASAR, the leveling in the Dashucun coal mine in Fengfeng area was carried, the historical excavation data in 8 coal mines in Fengfeng area from 1992 to 2007 were collected as well. In our analysis, the DInSAR results are compared with leveling data and historical excavation data. The comparison results show the DInSAR subsidence results are consistent with the leveling results and the historical excavation data, and the L band DInSAR shows more advantages than C band in the coal mining induced subsidence monitoring in a rural area. The feasibility and limitations in coal mining induced subsidence monitoring with DInSAR are analyzed, and the possibility of underground mining activity monitoring by spaceborne InSAR data is evaluated. The experimental results show that both C and L band can accomplish monitoring mining area subsidence, but C band has more restricted conditions of its perpendicular baseline. In order to get a satisfactory outcome in mining area subsidence by the DInSAR method, the time series of SAR images of every visit and SAR deformation interferograms should be archived.

  3. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after adjacent panels have fully been caved is the infinite plane. On the basis of this model, an equation was derived to calculate the roof failure height of the panel. Considering the geological conditions of No. 9 and No. 12 coal seams of Zhaogezhuang Coal Mine, economic effectiveness, and proposed techniques, we concluded that the top layer (4 m of the No. 12 coal seam should be mined first. The top layer of the No. 9 coal seam should be subsequently mined. The topcaving technique was applied to the exploitation of the lower layer of the No. 12 coal seam. Practically monitored data revealed that the deformation and failure of the No. 2699 panel roadway was small and controllable, the amount of gas emission was reduced significantly, and the effect of upward mining was active. The results of this study provide theory basics for mine designing, and it is the provision of a reference for safe and efficient coal exploitation under similar conditions.

  4. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshi Li; Yiwen Ju; Quanlin Hou; Zhuo Li; Mingming Wei; Junjia Fan

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores ( 4 m2/g, with pore sizes

  5. Carbonization and demineralization of coals: A study by means of FT–IR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Gómez-Serrano; M C Fernández-González; M L Rojas-Cervantes; M F Alexandre-Franco; A Macías-García

    2003-12-01

    Coal basically consists of two parts-a crystalline, inorganic part, and an amorphous, organic part. Based on this, we intended to study the changes that occurred on the composition and on the chemical structure of coals after carbonization at 1000 or 900°C and demineralization treatments with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. For this, four coals of different categories (or levels) were chosen: semianthracite (A–O) and high volatile bituminous coal (B–O), which are high level coals, and lignite (Li–O) and leonardite (Le–O), these being low level coals. The coals were first analysed in terms of their proximate and elemental compositions and then carbonized and demineralized. Also, the starting coals and the prepared samples were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In addition, a study of the optimization of the application of this technique for only A–O was carried out. For A–O and B–O, the spectra recorded intense absorption bands that are ascribable to vibration modes in mineral components as quartz and aluminosilicates, such as kaolinite. For Li–O and Le–O, the spectra displayed some other bands as well, also quite intense, which have been assigned to bond vibrations in functional groups and structures of their organic part. The carbonization of the coals resulted in significant changes in their inorganic part as the content of quartz increased and the content of aluminosilicates decreased. In addition, the thermal decomposition of mineral carbonates occurred. The carbonization greatly affects the organic part of the coals, especially in Li–O and Le–O, as most functional groups and structures are not thermally stable under heating conditions. With regard to demineralization, HF is a more effective agent than HCl, achieving products with higher organic content. The mass losses are higher in Li–O and Le–O than in A–O and B–O. So, the infrared spectroscopy allows the analysis of both inorganic and organic parts of the coals and of

  6. Merit Pila coal basin, Malaysia - geology and coal petrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Osvald, P.

    Bandung : Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2006. s. 16-17. [International Symposium on Lower Rank Coal. 07.09.2006-08.09.2006, Bandung] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : sub-bituminous coal * rank Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  7. Dependences between properties of coals, coal blends, and coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilpern, S. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze, Poland); Kaziszyn, I.; Zarembinska, J.; Postrzednik, S.

    1976-12-01

    Investigations were made on charge coals representative for home conditions with the aim of determining the degree of additivity for selected assessment indices of raw material quality. A functional dependence was found between strength indices of coke and those characterizing the coal blend on changing the correlation coefficient r/sup 2/ from 0.70 to 0.48.

  8. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow reflectance using hyperspectral analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Singh; A V Kulkarni; B S Chaudhary

    2011-04-01

    Snow is a highly reflecting object found naturally on the Earth and its albedo is highly influenced by the amount and type of contamination. In the present study, two major types of contaminants (soil and coal) have been used to understand their effects on snow reflectance in the Himalayan region. These contaminants were used in two categories quantitatively – addition in large quantity and addition in small quantity. Snow reflectance data were collected between 350 and 2500 nm spectral ranges and binned at 10 nm interval by averaging. The experiment was designed to gather the field information in controlled conditions, and radiometric observations were collected. First derivative, band absorption depth, asymmetry, percentage change in reflectance and albedo in optical region were selected to identify and discriminate the type of contamination. Band absorption depth has shown a subtle increasing pattern for soil contamination, however, it was significant for small amounts of coal contamination. The absorption peak asymmetry was not significant for soil contamination but showed a nature towards left asymmetry for coal. The width of absorption feature at 1025 nm was not significant for both the contaminations. The percentage change in reflectance was quite high for small amount of coal contamination rather than soil contamination, however, a shift of peak was observed in soil-contaminated snow which was not present in coal contamination. The albedo drops exponentially for coal contamination rather than soil contamination.

  9. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ray Surveillance Program (CWXSP) Frequently Asked Questions Coal Miner Health Surveillance Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases CWHSP Data Query System CWHSP Public Data Digital Imaging Activity ...

  10. Abnormal Modulation of Dielectric Band Transmittance of Polystyrene Opal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-Yong; GONG Qi-Huang; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The abnormal transmittance in the dielectric band edge of a polystyrene opal is observed and analysed. The transmittance is periodically modulated and the period of modulation varies with the wavelength, which destroys the perfect structure of the photonic band gap. The transmittance modulation originates from the propagation of the low order whispering-gallery mode excited in polystyrene spheres. These results indicate that the whisperinggallery mode has a great influence on practical applications of polystyrene opal.

  11. Mechanical and electrical properties of mined coal filled polyethylene and polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present paper is to present results of basic mechanical properties research of high-density polyethylene and polyamide 6 filled with two kinds of mined coal particles. Because composites with carbon are expected to poses low electric resistance also surface resistivity was measured.Design/methodology/approach: Dependences of tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, ball hardness and surface resistivity on volume content of mined coal in polymeric matrix are measured and discussed.Findings: Introduction of mined coal fine particles to polyethylene did not cause significant changes in tensile strength, while the same property of polyamide composites decreased significantly. Brinell ball hardness of all polyethylene and polyamide composites increased almost proportionally to coal content. Pronounced lowering of deformability (elongation at break with increasing coal content was observed for all formulations. Also impact strength significantly decreased after mined coal filling. Significant lowering of surface resistivity was noticed especially for coal-polyamide composites.Research limitations/implications: Obtained results showed that mined coal fine particles can be applied as a filler of thermoplastic polymers but poor adhesion between polymer matrix and filler particles was achieved. Additional research on mined coal fine particles modification by coupling agents is needed to develop better adhesion.Practical implications: Obtained results showed that mined coal fine particles can be applied as a filler of thermoplastic polymers but poor adhesion between polymer matrix and filler particles was achieved. Additional research on mined coal fine particles modification by coupling agents is needed to develop better adhesion.Originality/value: Polymer composites with carbon as a modifier has been used for many years but there have been only a few experiments on introducing fine particles of mined coal into

  12. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  13. Evaluating the risk of coal bursts in underground coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Christopher⇑; Gauna Michael

    2016-01-01

    Coal bursts involve the sudden, violent ejection of coal or rock into the mine workings. They are almost always accompanied by a loud noise, like an explosion, and ground vibration. Bursts are a particular haz-ard for miners because they typically occur without warning. Despite decades of research, the sources and mechanics of these events are not well understood, and therefore they are difficult to predict and control. Experience has shown, however, that certain geologic and mining factors are associated with an increased likelihood of a coal burst. A coal burst risk assessment consists of evaluating the degree to which these risk factors are present, and then identifying appropriate control measures to mitigate the hazard. This paper summarizes the U.S. and international experience with coal bursts, and describes the known risk factors in detail. It includes a framework that can be used to guide the risk assessment process.

  14. Reactivity of coal fractions as a probe of coal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown coal has been fractionated by two different methods. Firstly, extraction of the coal with decalin at 320 deg C to separate loosely bound guest material from the macromolecular matrix and secondly, the extraction with 1% caustic soda at 80 deg C to separate humic acid from the insoluble residue of the coal (humin). The various fractions have been reacted under CO and H2 in the presence of promoters previously used in coal liquefaction experiments. The products have been analyzed by a range of techniques, principally proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gas cromatography-mass spectrometry and the results used to gain further insight into brown coal structure. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Future coal supply for the world energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, M. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The conference covered aspects of coal resources, exploration and mine planning; mining technology, hydraulic mining, and underground coal gasification; coal transport; evaluation of coal deposits; use of models in developing fuel and energy systems; short-term future of coal, future coal supply and demand; coal conversion; coal and atmosphere CO2; analytical approaches to coal-related systems, coal data systems. The papers have been abstracted separately.

  16. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P.

    2009-06-15

    Indonesia has become the largest exporter of steam coal in the world, but the long-term future of coal exports is being brought into question as domestic demand is projected to grow by a significant amount, from 40-50 Mt/y in 2007 to more than 100 Mt/y by 2013, and even higher beyond 2013. Exports reached 200-210 Mt in 2008, and is set to rise in the future. Import volumes are negligible, while indigenous production was estimated to be around 240-260 Mt in 2008. Illegal mining is being addressed and in the past could have accounted for at least 20 Mt/y of production, but obtaining reliable export and production figures as a result is therefore not straight forward. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. This fact coupled with robust GDP growth means there is more pressure on the state-controlled electricity industry to invest and build an adequate infrastructure to meet the rising demand for power. Part of this investment is being driven by government policy to build 10 GWe of coal-fired power by 2010 and a second tranche by 2013. However, the investment programme, commonly known as the 'crash programme' is more likely to be delayed by 2-3 years. Nevertheless, the likely 20-30 Mt/y or so of additional coal demand from the first tranche alone will put pressure on domestic coal producers to meet expanding demand both at home and abroad for low rank and exportable bituminous coals. This report covers four main topics, the Indonesian coal industry, the power generating sector and its use of clean coal technology, changes in coal demand and its impact on international trade, and finally a brief look at upgrading low rank coals within the country. 80 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Estimating coal reserves using a support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-kai; WANG Rui-fang; ZHENG Xiao-juan

    2008-01-01

    The basic principles of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) are introduced in this paper. A specific process to establish an SVM prediction model is given. To improve the precision of coal reserve estimation, a support vector machine method, based on statistical learning theory, is put forward. The SVM model was trained and tested by using the existing exploration and exploitation data of Chencun mine of Yima bureau's as the input data. Then coal reserves within a particular region were calculated. These cal-culated results and the actual results of the exploration block were compared. The maximum relative error was 10.85%, within the scope of acceptable error limits. The results show that the SVM coal reserve calculation method is reliable. This method is simple, practical and valuable.

  18. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  19. The revolutionary importance of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Alan Macfarlane discusses the coal revolution, the change from energy harvested from the sun through plants and animals, to the stored carbon energy of millions of years of sunlight. Filmed on a coal heap in Coalbrookdale, where the industrial revolution in England began.

  20. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  1. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  2. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  3. Coal gasification and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, D.; Towler, B.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, with topics chosen to aid the process engineer who is interested in a complete, coal-to-products system. It provides a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes. The first topic describes the nature and availability of coal. Next, the fundamentals of gasification are described, followed by a description of gasification technologies and gas cleaning processes. The conversion of syngas to electricity, fuels and chemicals is then discussed. Finally, process economics are covered. Emphasis is given to the selection of gasification technology based on the type of coal fed to the gasifier and desired end product: E.g., lower temperature gasifiers produce substantial quantities of methane, which is undesirable in an ammonia synthesis feed. This book also reviews gasification kinetics which is informed by recent papers and process design studies by the US Department of Energy and other groups. Approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, providing a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes - Describes the fundamentals of gasification, gasification technologies, and gas cleaning processes - Emphasizes the importance of the coal types fed to the gasifier and desired end products - Covers gasification kinetics.

  4. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  5. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  6. Major Changes in Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In recent years, facing the unprecedented difficulties and challenges such as fuel price increase, supply tension of power coal and increasing pressure of environmental protection, the survival of power enterprises is subjected to certain squeeze. The impact of coal industry on the power industry is increasing.

  7. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  8. ANALISIS KEAKURATAN INDIKATOR BOLLINGER BANDS TERHADAP PERGERAKAN HARGA SAHAM (STUDI KASUS PADA SAHAM PT ASTRA AGRO LESTARI TBK)

    OpenAIRE

    Frankandinata; Yoyo Cahyadi

    2014-01-01

    Technical analysis is an analytical tool to analyze price movement of an investment instrument like stock. Practically, there are a lot of indicators that can be used in technical analysis. One of them is Bolinger Bands. Bolinger Bands has 3 moving averages lines, which are Upper Band, Middle Band, and Lower Band. Study used library research and software review by analyzing the candlestick chart of stock price with ChartNexus software. The stock for this study was Astra Agro Lestari (AALI) an...

  9. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  10. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  11. Synthesis, characterisation, optical and luminescence properties of CoAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state method has been used as an efficient method to synthesize blue pigment CoAl2O4 at a temperature of 800°C. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and luminescent spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of single phase CoAl2O4. Optical properties of CoAl2O4 ceramic shows an energy band gap in the range of 3.10eV. The emission spectra of spinel CoAl2O4 in the visible region confirmed the presence of tetrahedral coordinated Co2+ ions

  12. Synthesis, characterisation, optical and luminescence properties of CoAl2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agilandeswari, K.; Kumar, A. Ruban

    2015-06-01

    Solid state method has been used as an efficient method to synthesize blue pigment CoAl2O4 at a temperature of 800°C. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and luminescent spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of single phase CoAl2O4. Optical properties of CoAl2O4 ceramic shows an energy band gap in the range of 3.10eV. The emission spectra of spinel CoAl2O4 in the visible region confirmed the presence of tetrahedral coordinated Co2+ ions.

  13. Flat Bands Under Correlated Perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Leykam, Daniel; Danieli, Carlo; Yu, Xiaoquan; Flach, Sergej

    2014-01-01

    Flat band networks are characterized by coexistence of dispersive and flat bands. Flat bands (FB) are generated by compact localized eigenstates (CLS) with local network symmetries, based on destructive interference. Correlated disorder and quasiperiodic potentials hybridize CLS without additional renormalization, yet with surprising consequencies: (i) states are expelled from the FB energy $E_{FB}$, (ii) the localization length of eigenstates vanishes as $\\xi \\sim 1 / \\ln (E- E_{FB})$, (iii)...

  14. Cluster banding heat source model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liguo; Ji Shude; Yang Jianguo; Fang Hongyuan; Li Yafan

    2006-01-01

    Concept of cluster banding heat source model is put forward for the problem of overmany increment steps in the process of numerical simulation of large welding structures, and expression of cluster banding heat source model is deduced based on energy conservation law.Because the expression of cluster banding heat source model deduced is suitable for random weld width, quantitative analysis of welding stress field for large welding structures which have regular welds can be made quickly.

  15. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  16. Correlation of electromagnetic radiation emitted from coal or rock to supporting resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Hui-lin; WANG En-yuan; SONG Xiao-yan; ZHANG Hong-jie; LI Zhong-hui

    2009-01-01

    More accurate forecasting of rock burst might be possible from observations of electromagnetic radiation emitted in the mine. We analyzed experimental observations and field data from the Muchengjian coal mine to study the relationship between electromagnetic radiation signal intensity and stress during the fracturing of coal, or rock, and samples under load. The results show that the signal intensity is positively correlated with stress. In addition, we investigated the change in the electromagnetic radiation intensity, the supporting resistance in a real coal mine environment, and the coal or rock stress in the mining area. The data analysis indicates that: 1) electromagnetic radiation intensity can accurately reflect the distribution of stress in the mining area; and, 2) there is a correlation between electromagnetic radiation intensity and supporting resistance. The research has some practical guiding significance for rock burst forecasting and for the prevention of accidents in coal mines.

  17. Coal briquetting at the presence of humates as the binding substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Arziev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of coal briquetting at the presence of humates derived from coal at the stage of its chemical preparation by the extraction method are resulted in the paper. The conditions of briquetting and strength characteristics of the received briquettes are optimized. It is demonstrated that briquettes with the durability reaching 3 MPa can be derived from a coal fines using sodium, ammonium and silicate humates as binding substance. Water solutions of ammonium, sodium and silicate humates with concentration from 0,1-2% can be recommended for practical purposes. It is recommended to expose coal briquettes on a basis of ammonium humate to the thermal treatment at temperature 200°C as necessary of long storage (more than a year. The technological scheme of briquetting and the working project of creation of briquette factory with productivity of 40 000 tons of coal per year are developed.

  18. The concept, structure and characteristics of the distributed virtual coal-mine geographical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; LIU Yan-long; TIAN Mao-yi; LU Xiu-shan; SHI Feng-hua

    2007-01-01

    Distributed virtual coal-mine geography environment(CM-DVGE) researches the virtual reality simulation of coal-mine environment in cyberspace and the performance of coal production process. The goal is to deal with the practical safety problems of observation, analysis, design and training during the underground coal production process.This paper first probed into the evolution of CM-DVGE from a historical point of view, then respectively analyzed the characteristics of its physical progressive levels according to the cognitivd law and its logical structure of data on the basis of data flow, and concluded by putting forward the prospect of the application of CM-DVGE, thus enriched and developed the method of synthetic study of coal mine.

  19. Analysis on produce mechanism and influence factor of CO gas on the coal exploitation working face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jun; JIANG Zhi-gang; XIAO Lei

    2008-01-01

    Summarized the four main sources of CO gas on the working face based oninvestigation and local observation: firstly, it analyzed the mechanism that CO gas wasproduced by spontaneous combustion and oxygenation of gob residual coal; next, it illus-trated the theory that special coal seam deposits natural CO gas, and provided correlativeexperiment data; and then, it illustrated the reason of the CO gas in working face in-creased relatively in the course of coal cutter's shearing, according to the translation be-tween mechanism energy and inner energy and the rupture of carbon molecule side chainduring coal exploitation; lastly, illustrated the reason of CO gas appearance and the rela-tively release quantity during coal mine blasting underground. We find out the source ofCO gas on the working face accurately, and provide advantages for appropriate preventionand practical management measures.

  20. Prediction of the burnout behaviour of chars derived from coal-biomass blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Wu; Mei Gong; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Nowadays, biomass has been considered an alternative fuel to coal and is being used in power plants to replace part of coal used. This study is to investigate the potential of burning biomass with coal and its impacts on burnout levels. Daw Mill coal was selected for burnout modelling together with three biomasses, Cereal, PKE and Olive Cake. Chars were prepared (75-106 micron) and characterised using image analysis methods as in input data into the char burnout model (ChB) which was adapted to allow the prediction of char burnout of biomass-coal blends under typical pf combustion conditions. The burnout performance of four blend compositions for each biomass were modelled (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). In practice, the low heating-value of biomass produces a lower flame temperature which can lead to lower levels of char burn-out. The effect is closely linked with the type of biomass used. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The fuzzy control of fully-mechanized coal face production capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fully-mechanized coal face system is thought of as a fuzzy controller, the various factors that have effect on the controller are found and analysis has been made as to how they effect the fully-mechanized coal face's production capacity. Based on the above analysis, this paper establishes a series of data analysis models describing the quantitative characteristics of the fully-mechanized coal face production system. With this series of data models, the 90 fully-mechanized coal faces are processed and then the fuzzy control forecasting model of the fully-mechanized coal faces production capacity is established. This model is accurate and reliable and has achieved good results in practical application

  2. Hard coal modified with silanes as polyamide filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper shows the influence of coupling agents, especially silanes, on mechanical properties of polyamide 6 filled with hard coal dust.Design/methodology/approach: Before preparing compositions, pulverised filler surface was modified with coupling agents. Then, it was compounded using a twin-screw extruder composite consisting of modified hard coal and polyamide 6. A blend was granulated later and test samples were subjected to injection moulding. Afterwards, mechanical properties were evaluated. These properties have essential meaning for applications of new composites as structural materials.Findings: Tests demonstrated that modification of powdered hard coal surface with coupling agents had not significant effect on mechanical properties of polyamide/hard coal composites.Research limitations/implications: Applied compounding procedure did not allow to achieve good compositions homogenisation. A new method to be applied is planned in future research. Simultaneously, it is necessary to investigate composites with other coupling agents which will improve filler’s adhesion to a polymer. Long-term test are also planned.Practical implications: Hard coal, cheap and widely available filler, used to modify thermoplastic polymers, enable to obtain new materials with attractive properties and many applications.Originality/value: Paper represents innovative polymer filler and methods to modify it.

  3. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  4. Comparative emissions from Pakistani coals and traditional coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Y.X. [Guangzhou Medical College (China). Dept. of Hygiene; Huang, L.F. [Guangzhou Health and Anti-epidemic Station (China)

    1993-12-31

    Briquette coal has been widely used for domestic cooking and heating in many Chinese cites over the last two decades. To determine whether burning briquette coal contributes significantly to indoor air pollution, a study was performed in cities-of Southern China in which the measured levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, TSP, SD, B(a)P in the kitchens of coal burning families were compared with levels obtained in families using gas. Significantly higher contentions of these pollutants, whose peaks correlated with daily cooking episodes, were detected in coal burning families. The levels of TSP and B(a)P were further found to be dependent on cooking methods, with deep frying and stir-frying of meat generating the most indoor TSP and B(a)P. Briquette coal burning was found to be the source of B(a)P contamination in food. A higher incidence of chronic pharyngitis as well as a suppressed salivary bacteriolytic enzyme activity were found in children of coal burning families. Epidemiologic and laboratory studies also show a close association between coal burning and the incidence of lung cancer in females. (author)

  5. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  6. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Coal mining in Ramagundam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraberty, S.

    1979-07-01

    The Ramagundam area in the South Godavari Coalfield is one of the most promising coal-bearing belts in India. It contains total coal reserves of about 1,132,000,000 tons in an area of approximately 150 square kilometers, and holds high potential for development into a vast industrial center. During the past four years production has doubled to 3,500,000 tons in 1978 to 1979. By 1983 to 1984, the total output per year is planned to be doubled again. Increased mechanization and the introduction of more advanced mining techniques will help to achieve this goal. In addition to the present face machinery, i.e., gathering arm loaders/shuttle cars and side dump loaders/chain conveyor combinations, the latest Voest-Alpine AM50 tunneling and roadheading machines have been commissioned for development work. Load-haul-dump machines will be introduced in the near future to ensure higher loading/transport capacities. A double-drum shearer loader with self-advancing supports is due to be commissioned shortly for faster, more efficient longwall mining to supplement conventional bord and pillar mining. In addition, a mechanized open cast mine has come on stream, and a walking dragline will soon be delivered to the mine for removing overburden. The projected annual output from this mine will be about 2,000,000 tons. (LTN)

  8. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

  9. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  11. Research on coal structure indices to coal and gas outbursts in Pingdingshan Mine Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭德勇; 宋广太; 库明欣

    2002-01-01

    According to the feature that coal and gas outbursts is controlled by coal structure in Pingdingshan mine area, based on the study of the distribution law of disturbed coal in Mine Area and the macroscopic characteristics of coal structure, the characteristics and genesis to micro-pore of disturbed coal, the relationship between the type of coal structure and gas parameter, and the structural feature of coal at outbursts sites are mainly explored in this paper. Further, the steps and methods are put forward that coal structure indices applied to forecast coal and gas outbursts.

  12. Performance and mechanism on a high durable silica alumina based cementitious material composed of coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan

    Coal refuse and combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. Recycling is one practical solution to utilize this huge amount of solid waste through activation as substitute for ordinary Portland cement. The central goal of this dissertation is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economy benefit for construction and building materials. The results show that thermal activation temperature ranging from 20°C to 950°C significantly increases the workability and pozzolanic property of the coal refuse. The optimal activation condition is between 700°C to 800°C within a period of 30 to 60 minutes. Microanalysis illustrates that the improved pozzolanic reactivity contributes to the generated amorphous materials from parts of inert aluminosilicate minerals by destroying the crystallize structure during the thermal activation. In the coal refuse, kaolinite begins to transfer into metakaol in at 550°C, the chlorite minerals disappear at 750°C, and muscovite 2M1 gradually dehydroxylates to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this research examines the environmental

  13. On the analysis of building a public information platform based on e-Commerce for coal logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeguo Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Putting forward the concept and features of the public information platform for coal logistics based on electronic commerce, as well as the requirements of upper and lower intersections of the coal supply chain. Meanwhile, this paper will also probe into the current condition of statistics management in coal logistics, and then discuss how to build a public information platform based on electronic commerce for coal logistics. Design/methodology/approach: According to the further exploring the concepts and relevant characteristics and the development of coal logistics and supply chain management in China of the current period. Findings/ Practical implications: An advanced public information platform for coal logistics utilizes to best advantage modern information technologies and managerial concepts in the operation of coal logistics, such as e-commerce, e-information, supply chain management, etc. This not only stimulates efficient integration of business flow, information flow, logistics and capital flow of the coal industry, brings about in-depth integration of the logistics resources of the coal industry, but also greatly improves the efficiency of the operation of coal logistics, reduces the cost of coal logistics, and enhances the overall competitiveness of upstream and downstream companies along the coal supply chain. Research limitations/implications: Although the coal logistics public information platform has been applied in some enterprises in China, not yet in a broader range of applications, which need the joint efforts of all parties. Originality/value: Fitted to the e-commerce era, the Public Information Platform for Coal Logistics envisioned in this article is highly feasible and worthy of reference to relevant institutions.

  14. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO2 and to a lessor extent NOx and CO2. Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO2 and/or NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  16. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations

  17. Simultaneous confidence bands in linear regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ah-Kine, Pascal Soon Shien

    2010-01-01

    A simultaneous confidence band provides useful information on the plausible range of an unknown regression model. For a simple linear regression model, the most frequently quoted bands in the statistical literature include the two-segment band, the three-segment band and the hyperbolic band, and for a multiple linear regression model, the most com- mon bands in the statistical literature include the hyperbolic band and the constant width band. The optimality criteria for confid...

  18. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  19. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF-solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented. (2 tables, 5 figs., 17 refs.)

  20. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  4. FLOTATION RATE CONSTANT MODEL FOR FINE COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuMaixi; CaiZhang; TaoYoujun; KuangYali

    1996-01-01

    The density of fine coal has a major effect on the value of its floxation rate constant. The collector dose can increase the flotation rate of fine coal, especially for low ash coal, but the effect for gangue is not notable. The flotation rate of gangue is mainly governed by the water entrainment. A coal flotation rate constant model has been developed.

  5. STUDY ON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CHINESE COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    1998-01-01

    An integrated coal classification system-technical/commercial and scientific/geneticclassification in China is discussed in this paper. This system shall enable producers, sellers andpurchasers to communicate unambiguously with regard to the quality of coal complying with therequirements of the respective application. The determination of perfect coal classification systemis an important measure for rational utilization of coal resources.

  6. Coal supply and transportation model (CSTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coal Supply and Transportation Model (CSTM) forecasts annual coal supply and distribution to domestic and foreign markets. The model describes US coal production, national and international coal transportation industries. The objective of this work is to provide a technical description of the current version of the model

  7. Mechanism of Electronic Charging of Coal Mine Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xue-Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The electronic charging of mine dust can cause coal-dust explosion and increase the risk of pneumoconiosis, so it is necessary to take more attention to the study of its electronic charging properties. The mechanism of electronic charging of coal mine dust was investigated in this paper. It was found that the formation and polarity of dust are determined by the energy band structure and of the two contacting sides; then a mathematical model of work function is established in mesoscopic level. The experiments conclude that the work function decreases with the particle size for the dust with same properties, moreover large particles are positively charged and small particles are negatively charged. Finally, the experimental verification of the main particles charged model drive unipolar and bipolar charged modes and confirm the correctness of microstructure and mesoscopic analyses, which furthermore lay the foundation for further research.

  8. Coal ash utilisation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal based thermal power stations have been the major source of power generation in our country in the past and would continue for decades to come. In India, thermal generation which contributes about 72% of the overall power generation of 2,45,000 MU (1989-90) is the main source of power and mainly based on coal firing. Total ash generation in India presently is to the tune of 38 million tonnes per annum. India is fourth in the world as far as coal ash generation is concerned. USSR is first, (100 million tonnes), then come USA (45 million tonnes) and China (41 million tonnes). The basic problem of thermal power station fired with high ash content coal is the generation of huge quantity of coal ash which would pose serious environmental and other related problems. The present paper analyses the extensive scope of utilisation of coal ash and enlightens the strategies to be adopted to overcome the related problems for proper utilisation of coal ash. (author). 9 tabs

  9. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  10. Coal handling equipment and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds-Ely, L.

    2008-02-15

    A series of short articles highlights developments in the coal handling sector. These include contracts awarded to Sanvik Mining and Construction to supply equipment to ports in Greater Vancouver, Canada, Bulgaria, the UK and Australia. At the Profen mine near Leipzig, Germany, hydraulic excavators and a fleet of 12 Volvo A35D articulated haulers were employed and operated as a 'mobile coal team' by MIBRAG to recover lignite that would otherwise have been lost. Two floating terminals have recently been set up by the E-Crane - one on Venezuela and the other in the Congo. Inspectorate International has increased its inspection activities in the coal sector in Europe and Asia. Westmar Consultants increased capacity at Westshore Terminals LP (WTLP) coal exporting terminal in Roberts Bank, BC, Canada. Scantech International Pty specialises a real time analysis of minerals and coal on conveyors. Big Lift Trucks supplies stackers and open belt feeders for the coal mining industry. Takraf has supplied coal handling equipment to the new Wanino export harbor on Russia's east coast. Other developments are mentioned by Horizon Conveyor Equipment Ltd., Phoenix Yale Ltd., Martin Engineering, SGS and Bedeschi. 15 photos.

  11. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  12. Bearing characteristics of coal pillars based on modified limit equilibrium theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangyu a; Bai Jianbiao; Wang Ruofan; Sheng Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    There are two states for the coal-mass on the goaf-side which is in stress equilibrium:the state of limit equilibrium (the bearing stress in the coal-mass equals its ultimate bearing stress) and the state of non-ultimate equilibrium (the bearing stress in the coal-mass is less than its ultimate bearing stress). To ana-lyze the bearing characteristics of a coal pillar in the state of limit equilibrium and guide the design of pillar width, we established a mechanical analytical model of the non-ultimate equilibrium zone in the coal-mass on the goaf-side combined with the limit equilibrium theory as well as adopting the methods of theory analysis and mechanical analysis based on the assumption of a state of non-ultimate equilibrium. The width correction coefficient of the limit equilibrium zone has been given. The influence of mining depth, stress concentration coefficient of the surrounding rock, the non-limit strength of the coal-mass and stability of the coal rock interface has been studied. On this basis, we have confirmed that when the width of a longwall mining face roadway protection coal pillar is between 11.6 m and 13.16 m in No. 4 coal seam of Xinrui coal mine in Lvliang in Shanxi province the elastic core region in the coal pillar can be assured and the roadway will be located in the area of lower stress which is outside the peak stress. So the revised width of the limit equilibrium zone is more practical.

  13. A new model of coal-water interaction and relevance for dewatering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suuberg, E.M.; Yun, Y.; Lilly, W.D.; Leung, K.; Gates, T.; Otake, Y.; Deevi, S.C.

    1995-02-01

    This project was concerned with developing an improved understanding of how moisture is held in coals. There is a concern that the historically held view, that capillary condensation in pores plays a significant role, could not be correct, since the coal shrinks and swells in response to moisture loss and gain. Thus there is no well-defined pore system for holding the moisture. This appears true for a range of ranks from lignite to high volatile bituminous coal. Instead, it appears that something more like classical swelling of coals in solvents is responsible. This study examined this hypothesis by various means, considering both the mixing thermodynamics of coal and water (or coal and other swelling solvents) and by examining coal`s elastic response. The conclusion is that water does indeed behave like many other swelling solvents, but is a somewhat poor swelling solvent. The structure of the water swollen coal appears to remain fairly glassy, implying that many non-covalent crosslinks remain unbroken. The water interacts with coal only at certain types of adsorption sites. This is consistent with a second historical view that polar functionality is responsible for water retention. The filling of these sites, somewhat surprisingly, appeared to involve a strong enthalpic driving force, rather than the entropic driving force that characterizes solvent swelling in other solvents. The practical importance of these results for thermal dewatering processes is that the historical view is supported. That is, that pyrolytic polar group removal is necessary. An alternative suggestion, based upon attempts to further crosslink coal, has not received support.

  14. The coal cleat system:A new approach to its study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F. Rodrigues; C.Laiginhas; M. Fernandes; M.J. Lemos de Sousa; M.A.P.Dinis

    2014-01-01

    After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM) commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1) how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2) how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS), able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for under-standing what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  15. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  16. Preliminary study on regulatory limits of coal mines associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, limits of radon concentration and gamma radiation dose rate of coal mines associated with radionuclide in Xinjiang were studied to provide theoretical bases in developing scientific and practical regulatory standards of radiation protection for coal mines associated with radionuclides. It is meaningful in strengthening the supervision to coal mines associated with radionuclides, boosting their development of exploitation and utilization, as well as the protection to the health of worker and public and the environment. It may also provide references in defining the limits of regulatory standards for NORMs associated mining and processing of ore resources. (authors)

  17. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration

  18. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  19. Status of NO sub x control for coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of technologies for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired power plants is reviewed. A discussion of current technology as well as future NOx control approaches is presented. Advanced combustion approaches are included as well as post-combustion alternatives such as catalytic and noncatalytic ammonia-bases systems and wet scrubbing. Special emphasis is given to unresolved development issues as they relate to practical applications on coal-fired power plants.

  20. Analysis on Underground Coal Mining Subsidence Using Small Baseline InSAR in Yunjialing Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dapeng; Yang, Jin; Zeng, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    66.6 percent of China's energy production come from underground coal mining (fig. 1.) Hundreds of mining cities were affected by mining subsidence. Long-term underground mining activities ,which results in large areas of mined areas, are threatening the local ecological environment and people property.Coal mining development has become a major factor of restricting local economic and threatening the safety of future mine production. The research on mining subsidence takes a important practical significance.

  1. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Chinchilla, Leticia; Gónzalez, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A.

    2014-01-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, w...

  2. Maximum Economic Recovery of Federal Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, William D; Richard Bernknopf

    1984-01-01

    The federal coal leasing program recently established by the Department of the Interior (DOI) (Federal Register, July 19, 1979) includes a requirement that operators mining federal coal achieve "maximum economic recovery" (MER) of coal from federal leases. The MER requirement, the focus of this paper, has its legislative origins in the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1976 which directs that "the Secretary (of Interior) shall evaluate and compare the effects of recovering coal by deep m...

  3. Basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-ren; SUN Yan-qiu; ZHAO Qing-fu; DENG Cun-bao; DENG Han-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Discussed latest research results of basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion in detail, with quantum chemical theory and method and experiment systematically studied chemical structure of coal molecule, adsorption mechanism of coal surface to oxygen molecule and chemical reaction mechanism and process of spontaneous combustion of organic macromolecule and low molecular weight compound in coal from microcosmic view, and established complete theoretical system of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion.

  4. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  5. Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  7. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1989-12-14

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds., In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  8. Loading coal down under

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, B. [Kanawha Scales and Systems, Poca, WV (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The two major coal producing states in Australia are New South Wales and Queensland. Most of the mines are located on loops off the main rail arteries. So, scheduling of rail movements of empty cars from the port to the mines and the return movement of the loaded cars to the ports is quite a juggling act. The situation is further complicated by the need to increase loading capacity of the port facilities to facilitate a quick turn around of ships arriving off the ports for loading. Most of the mines are within 80-110 miles of the port facilities. The train schedules are for the most part driven by the ship schedules. (orig.)

  9. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the CT manifestations of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) and to evaluate the contribution of CT compared with chest radiography in estimating disease severity. A total of 170 chest CT scans were obtained in two groups of miners with (n = 86) or without (n = 84) compensation for CWP concomitantly evaluated by conventional posteroanterior and lateral radiography. The CT signs (micronodules, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, emphysema, honeycomb pattern, and lymph nodes) were derived from the International Pathologic Classification of CWP and were prospectively evaluated with standard and high- resolution CT. The CT scans were compared with the International Labour Office (ILO) 1980 classification grading system of the chest radiographs with an adaptation of the ILO classification

  10. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  11. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  12. Inorganic Matter in Coal Particles of Coal Waste Piles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Fojtíková, M.; Matějka, V.; Kolomazník, I.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Trejtnarová, Hana; Martinec, Petr; Šulc, Alexandr

    Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 2010, s. 404-405. ISBN 978-3-86012-397-3. [Second International Conference on Coal Fire Research ICCFR2. Berlin (DE), 19.05.2010-21.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal waste s * inorganic matter * phase analysis Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  13. Integrating coal cleaning with pulverized coal and fluidized bed boilers to meet the Clean Air Act Amendment and for new plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrating coal cleaning into a two boiler, pulverized coal-fired/fluidized bed (PC/FBC) power plant can reduce emissions at low cost for both retrofit projects and new power plants. The technology, because it relies on proven equipment and practices, albeit in a novel context, is low risk and near term. Its low cost makes it particularly suitable to retrofit many of the older coal- fired power plants in the US, and also for retrofitting power plants in the less affluent Eastern European and Asian countries that rely on coal for power generation and need to reduce emission but cannot afford scrubbers. In retrofit applications the technology involves a simple coal cleaning plant and the addition of a small fluidized bed boiler with its steam circuitry integrated into the plant's steam cycle. The clean coal stream will be fired in the existing boiler while the fluidized bed will use the low grade (waste) stream from the coal cleaning plant. This paper reports that this approach is particularly applicable to the many power plants along the Ohio River

  14. National Coal Utilization Assessment. An integrated assessment of increased coal use in the Midwest: impacts and constraints. [14 states Midwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This study examines the impacts and constraints to increased coal production and use for a 14-state Midwestern region. The assessment considers technology characteristics, energy supply and demand trends, siting constraints, impacts on water availability and coal reserves, impacts on air and water quality, and ecosystems, effects of trace elements, social and economic impacts, and health risks. The significant air quality constraints to coal use are related to the short-term National Ambient Air Quality Standards, PSD standards, and exposure to sulfates. In general, cumulative water supply in the 14-state region is adequate to satisfy foreseeable energy requirements; however, on a localized basis significant water shortages may develop which could constrain a smaller portion of the energy development. Water quality impacts are primarily restricted to areas with insufficient water resources. Coal mining will continue to have significant effects on water quality in smaller streams draining the major coal regions unless strict control practices are maintained. Coal-conversion plants may cause localized water quality problems; however, the effluent characteristics of these plants are not well-known. A significant amount of the coal development is anticipated to occur in counties with high susceptibility to social and economic impacts. The timing, magnitude, and nature of these impacts could be mitigated by the development of effective management strategies.

  15. Marketing practices and attitudes of unsigned bands in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kämäräinen, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the digital media, social media and streaming platforms, the music business has undergone a drastic change in both how people consume music and how artists and labels operate on a daily basis. The industry has shifted from record selling to event production, and the competition between the artists for available performances is tougher than ever. The digital media platforms offer a great array of tools for artists to reach their audiences globally, and yet many of the artists do...

  16. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  17. Experimental study on the variation law of coal temperature during excavation in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Shan PAN; Lian-Man XU; Zhong-Hua LI; Guo-Zhen LI

    2013-01-01

    By testing the temperature of the coal and the stress of the working surface,we got the variation law of coal temperature and coal stress during the excavation.The result shows that the activities of mining affect the coal temperature,the fluctuation of coal temperature and the coal stress is synchronous.During the smooth change of crustal stress,the coal temperature basically keeps unchanged,when the dynamic phenomenon appears,the coal temperature changes,as well the coal stress.Therefore,we can use the online coal temperature monitoring system to test the coal temperature of the working surface continuously,and it can provide basic information for forecasting coal mine power disaster before it happens.

  18. A strategy for rock/coal outburst prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.H. Steve Zou; CHENG Jiu-long

    2007-01-01

    The current practice of rock/coal outburst monitoring, prevention and control was reviewed. The uncertainty of major factors contributing to the occurrence of such hazards and the complexicity of mining conditions surrounding the occurrence were analyzed. A strategic concept for rock/coal outburst prevention was introduced. The objective is to identify the bursting potential in an area, rather than predicting the bursting, by introducing a multi- dimension index model: potential-of-bursting (POB), taking into consideration major contributing factors. In application, once the index has passed certain critical level indicating high risk, actions must be taken to reduce the bursting potential and to effectively prevent the hazard from occurring. A conceptual 2D model involving stress and methane pressure was described to demonstrate the methodology for determining the POB. However in practice, a POB model has to be established through experiments, field monitoring and calibration against case studies. To achieve this objective, coordinated research and international collaboration will be needed.

  19. The Trend of Coal Exports and Imports by China and Its Influence on Asian coal Markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuo Sagawa; Koichi Koizumi

    2008-01-01

    China exported over 90 million tons of coal in 2001 to play an important role as supplier of coal to Asian coal markets, especially the East Asian region. However, China's coal exports have decreased every year since 2004, whereas its imports have risen, reflecting a tightening of its domestic supply and demand due to a sharp increase in domestic consumption since 2003. This decrease in export and increase in import remarkably influenced the supply and demand of coal in the Asian coal markets...

  20. Band structure of 79Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-spin states of 79Br have been studied in the reaction 76Ge(7Li, 4nγ) at 32 MeV. A gamma-detector array with twelve Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used. The positive-parity yrast states, interpreted as a rotationally aligned g(9(2)) proton band, and the negative-parity ground state band have been extended to spins of (33(2+)) and (25(2-)), respectively. Lifetime measurements indicate that both bands have a similar quadrupole deformation of β2 ∼ 0.2. The positive-parity α = -(1(2)) band has been identified. Several new inter-band transitions are observed. A cranked-shell model analysis shows that the νg(9(2)) and πg(9(2)) alignments occur in the positive-parity and the negative-parity bands at rotational frequencies of ℎω ∼ 0.6 and 0.4 MeV, respectively. The level energies and the electromagnetic properties of the g(9(2)) band can be well reproduced by a particle-rotor model calculation with an axially symmetric core

  1. Recent developments in coal petrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 a major programme of coal exploration was initiated by Shell Companies operating in various parts of the world. While it was recognized that Coal Petrophysics was still a fairly new and inexact science, a policy decision was made at the outset to log every bore hole. Requirements are given for a suitable package of wireline instrumentation. Qualitative and quantitative use and interpretation of the logs are discussed. These include control on coring, correlation, determination of ash content, calorific value, rank, and identification of and characterising of overburden lithologies for mining engineering purposes. An integrated computer system is described to handle coal core analysis and petrophysical evaluation. This is based on a data bank of coal core measurements 'COGEO', on an interpretation system 'COPLA' and a data bank of interpreted values 'COPET'. A number of application subroutines generate Pseudo-Washability curves and vertical selection for mining feasibility studies

  2. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  3. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  4. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  5. Trends in coal terminal design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Discussion is presented of environmental protection and economices of scale at coal ports at Kembla (Australia) St John's River (Florida), Kooragang Island (Australia), Pecket and Tocopilla (Chile) and Corpus Christi (Texas). 4 figs.

  6. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  7. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.;

    2012-01-01

    In 1908, members of the “Danmark Expedition” discovered a coal deposit in a very remote area in western Germania Land, close to the margin of the inland ice in northeast Greenland. The deposit was, however, neither sampled nor described, and was revisited in 2009 for the first time since its...... discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  8. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  9. U.S. Coal Fields

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  10. Spontaneous combustion in coal massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous combustion of coal seams is one of the main causes of economic and human losses associated to the operation of the mines at the Amaga basin. Several factors intervening in the spontaneous combustion of coal are analysed in this article, namely: The physico-chemical processes. The specific circumstances of the exploitations. The generation and composition of fire gasses. The explosive power of the gases. The susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion is determined by thermo gravimetric and petrographic analysis. The results of this study show that in the Amaga basin, the mining and geological parameters have a more influential function in the spontaneous combustion process than the intrinsic properties of coal

  11. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY COAL MASS STRUCTURE AND LITHOTYPE OF COAL IN MULTI-COAL SEAM MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基文; 赵志根; 陈资平

    1999-01-01

    Through site observation and indoor measurements in XieJiaji No.2 Coal Mine in Huainen and Luling Coal Mine in Huaibei, it is discovered that the fragmentation degree are different in different coal seams in same mining district and even in sublevels of the same coal seam, the coal mass structures exist much difference. By analyzing the relationship between the constitution of coal matters and the epigenesis breakage of coal. This paper points out that the internal factor which causes the diversity of the coal mass structure comes from the diversity in the contents of telocollinite and desmocollinite in the vitrinite. The contenet of desmocollinite is higher than that of telocollinite in intact coal seam (sublevel) but the former is less than the later in breaking sublevel, the diversity of constituent content more affects the epigenetic fragmentation degree of coal seam. The content of desrnocollinite proves lower than that of telocollinite in the broken coal seam. The new understanding has directing, and reference for the study of coal petrology, coal mine gas geology and coal methane.

  12. Enhancing the clinical leadership of band 6 staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kathleen; Carlin, Anne

    2014-11-18

    This is the third article in a series of seven articles on an initiative in NHS Lanarkshire. Visible clinical leaders can have a significant effect on patient care and standards of practice. Over the past decade the development of clinical leadership has focused on senior charge nurses or midwives and team leaders, that is, band 7 practitioners or above. Band 6 staff 'act up' in these roles and therefore need to develop the associated knowledge, skills and attributes for their current practice and future progression into such roles. This article reports on the establishment, implementation and evaluation of a clinical leadership programme developed specifically for band 6 nurses, midwives and allied health professionals at one Scottish NHS board. PMID:25388737

  13. Summary of coal production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains two tables which give data on coal production for both 1990 and 1991. The states included are: Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming. Data on the following are given: number of active mines (total, underground, surface, and auger mines), average number of men working, man hours, total production, number of fatalities, and average value per ton of coal

  14. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  15. Pyrolitics Oils in Coal Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Čáblík, V.; Išek, J.; Herková, M.; Halas, J.; Čáblíková, L.; Vaculíková, L. (Lenka)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was the research of new flotation reagents, which were formed through pyrolysis of different types of waste. Potential new flotation reagents are liquid organic phase pyrolysis of tires, plastic and wooden materials. Another goal is to achieve the coal flotation ash content quality below 10%. The results imply that it is possible to produce flotation collectors from various types of waste, which may be applicabe in black coal flotation. Producing and application of a s...

  16. The Global Value of Coal

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2012-01-01

    Public opinion related to the consumption of coal is directed primarily to its environmental impact in light of ongoing efforts to reduce CO2 emissions and tackle global climate change. Nevertheless, the benefits of coal as a widely available and relatively cheap source of energy underscores its important role in energy security, economic development and the alleviation of energy poverty worldwide. Further development and commercial availability of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologie...

  17. Striking Up the Band: Music Education through a Foucaultian Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantie, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Large ensembles (e.g., choirs-orchestras-bands) have become prominent fixtures in most secondary schools and university schools/faculties of music in Canada and the United States. At the secondary school level, large ensembles have become, in effect, practically synonymous with the words "music education." This article derives from the author's…

  18. Cultural Contexts of Exclusion: Women College Band Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    Despite gender affirmative employment practices, women constitute little more than 5% of all U.S. college band directors. Researchers have investigated this situation in terms of historical precedent, traditional socialization, discrimination, segregation, professional identity, and lack of role models. They have not, however, addressed the…

  19. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subramanian

    2008-04-01

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are formed by removing the substrate material in a periodic manner. This paper also demonstrates that these structures can serve as a non-destructive characterization tool for materials, a duplexor and frequency selective coupler. The paper presents both experimental results and theoretical simulation based on a commercially available finite element methodology for comparison.

  20. Collective bands in superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective properties of excited superdeformed bands have been investigated in the framework of self-consistent cranked Nilsson plus quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The expected octupole nature of some bands observed recently in some nuclei has been confirmed by a comparative analysis of their E1 decays to the yrast band and of the anomalous behavior of their dynamical moment of inertia. It is also shown that the onset of supederformation affects considerably the structure of the giant resonances and greatly enhances the collectivity of the low-lying scissors mode. (author)

  1. Rotational Bands in 172W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J.; Guess, C. J.; Tandel, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hartley, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Shirwadkar, U.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.

    2015-10-01

    Studying the structure of rotational bands in 172W is valuable for gaining a better understanding of deformed nuclei. Highly excited states of the isotope were populated from a 230 MeV 50Ti beam incident on a 128Te target at Argonne National Laboratory using the ATLAS accelerator. γ emissions from 172W in the range were measured using Compton suppressed germanium detectors in the Gammasphere array. Using this data, three new rotational bands were found, and several other bands were expanded. Swarthmore College Summer Research Fellowship.

  2. Parameters and evaluation criteria for the coal coking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.

    1988-09-01

    Analyzes effects of temperature distribution on black coal coking in a conventional coke oven. Two parameters are used for description of temperature distribution: a local (time-average) divergence function and an instant (volumetric) divergence function. Formulae for determining the two parameters are derived. Use of the mean values of the two functions as an evaluation criteria for assessment of the coking process is recommended. Practical use of the proposed criteria is discuussed. 8 refs.

  3. Noise problems in coal mining complex- a case discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise monitoring study was conducted at Moonidih mining complex of Jharia coal-field. The study included monitoring and analysis of ambient as well as workplace noise levels. An attempt has been made to critically analyse the noise situation through octave band analysis, thereby identifying alarming noise frequencies for each noise generating equipment having Leq level more than 90 dBA. A noise model has also been developed to draw noise contours of the entire mining complex. Based on these studies, suitable control measures have been suggested. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  4. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  5. The Shell coal gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Future Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and unmatched efficiency. Efficiency depends on many factors including the type of coal, the gasification process, the gas turbine, the steam cycle. NOx reduction measures and the degree and manner of integration. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an IGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for feeds ranging from bituminous coals to lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is ideally suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV). The excellent environmental capabilities of IGCC systems are based on well established treating processes for removing sulphur and nitrogen species form the syngas. IGCC processes produce modest volumes of environmentally acceptable effluents. Gas turbine burner developments imply lower NOx emissions. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology is being built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The plant is scheduled to start up in 1993

  6. Monitoring Soil Moisture in a Coal Mining Area with Multi-Phase Landsat Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J. L.; Xian, T.; Yang, J.; Chen, L.; Yang, X. T.

    2016-06-01

    The coal development zone of Northern Shaanxi, China is one of the eight largest coal mines in the world, also the national energy and chemical bases. However, the coal mining leads to ground surface deformation and previous studies show that in collapse fissure zone soil water losses almost 50% compared with non-fissure zone. The main objective of this study is to develop a retrieval model that is reliable and sensitive to soil moisture in the whole coal mining zone of Northern Shaanxi based upon the soil sample parameters collected from in situ site investigation, spectral data gathered simultaneously and the images of Landsat7 ETM. The model uses different phases of Landsat data to retrieve soil moisture and analyze the patterns of spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture caused by ground deformation in the coal mining areas. The study indicated that band4 of Landsat7 ETM is the most sensitive band for soil moisture retrieval using the spectrum method. The quadratic model developed by remote sensing reflectance (Rrs4) (corresponding to the band4) is the best pattern with the correlation coefficient of 0.858 between the observed and the estimated soil moisture. Two-phase Landsat7 ETM data of 2002 and 2009 and one phase Landsat8 OLI data of 2015 for the study area were selected to retrieve soil moisture information. The result showed that the mean relative error was 35.16% and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 0.58%. The changes of the spatial distribution of inversed soil moisture revealed that the trend of soil moisture contents of the study area was in general being gradually reduced from 2002 to 2015. The study results can serve as the baseline for monitoring environmental impacts on soil moisture in the regions due to coal mining.

  7. Research on polyamide matrix composites filled with hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the summary results of studies on polyamide composites filled with hard coal. Research on the use of coal as a filler of polymers are conducted for many years in Division of Metallic and Polymeric Materials Processing, Silesian University of Technology. This paper summarizes results obtained in different research programmes preformed in recent years. Described materials are polyamide 6 composites filled with modified and unmodified hard coal powder.Design/methodology/approach: All the resulting compositions intended for research have been produced using twin screw extruder. The resulting mixtures of various compositions were then subjected to a process of granulation. The prepared composites have undergone a process of injection moulding which allowed to obtain samples for strength tests. Full statement of research results obtained for composites could help to predict the material with the best mechanical properties and hence the best material for construction.Findings: It has appeared from studies that in both a composite made of unmodified coal and of coal modified with coupling agents show a decrease in mechanical properties in comparison with the neat polymer. Apart from this these composites are interesting materials because of low prize of the filler.Research limitations/implications: It can be concluded from research that all types of obtained composites are characterized by a decrease in mechanical properties.Practical implications: Applications of hard coal as a filler of polymer composites is way to produce new materials. It is worth noting that the main features of the filler used is its prevalence, low cost and electrical conductance.Originality/value: The results describe new fillers of thermoplastic polymers and the possibility of its modification.

  8. Non-covalent associative structure of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Heng-fu(水恒福)

    2004-01-01

    The recent progress of non-covalent associative structure of coal, and the mechanisms of the CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) mixed solvent and the additive addition enhancing the extraction yield of coals were reviewed, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were presented, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were introduced in this paper. Coal extraction and swelling in organic solvents at room temperature were the most useful methods to understand the associative structure of coal. CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) is a unique solvent to give high extraction yields for some bituminous coals. Some additives can dissociate the stronger interactions among coal molecules and enhance the extraction yields of coal in the mixed solvent.

  9. Ten questions on the future of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author comments data and information on the main uses of coal, the evolution of the coal share in the world energy consumption, the amounts and locations of coal reserves in comparison with oil and gas, the coal reserves left in the European Union, the world coal market characteristics with respect to those of oil and gas, the reason of the bad environmental reputation of coal, the internal cost of a KWh produced by a coal power station, the external cost resulting from its environmental pollution, the possibility of reducing those defects by 2020, 2040, 2060, the way of transforming coal into oil and to which cost, in order to expand its use to modern transports, the role of coal during the 21. century and the possibilities of CO2 sequestration

  10. NSW coal industry overview and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is the fourth-largest coal producer in the world, after China, the USA and India. In 2001, Australia produced some 257 Million tonnes (Mt) of hard coal, with almost 45% of this coming from NSW. Australia is the world's largest exporter of hard coal. In 2001, Australia exported some 193 Mt of hard coal, well ahead of its nearest rival, China, at 91 Mt and South Africa and Indonesia at 69 and 66 Mt respectively. Of the total coal exports from Australia in 2001, nearly 40% came from NSW. Trade in coal is forecast to continue its growth, particularly for thermal coal. Substantial growth in Asian demand for thermal coal is forecast over the next decade. Asian demand is expected to increase from 193 Mt in 2000 to 333 Mt in 2020. By 2020, Asian demand is expected to make up 62% of world seaborne thermal coal trade

  11. Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gaisheng; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of

  12. Estimation of Coal Bed Methane Potential of Coal Seams of Margherita Coal Field, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Talukdar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid industrialization and growing energy needs have put a great stress on the conventional energy resources. This is even more concerning for a country like India which is a net importer of oil. To meet the ever increasing need for energy, it is essential that the search for unconventional energy is intensified. This paper deals with the estimation of coal bed methane potential of the Margherita Coal Field of Assam, India. For this purpose, eight coal samples were collected from Tirap O.C.P., Ledo UG Incline and Tikak O.C.P collieries of the Margherita coal field. Proximate analysis, megascopic study and finally qualitative analysis of these eight samples was undertaken. After analysis, the inferred reserves of CBM at Margherita Coalfield, was found to be in the range of 42.5-49.04 Billion Cubic Meter.

  13. Some parallel banded system solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.; Sameh, A.H.

    1984-12-01

    This paper describes algorithms for solving narrow banded systems and the Helmholtz difference equations that are suitable for multiprocessing systems. The organization of the algorithms highlight the large grain parallelism inherent in the problems. 13 references, 5 tables.

  14. In situ measurements of the spectral emittance of coal ash deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral emittance of deposits left by bituminous and sub-bituminous coals under oxidizing conditions have been measured in situ. Pulverized coal is injected into a down-fired entrained-flow reactor. Ash accumulates on a probe in the reactor effluent and radiation emitted by the ash layer is recorded using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Values for the spectral emissive power emitted by the ash and the surface temperature of the ash are extracted from these data. These results are then used to calculate the spectral emittance of the deposit. The spectral emittances of ash deposits formed by burning Illinois no. 6 (bituminous) coal and Powder River Basin (sub-bituminous) coal were measured between 3000 and 500 wavenumbers. The spectral emittance of the deposit left by the bituminous coal has a constant value of approximately 0.46 between 3000 and 2400 wavenumbers. Between 2200 and 1200 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance of the deposit increases from approximately 0.47 to approximately 0.61. Between 1200 and 500 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance is relatively constant at 0.61. The spectral emittance of the deposit left by the sub-bituminous coal is also relatively constant between 3000 and 2400 wavenumbers at a value of 0.29. Between 2200 and 500 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance of deposits from the sub-bituminous coal increases from approximately 0.29 to 0.55. Differences between these spectral emittance measurements and those measured ex situ illustrate the importance of making in situ measurements. Band emittances were calculated using the measured spectral emittances, and band emittances of the deposits are reported as functions of temperature.

  15. Narrow-Band Microwave Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Strizhachenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Original design of the narrow-band compact filters based on the high-quality waveguide-dielectric resonator with anisotropic materials has been presented in this work. Designed filters satisfy the contradictory requirements: they provide the narrow frequency band (0.05 ÷ 0.1 % of the main frequency f0 and the low initial losses α0 ≤ 1 dB.

  16. Dipole Bands in 196Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High spin states in 196Hg have been populated in the 198Pt(α,6n) reaction at 65 MeV and the level scheme has been extended. A new dipole band has been observed and a previously observed dipole has been confirmed. Excitation energies, spins and parities of these bands were determined from DCO ratio and linear polarization measurements. Possible quasiparticle excitations responsible for these structures are discussed.

  17. National Coal Utilization Assessment: a preliminary assessment of coal utilizaton in the South. [Southern USA to 2020; forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L. B.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Boercker, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the major problems and issues related to coal development and use in the South are identified and assessed assuming a base-case energy scenario for the next 45 years. This scenario assumes a midrange of coal use and a relatively high rate of nuclear use over the forecast period. The potential impacts from coal development and use are significant, particularly in the 1990-2020 time period. Practically all available sites suitable for power plant development in the assessment will be utilized by 2020. Overall, sulfur dioxide will be well below the annual primary standard; however, several local hot-spot areas were identified. In addition, sulfate concentrations will be increased significantly, particularly over Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky. Coal mining is expected to affect 6 of the 12 major ecological regions. Coal mining will lead to increased average suspended sediment concentrations in some river basins, and special measures will be required to control acid discharges from active mines in pyritic regions. The increased mining of coal and subsequent sulfur dioxide increases from its combustion may also give rise to a land-use confrontation with food and fiber production. Potential health effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide and sulfates are expected to increase rapidly in several areas, particularly in parts of Kentucky, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Georgia. Regional social costs should be relatively low, although some site-specific costs are expected to be very high. Alternative energy technologies, careful siting selection, and deployment of environmental control technologies and operating policies will be required to reduce or mitigate these potential impacts.

  18. Coal resources of selected coal beds and zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Ruppert; Susan Tewalt; Linda Bragg

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a National Coal Resource Assessment of five coal-producing regions of the United States, including the Appalachian Basin. The USGS, in cooperation with the State geological surveys of Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, has completed a digital coal resource assessment of five of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions -- the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal zones, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. Of the 93 billion short tons of original coal in these units, about 66 billion short tons remain. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Flash pyrolysis of coal, coal maceral, and coal-derived pyrite with on-line characterization of volatile sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lake, M.A.; Griffin, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    A Pyroprobe flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector was used to study volatile sulfur compounds produced during the thermal decomposition of Illinois coal, coal macerals and coal-derived pyrite. Maximum evolution of volatile organic sulfur compounds from all coal samples occurred at a temperature of approximately 700??C. At this temperature, the evolution of thiophene, its alkyl isomers, and short-chain dialkyl sulfide compounds relative to the evolution of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene compounds was greater from coal high in organic sulfur than from coal low in organic sulfur. The variation in the evolution of sulfur compounds observed for three separate coal macerals (exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite) was similar to that observed for whole coal samples. However, the variation trend for the macerals was much more pronounced. Decomposition of coal-derived pyrite with the evolution of elemental sulfur was detected at a temperature greater than 700??C. The results of this study indicated that the gas chromotographic profile of the volatile sulfur compounds produced during flash pyrolysis of coals and coal macerals varied as a function of the amount of organic sulfur that occurred in the samples. Characterization of these volatile sulfur compounds provides a better understanding of the behavior of sulfur in coal during the thermolysis process, which could be incorporated in the design for coal cleaning using flash pyrolysis techniques. ?? 1988.

  20. Coal and the Industrial Revolution, 1700 - 1869

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Gregory; Jacks, David S.

    2006-01-01

    How important was coal to the Industrial Revolution? Despite the huge growth of output, and the grip of coal and steam on the popular image of the Industrial Revolution, recent cliometric accounts have assumed coal mining mattered little to the Industrial Revolution. In contrast both E. A. Wrigley and Kenneth Pomeranz have made coal central to the story. This paper constructs new series on coal rents, the price of coal at pithead and at market, and the price of firewood, and uses them to exam...

  1. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  2. Structural characterization of Nigerian coals by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonibare, Oluwadayo O.; Foley, Stephen F. [Earth System Science Research Centre, Department of Geosciences, University of Mainz, Becherweg 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Haeger, Tobias [Centre of Gemstone Research, Department of Geosciences, University of Mainz, Becherweg 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The structural parameters of six Nigerian coals were determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. This study reveals that the coals contain crystalline carbon of turbostratic structure with some amount of highly disordered amorphous carbon. The average lateral sizes (L{sub a}), stacking heights (L{sub c}) and interlayer spacing (d{sub 002}) of the crystallite structures calculated from the X-ray intensities range from 16.47 to 25.70, 8.12 to 13.25 and 3.48 to 3.58 A, respectively. The L{sub a} values derived from the Raman spectra analyses using the classical linear relationship between 1/L{sub a} and the D/G band ratio are higher (27.53-34.67 A) than values obtained from X-ray diffraction. The FTIR spectra of the coals show the presence of stretching vibrations of -OH bonds, aliphatic -CH, -CH{sub 2} and -CH{sub 3} absorptions, C=C and -CH of aromatic structure, and C=O stretching vibrations of carbonyl groups. A strong linear relationship exists between the coal structural parameters (f{sub a}, d{sub 002}, L{sub c}) and the elemental carbon and volatile contents of the coal which reflects the dependency of the coals structure on their ranks. (author)

  3. Spectral characteristics of micro-seismic signals obtained during the rupture of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jikun; Li Chengwu; Wang Cuixia; Zhang Ruming; Zhang Hao

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the spectral characteristics of micro-seismic signals observed during the rupture of coal.Coal rupture micro-seismic observations were obtained on a test system that included an electro-hydraulic servo pressure tester controlled by a YAW microcomputer,a micro-seismic sensor,a loading system,and a signal collection system.The results show that the micro-seismic signal increases with increasing compressive stress at the beginning of coal rupture.The signal remains stable for a period at this stage.A large number of micro-seismic signals appear immediately before the main rupture event.The frequency of micro-seismic events reaches a maximum immediately after the coal ruptures.Micro-seismic signals were decomposed into several Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF's) by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method using a Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT).The main frequency band of the micro-seismic signals was found to range from 10 to 100 Hz in the Hilbert energy spectrum and from marginal spectrum calculations.The advantage of applying an HHT is that this can extract the main features of the signal.This fact was confirmed by an HHT analysis of the coal micro-seismic signals that shows the technique is useful in the field of coal rupture.

  4. Electrokinetic dewatering of ultrafine coal and coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andy Fourie [University of Western Australia, WA (Australia). CSIRO

    2008-03-15

    There are a number of established technologies for reducing the water content of coal slurries before impounding the slurry. This report deals with the process of electrokinetic dewatering, whereby water is extracted from a slurry through the application of direct current voltage using two or more electrodes. Water flows towards the negatively charged electrode, the cathode, where it can be collected. This project sought to verify that the findings of work carried out about two decades ago on coal tailings was valid when conductive polymer electrodes (commonly known as EKGs - ElectroKinetic Geosynthetics) are used. Verify the applicability of electrokinetic dewatering to a range of ultrafine coal products and coal tailings; and characterise the dewatering efficiency and effectiveness and consequent potential economic benefits for different electrokinetic treatment regimes for both in-situ and in-process dewatering methods using EKGs. The current project has again proved the technical viability of dewatering ultrafine coal tailings electrokinetically. Before the technology can be adopted at full scale, however, it would be important to conduct field trials.

  5. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  6. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  7. Heating plant overcomes coal crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the last moment Kosice managed to overcome the threat of a more than 30-percent heating price increase. The biggest local heat producer, Teplaren Kosice, is running out of coal supplies. The only alternative would be gas, which is far more expensive. The reason for this situation was a dispute of the heating plant with one of its suppliers, Kimex. Some days ago, the dispute was settled and the heating plant is now expecting the first wagon loads of coal to arrive. These are eagerly awaited, as its supplies will not last for more than a month. It all started with a public tender for a coal supplier. Teplaren Kosice (TEKO) announced the tender for the delivery of 120,000 tons of coal in June. Kimex, one of the traditional and biggest suppliers, was disqualified in the course of the tender. The winners of the tender were Slovenergo, Bratislava and S-Plus Trade, Vranov nad Toplou. TEKO signed contracts with them but a district court in Kosice prohibited the company from purchasing coal from these contractors. Kimex filed a complaint claiming that it was disqualified unlawfully. Based on this the court issued a preliminary ruling prohibiting the purchase of coal from the winners of the tender. The heating plant had to wait for the final verdict. The problem was then solved by the company's new Board of Directors, who were appointed in mid October who managed to sign new contracts with the two winners and Kimex. The new contracts cover the purchase of 150-thousand tons of coal, which is 30,000 more than in the original tender specification. Each company will supply one third. (authors)

  8. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  9. Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Liang-shan; FU Gui-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The technique of data mining was provided to predict gas disaster in view of thecharacteristics of coal mine gas disaster and feature knowledge based on gas disaster.The rough set theory was used to establish data mining model of gas disaster prediction,and rough set attributes relations was discussed in prediction model of gas disaster tosupplement the shortages of rough intensive reduction method by using information en-tropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the predictionof gas disaster is confirmed through practical application.

  10. Band loss by nestling mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, C.F.; Kiel, W.H.

    1963-01-01

    Nestling mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were banded and checked for band loss prior to fledging at Parchman, Mississippi, during the months of June-August, 1960. Three hundred seventy-seven nestlings 4-6 days of age were banded, 117 with size 3 bands, 120 with size 3A bands, and 140 with size 3A bands secured by Dalzoflex tape. Two hundred twenty nestlings 7-9 days of age were banded, 114 with size 3 bands and 106 with size 3A bands. In the 4- to 6-day age group, 66.3 percent of the size 3A bands were lost. This was a statistically significant departure from the 7.7 percent loss of size 3 bands. No taped bands were lost. However, predators ate 13.8 percent of the nestlings with taped bands and significantly fewer of the nestlings banded without tape. In the 4- to 6-day age group, percentages of nestlings known to be available for band recovery at 9 days or older were: size 3, 69.2 percent; size 3A with tape, 59.0 percent; size 3A, 25.8 percent. In the 7-to 9-day age group, there was a 3.3 percent loss of size 3A bands and no loss of size 3 bands. The minimum age at which nestlings were banded without subsequent loss of bands was 6 days for size 3 and 8 days for size 3A.

  11. Coal fields and outlines of coal-bearing strata in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpcf*g)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO coverages of coal fields and coal-bearing formations in the Colorado Plateau. These GIS layers were created by combining numerous...

  12. The world behind electricity from coal. The dubious origin of coal for Dutch coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five energy companies in the Netherlands want to build additional coal-fired power plants: Essent and Nuon, the German company RWE and E.ON and the Belgian company Electrabel. Coal-fired power plants emit 70 percent more CO2 than gas-fired power plants. Especially because of the threat to the climate Greenpeace believes that no more coal-fired power plants should be built. In this publication Greenpeace explores the pollution, the working conditions and human rights with regard to the exploitation of coal. That has been elaborated for the three countries from which Dutch energy companies import coal: South Africa, Colombia and Indonesia. In addition to information about the origin of coal also insight is given into the coal market (stocks and use), the enormous coal transport and the world trade

  13. Drivers for the renaissance of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Jan Christoph; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Jakob, Michael

    2015-07-21

    Coal was central to the industrial revolution, but in the 20th century it increasingly was superseded by oil and gas. However, in recent years coal again has become the predominant source of global carbon emissions. We show that this trend of rapidly increasing coal-based emissions is not restricted to a few individual countries such as China. Rather, we are witnessing a global renaissance of coal majorly driven by poor, fast-growing countries that increasingly rely on coal to satisfy their growing energy demand. The low price of coal relative to gas and oil has played an important role in accelerating coal consumption since the end of the 1990s. In this article, we show that in the increasingly integrated global coal market the availability of a domestic coal resource does not have a statistically significant impact on the use of coal and related emissions. These findings have important implications for climate change mitigation: If future economic growth of poor countries is fueled mainly by coal, ambitious mitigation targets very likely will become infeasible. Building new coal power plant capacities will lead to lock-in effects for the next few decades. If that lock-in is to be avoided, international climate policy must find ways to offer viable alternatives to coal for developing countries. PMID:26150491

  14. Concentrations of lithium in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzhuang Sun; Yanheng Li; Cunliang Zhao; Mingyue Lin; Jinxi Wang; Shenjun Qin [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China). Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province

    2010-04-15

    Lithium is an important energy metal. Its concentrations in coals have been studied by many geologists. Its average content is only 14 mg/kg in the coals of the world. Lithium has never been reported as a coal associated deposit before. In order to study the concentrations in Chinese coals, 159 coal and gangue samples were taken from six coal mines and were determined by ICP-MS and the minerals in the samples were identified by X-ray powder diffraction. The results indicate that the Li contents in the coal samples from the Antaibao Coal Mine have reached the industry grade of coal associated deposits. In Tongxing Coal Mine, Li contents in the coal floor rock samples have reached the industry grade of independent lithium deposits. Main minerals are polylithionite, triphylite, zinnwaldite, lithionite and cookeite, which were transported into the peats. Therefore, lithium enriched is most likely in the synsedimentary stage in both coal mines. Furthermore, a revised average Li content in Chinese coals was given.

  15. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1971 to 1980, electricity consumption in Taiwan increased remarkably at an average rate of 12.2% per year. Despite experiencing a record low in 1982 and 1983, electricity demand returned to double digit growth, reaching 11.6% and 10.2% in 1987 and 1988, respectively, due to a strong economic recovery. In 1988, 71.6 TWh of electricity was produced, 21.1 TWh of which was from coal-fired units (29%). The electricity demand for Taiwan is expected to continue to grow at a very rapid rate during the 1990--2006 time frame. The average load is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5.6% while the peak load is projected to increase at an annual rate of 6.0%. All new coal-fired power plants are expected to comply with government regulations on S02, NOx, and particulate emissions. Taper reports that all of its proposed coal-fired units will be equipped with modern flue gas emission reduction devices, such as electrostatic precipitators or baghouse filters, flue gas desulfurization and decox devices, to reduce the pollutants to their minimum practical levels. New coal-based generation requirements in the sizes needed in Taiwan create an opportunity for several of the Cats currently under demonstration in the United States. Options to be considered are described

  16. ANALISIS KEAKURATAN INDIKATOR BOLLINGER BANDS TERHADAP PERGERAKAN HARGA SAHAM (STUDI KASUS PADA SAHAM PT ASTRA AGRO LESTARI TBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankandinata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Technical analysis is an analytical tool to analyze price movement of an investment instrument like stock. Practically, there are a lot of indicators that can be used in technical analysis. One of them is Bolinger Bands. Bolinger Bands has 3 moving averages lines, which are Upper Band, Middle Band, and Lower Band. Study used library research and software review by analyzing the candlestick chart of stock price with ChartNexus software. The stock for this study was Astra Agro Lestari (AALI and the period was 1 July 2010 until 31 May 2013. Results showed that Bolinger Bands gave 45 signals in the period with 75.56% accuracy.

  17. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  18. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  19. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type

  20. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulam, C.S.; Hoag, G.E.; Dahmani, A.; Nadim, F. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Environmental Research Inst.

    1996-11-01

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type.