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Sample records for bancrofti l3 larvae

  1. Bacillus sphaericus in the adults of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes emerged from treated larvae and its effect on development of the filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Geetha, I; Kumar, B A; Balaraman, K

    2012-06-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is a bio-control agent effective against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis. Apart from its larvicidal effect, there are reports of reduced infection of filarial parasites in mosquitoes exposed to it. In the present study, adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus emerged from B. sphaericus treated larvae were fed on blood samples positive for microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and examined at various time intervals to assess the infection level. The rate of infection was reduced from 95% on day 1 post-feeding to 75% on day 13, when fed with blood sample containing 41 mf/20 μl. The mean parasite burden was also reduced from 4.9 per mosquito on day 1 to 2.15 on day 13. When fed with another sample (30 mf/20 μl), the infection was reduced from 100% on day 1 to 80% on day 13. Reduction in parasite burden was 4.0 to 1.75. Abnormally developed second-stage larvae of the parasite were seen in treated mosquitoes. Thus, the results indicated adverse effect of B. sphaericus treatment on infection and development of the filarial parasite in mosquitoes. The possible reason for the parasite regulation was studied through the assessment of the carryover of the bacterium as well as its toxins to the surviving mosquitoes. The presence of B. sphaericus was determined through plating of homogenate of survived mosquitoes on NYSM agar. Toxic protein was detected through immunoblotting. The bacterium as well as its 41.9-kDa toxic protein was found to be transmitted from larvae to adults and affected the parasite development, directly by the toxin or indirectly by eliciting humoral immune response of the mosquito.

  2. CULEX QUINQUIFASCL4TUS SEBAGAI VEKTOR UTAMA FILARIASIS LIMFATIK YANG DISEBABKAN WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI DI KELURAHAN PABEAN KOTA PEKALONGAN

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis was still being a public health problem in Indonesia, and one ofcommunicable disease which is caused by infestation of Filaria worm. The disease is transmitted by manyvarious mosquitoes. Pabean village was an endemic area of the filariasis bancrofti in Pekalongan City withmicrofilaria rate was 3,4% in 2007. The aim of this study was to know all the mosquitoes collected, thecurrent transmission of filariasis and its main vector spesies of filariasis bancrofti in Pabean village.The research was an observational study which used cross sectional design. The samples were adultmosquitoes found at three houses of filariasis patient.To collect the adult mosquitoes using landingcollection at night, light trap with dry ice and resting habit in the morning. The mosquitoes were killed,identified and dissected to find filarial larvae. The result showed the total of collected mosquitoes of19.306, consist of 4 genus. They were 19.229 Culex, 51 Anopheles, 24 Aedes and 2 Malaya. The infectivelarvae (L3 found in Cx.quinquefasciatus, which collected in door and out door. The dissection of restingmosquitoes found infection rate 38,40 % and infective rate 34,40%. Transmission of filariasis was detectedcurrently occured in the area with the main vector of Cx.quinquefasciatus. The conclussion is thatCx.quinquefasciatus as the main vector of filariasis bancrofti in Pabean village.Keywords: Culex quinquifasciatus, fdariasis, Wuchereria bancrofti,Vektor

  3. Dynamics of antigenemia and transmission intensity of Wuchereria bancrofti following cessation of mass drug administration in a formerly highly endemic region of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Yaya I; Coulibaly, Siaka Y; Dolo, Housseini; Konate, Siaka; Diallo, Abdallah A; Doumbia, Salif S; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E; Dicko, Ilo; Sangare, Moussa B; Dembele, Benoit; Sangare, Modibo; Dembele, Massitan; Touré, Yeya T; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Polman, Katja; Kyelem, Dominique; Traore, Sekou F; Bockarie, Moses; Klion, Amy D; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-12-03

    After seven annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) in six Malian villages highly endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti (overall prevalence rate of 42.7%), treatment was discontinued in 2008. Surveillance was performed over the ensuing 5 years to detect recrudescence. Circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was measured using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT) and Og4C3 ELISA in 6-7 year-olds. Antibody to the W. bancrofti infective larval stage (L3) antigen, Wb123, was tested in the same population in 2012. Microfilaraemia was assessed in ICT-positive subjects. Anopheles gambiae complex specimens were collected monthly using human landing catch (HLC) and pyrethrum spray catch (PSC). Anopheles gambiae complex infection with W. bancrofti was determined by dissection and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mosquito pools. Annual CFA prevalence rates using ICT in children increased over time from 0% (0/289) in 2009 to 2.7% (8/301) in 2011, 3.9% (11/285) in 2012 and 4.5% (14/309) in 2013 (trend χ 2   = 11.85, df =3, P = 0.0006). Wb123 antibody positivity rates in 2013 were similar to the CFA prevalence by ELISA (5/285). Although two W. bancrofti-infected Anopheles were observed by dissection among 12,951 mosquitoes collected by HLC, none had L3 larvae when tested by L3-specific RT-PCR. No positive pools were detected among the mosquitoes collected by pyrethrum spray catch. Whereas ICT in 6-7 year-olds was the major surveillance tool, ICT positivity was also assessed in older children and adults (8-65 years old). CFA prevalence decreased in this group from 4.9% (39/800) to 3.5% (28/795) and 2.8% (50/1,812) in 2009, 2011 and 2012, respectively (trend χ 2   = 7.361, df =2, P = 0.0067). Some ICT-positive individuals were microfilaraemic in 2009 [2.6% (1/39)] and 2011 [8.3% (3/36)], but none were positive in 2012 or 2013. Although ICT rates in children increased over the 5-year surveillance period, the decrease in ICT prevalence

  4. In vitro assessment of Argemone mexicana, Taraxacum officinale, Ruta chalepensis and Tagetes filifolia against Haemonchus contortus nematode eggs and infective (L3) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso Díaz, Gabriela; Hernández, Glafiro Torres; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Becerril Pérez, Carlos Miguel; Ramírez Bribiesca, J Efrén; Hernández Mendo, Omar; Sánchez Arroyo, Hussein; González Cortazar, Manasés; Mendoza de Gives, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Argemone mexicana, Taraxacum officinale, Ruta chalepensis and Tagetes filifolia are plants with deworming potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methanolic extracts of aerial parts of these plants against Haemonchus contortus eggs and infective larvae (L3) and identify compounds responsible for the anthelmintic activity. In vitro probes were performed to identify the anthelmintic activity of plant extracts: egg hatching inhibition (EHI) and larvae mortality. Open column Chromatography was used to bio-guided fractionation of the extract, which shows the best anthelmintic effect. The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of H. contortus egg hatching or larvae mortality (LC 50 ) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Bio-guided procedure led to the recognition of an active fraction (TF11) mainly composed by 1) quercetagitrin, 2) methyl chlorogenate and chlorogenic acid. Quercetagitrin (1) and methyl chlorogenate (2) did not show an important EHI activity (3-14%) (p < 0.05); however, chlorogenic acid (3) showed 100% of EHI (LC 50 248 μg/mL) (p < 0.05). Chlorogenic acid is responsible of the ovicidal activity and it seems that, this compound is reported for the first time with anthelmintic activity against a parasite of importance in sheep industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins towards acetone:water extracts of polyphenol-rich plants. Part 2: Infective L3larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Vilarem, G; Mathieu, C; Hoste, H

    2017-06-15

    This study explored the variation in susceptibility to acetone:water plant extracts between infective larvae (L 3 ) of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origin. The L 3 of 10 different isolates were exposed either to the acetone:water extract of a temperate plant (Onobrychis viciifolia) or a tropical plant (Acacia pennatula) and were evaluated with the larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). The L 3 of each isolate were incubated with different concentrations of each extract (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200μg/mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS)). After incubation, the exsheathment process of L 3 was induced using a solution with sodium hypochlorite (2%) and sodium chloride (16.5%). The proportion of exsheathed L 3 was determined for each concentration at 0, 20, 40 and 60min. Effective concentrations 50% (EC 50 ) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for every isolate with both extracts. Moreover, a resistance ratio (RR) was calculated for each extract to compare isolates, using the most susceptible isolate as the respective reference for each extract. To determine the role of polyphenols on the reported effect, a second set of incubations was made for each isolate and each extract, using the extracts at a concentration of 1200μg/mL PBS with or without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), a polyphenol blocking agent, and controls without extract. The ten different H. contortus isolates showed variation in susceptibility for each of the 2 extracts tested (Ppolyphenols were responsible for the anthelmintic activity recorded for both extracts. However, tested H. contortus isolates suggested that susceptibility to one polyphenol-rich extract did not determine the susceptibility to the other polyphenol rich extract. The latter result indicated that the different H. contortus isolates varied in their susceptibility to the polyphenols present in each extract evaluated. Copyright © 2017

  6. Study on the use of sheep serum post vaccination of three phase larva (L3) Haemonchus contortus worm irradiated inoculated to rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partodihardjo, Sukardji; Suryadi, Helmi; Purwanti, Endang; Adiwinata, Gatot; Irtisam

    1998-01-01

    Study has been done on rabbit to find out the effect of giving sheep serum post vaccination with irradiated gastric worm challenged with infective H. contortus larva. Forty eight local rabbit divided into 3 groups : K, VI and V2, each groups: consists of 4 rabbit, by using 4 times repetition. K group which only inoculated 10,000L3 H. contortus infective. V1 = group which twice serum inoculated with 21 days interval, inoculation dose were 0,3 ml serum each, and challenged with 10.000 L3 H.contortus infective. V2 = group which 3 times serum inoculation with 21 days interval, inoculation dose 0,3 ml serum each and challenged with 10.000 L3 H.contortus infective. Design model used with Completely Random Design (RAL), Duncan was used as inter treatment test. Parameter observed are total protein fraction, Larva L4 content in gaster, cumulative weight gain, and death percentage rabbits. Result of study showed that on average parameter total protein fraction on K + 2,0086 ± 0,2353 mg/dl, V1 = 3,2781 ± 0,9227 mg/dl and V2 = 5,5035 ± 1,6794 mg/d. Average parameter L4 death showed on K = 10, V1 = 8, and V2 = 4, while L4 alive on K = 3, V1 + 1 and V2 = 0. Commutative Average parameter PCV value on K = 19,91 ± 1,24%, V1= 27,31 ± 1,22%, and V2 35,71 ± 0,56 %. Average parameter weight gain per week on K = 24,46 ± 0,74 g, V1 = 26,04 ± 2.23 g, and V2 = 28,93 ± 1,67 g. Percentage average parameter death rate on K = 37,5 ± 14,46%, V1=18,75 ± 23,90% and V2 = 0± 0%. The conclusion of the study result was serum inoculation on rabbits have positive result on reducing anaemia rate, elevating weight gain, reduce death percentage, reduced L4 alive content in gaster, and able oneelevate immunity respond content that is total protein fraction on rabbits. (author)

  7. Reproductive aspects of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae infected with Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae

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    Lima Catarina A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the relationship between Wuchereria bancrofti infection and female body size, intake of blood and fecundity in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, vector of this filarial parasite in Recife (Brazil. Adults from field collected larvae were infected via a membrane feeding procedure, using blood with parasitaemia ranging from 724-6,000 mf/ml. A positive correlation was observed between mosquito size (measured by wing length and egg production in uninfected females. However, this relationship did not exist in W. bancrofti infected mosquitoes. This change is unlikely to be the result of changes in blood ingestion as no significant difference was found when infected and uninfected females were compared. Variation in egg production observed between trials could not be associated with parasite density in the blood. These results suggest infection with W. bancrofti may disrupt the relationship between mosquito size and egg production during the first gonotrophic cycle of C. quinquefasciatus such that fecundity is sometimes reduced. However, this overall affect is variable and many groups of mosquitoes do not respond in this way.

  8. Development of lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) fed artificially on microfilaremic blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2006-11-01

    The efficiency of laboratory colonies of mosquitoes such as Anopheles stephensi Liston, Aedes aegypti (L.) Liverpool strain, Ae. aegypti wild type, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, and Armigeres subalbatus Coquillett in supporting the development of Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae to infective larvae was investigated. The mosquitoes were fed on heparinized microfilaremic human blood by using a membrane-feeding unit with Parafilm as membrane. The rate of infection, parasite development, and parasite burden were compared with that in the known vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Cx. quinquefasciatus showed the highest percentage of infection, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The rate of development of the parasite was more or less similar in all the three species, and infective larvae were found on day 13. When the larvae were harvested on day 17, Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded the highest numbers, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The percentage of infection was low, and the development was slow in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus compared with the other susceptible species. The parasite developed to second-stage larvae only by day 22 and to infective larvae by day 28. When 2-wk-old Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were fed on microfilaremic blood, they could develop the parasite to infective larvae by day 13 postfeeding. All other species of mosquitoes tested were found to be refractory to parasite development. It is shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the most suitable mosquito host for the production of infective larvae. However, Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, which is commonly used for Brugia malayi filarial parasite, also can be used for generation of W. bancrofti infective larvae to circumvent the problem of maintaining two mosquito species.

  9. Resposta imune-humoral e celular em bovinos da raça Nelore imunizados com extrato de larvas (L2 e L3) de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) Immune humoral and cellular response of nelore bovines immunized with larvae extract (L2 and L3) of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Luis Mello Fernandes; Vanete Thomaz Socol; Simone Benghi Pinto; João Carlos Minozzo; Carlos Antonio Lopes de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    As larvas da Dermatobia hominis provocam lesões ulcerativas, danificando o tecido subcutâneo e conseqüentemente a pele do hospedeiro. O couro é o subproduto que sofre maior depreciação, o que, muitas vezes, impossibilita seu aproveitamento na industrialização. Atualmente o controle químico é utilizado como forma de combate à dermatobiose, entretanto, leva ao acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas nos animais e no ambiente. No presente trabalho, foram avaliadas as respostas imune-humoral e celular de ...

  10. Resposta imune-humoral e celular em bovinos da raça Nelore imunizados com extrato de larvas (L2 e L3 de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 Immune humoral and cellular response of nelore bovines immunized with larvae extract (L2 and L3 of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781

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    Nelson Luis Mello Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As larvas da Dermatobia hominis provocam lesões ulcerativas, danificando o tecido subcutâneo e conseqüentemente a pele do hospedeiro. O couro é o subproduto que sofre maior depreciação, o que, muitas vezes, impossibilita seu aproveitamento na industrialização. Atualmente o controle químico é utilizado como forma de combate à dermatobiose, entretanto, leva ao acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas nos animais e no ambiente. No presente trabalho, foram avaliadas as respostas imune-humoral e celular de bovinos imunizados com extrato antigênico preparado com larvas de D. hominis. Três grupos de oito bezerras da raça Nelore com 10 meses de idade foram usados, tendo o primeiro grupo (A recebido aplicação de extrato imunogênico de larvas de D. hominis, com intervalos de quinze dias; o grupo (B, utilizado como controle, não recebendo nenhum tipo de tratamento; e o grupo (C recebendo o tratamento ectoparasiticida à base de Dichlorvos associado a Cypermetrina. Neste mesmo período, foram avaliados o leucograma e os níveis de IgG contra D. hominis pela técnica de enzimoimunoensaio-ELISA. Quanto à avaliação da imunidade humoral, verificou-se que os animais do grupo A apresentaram maior produção de IgG contra D. hominis, com níveis máximos de anticorpos circulantes aos 45 dias após a primeira imunização. Estes animais também apresentaram maior produção de neutrófilos, eosinófilos e monócitos que os dos grupos B e C. O número de nódulos de larvas encontrado nos animais do grupo C foi 148,3% maior que nos animais dos grupos A e B. A comprovação da resposta imune celular e humoral, parcialmente caracterizadas, bem como a redução do número de nódulos, são indicadores que a imunização contra D. hominis foi parcialmente protetora para os bovinos imunizados.Dermatobia hominis larvae cause ulcerative lesions and damage to subcutaneous tissue and skin of the host. Leather is the subproduct which undergoes major depreciation

  11. Assessing drivers of the IgG4 antibody reactivity to recombinant antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johanne Damgaard; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.

    2016-01-01

    to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa. Sera collected during previous studies from 395 well characterized individuals with regard to age, sex, mf, CFA, household vector biting and household exposure to infective filarial larvae were tested for IgG4......A high proportion of the human population in lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic areas is positive for filarial specific IgG4 antibodies, including many individuals without microfilariae (mf; circulating larvae in the human blood) or circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection...

  12. Determinación de las características morfológicas de larvas L1, L2 y L3 en parásitos gastrointestinales del equino en la región de los Lagos, Chile

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    Germán Alonso Prada Sanmiguel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en la Región de los Lagos, Chile. La finalidad de la investigación fue determinar el tiempo de aparición y las características morfológicas de las larvas L1, L2 y L3 de grandes y pequeños estrongilos del equino, para lo cual se utilizaron 10 animales pertenecientes al predio Isla Teja de la Universidad Austral de Chile. A estos animales se les tomó una muestra de materia fecal y mediante la técnica de MacMaster se determinó el número de huevos por gramo de materia fecal, seleccionando las cuatro muestras con los conteos más altos, las cuales fueron sembradas con temperatura y humedad controlada, para ser submuestreadas cada 24 horas por un lapso de 21 días, estas submuestras se analizaron mediante la observación directa y la técnica de Baermann anotando todos los cambios tanto macro como microscópicamente. Fue posible diferenciar entre larvas L1, L2 y L3 de grandes y pequeños estróngilos, las larvas L1 de pequeños estróngilos aparecieron desde el día 2, las L2 desde el día 3 y las L3 desde el día 7.

  13. Resposta imune-humoral e celular em bovinos da raça Nelore imunizados com extrato de larvas (L2 e L3) de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Nelson Luis Mello; Socol, Vanete Thomaz; Pinto, Simone Benghi; Minozzo, João Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Antonio Lopes de

    2007-01-01

    As larvas da Dermatobia hominis provocam lesões ulcerativas, danificando o tecido subcutâneo e conseqüentemente a pele do hospedeiro. O couro é o subproduto que sofre maior depreciação, o que, muitas vezes, impossibilita seu aproveitamento na industrialização. Atualmente o controle químico é utilizado como forma de combate à dermatobiose, entretanto, leva ao acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas nos animais e no ambiente. No presente trabalho, foram avaliadas as respostas imune-humoral e celular de ...

  14. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  15. L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final article in the CERN Courier series marking a decade of the four big experiments - Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal - at CERN's LEP electron-positron collider. Data-taking started soon after LEP became operational in July 1989, followed by substantial runs in 1990 and 1991. Because of the long lead times involved in today's major physics undertakings, preparations for these four experiments got underway in the early 1980s

  16. Evaluation of Wuchereria bancrofti GST as a Vaccine Candidate for Lymphatic Filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filarial parasites survive within the lymphatic vessels for years despite the complex immune environment surrounding them. Parasites possibly accomplish this by adopting various immunomodulatory strategies, which include release of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) that counteract the oxidative free radicals produced by the host. Since GSTs produced by parasites appear to be critical for the survival of parasites in the host, several studies evaluated the potential of parasite GSTs as vaccine candidates especially against schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and Seteria cervi. However, vaccine potential of GSTs of lymphatic filarial parasites has not been evaluated before. Methods/Principal Findings In the present study, the GST gene was cloned from the third stage larval (L3) cDNA libraries of Wuchereria bancrofti, and recombinant GST (WbGST) was expressed and purified. Serum samples from individuals living in an endemic area were analyzed for their reactivity with rWbGST. These findings showed that sera from endemic normal individuals (EN) carry significant levels of anti-WbGST IgG antibodies compared to subjects who are microfilaraemic (Mf) or show symptoms of clinical pathology (CP). Isotype analysis of the anti-WbGST IgG antibodies showed a predominance of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies in EN individuals. Subsequent functional analysis of the rWbGST showed that the rWbGST protein retained the enzymatic activity of GST and the antibodies in EN sera could inhibit this enzymatic activity. Similar results were obtained when anti-rWbGST antibodies raised in mice were used in the neutralization assay. Brugia malayi GST and WbGST show significant sequence similarity. Therefore, to evaluate the vaccine potential of rWbGST, we used B. malayi L3 as challenge parasites. Vaccine potential of rWbGST was initially evaluated by confirming the role of human and mice WbGST antibodies in an antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. Subsequent vaccination

  17. Evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Prajna; Maitra, Sudipta; Datta, Sutapa; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia are symbiotic endobacteria that infect the majority of filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus. Recent studies have suggested that Wolbachia are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes and have highlighted the use of antibiotic therapy such as tetracycline/doxycycline as a novel method of treatment for infections caused by these organisms. Before such therapy is conceived and implemented on a large scale, it is necessary to assess the prevalence of the endosymbiont in W. bancrofti from different geographical locations. We present data from molecular and electron microscopic studies to provide evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in W. bancrofti microfilariae collected from two districts (Bankura and Birbhum) of West Bengal, India.

  18. Further evidence of the cross-reactivity of the Binax NOW® Filariasis ICT cards to non-Wuchereria bancrofti filariae: experimental studies with Loa loa and Onchocerca ochengi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, Samuel; Amvongo-Adjia, Nathalie; Njouendou, Abdel Jelil; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas Arnaud; Ndongmo, Winston Patrick Chounna; Fombad, Fanny Fri; Koudou, Benjamin; Enyong, Peter A; Bockarie, Moses

    2016-05-05

    The immunochromatographic test (ICT) for lymphatic filariasis is a serological test designed for unequivocal detection of circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen. It was validated and promoted by WHO as the primary diagnostic tool for mapping and impact monitoring for disease elimination following interventions. The initial tests for specificity and sensitivity were based on samples collected in areas free of loiasis and the results suggested a near 100% specificity for W. bancrofti. The possibility of cross-reactivity with non-Wuchereria bancrofti antigens was not investigated until recently, when false positive results were observed in three independent studies carried out in Central Africa. Associations were demonstrated between ICT positivity and Loa loa microfilaraemia, but it was not clearly established if these false positive results were due to L. loa or can be extended to other filarial nematodes. This study brought further evidences of the cross-reactivity of ICT card with L. loa and Onchocerca ochengi (related to O. volvulus parasite) using in vivo and in vitro systems. Two filarial/host experimental systems (L. loa-baboon and O. ochengi-cattle) and the in vitro maintenance of different stages (microfilariae, infective larvae and adult worm) of the two filariae were used in three experiments per filarial species. First, whole blood and sera samples were prepared from venous blood of patent baboons and cattle, and applied on ICT cards to detect circulating filarial antigens. Secondly, larval stages of L. loa and O. ochengi as well as O. ochengi adult males were maintained in vitro. Culture supernatants were collected and applied on ICT cards after 6, 12 and 24 h of in vitro maintenance. Finally, total worm extracts (TWE) were prepared using L. loa microfilariae (Mf) and O. ochengi microfilariae, infective larvae and adult male worms. TWE were also tested on ICT cards. For each experiment, control assays (whole blood and sera from uninfected babon

  19. L3 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Falagan bobillo, M A; Chen, E F A; Prokofiev, D; Prokofiev, D; Shvorab, A; Galaktionov, Y; Kopal, M; Cotorobai, F; Le goff, J; Tully, C; Van hoek, W; Nozik, V Z; Nessi-tedaldi, F; De la cruz, B; Wadhwa, M; Chtcheguelski, V; Anderhub, H B; Guo, Y; Garcia-abia, P; Piroue, P; Della marina, R; Cerrada, M; Gailloud, M; Xia, L; Chaturvedi, U K; Pistolesi, E; Zhang, S

    2002-01-01

    % L3 \\\\ \\\\ The detector consists of a large volume low field solenoid magnet, a small central tracking system with very high spatial resolution, a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter encapsulating the central detector, a hadron calorimeter acting also as a muon filter, and high precision muon tracking chambers. \\\\ \\\\The detector is designed to measure energy and position of leptons with the highest obtainable precision allowing a mass resolution $\\Delta$m/m smaller than 2\\% in dilepton final states. Hadronic energy flux is detected by a fine-grained calorimeter, which also serves as muon filter and tracking device. \\\\ \\\\The outer boundary of the detector is given by the iron return-yoke of a conventional magnet, using aluminium plates for the coil. The field is 0.5~T over a length of 12~m. This large volume allows a high precision muon momentum measurement, performed by three sets of drift chambers in the central detector region. From the multiple measurement of the coordinate in the bending plane a m...

  20. Case report and brief commentary: Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus co-infection in a refugee from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Michael J; Wright, Stephanie; Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    2005-01-01

    Filarial infection is endemic in the tropics and is a public health problem in Africa, Asia, South and Central America, and the Pacific Islands. Co-infection with filarial nematodes, if unrecognized, can result in untoward therapeutic consequences. We report a case of co-infection of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus that was diagnosed by direct blood smear (W. bancrofti ) and serology (O. volvulus) in a native of Sierra Leone. We comment briefly on the therapeutic implications of the co-infection.

  1. The Impact of Six Annual Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Wuchereria bancrofti Infections in Humans and in Mosquitoes in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Yaya I; Dembele, Benoit; Diallo, Abdallah Amadou; Konaté, Siaka; Dolo, Houseini; Coulibaly, Siaka Yamoussa; Doumbia, Salif Seriba; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel Emmanuel; Bockarie, Moses J; Molyneux, David; Nutman, Thomas B; Klion, Amy D; Toure, Yeya T; Traore, Sekou F

    2015-08-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti prevalence and transmission were assessed in six endemic villages in Sikasso, Mali prior to and yearly during mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin from 2002 to 2007. Microfilaremia was determined by calibrated thick smear of night blood in adult volunteers and circulating filarial antigen was measured using immunochromatographic card test in children < 5 years of age. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch from July to December. None of the 686 subjects tested were microfilaremic 12 months after the sixth MDA round. More importantly, circulating antigen was not detected in any of the 120 children tested, as compared with 53% (103/194) before the institution of MDA. The number of infective bites/human/year decreased from 4.8 in 2002 to 0.04 in 2007, and only one mosquito containing a single infective larva was observed 12 months after the final MDA round. Whether this dramatic reduction in transmission will be sustained following cessation of MDA remains to be seen. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Macrofilaricidal Activity in Wuchereria bancrofti after 2 Weeks Treatment with a Combination of Rifampicin plus Doxycycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yaw Debrah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti can lead to lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis. Since adult worms cause pathology in lymphatic filariasis (LF, it is imperative to discover macrofilaricidal drugs for the treatment of the infection. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia in filariae have emerged as a new target for antibiotics which can lead to macrofilaricidal effects. In Ghana, a pilot study was carried out with 39 LF-infected men; 12 were treated with 200 mg doxycycline/day for 4 weeks, 16 were treated with a combination of 200 mg doxycycline/day + 10 mg/kg/day rifampicin for 2 weeks, and 11 patients received placebo. Patients were monitored for Wolbachia and microfilaria loads, antigenaemia, and filarial dance sign (FDS. Both 4-week doxycycline and the 2-week combination treatment reduced Wolbachia load significantly. At 18 months posttreatment, four-week doxycycline resulted in 100% adult worm loss, and the 2-week combination treatment resulted in a 50% adult worm loss. In conclusion, this pilot study with a combination of 2-week doxycycline and rifampicin demonstrates moderate macrofilaricidal activity against W. bancrofti.

  3. The effect of eight half-yearly single-dose treatments with DEC on Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigenaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Magesa, Stephen M; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2005-01-01

    The effect of eight half-yearly treatment rounds with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 6mg/kg bodyweight) on Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA), a marker of adult worm infection, was followed in 79 individuals who were CFA-positive before start of treatment. Half of these were...

  4. Association between mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection in two communities in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Garred, Peter

    2010-01-01

    gene and for W. bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between MBL genotype and CFA status, with low-expression MBL genotype individuals being almost three times more likely to be CFA positive than high-expression MBL...

  5. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD DE LOS ESTADIOS L2 Y L3 DE Phyllophaga elenans A UNA CEPA NATIVA DE Heterorhabditis sp. EN CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    dosis de 500 y 625 nematodos.larva-1 presentaron una mortalidad significativamente mayor que el control. La mortalidad mayor (24%, se obtuvo al día 30 con la dosis de 625 nematodos.larva-1. La diferencia observada en los porcentajes de infección entre larvas L2 y L3 puede deberse a mecanismos de defensa o escape que podrían actuar en el estadio larval L3 de P. elenans.

  6. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... pattern was observed. Mathematical analysis of the data indicated a peak at 0152 h and a periodicity index of 117.5. A periodicity equation was developed describing the average relation between mf intensity and hour of the day for the study area. Based on the observed periodicity pattern, the effect...... of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate...

  7. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae from different geographical regions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti SL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool is employed. In the present communication, we report the detection of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of W. bancrofti parasites collected from geographically distant locations of India, such as Pondicherry (Union Territory, Calicut (Kerala, Jagadalpur (Madhya Pradesh, Thirukoilur (TamilNadu, Chinnanergunam (TamilNadu, Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh, and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, using Wolbachia specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction.

  8. Use of high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin to suppress Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Benoit; Coulibaly, Yaya I; Dolo, Housseini; Konate, Siaka; Coulibaly, Siaka Y; Sanogo, Dramane; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E; Doumbia, Salif Seriba; Diallo, Abdallah A; Traore, Sekou F; Diaman Keita, Adama; Fay, Michael P; Nutman, Thomas B; Klion, Amy D

    2010-12-01

    Annual mass treatment with albendazole and ivermectin is the mainstay of current strategies to interrupt transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in Africa. More-effective microfilarial suppression could potentially reduce the time necessary to interrupt transmission, easing the economic burden of mass treatment programs in countries with limited resources. To determine the effect of increased dose and frequency of albendazole-ivermectin treatment on microfilarial clearance, 51 W. bancrofti microfilaremic residents of an area of W. bancrofti endemicity in Mali were randomized to receive 2 doses of annual, standard-dose albendazole-ivermectin therapy (400 mg and 150 μg/kg; n = 26) or 4 doses of twice-yearly, increased-dose albendazole-ivermectin therapy (800 mg and 400 μg/kg; n = 25). Although microfilarial levels decreased significantly after therapy in both groups, levels were significantly lower in the high-dose, twice-yearly group at 12, 18, and 24 months. Furthermore, there was complete clearance of detectable microfilariae at 12 months in the 19 patients in the twice-yearly therapy group with data available at 12 months, compared with 9 of 21 patients in the annual therapy group (P < .001, by Fisher's exact test). This difference between the 2 groups was sustained at 18 and 24 months, with no detectable microfilariae in the patients receiving twice-yearly treatment. Worm nests detectable by ultrasonography and W. bancrofti circulating antigen levels, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were decreased to the same degree in both groups at 24 months, compared with baseline. These findings suggest that increasing the dosage and frequency of albendazole-ivermectin treatment enhances suppression of microfilariae but that this effect may not be attributable to improved adulticidal activity.

  9. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ximenes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2 and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2, which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  10. Distribusi Filariasis Brugia Timori dan Wuchereria Bancrofti di Desa Kahale, Kecamatan Kodi Balaghar, Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Yunarko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is still a health problem in the East Nusa Tenggara province. Southwest Sumba District is filariasis endemic area. It is found 35 chronic cases in Kodi Balaghar subdistrict. Although implementation of mass drug adminsitration was held in 2011 but drug coverage had been poor and not reach Kodi Balaghar subdistrict. The purpose of this study were to measure the prevalence and distribution, determine the density and type of parasite and mapping cases in the Kodi Balaghar subdistrict. This research was a descriptive study with cross sectional approach which conducted in the Kahale Village, Kodi Balaghar Subdistrict in 2012. Five hundred people were checked. The results of the examination found that 21 positive microfilariae cases,  Mf rate was 4.2%. Two species of microfilariae that found were Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori. The distribution filariasis cases is higher in men and higher in reproductive age (15-45 years. There were three types of infection, an infection by B. timori, W. bancrofti, and mixed infections both the microfilariae. The density of microfilariae in the area was 190.86 mf/ml, the density W. bancrofti was 160.04 mf/ml, B. timori was 115.97 mf/ml. Filariasis cases distributed near to potential breeding places of mosquito .

  11. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Haitian immigrants and the risk of re-emergence of lymphatic filariasis in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Fidelis da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence. METHODS: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon, were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. RESULTS: Of the 244 immigrants evaluated, 1 (0.4% tested positive for W. bancrofti; 11.5% reported as having received LF treatment in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: The re-emergence of LF in Manaus is unlikely, due to its low prevalence and low density of microfilaremia among the assessed Haitian immigrants.

  12. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  13. Association between mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection in two communities in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Garred, Peter

    2010-01-01

    gene and for W. bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between MBL genotype and CFA status, with low-expression MBL genotype individuals being almost three times more likely to be CFA positive than high-expression MBL...

  14. L3-forward-backward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiters, K.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the distance sensors could be successfully tested in the L3 detector. One sensor of each type got installed together with a precision sensor. This sensor is based on a glass rod with optical marks which are scanned by a system of light diodes. It has a measurement accuracy of 1 μm. We proved, that the desired accuracy of 10 μm was reached and that the sensors work in the environment of the L3 detector. (author) 11 figs., 5 refs

  15. $K_{l3}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, C R; Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Maris, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K_{l3} transition form factors and decay width in impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K_{l3} form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. What is special about L3 processing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Cornelis L. J. (Kees); Jaensch, Carol

    2015-01-01

    While research on third language (L3) and multilingualism has recently shown remarkable growth, the fundamental question of what makes trilingualism special compared to bilingualism, and indeed monolingualism, continues to be evaded. In this contribution we consider whether there is such a thing as

  17. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  18. Mansonia africana and Mansonia uniformis are Vectors in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti lymphatic filariasis in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughasi Josephine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data from Ghana indicates that after seven rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA there is still sustained transmission albeit at low levels in certain areas where Anopheles melas, An. gambiae s.s., Mansonia and Culex species are the main biting mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus are the known vectors in Ghana and a recent report indicated that An. melas could transmit at low level microfilaraemia. However, because An. melas is not found everywhere there was the need to determine whether any of the other culicine species could also be playing a role in the transmission of LF. Methods Indoor mosquitoes collected once a month for three months using pyrethrum spray catches in six communities within the Kommenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA District, Central Region of Ghana were morphologically identified, dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Additionally, stored mosquito samples collected during previous years in 8 communities from the Gomoa District also in the Central Region were similarly processed. The identities of all W. bancrofti parasites found were confirmed using an established PCR method. Results A total of 825 indoor resting mosquitoes comprising of 501 Anopheles species, 239 Mansonia species, 84 Culex species and 1 Aedes species were dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Mansonia africana had infection and infectivity rates of 2.5%. and 2.1% respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l. had an infection rate of 0.4% and a similar infectivity rate. None of the Culex sp. and Aedes sp were found with infection. From the stored mosquitoes the infection and infectivity rates for M. africana were 7.6% (N = 144 and 2.8% respectively whilst the corresponding rates for M. uniformis were 2.9% (N = 244 and 0.8%. Conclusions This is the first report of Mansonia species as vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF in Ghana and in West Africa since that of 1958 in

  19. Cognitive approaches to L3 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Garcia Mayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism has established itself as an area of systematic research in linguistic studies over the last two decades. The multilingual phenomenon can be approached from different perspectives: educational, formal linguistic, neurolinguistic, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic, among others. This article presents an overview of cognitive (psychological and formal linguistic approaches to third language (L3 acquisition where the assumption is that language acquisition is a complex multi-faceted process. After identifying what is meant by L3, the article briefly reviews the major issues addressed from both the psycholinguistic strand and the emerging L3 linguistic strand and concentrates on those aspects that are in need of further research in both.El plurilingüismo se ha ganado su propia área de investigación dentro de los estudios de lingüística en las últimas dos décadas. El fenómeno se puede abordar desde perspectivas diferentes: educativa, lingüística de carácter formal, neurolingüística, psicolingüística y sociolingüística, entre otras. Este artículo presenta una visión general de dos perspectivas cognitivas, la psicológica y la procedente de la lingüística formal, al tema de la adquisición de la tercera lengua (L3. Ambas perspectivas comparten la asunción de que la adquisición del lenguaje es un proceso complejo y con varias vertientes. Después de identificar lo que entendemos por L3, el artículo revisa de forma sucinta los principales temas que se han tratado tanto desde la perspectiva psicolingüística como desde la más emergente perspectiva lingüística en materia de L3 y se concentra en aquellos aspectos que consideramos que necesitan mayor investigación en ambas.

  20. Kosmische Myonen im L3-Detektor

    CERN Document Server

    Saidi, Rachid

    2000-01-01

    Durch die Untersuchung des Mondschattens in der primaren kosmischen Strahlung konnen Informationen uber die Winkelau osung des L3-Detektors gewonnen werden, sowie mit ausreichender Statistik das Verhaltnis von Antiprotonen zu Protonen fur Protonenergien um 1 TeV abgeschatzt werden. Die Bahn der Protonen vom Mond zur Erde wird durch folgende Eekte beein ut: Das Magnetfeld zwischen Mond und Erde lenkt die geladenen Teilchen ab. Fur 1 TeV Protonenenergie wurde ein Wert von 1:70 abgeschatzt. Die Mehrfachstreuung in der 30 m dicken Erdschicht uber L3 verursacht eine Winkelverschmierung von 3.5 mrad fur 100 GeV Myonen. Der Winkel zwischen Proton und den sekundaren Myonen, die durch Wechselwirkung von primaren Kernen mit den oberen Schichten der Atmosphare entstehen, betragt 3 mrad fur 100 GeV Myonen. Die berechnete Winkelau osung dieser Untersuchung fur den L3-Detektor mit verschiedenen Energien betragt einen Wert von 0:170 0:030 fur das starkste Myonschattensignal bei 150 GeV Myonenenergie. Dabei wurde fur den Mon...

  1. Survival of diurnally sub periodic Wuchereria bancrofti in Downsiomyia nivea (Diptera: Culicidae: a density dependent factor from Andaman & Nicobar Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Shriram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In India, diurnally sub periodic Wuchereria bancrofti transmitted by Downsiomyia nivea is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The ongoing LF elimination programme aims at transmission interruption by bringing down the microfilarie (mf load in the community, which has implication on the parasite load in mosquito vector. Therefore, understanding density dependent constraints on transmission assumes significance from control perspective. The present study was undertaken in Teressa Island to understand the density dependent parasite mortality and survival probability of the parasite Do. nivea. Methods: The entomological data collected from Teressa Island, endemic for the diurnally sub periodic form of W. bancrofti were used to examine the parasite loss and its survival up to infectivity. Patterns of parasite distribution in Do. nivea were examined. Results: Distribution patterns of microfilariae were found to be over dispersed in Do. nivea. The later stages of the parasite in the vector were randomly distributed. Distribution pattern of various filarial larval stages suggested that the loss of parasites occurred as development progressed and was maximal between the first and second stages. Further, both the prevalence of infection and the degree of parasite aggregation in the vector population have fallen significantly with development of parasite stage. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicate the operation of parasite density dependent mortality of vectors or parasite loss or combination of both. The present study with Aedes transmitted filariasis conducted before launching LF elimination programme in the study area indicates a comparable level of parasite regulation in the vector which has similar implications on the transmission threshold. Thus, the consideration of Aedes with Culex in deriving the critical level of antigen positive for making decisions on cessation of mass drug

  2. Gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Das

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode larvae (L3 in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam. Materials and Methods: Pastures were collected and examined for the presence of nematode larvae (L3 from six localities of Guwahati at monthly interval from August 2012 to July 2013. The counted larvae were then expressed as per kg dry matter of herbage (L3/kg DM. Results: Examination of pastures revealed presence of nematode larvae (L3 in pastures throughout the year which varied from 4.5 L3/kg DM in January to a maximum of 106.33 L3/kg DM in August. The L3 of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., and Mecistocirrus spp. were recovered from pastures. The average pasture larval burden (PLB was 34.75±3.48 L3/kg DM. Season-wise PLB revealed the presence of 23.89±3.01, 67.54±5.41, 26.67±1.92, and 7.28±0.89 L3/kg DM during pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, respectively. Monsoon season has significant (p<0.05 effect on PLB. However, analysis of variance of different locations with respect to season revealed that there was no significant difference but season-wise it was highly significant (p<0.01. Pearson correlation of environmental variables (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall with PLB revealed correlation was statistically significant with rainfall (p<0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of five nematode larvae (L3 in the pastures of Guwahati, Assam throughout the year, statistically significant during monsoon season.

  3. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  4. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60 000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group...... of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...... towards T. canis L2/L3 ES products was observed from day 14 p.i. until termination of the experiment, and the maximum eosinophil response was observed 14 days p.i. The pig is a useful non-primate model for human visceral larva migrans, since T. canis migrate well and induce a strong immunological response...

  5. The Effects of L2 Experience on L3 Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the influence of experience with a second language (L2) on the perception of phonological contrasts in a third language (L3). This study contributes to L3 phonology by examining the influence of L2 phonological perception abilities on the perception of an L3 at the beginner level. Participants were native speakers of Korean…

  6. Effect of plant trichomes on the vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on five tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aruaque L F; Costa, Ciniro; Rodella, Roberto A; Silva, Bruna F; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2009-06-01

    The influence of trichomes on vertical migration and survival of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) on different forages was investigated. Four different forages showing different distributions of trichomes (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Andropogon gayanus, and Stylosanthes spp.), and one forage species without trichomes (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), were used. Forages cut at the post-grazing height were contaminated with faeces containing L3. Samples of different grass strata (0-10, 10-20, >20 cm) and faeces were collected for L3 quantification once per week over four weeks. In all forages studied, the highest L3 recovery occurred seven days after contamination, with the lowest recovery on A. gayanus. In general, larvae were found on all forages' strata. However, most of the larvae were at the lower stratum. There was no influence of trichomes on migration and survival of H. contortus L3 on the forages.

  7. Positivity of Antigen Tests Used for Diagnosis of Lymphatic Filariasis in Individuals Without Wuchereria bancrofti Infection But with High Loa loa Microfilaremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Sébastien D.; Montavon, Céline; Chesnais, Cédric B.; Kamgno, Joseph; Wanji, Samuel; Klion, Amy D.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-2000s, the immunochromatographic card test (ICT), a point-of-care test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigens (CFAs), has been the backbone for mapping and monitoring lymphatic filariasis (LF) worldwide. Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with Loa loa microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between L. loa and CFA using additional diagnostic tools (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], Og4C3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IgG4 antibodies to Wb123 assays) to demonstrate the relationship between L. loa microfilaremia and ICT positivity. In May 2013, peripheral blood was collected during the day from 1,812 individuals living in southern Cameroon. ICT tests were done on the spot, and positive individuals were resampled at night. Results of qPCR and Wb123 assays concurred proving the absence of W. bancrofti infection. Og4C3 assays indicate a quantitative relationship between the level of L. loa microfilaremia and that of CFA. This was confirmed by epidemiological analyses, which reveal a strong association between L. loa microfilaremia and ICT positivity, with 50% of ICT reacting to L. loa when its microfilarial density exceeds 30,000 microfilariae/mL. At the community level, the proportion of positive ICT would exceed 2% when the prevalence of L. loa microfilaremia in the total population is above 20%. This has significant implications in terms of mapping and control of LF caused by W. bancrofti in Loa-endemic areas. Cross-reactivity of ICT with L. loa has to be considered in the context of both individual and community diagnostics. PMID:27729568

  8. Efeito da infeccao com Wuchereira bancrofti (Cobbald, 1877) (Nematoda : Onchocercidae) sobre a capacidade reprodutiva de Culex quiquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (Diptera : Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade Lima, Catarina

    2000-01-01

    Filariose linfática é uma das doenças mais importantes, cujo agente etiológico é transmitido por mosquitos. O conhecimento das relações vetor/parasito, principalmente no que se refere a capacidade reprodutiva, são essenciais para o desenvolvimento de medidas de controle. Este estudo foi realizado para determinar o efeito do parasito filarial sobre a fecundidade do Culex quinquefasciatus, vetor da Wuchereria bancrofti na Região Metropolitana do Recife. Outros fatores relacionados ao potencial ...

  9. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  10. The interruption of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti transmission by integrated chemotherapy in the Obongi focus, North Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakwo Thomson Luroni

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented the interruption of onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis (LF by integrated chemotherapy in Uganda. The study describes the interruption of transmission of the two diseases co-endemic in Obongi focus, north western Uganda. Base line data for Onchocerciasis and LF were collected in 1994 and 2006, respectively. Annual mass drug administration for onchocerciasis (Ivermectin and Lymphatic Filariasis (Ivermectin + albendazole was conducted for 20 and 6 years, respectively. Thereafter, assessments by skin snip, larval searches in rivers and human landing catches were performed. Children 65% was achieved in the six treatment rounds. Household ownership of ITN's and utilization was 96% and 72.4%., respectively.Parasitological examinations conducted for onchocerciasis among 807 adults and children, revealed a reduction in mf prevalence from 58% in 1994 to 0% in 2012. Entomological monitoring conducted at the two sites had no single Simulium damnosum fly caught. Serological analysis using Ov16 ELISA for onchocerciasis revealed that out of the 3,308 children <10 years old screened in 2013, only 3/3308 (0.091% positive cases were detected. All Ov16 positive children were negative when tested for patent infection by skin snip PCR. A reduction in LF microfilaria prevalence from 2.5% (n = 13/522 in 2006 to 0.0% (n = 602 in 2014 was observed. LF TAS1 conducted in 2015 among 1,532 children 6-7 years, all were negative for antigens of W. bancrofti.The results concluded that interruption of onchocerciasis and LF has been achieved.

  11. Retrieval of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infective larvae from grass contaminated in winter and in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Abdallah da Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of infective larvae (L3 of Trichostrongylus colubriformis was evaluated on Brachiaria, Coast-cross and Aruana forage grasses. Feces of sheep parasitized exclusively by T. colubriformis were deposited in winter and spring on experimental plots whose grasses were cut at two heights: 5 cm and 30 cm. One, two, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks after depositing the feces, fecal and forage samples were collected for the retrieval and quantification of L3. Retrieval of L3 from feces and forage was negligible in winter due to the dry weather, although a few larvae were retrieved in the last larval collections. However, L3 retrieval from fecal samples was greater in spring, especially two weeks after feces were deposited on 30 cm high grasses. At this time, the L3 retrieval rate from the three forage grasses differed significantly (P <0.05, with Aruana grass showing the highest average L3 retrieval rate, followed by Coast-cross and Brachiaria. In conclusion, the winter drought proved very unfavorable for the presence of L3 in the environment, and the microclimate of Aruana pastureland was generally the most favorable for the retrieval of infective larvae.

  12. LOFT/L3-, Loss of Fluid Test, 7. NRC L3 Small Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This was the seventh in the NRC L3 Series of small-break LOCA experiments. A 2.5-cm (10-in.) cold-leg non-communicative-break LOCA was simulated. The experiment was conducted on 20 June 1980

  13. TES/Aura L3 CO Monthly Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CO data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  14. IceBridge DMS L3 Photogrammetric DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge DMS L3 Photogrammetric DEM (IODMS3) data set contains gridded digital elevation models and orthorectified images of Greenland derived from the Digital...

  15. L3 English acquisition in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In total, responses from 187 pupils were included, some of which were responses from pupils learning English as a second language; these respondents were included for comparisons (Copenhagen: L2 learners N =59, L3 learners N=32; Nuuk: L3 learners N=96; age: 14......This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling......–16 years). The results showed significant gender-related differences with different patterns between the three learner groups (L2 and L3 learners in Copenhagen, L3 learners in Nuuk) with regard to the level of English proficiency, the degree to which pupils like English as a school subject and the pupils...

  16. Curcumin analog L3 alleviates diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Liu; Wen, Caixia; Huang, Xiuwang; Xu, Chenxia; Lee, Kuan-Han; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-03-15

    L3, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aims to explore the efficacy of L3 on diabetic atherosclerosis and the related mechanism. The effect of L3 was studied on glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, atherosclerosis-related indexes and pathological changes of main organs in the mice model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. The results showed that L3 treatment could meliorate dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, reduce oxidative stress, enhance the activity of antioxidases, increase the nitric oxide level in plasma and aortic arch, decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in pancreas and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortic arch, and meliorate the fatty and atherosclerotic degeneration in aortic arch, thereby preventing the development of diabetes and its complications. These results suggested that L3 can alleviate the diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects. This study provided scientific basis for the further research and clinical application of L3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Berbagai Cara Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tindakan pencegahan dengan memberantas sarang nyamuk dan membunuh larva serta nyamuk dewasa terus digalakkan. Stadium pradewasa atau larva dapat dikontrol secara biologi maupun kimiawi.1 Berikut adalah beberapa cara pengendalian larva nyamuk.Pengendalian secara biologi Beberapa organisme yang efektif untuk mengendalikan larva secara biologi diantaranya adalah Ikan (larvavivorous fish,Aplocheilus panchax (ikan kepala timah, Ctenops vittatus (ikan cupang,Oreochromis (Tilapia mossambicus (ikan nila dan Cyprinus carpio (ikan tombro, larva nyamuk dari genus Toxorhynchites, Capung (Dragonflies/Labellula . Kelompok Udang (Cyclopoid copepods Jenis Copepoda yang tersebar sebagai plankton dan bentos ini bersifat predator yang efektif untuk mengendalikan stadium pradewasa nyamuk instar satu dan instar dua. Pada suatu penelitian di Polynesia Perancis terbukti bahwa M. aspericornis pengaruhnya tidak konsisten terhadap larva Ae. aegypti yang ditemukan berada di tangki air, drum dan sumur yang tertutup. Keadaan tersebut tampaknya bergantung pada tersedianya mikrofauna di tempat perkembangbiakannya yang dibutuhkan untuk pertumbuhan Copepoda tersebut

  18. Reserve interlanguage transfer : the effects of L3 Italian & L3 French on L2 English pronoun use

    OpenAIRE

    Aysan, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 58-67. This study focuses on the reverse interlanguage transfer by examining the effects of the L3 Italian and L3 French on the L2 English subject pronoun use as well as the effects of referentiality. The participants were 60 tertiary level students studying at Ankara University English Prepara...

  19. Analysis of Multi Muon Events in the L3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Volker

    2000-01-01

    The muon density distribution in air showers initiated by osmi parti les is sensitive to the hemi al omposition of osmi rays. The density an be measured via the multipli ity distribution in a nite size dete tor, as it is L3. With a shallow depth of 30 meters under ground, the dete tor provides an ex ellent fa ility to measure a high muon rate, but being shielded from the hadroni and ele troni shower omponent. Subje t of this thesis is the des ription of the L3 Cosmi s experiment (L3+C), whi h is taking data sin e May 1999 and the analysis of muon bundles in the large magneti spe trometer of L3. The new osmi trigger and readout system is brie y des ribed. The in uen e of dierent primaries on the multipli ity distribution has been investigated using Monte Carlo event samples, generated with the CORSIKA program. The simulation results showed that L3+C measures in the region of the \\knee" of the primary spe trum of osmi rays. A new pattern re ognition has been developed and added to the re onstru tion ode, whi h ...

  20. Overview: Pyraloidea larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...

  1. The transcriptome analysis of Strongyloides stercoralis L3i larvae reveals targets for intervention in a neglected disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcilla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is one of the most neglected diseases distributed worldwide with endemic areas in developed countries, where chronic infections are life threatening. Despite its impact, very little is known about the molecular biology of the parasite involved and its interplay with its hosts. Next generation sequencing technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly address these questions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the first transcriptome of the third larval stage of S. stercoralis using 454 sequencing coupled with semi-automated bioinformatic analyses. 253,266 raw sequence reads were assembled into 11,250 contiguous sequences, most of which were novel. 8037 putative proteins were characterized based on homology, gene ontology and/or biochemical pathways. Comparison of the transcriptome of S. strongyloides with those of other nematodes, including S. ratti, revealed similarities in transcription of molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Enzymatic proteins, like kinases and proteases, were abundant. 1213 putative excretory/secretory proteins were compiled using a new pipeline which included non-classical secretory proteins. Potential drug targets were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic and metabolomic explorations of S. stercoralis, as well as a basis for applied outcomes, such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite.

  2. The L3 vertex detector: design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, H.; Alverson, G.; Anderhub, H.; Bao, J.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Beissel, F.; Betev, B.; Biland, A.; Böhm, A.; Camps, C.; Chien, C.-Y.; Commichau, V.; Dieters, K.; Donat, A.; Djambazov, L.; Fisher, P.; Freibel, W.; Göttlicher, P.; Haensli, M.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Heller, R.; Herten, U.; Hofer, H.; Glaubman, M.; Jung, H.; Leedom, I.; Leiste, R.; Liebmann, H.; Lohmann, W.; Neyer, C.; Newman, D.; MacDermott, M.; Maolinbay, M.; McNally, D.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Orndorff, J.; Peng, Y.; Pevsner, A.; Pohl, M.; Quadleig, K.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Ren, D.; Reucroft, S.; Rieb, N.; Rinsche, U.; Röser, U.; Röhner, S.; Rose, J.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Sens, J. C.; Spangler, J.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Starosta, R.; Sultanov, G.; Suter, H.; Szcesny, H.; Taylor, L.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Ulbricht, J.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Virnich, H.; Vogt, H.; Von Gunten, H. P.; Waldmeier, S.; Weber, J.; Winands, T.; Zemp, P.

    1992-05-01

    The L3 vertex detector is comprised of the time expansion chamber (TEC), the Z-chamber and a layer of plastic scintillating fibers. The TEC has shown a high spatial resolution and an excellent multi-track reconstruction capability at LEP luminosity. The Z-chamber provides information about the z-coordinates of the tracks and the fibers are used for calibrating the drift velocity with a high precision. A description of the L3 vertex detector, its readout and data acquisition and its performance during the 1990 LEP running period is presented in this paper.

  3. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  4. Characterization of the excretory/secretory products of Dermatobia hominis larvae, the human bot fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, M P R; Guimarães, S; Souza-Neto, J A; Ribolla, P E M; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2010-03-25

    Proteolytic activity in excretory/secretory products (ESP) of first- (L1), second- (L2) and third-instar (L3) larvae of Dermatobia hominis was analyzed through gelatin-gel and colorimetric enzyme assays with the chromogenic substrates azocasein and BApNA. The functional characterization of proteases was based on inhibition assays including synthetic inhibitors. ESP were obtained from new-hatched larvae reared in the laboratory and from second- and third-instar larvae removed from naturally infested cattle. Gelatin-gel analysis evidenced few bands of proteolysis, predominantly of high apparent molecular masses, in ESP of L1, whereas in the gel of L2 and L3 ESP there was a wide range of proteolytic activity most of them not resolved in a single species. Azocasein assays revealed a progressive increase of protease activity from first- to third-instar larvae. Protease inhibitor assays revealed a predominance of metalloproteases in L1 ESP that could be related to a skin penetration process and to a diversion of host immune response. The predominance of serine proteases in L2 and L3 and the great tryptic activity presented by L3 ESP were attributed to an increasing trophic activity by the growing larvae, since the viability of adult flies strictly depends on larval abilities to assimilate nutrients from the host. Taking together, these results suggest that Dematobia larvae secrete/excrete different proteases that may be related to diverse functions during host penetration and infestation, which reinforces the relevance of the study of such proteolytic enzymes.

  5. Cross-Linguistic Influence in L3 Phonological Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates possible sources and directions of cross-linguistic influence on vowel reduction and speech rhythm produced by four trilingual speakers with different L1s in their L2 (German or English) and L3 (English or German). It was shown that, compared to native speakers, the speakers produced distinct differences in these…

  6. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  7. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  8. Bilingual Education and L3 Learning: Metalinguistic Advantage or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Dieuwerke; Evans, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Metalinguistic skills are highlighted in the literature as providing bilinguals with an advantage in additional language (L3) learning. The extent to which this may apply to bilingual education and content-and-language-integrated-learning settings, however, is as yet little understood. This article reports on a study exploring and comparing the…

  9. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

  10. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  11. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  12. The muon spectrometer of the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the construction of the muon spectrometer of the L3 detector is described, one of the four detectors presently being prepared for experimentation at LEP. This accelerator is built at CERN, Geneva, and is due to start operation in July 1989. One of the unique features of the L3 experiment is the measurement of the momentum of the muons produced in the e + e - collisions iwht an independent muon spectrometer. This makes it possible to study final states involving muons, with high accuracy (δP/P = 2% at 45 GeV). The muon spectrometer consists of 80 large drift chambers, arranged in 16 modules or 'octants', that fill a cylindrical volume of 12 m in length, 5 m inner diameter and 12 m outer diameter. The design of the drift chambers, the construction, the alignment procedure and the test results for the complete octants are described. 51 refs.; 57 figs.; 16 tabs

  13. The main proteinases in Dermatobia hominis second and third instars larvae are serine-proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, F A; Moya-Borja, G E; Barreira, J D; Pinho, R T; Alves, C R

    2007-04-30

    We performed a combination of proteinase assay, either in solution or immobilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with gelatin, to detect and quantify proteinases of Dermatobia hominis second (L2) and third (L3) instar larvae. In the quantitative assay, we examined proteinase activity by hydrolysis of a panel of peptide bonds specific for the main proteinase classes. We verified that the pGlu-Phe-Leu p-nitroanilide substrate was hydrolyzed by crude extracts of L2 (3.0+/-0.2 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)) and L3 (7.7+/-0.1 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)) and that both activities were partially inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane, 15% and 3%, respectively. Also, we demonstrated that the Nalpha-p-Tosyl-l-Arg methyl ester substrate was hydrolyzed by crude extracts of L2 (117+/-24 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)) and L3 (111+/-10 nmol h(-1)mg of protein(-1)), suggesting a predominance of esterase activity in the crude larval preparation. Interestingly, the specific activity of serine-proteinases was totally inhibited by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride in the L3 crude extract, while only 10% of this enzyme class activity was inhibited in the L2 crude extract. The results of the qualitative assays with substrate gels suggested that L2 and L3 larvae express serine-proteinases with similar (13 and 22 kDa) and distinct (50 kDa in L2 and 30 kDa in L3) relative molecular masses. These findings contribute to the biochemical characterization of D. hominis L2 and L3 larvae.

  14. The future of literary texts in the L3 classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Olsbu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available What will the L3 classroom look like in the future? In the debates about foreign language (FL educational politics and methodology, little has been said about literature. Still, it is my claim that the question of literature is intrinsically related to fundamental FL issues such as aims, content and methods. To ask whether the L3 classroom of the future will include literary texts is therefore also to ask about the future disciplinary identity of the foreign languages. The present article investigates the use of literature in foreign language teaching and learning, and provides a kind of “thick description” that comes from mapping the question within a broader context. I start with the main didactic and epistemic perspectives on the use of literary texts within the field of foreign languages (FL itself. These perspectives from within will be amplified by introducing what I have termed two competing discourses of literature and education (“literature as suppressive” and “literature as suppressed”, and by showing how they can be related to FL teaching and learning. These are in turn framed within the macro perspective of educational philosophies and the functions of school in society. Finally, I will consider the specific Norwegian case, with a particular focus on the L3 subject curriculum of the last curricular reform (LK06, and its consequences for the use of literary texts.

  15. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture.

  16. Therapeutic potential of the immunomodulatory proteins Wuchereria bancrofti L2 and Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdare, N P; Khatri, V K; Yadav, R S P; Tarnekar, A; Goswami, K; Reddy, M V R

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence has supported the concept of using helminths as alternative bio-therapeutic agents in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the current study, two filarial proteins, recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti L2 (rWbL2) and Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT-2) have been investigated, individually and in combination, for their therapeutic potential in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D. The rWbL2 and rBmALT-2 proteins, when administered individually or in combination, have resulted in lowering of the blood glucose levels and reducing the incidence of T1D in mice. In addition, these proteins have led to reduced lymphocytic infiltration and decreased islet damage and inflammation. The curative effect was found to be associated with the suppression of release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and increased production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokines by the splenocytes of the diabetic mice. Insulin-specific IgG1 and antigen-specific IgE antibodies were found to be elevated in the sera of mice treated with rWbL2 and rBmALT-2 proteins. From the findings in this study, it can be envisaged that both of these filarial immunomodulatory proteins have the potential to ameliorate T1D by altering the regulatory immune responses.

  17. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders – H2L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfass, Patrick [Technology Transition Corporation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders program, H2L3, elevates the knowledge about hydrogen by local government officials across the United States. The program reaches local leaders directly through “Hydrogen 101” workshops and webinar sessions; the creation and dissemination of a unique report on the hydrogen and fuel cell market in the US, covering 57 different sectors; and support of the Hydrogen Student Design Contest, a competition for interdisciplinary teams of university students to design hydrogen and fuel cell systems based on technology that’s currently commercially available.

  19. Desiccation resistance of Chironomid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to desiccation in larvae of eight species of aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial chironomids (Pseudodiamesa branickii, Macropelopia sp., Prodiamesa olivacea, Micropsectra sp., Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dorsalis, Metriocnemus martini and Camptocladius stercorarius was studied. The larvae were desiccated in exicator at constant conditions (15 °C, 80% RH and changes in moisture and body water content was recorded. The LD-50 for loss of body water was calculated. The lowest resistance to loss of body water was found in larvae from subfamilies Tanypodinae and Diamesinae Macropelopia sp. and P. branickii. They survived loss of 49.7 and 56.6% of original water content (presented values are LD-50. On the other hand the highest resistance to water loss was found in C. dorsalis. M. martini and C. stercorarius. The larvae of these species may survive loss of 67.4, 76.6 and 84.2% of original water content. Nevertheless the survival time under experimental conditions depends more closely on larval size than on lethal level of water loss. The smaller larvae desiccated faster and perished sooner than large ones despite they tolerate higher loss of body water.

  20. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  1. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  2. Construction and performance of the L3 central tracking detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissel, F.; Böhm, A.; Bosseler, K.; Camps, C.; Commichau, V.; Deutschmann, M.; Frohn, H.; Jansen, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Grooten, J.; Hangarter, K.; Herten, U.; Liebmann, H.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Pahlke, R.; Reuter, W.; Rieb, N.; Rinsche, U.; Röhner, S.; Rose, J.; Quadflieg, K.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Spickermann, T.; Starosta, R.; Szczesny, H.; Sassowsky, M.; Tonutti, M.; Virnich, H.; Winands, T.; Sens, J. C.; Bourilkov, D.; Schotanus, D. J.; Akbari, H.; Bao, J.; Chien, C.-Y.; Fisher, P.; Gougas, A.; Newman, D.; Orndorff, J.; Pevsner, A.; Spangler, J.; Spartiotis, C.; Alverson, G.; Glaubman, M.; Leedom, I.; Reucroft, S.; Taylor, L.; Barbier, G.; Béné, P.; Bourquin, M.; Field, J. H.; Forconi, G.; La Marra, D.; Léger, A.; Masciocchi, F.; Perrier, J.; Perrin, E.; Produit, N.; Richeux, J. P.; Weber, M.; Antonov, L.; Botev, S.; Krastev, V.; Orlinov, I.; Hasan, A.; Sultanov, G.; Vikas, P.; Haerdi, E.; Deiters, K.; Donat, A.; Friebel, W.; Heller, R.; Kirsch, S.; Krankenhagen, R.; Lange, W.; Leiste, R.; Lohmann, W.; Lustermann, W.; Röser, U.; Peng, Y.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Vogt, H.; Wilhelmi, M.; Anderhub, H.; Baur, W.; Beauvais, F.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Betev, B.; Biland, A.; Djambazov, L.; Dhina, M.; Fehlmann, J.; Hänsli, M.; Herrmann, J.; Hofer, H.; Horisberger, U.; Isiksal, E.; Jung, H.; Kästli, W.; Lanius, K.; Lue, X.; Neyer, C.; Maolinbay, M.; McNally, D.; Okle, M.; Pohl, M.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Ren, D.; Schuijlenburg, H.; Stöhr, B.; Suter, H.; Thürig, H.; Ulbricht, J.; Viertel, G. M.; von Gunten, H. P.; Waldmeier, S.; Weber, J.; Zehnder, L.; Zemp, P.

    1993-07-01

    The L3 central tracking detector has been in operation since the start-up of LEP (Large Electron Positron collider) in 1989. This detector consists of a Time Expansion Chamber (TEC), a layer of Plastic Scintillating Fibers and a Z-chamber. The TEC gives a high spatial resolution and an excellent multi-track reconstruction capability. The fibers are designed to calibrate the drift velocity with high precision. The Z-Chamber provides TEC with accurate information about the z-coordinates of the tracks. A description of the design and the infrastructure of these three detectors, including the readout and data acquisition system, is given. The performance of the detectors during the 1990 and 1991 LEP running periods is presented.

  3. Multilingual students' acquisition of English as their L3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samal Jalal, Rawand

    with regard to English proficiency. The current study conducted in Denmark investigated multilingual students’ English proficiency compared to their monolingual peers’, and examined which learning strategies proficient L3 learners utilize. The sample was comprised of 9-graders who are monolinguals (N = 82...... participants’ behavior (i.e., which learning strategies they employ) was observed during English classes for approximately 10 weeks. Preliminary analyses show that the monolinguals outperformed the multilinguals on a general English proficiency test; which stands in contrast to existing theories......) and multilinguals with Turkish L1 (N = 134). The participants provided basic demographic information, and were tested in their general English proficiency. Out of the 70 multilinguals with Turkish L1, 12 participants were selected for further testing; i.e., the four participants who scored the lowest, four...

  4. Functional analysis of genetic polymorphism in Wuchereria bancrofti glutathione S-transferase antioxidant gene: impact on protein structure and enzyme catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Prabhu, Prince Rajaiah; Chowdhary, Swati; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti glutathione S-transferase (Wb-GST) is referred as a promising chemotherapeutic target for lymphatic filariasis. GST represents the major class of detoxifying enzymes of the tissue dwelling parasitic helminths. Though many inhibition studies were carried out for Wb-GST, understanding its genetic distribution in parasite population is necessary to develop ideal inhibitor. Our genetic polymorphic studies exposed the existence of three variant Wb-GST alleles in the four endemic regions of India. Moreover, it also revealed the variability in the distribution of Wb-GST alleles in the studied population. Therefore we cloned, expressed and purified the recombinant variant Wb-GST proteins to study the mutation impact on its structure and hence on its catalysis. Among the studied mutations, the I60F/G78S substitutions in the N-terminal domain and loop region connecting the two domains of Wb-GST lowered the affinity for glutathione and its analog, S-hexyl glutathione. Moreover, molecular modeling and docking studies revealed that the I60F/G78S mutations affected the proximity of Trp38 and Arg95 in glutathione binding site resulting in weaker interaction with S-hexyl glutathione. Besides, the variants also had lower affinity (Ki) and higher IC50 values for well-known GST inhibitors. Interestingly, the Wb-GST variant proteins showed enhanced catalytic efficiency for lipid peroxidation products which are produced due to oxidative stress. Thus, our study provides evidence for the functional impact of mutations on Wb-GST protein and also spotlights the mechanisms of parasite survival against the host oxidative stress environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  6. Transcriptional changes in the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, during the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett J D Datu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Third-stage larvae (L3 of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, undergo arrested development preceding transmission to a host. Many of the mRNAs up-regulated at this stage are likely to encode proteins that facilitate the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva. The initial phase of mammalian host invasion by A. caninum L3 (herein termed "activation" can be mimicked in vitro by culturing L3 in serum-containing medium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mRNAs differentially transcribed between activated and non-activated L3 were identified by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH. The analysis of these mRNAs on a custom oligonucleotide microarray printed with the SSH expressed sequence tags (ESTs and publicly available A. caninum ESTs (non-subtracted yielded 602 differentially expressed mRNAs, of which the most highly represented sequences encoded members of the pathogenesis-related protein (PRP superfamily and proteases. Comparison of these A. caninum mRNAs with those of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae exiting from developmental (dauer arrest demonstrated unexpectedly large differences in gene ontology profiles. C. elegans dauer exiting L3 up-regulated expression of mostly intracellular molecules involved in growth and development. Such mRNAs are virtually absent from activated hookworm larvae, and instead are over-represented by mRNAs encoding extracellular proteins with putative roles in host-parasite interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this should not invalidate C. elegans dauer exit as a model for hookworm activation, it highlights the limitations of this free-living nematode as a model organism for the transition of nematode larvae from a free-living to a parasitic state.

  7. Biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Braga, Fabio R; Monteiro, Thalita S Avelar; Freitas, Leandro G; Araujo, Juliana M; Soares, Filippe E Freitas; Araújo, Jackson V

    2014-01-01

    Geohelminths are parasites that stand out for their prevalence and wide distribution, depending on the soil for their transmission. The aim of this work was to evaluate the predatory capacity of the fungal isolate of the genus Duddingtonia (CG768) on third stage larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand under laboratory conditions. In the assay A five treatment groups and 1 control group were formed. The treatment groups contained 5000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 or 25,000 chlamydospores of the fungal isolate and 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 in pots containing 30g of sand. The control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and distilled water in pots with 30g of sand. Evidence of predatory activity was observed at the end of 15 days, where we observed the following percentages of reduction of L3: Group 1 (4.5%); Group 2 (24.5%); Group 3 (59.2%); Group 4 (58.8%); Group 5 (63%). However, difference was noted (pcontrol group. In the assay B two groups were formed in Petri dishes of 9cm in diameter containing agar water 2% medium. In the treated group, each Petri dish contained 500 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and 5g of sand containing the isolate CG 768 at a concentration of 25,000 chlamydospores/g of sand, and the control group (without fungus) contained only 500 L3. At the end of 7 days the non-predation L3 of Petri dishes using the method of Baermann were recovered. Difference (pcontrol of Ancylostoma spp. infective larvae. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning of relative clauses by L3 learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Koosha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In surveys of third language acquisition (TLA research, mixed results demonstrate that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the advantages and/or disadvantages of bilinguality on TLA. The main concern of the present study was, thus, to probe the probable differences between Persian monolingual and Azeri-Persian bilingual learners of English regarding their syntactic knowledge. It was an attempt to investigate whether they differ significantly in learning relative clauses. To carry out this study, a total of 200 female high school students studying at second grade were randomly selected from two educational districts of Tabriz and Shiraz in Iran. The participants were homogeneous in terms of English proficiency, sex, and age. They attended public high schools they were taught the same materials and had the same number of hours of instruction. A general proficiency test, a language history questionnaire, and two syntactic structure tasks were administered to both groups. Statistical analyses including t-tests and descriptive statistics revealed that monolinguals and bilinguals differ in the comprehension and production of English L3 relative clauses.

  9. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  10. Efficacy of Clonostachys rosea and Duddingtonia flagrans in Reducing the Haemonchus contortus Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol is proven effective in reducing in vitro and in situ free-living stages of major gastrointestinal helminths, allowing progress in reducing losses by parasitism, maximizing production, and productivity. This study aimed at evaluating the predatory activity of fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans and Clonostachys rosea species and its association on infective larvae (L3 of H. contortus in microplots formed by grasses and maintained in a protected environment. All groups were added with 10 mL of an aqueous suspension with 618 H. contortus L3 approximately. Group 1 was used as control and only received the infective larvae. Groups 2 and 3 received D. flagrans chlamydospores and C. rosea conidia at doses of 5 × 106. Group 4 received the combination of 5 × 106 D. flagrans chlamydospores + 5 × 106 C. rosea conidia. D. flagrans and C. rosea showed nematicidal effectiveness reducing by 91.5 and 88.9%, respectively, the population of H. contortus L3. However, when used in combination efficiency decreased to 74.5% predation of H. contortus L3. These results demonstrate the need for further studies to determine the existence of additive effects, synergistic or antagonistic, between these species.

  11. Tau Polarization Measurement in the L3 Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Polarization asymmetry (A p ) measurement can be obtained from the energy spectra of the tau lepton (tau) decay products. This measurement provides a precise determination of the weak mixing angel (sin''2 tilde char theta w ), one of the Standard Model fundamental parameters. Tau leptons are produced at LEP in e''+e''-yields tilde char f interactions at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z boson mass. In order to get A p we have calculated the analytical formulae of the tau decay products energy spectra, including radiative corrections, for all of the one prong tau decay channels. We have also extended this analytical formalism to the detector level, including the selection criteria effectsand the detector resolution (calibration) in the analytical expressions.Detailed studies have been performed concerning our measurement using this formalism. From the data collected with the L3 detector between 1991 and 1994, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 118.8 pb''1 at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z mass, we have identified and selected the following tau decay channel samples: tau yields e nu tilde char nu, tau yields mu nu tilde char nu, tau yields pi/K nu y tau yields p/K*nu. From the analysis of these samples we get the tau polarization asymmetry measurement: A p =3D0.143+-0.014+-0.010, which corresponds to a value of sin''2 tilde char theta w =3D0.2320+-0.0018+-0.0013. (Author) 24 refs

  12. LOFT/L3-6, Loss of Fluid Test, 6. NRC L3 Small Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This was the sixth in the NRC L3 Series of small-break LOCA experiments. A 10-cm (2.5-in.) cold-leg non-communicative-break LOCA was simulated. Pumps were running. The experiment was conducted on 10 December 1980

  13. LOFT/L3-5, Loss of Fluid Test, 5. NRC L3 Small Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This was the fifth in the NRC L3 Series of small-break LOCA experiments. A 10-cm (2.5-in.) cold-leg non-communicative-break LOCA was simulated. Pumps were shut off. The experiment was conducted on 29 September 1980

  14. Acanthocheilonema viteae: Vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucius, R.; Textor, G.; Kern, A.; Kirsten, C.

    1991-01-01

    Jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were immunized with irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (L3) of Acanthocheilonema viteae. The induced resistance against homologous challenge infection and the antibody response of the animals were studied. Immunization with 3, 2, or 1 dose of 50 irradiated L3 induced approximately 90% resistance. Immunization with a single dose of only 5 irradiated L3 resulted in 60.8% protection while immunization with a single dose of 25 L3 induced 94.1% protection. The protection induced with 3 doses of 50 irradiated L3 did not decrease significantly during a period of 6 months. Sera of a proportion, but not all resistant jirds, contained antibodies against the surface of vector derived L3 as defined by IFAT. No surface antigens of microfilariae or adult worms were recognized by the sera. Vaccinated animals had antibody responses against antigens in the inner organs of L3 and in the cuticle and reproductive organs of adult worms as shown by IFAT. Immunoblotting with SDS-PAGE-separated L3 antigens and L3-CSN revealed that all sera contained antibodies against two exported antigens of 205 and 68 kDa, and against a nonexported antigen of 18 kDa. The 205-kDa antigen easily degraded into fragments of 165, 140, 125, and 105 kDa which were recognized by resistant jird sera. Various antigens of adult worms, but relatively few antigens of microfilariae, were also recognized. To test the relevance of exported antigens of L3 to resistance, jirds were immunized with L3-CSN together with a mild adjuvant. This immunization induced 67.7% resistance against challenge infection and sera of the immunized animals recognized the 205- and 68-kDa antigens of L3

  15. First record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O

    2015-11-01

    Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.

  16. A Comparison of L2 and L3 Learners' Strategy Use in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukås, Åsta

    2015-01-01

    Research on third-language learning (L3) has documented that plurilingualism is an asset in many respects. Particularly relevant for this study is research showing that L3 learners use more strategies more frequently and efficiently than L2 learners. However, previous studies have mainly concentrated on L3 learners' strategy use at the university…

  17. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  18. PREFERENSI PENEMPELAN, PERTUMBUHAN, DAN SINTASAN LARVA TERIPANG PASIR, Holothuria scabra PADA SUBSTRAT LAMUN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fajar Indriana

    2017-01-01

    Sandfish Holothuria scabra is marine commodities with a high economic value. Overfishing of natural stocks has compelled an interest to begin aquaculture practice. Settlement is a critical phase for the planktonic larvae as they will transform to benthic form in the presence of substrate. This study aims to evaluate the settlement preferences, growth, and survival rate of H. scabra larvae settled on different seagrass leaves. The research was conducted using the Completely randomized design with four different species of seagrass leaves and five replications. The treatments consist of Enhalus acoroides (L-1, Syringodium isoetifolium (L-2, Cymodocea serrulata (L-3, and Cymodocea rotundata (L-4. Initial number of larvae was 1,000 individuals and the substrate was set with same widthof 12 cm x 17 cm for each unit. Results of the experiment indicated that settlement preference and survival rate of H. scabra larvae was significantly affected by seagrass used as substrate while no significantly differences was observed for growth of larvae. E. acoroides showed the best result with 0.26 ind. cm-2 settelement preference and 10.66% survival rate, so that suitable to be used as settlement substrate in H. scabra hatchery.

  19. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  20. Age of Haemonchus contortus third stage infective larvae is a factor influencing the in vitro assessment of anthelmintic properties of tannin containing plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Mathieu, C; Vilarem, G; Hoste, H; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; González-Pech, P G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2017-08-30

    The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) of infective larvae (L 3 ) is an in vitro method used to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) activity of tannin-containing plant extracts against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus. Some conditions remain to be defined in order to standardize the LEIA, i.e. the optimal age of larvae produced from donor animals to use in the assays. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the effect of age and age-related vitality of H. contortus infective larvae produced under tropical conditions, on the in vitro AH activity measured with the LEIA. The same acetone:water (70:30) extract from Acacia pennatula leaves was used to perform respective LEIA tests with H. contortus L 3 of different ages (1-7 weeks). Each week, the L 3 were tested against different concentrations of extract (1200, 600, 400, 200, 100, 40μg/mL of extract) plus a PBS control. Bioassays were performed with a benzimidazole (Bz) resistant H. contortus (Paraíso) strain. In order to identify changes in L 3 vitality on different weeks (1-7), two assays testing larval motility were included only with PBS: the larval migration assay (LMA) and the larval motility observation assay (LMOA). Mean effective concentrations causing 50% and 90% exsheathment inhibition (EC 50 , EC 90 ) were obtained for every week using respective Probit analyses. On the first week, the larvae had lowest EC 50 and EC 90 (39.4 and 65.6μg/mL) compared to older larvae (P0.05), while older larvae tended to show higher EC 50 and EC 90 (Page of larvae (r≥-0.83; P age. More stable efficacy results were found between two to five weeks of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults....

  2. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  3. Experimental skin lesions from larvae of the bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M C; Leite, V H; Leite, A C

    2001-03-01

    Skin biopsies from larvae of Rattus norvegicus, experimentally infested with Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr) (Diptera: Cuterebridae), were processed for histopathological studies. Two days after infestation, the first-stage larvae (L1) were located deep in the dermis, surrounded by an inflamed area infiltrated predominantly by neutrophils. On the fourth day a thin necrotic layer could be seen close to the larvae, surrounded by large numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages with a few eosinophils and mast cells. A small warble was formed after the fourth day, increasing in size until the seventh day, when the L1 moulted to the second-stage larva (L2). The inflammatory process continued with increasing numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells invading the area, as well as the proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells and the appearance of a few localized haemorrhages. After 18-20 days, the L2 moulted to the third-stage larva (L3), when a few plasma cells could be seen in the inflamed area. At 25-30 days there was a reduction in the necrotic layer, as well as in the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, although large amounts of eosinophils, plasma cells, and collagen fibres were seen. The L3 usually left the host after 30 days. Two days later, the larval cavity was reduced, mast cells infiltrated the region and collagen fibre production were increased. After 7 days, an intense infiltration of plasma cells and scattered necrotic areas could be seen. A scar formed after 10 days. This study showed the laboratory rat to be a suitable model for studies of D. hominis infestation.

  4. Characterization and differential expression of cathepsin L3 alleles from Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowska-Deniziak, A; Wasyl, K; Norbury, L J; Wesołowska, A; Bień, J; Grodzik, M; Wiśniewski, M; Bąska, P; Wędrychowicz, H

    2013-07-01

    Fasciola hepatica infections cause significant global problems in veterinary and human medicine, including causing huge losses in cattle and sheep production. F. hepatica host infection is a multistage process and flukes express papain-like cysteine proteases, termed cathepsins, which play pivotal roles in virulence through host entry, tissue migration and immune evasion. Expression of these proteases is developmentally regulated. Recent studies indicate that excystment of infective larvae is dependent on cysteine proteases and together FhCL3 and FhCB account for over 80% of total protease activity detectable in newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke. This paper focuses on members of the cathepsin L gene family, specifically those belonging to the CL3 clade. The cDNA of two novel cathepsin L3 proteases--FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2 were cloned. The mRNA transcript expression levels for these enzymes were significantly different at various time points in life development stages obtained in vitro, from dormant metacercariae to NEJ 24h after excystment. Maximum expression levels were observed in NEJ immediately after excystment. In all stages examined by Real Time PCR, FhCL3-2 was expressed at a higher level compared to FhCL3-1 which was expressed only at very low levels. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis also indicated higher expression of the FhCL3-2 allele and its secretory nature. The ability of antibody responses from rats and sheep challenged with F. hepatica to recognize recombinant FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2 was shown to differ. Differences were also confirmed through the use of anti-rFhCL3-1 and anti-rFhCL3-2 sera in Western blot analysis of juvenile excretory/secretory (ES) material separated by 2D electrophoresis. These results indicate analysis of relative expression of parasite virulence factors from different populations is required, as this will likely impact the effectiveness of vaccines based on these antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Regulation of Life Cycle Checkpoints and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis by Dafachronic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennatallah M Y Albarqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex life cycle of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis leads to either developmental arrest of infectious third-stage larvae (iL3 or growth to reproductive adults. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, analogous determination between dauer arrest and reproductive growth is governed by dafachronic acids (DAs, a class of steroid hormones that are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. Biosynthesis of DAs requires the cytochrome P450 (CYP DAF-9. We tested the hypothesis that DAs also regulate S. stercoralis development via DAF-12 signaling at three points. First, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA stimulated 100% of post-parasitic first-stage larvae (L1s to develop to free-living adults instead of iL3 at 37°C, while 69.4±12.0% (SD of post-parasitic L1s developed to iL3 in controls. Second, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA prevented post-free-living iL3 arrest and stimulated 85.2±16.9% of larvae to develop to free-living rhabditiform third- and fourth-stages, compared to 0% in the control. This induction required 24-48 hours of Δ7-DA exposure. Third, we found that the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole prevented iL3 feeding in host-like conditions, with only 5.6±2.9% of iL3 feeding in 40 μM ketoconazole, compared to 98.8±0.4% in the positive control. This inhibition was partially rescued by Δ7-DA, with 71.2±16.4% of iL3 feeding in 400 nM Δ7-DA and 35 μM ketoconazole, providing the first evidence of endogenous DA production in S. stercoralis. We then characterized the 26 CYP-encoding genes in S. stercoralis and identified a homolog with sequence and developmental regulation similar to DAF-9. Overall, these data demonstrate that DAF-12 signaling regulates S. stercoralis development, showing that in the post-parasitic generation, loss of DAF-12 signaling favors iL3 arrest, while increased DAF-12 signaling favors reproductive development; that in the post-free-living generation, absence of DAF-12 signaling is crucial for

  6. Predatory activity of Butlerius nematodes and nematophagous fungi against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the nematode Butlerius spp. and fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Arthrobotrys musiformis and Trichoderma esau against H. contortus infective larvae (L3 in grass pots. Forty-eight plastic gardening pots containing 140 g of sterile soil were used. Panicum spp. grass seeds (200 mg were sown into each pot and individually watered with 10 mL of tap water. Twelve days after seeding, the pots were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8. Two thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3 were added to each group. Additionally, the following treatments were established: Group 1 – 2000 Butlerius spp. larvae; group 2 – A. musiformis (1x107 conidia; group 3 – T. esau (1x107 conidia; group 4 – C. rosea (1x107 conidia, group 5 – D. flagrans (1x107conidia and Group 6 – no biological controller (control group. The larval population of H. contortus exposed to Butlerius spp. was reduced by 61.9%. Population reductions of 90.4, 66.7, 61.9 and 85.7% were recorded in the pots containing A. musiformis, T. esau, C. rosea and D. flagrans, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the predatory nematode Butlerius spp. and the assessed fungi display an important predatory activity can be considered suitable potential biological control agents.

  7. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  8. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  9. Microarray-Based Analysis of Differential Gene Expression between Infective and Noninfective Larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Roshan; Varma, Sudhir; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Myers, Timothy G.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David; Lok, James B.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1) and infective third-stage (L3i) larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose. Methods and Findings Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to bind 3,571 putative mRNA transcripts predicted by analysis of 11,335 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained as part of the Nematode EST project. RNA obtained from S. stercoralis L3i and L1 was co-hybridized to each array after labeling the individual samples with different fluorescent tags. Bioinformatic predictions of gene function were developed using a novel cDNA Annotation System software. We identified 935 differentially expressed genes (469 L3i-biased; 466 L1-biased) having two-fold expression differences or greater and microarray signals with a p valuemicroarray tool for the examination of S. stercoralis biology has been developed and provides new and valuable insights regarding differences between infective and noninfective S. stercoralis larvae. Potential therapeutic and vaccine targets were identified for further study. PMID:21572524

  10. L3P, a lepton photon precision physics experiment for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallraff, W.

    1994-01-01

    A general overview of the L3P experiment and its main components providing high precision photon, electron and muon detection capabilities at LHC for luminosities up to 4x10 34 cm -2 s -1 is given. L3P uses to a large extent the infrastructure and the basic detector frame of the running L3 experiment at LEP. The unique feature of L3P is a large ( diameter 6 m) inner free space providing space for future developments as well as the flexibility needed to cope with the adverse background conditions at LHC. (orig.)

  11. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  12. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  13. The Bilingual Advantage in L3 Learning: A Developmental Study of Rhotic Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecková, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Facilitative effects of bilingualism on general aspects of third language (L3) proficiency have been demonstrated in numerous studies conducted in bilingual communities and classrooms around the world. When it comes to L3 phonology, however, empirical evidence has been scarce and inconclusive in respect to the question of whether and/or how…

  14. CREB3L3 controls fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in synergy with PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Satoh, Aoi; Tezuka, Hitomi; Han, Song-Iee; Takei, Kenta; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Sone, Hirohito; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-12-16

    CREB3L3 is involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in a mutual manner with PPARα. To evaluate relative contribution, a combination of knockout and transgenic mice was investigated. On a ketogenic-diet (KD) that highlights capability of hepatic ketogenesis, Creb3l3 -/- mice exhibited reduction of expression of genes for fatty oxidation and ketogenesis comparable to Ppara -/- mice. Most of the genes were further suppressed in double knockout mice indicating independent contribution of hepatic CREB3L3. During fasting, dependency of ketogenesis on CREB3L3 is lesser extents than Ppara -/- mice suggesting importance of adipose PPARα for supply of FFA and hyperlipidemia in Creb3l3 -/- mice. In conclusion CREB3L3 plays a crucial role in hepatic adaptation to energy starvation via two pathways: direct related gene regulation and an auto-loop activation of PPARα. Furthermore, as KD-fed Creb3l3 -/- mice exhibited severe fatty liver, activating inflammation, CREB3L3 could be a therapeutic target for NAFLD.

  15. Release of lungworm larvae from snails in the environment: potential for alternative transmission pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Giannelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans following the consumption of infected intermediate or paratenic hosts. However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by snail mucus and/or water has also been proposed as a source of the infection for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In the meantime, the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are increasingly spreading among cat populations, along with their gastropod intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of alternative transmission pathways for A. abstrusus and T. brevior L3 via the mucus of infected Helix aspersa snails and the water where gastropods died. In addition, the histological examination of snail specimens provided information on the larval localization and inflammatory reactions in the intermediate host.Twenty-four specimens of H. aspersa received ~500 L1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and were assigned to six study groups. Snails were subjected to different mechanical and chemical stimuli throughout 20 days in order to elicit the production of mucus. At the end of the study, gastropods were submerged in tap water and the sediment was observed for lungworm larvae for three consecutive days. Finally, snails were artificially digested and recovered larvae were counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. The anatomical localization of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae within snail tissues was investigated by histology. L3 were detected in the snail mucus (i.e., 37 A. abstrusus and 19 T. brevior and in the sediment of submerged specimens (172 A. abstrusus and 39 T. brevior. Following the artificial digestion of H. aspersa snails, a mean number of 127.8 A. abstrusus and 60.3 T. brevior larvae were recovered. The number of snail sections positive for A. abstrusus was higher than those for T. brevior.Results of this study

  16. Release of lungworm larvae from snails in the environment: potential for alternative transmission pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Colella, Vito; Abramo, Francesca; do Nascimento Ramos, Rafael Antonio; Falsone, Luigi; Brianti, Emanuele; Varcasia, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Knaus, Martin; Fox, Mark T; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans following the consumption of infected intermediate or paratenic hosts. However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by snail mucus and/or water has also been proposed as a source of the infection for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis). In the meantime, the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are increasingly spreading among cat populations, along with their gastropod intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of alternative transmission pathways for A. abstrusus and T. brevior L3 via the mucus of infected Helix aspersa snails and the water where gastropods died. In addition, the histological examination of snail specimens provided information on the larval localization and inflammatory reactions in the intermediate host. Twenty-four specimens of H. aspersa received ~500 L1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and were assigned to six study groups. Snails were subjected to different mechanical and chemical stimuli throughout 20 days in order to elicit the production of mucus. At the end of the study, gastropods were submerged in tap water and the sediment was observed for lungworm larvae for three consecutive days. Finally, snails were artificially digested and recovered larvae were counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. The anatomical localization of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae within snail tissues was investigated by histology. L3 were detected in the snail mucus (i.e., 37 A. abstrusus and 19 T. brevior) and in the sediment of submerged specimens (172 A. abstrusus and 39 T. brevior). Following the artificial digestion of H. aspersa snails, a mean number of 127.8 A. abstrusus and 60.3 T. brevior larvae were recovered. The number of snail sections positive for A. abstrusus was higher than those for T. brevior. Results of this study indicate that A

  17. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  18. Activity of R(+ limonene against Anisakis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+ limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+ limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  19. Activity of R(+) Limonene Against Anisakis Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, Daniele; Panebianco, Felice; Patania, Andrea; Benianti, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showed a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status. PMID:27800423

  20. Activity of R(+) limonene against Anisakis larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Giarratana; Daniele Muscolino; Felice Panebianco; Andrea Patania; Chiara Benianti; Graziella Ziino; Alessandro Giuffrida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  1. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  2. Predatory activity of Rhantus sikkimensis and larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens on mosquito larvae in Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Ash, Anirban; Saha, Goutam K

    2006-06-01

    Predation potential of the dytiscid beetle, Rhantus sikkimensis Regimbart 1899 and the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann 1819 occurring along with the larval stages of the mosquitoes in the annual lentic water bodies of Darjeeling was evaluated using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 as preys, in the laboratory under simulated natural conditions. Field collected R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens were offered IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to observe the rate of predation, at varying prey and predator densities. Based on the data obtained on the predation for a period of three consecutive days, two indices of predation, predatory impact (PI) and clearance rate (CR) values were estimated, and compared between the predator species. The rate of predation of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by R. sikkimensis ranged between 21.56 and 86.89 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value remained between 18.67 and 35.33 larvae/day depending on prey densities, while the CR ranged between 2.21 and 2.23 larvae litres/day/predator. Compared to these, the Tx. splendens larvae consumed the prey larvae at the rate of 0.67 to 34.22 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value ranged between 7.67 and 11.33 larvae/day, and the CR value ranged between 1.41 and 1.76 larvae litres/day/predator. The rate of predation, CR values and PI values of R. sikkimensis and Tx. splendens varied significantly. Both the predators R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, though the rate of consumption between the two predators vary owing to the difference in the life history traits and features. It can be assumed that these predators play an important role in larval population regulation of mosquitoes and thereby impart an effect on species composition and interactions in the aquatic insect communities of Darjeeling Hills, India.

  3. EX1504L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  4. The novel carbohydrate epitope L3 is shared by some neural cell adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kücherer, A; Faissner, A; Schachner, M

    1987-06-01

    The monoclonal L3 antibody reacts with an N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate structure on at least nine glycoproteins of adult mouse brain. Three out of the L3 epitope-carrying glycoproteins could be identified as the neural cell adhesion molecules L1 and myelin-associated glycoprotein, and the novel adhesion molecule on glia. Expression of the L3 carbohydrate epitope is regulated independently of the protein backbone of these three glycoproteins. Based on the observation that out of three functionally characterized L3 epitope-carrying glycoproteins three fulfill the operational definition of an adhesion molecule, we would like to suggest that they form a new family of adhesion molecules that is distinct from the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope family of neural cell adhesion molecules. Interestingly, some members in each family appear to be unique to one family while other members belong to the two families.

  5. TES/Aura L3 CH4 Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CH4 data consist of monthly averages of atmospheric Methane for atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  6. TES/Aura L3 CO2 Lite Monthly Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CO2 data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  7. EX1605L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  8. EX1605L3 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  9. EX1504L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  10. EX1605L3 Dive20 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  11. EX1504L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  12. EX1605L3 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  13. EX1605L3 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  14. EX1605L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  15. EX1605L3 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  16. EX1605L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  17. EX1605L3 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  18. EX1605L3 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  19. EX1605L3 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  20. EX1605L3 Dive22 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  1. EX1605L3 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  2. EX1605L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  3. EX1605L3 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  4. EX1504L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  5. EX1605L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  6. EX1605L3 Dive21 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  7. EX1605L3 Dive19 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  8. EX1605L3 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  9. EX1605L3 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  10. EX1605L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  11. EX1404L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L3: Northeast Seamounts and Canyons...

  12. A lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter to increase L3 hermeticity

    CERN Document Server

    Basti, G

    1997-01-01

    A lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter has been built to fill the gap between endcap and barrel of the L3 BGO electromagnetic calorimeter. We report details of the construction, as well as results from test-beam and simulation.

  13. TES/Aura L3 H2O Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 H2O data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  14. TES/Aura L3 Atmospheric Temperatures Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 ATM data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  15. EX1502L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1502L3: Caribbean Exploration (ROV)...

  16. EX1504L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  17. EX1504L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  18. EX1004L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L3: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...

  19. TES/Aura L3 CH4 Daily Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CH4 data consist of daily averages of atmospheric Methane for atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  20. TES/Aura L3 HNO3 Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 ATD data consist of monthly atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  1. EX1202L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L3: Gulf of Mexico Exploration...

  2. EX0909L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L3: Mapping Field Trials - Hawaiian...

  3. EX1504L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III: Main Hawaiian...

  4. EX1402L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1402L3: Gulf of Mexico Mapping and ROV...

  5. EX1605L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana...

  6. Evaluation of the contamination of infecting larvae of nematodes on pasture of Cynodon sp. in a milk producing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Augusto Perazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the contamination of infecting larvae of parasitic nematodes in cattle on Cynodon sp. pasture. The research was conducted in a milkproduction system situated in the town of Boa Esperança, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, during the fall-winter seasons 2008. The samples of the grass were collected in ten points inserted into an outline in “W”, previously designed, in the period of morning between at 7:30 and 8:30, observing the presence of dew in all the collections performed. The samples were CUT close to the soil and separated in half, which constituted an upper and lower sample of each collecting point, their being afterwards placed into plastic bag, identified and carried to a plastic foam box . The samples were processed singly. The infecting larvae (L3 were identified and the amount per kilogram of dry matter in forage was estimated (L3/kg DM. The climatic conditions such as temperature, air relative humidity and rainfall enabled the development of the free life stages throughout the period. Even at low rainfall rates during the months of May to August, the counts of the amount of larvae in the pastures were high. Under the conditions of the dry period (Fall/Winter, the L3 forms of Cooperia sp. presented an expressive predominance in relation to the other genera throughout the period. The greatest amount of infecting larvae of this species was found in the months of July and August in the upper pasture, while for the samples of the lower part were found peaks in the months of June and August. The large number of genera of pathogenic helminths to animals in this study along the drier seasons of the year, especially in the upper pasture, demonstrates the importance of these agents as cause of losses in milk production in Minas Gerais state.

  7. CREB3L3 controls fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in synergy with PPAR?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Satoh, Aoi; Tezuka, Hitomi; Han, Song-iee; Takei, Kenta; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Sone, Hirohito; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    CREB3L3 is involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in a mutual manner with PPAR?. To evaluate relative contribution, a combination of knockout and transgenic mice was investigated. On a ketogenic-diet (KD) that highlights capability of hepatic ketogenesis, Creb3l3 ?/? mice exhibited reduction of expression of genes for fatty oxidation and ketogenesis comparable to Ppara ?/? mice. Most of the genes were further suppressed in double knockout mice indicating independent contribution of ...

  8. L-3-n-butylphthalide protects against vascular dementia via activation of the Akt kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, Yaping; Dong, Yanhong; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Song, Chunfeng; Li, Wenbin; Lv, Peiyuan

    2013-07-05

    As a neuroprotective drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke, 3-n-butylphthalide, a celery seed extract, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China as a clinical therapeutic drug for ischemic stroke patients. L-3-n-butylphthalide possesses significant efficacy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The activated Akt kinase pathway can prevent the death of nerve cells and exhibit neuroprotective effects in the brain after stroke. This study provides the hypothesis that l-3-n-butylphthalide has a certain therapeutic effect on vascular dementia, and its mechanism depends on the activation of the Akt kinase pathway. A vascular dementia mouse model was established by cerebral repetitive ischemia/reperfusion, and intragastrically administered l-3-n-butylphthalide daily for 28 consecutive days after ischemia/reperfusion, or 7 consecutive days before ischemia/reperfusion. The Morris water maze test showed significant impairment of spatial learning and memory at 4 weeks after operation, but intragastric administration of l-3-n-butylphthalide, especially pretreatment with l-3-n-butylphthalide, significantly reversed these changes. Thionine staining and western blot analylsis showed that preventive and therapeutic application of l-3-n-butylphthalide can reduce loss of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and alleviate nerve damage in mice with vascular dementia. In addition, phosphorylated Akt expression in hippocampal tissue increased significantly after l-3-n- butylphthalide treatment. Experimental findings demonstrate that l-3-n-butylphthalide has preventive and therapeutic effects on vascular dementia, and its mechanism may be mediated by upregulation of phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus.

  9. L3: Decay of Z0 to positron-electron pair

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This track is an example of real data collected from the L3 detector on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran between 1989 and 2000. An electron-positron pair is captured within the L3 detector, which originated from the decay of a Z0, that was in turn produced through the annihilation of an electron and positron within the LEP beams.

  10. Viability of Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vermiculite containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laryssa Pinheiro Costa; Ferraz, Carolina Magri; Aguiar, Anderson Rocha; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Ribeiro, Steveen Rios; Rossi, Débora Goldner; Mendes, Luanderson Queiroz; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Moreira, Narcisa Imaculada Brant; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro

    2017-07-01

    Strongyloidiasis is the most clinically important disease among the infections caused by geohelminths, seeing that this parasite can cause autoinfection. The use of nematophagous fungi like Duddingtonia flagrans, that have predation action on eggs and infecciososas forms of helminths, emerges as an alternative method for environmental control. For this reason, analyzing the viability of larvae and eggs of Strongyloides venezuelensis and the action of Duddingtonia flagrans AC001 in vermiculite, as well as the action of the nematophagous fungi in different growth stages, is important to elaborate and define the best culture conditions that favor the activity of the fungus. Two different growth conditions were applied: both eggs and AC001 fungi were added at the same time to the vermiculite (assay A) and the addition of eggs after the growth of the AC001 fungi in the vermiculite (assay B). To recover the L 3 larvae, the Baermann-Moraes method was applied, followed by the counting of L 3 dead and alive. At last, it was observed that the vermiculite enriched with organic material is an adequate culture medium not only for the growth of the S. venezuelensis but also for the growth of the D. flagrans fungus, being therefore, a satisfactory culture medium for tests of viability and predatory action of this fungus. It was also observed that the activity of the AC001 fungus is greater when it is growing concomitantly with the eggs, in other words, when it is in the adaptation phase.

  11. Search on charginos and neutralinos with the L3 detector at LEP; Recherche de charginos et de neutralinos avec le detecteur L3 au LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chereau, Xavier [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-vieux de physique des particules, Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)

    1998-04-30

    This work presents an experimental search for supersymmetric particles, the charginos and the neutralinos, at center of mass energies {radical} 161, 172 and 183 GeV, with the L3 detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider LEP. Assuming R-parity conservation, SUSY events have a large missing energy, carried by the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), which allow us to distinguish them from standard events. Then, for all the studied final states and all the energies, we optimized the selections in order to have the best signal-to-noise ratio. No excess of events were observed with respect to the standard model predictions. We set upper limits on the chargino and neutralino production cross sections. In the frame of the constraint MSSM, these results were combined with the results from the L3 slepton analyses to set lower limits on the chargino and neutralino masses: particularly, we exclude a neutralino {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0} bar lighter than 25.9 GeV/c{sup 2} (95% C.L.). This result plays an important role for the interpretation of the dark matter in universe. The search for events with missing energy needs a detector with a good hermeticity. At the end of 1995, a new electromagnetic calorimeter was installed in the L3 experiment. Here we present the improvements of performances and the calibration of this detector composed of 48 bricks made with lead and scintillating fibers (SPACAL) 71 refs., 104 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. cGMP and NHR signaling co-regulate expression of insulin-like peptides and developmental activation of infective larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Stoltzfus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The infectious form of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i, which is morphologically similar to the developmentally arrested dauer larva in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We hypothesize that the molecular pathways regulating C. elegans dauer development also control L3i arrest and activation in S. stercoralis. This study aimed to determine the factors that regulate L3i activation, with a focus on G protein-coupled receptor-mediated regulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway signaling, including its modulation of the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS pathway. We found that application of the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP potently activated development of S. stercoralis L3i, as measured by resumption of feeding, with 85.1 ± 2.2% of L3i feeding in 200 µM 8-bromo-cGMP in comparison to 0.6 ± 0.3% in the buffer diluent. Utilizing RNAseq, we examined L3i stimulated with DMEM, 8-bromo-cGMP, or the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor (NHR ligand Δ7-dafachronic acid (DA--a signaling pathway downstream of IIS in C. elegans. L3i stimulated with 8-bromo-cGMP up-regulated transcripts of the putative agonistic insulin-like peptide (ILP -encoding genes Ss-ilp-1 (20-fold and Ss-ilp-6 (11-fold in comparison to controls without stimulation. Surprisingly, we found that Δ7-DA similarly modulated transcript levels of ILP-encoding genes. Using the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, we demonstrated that 400 nM Δ7-DA-mediated activation (93.3 ± 1.1% L3i feeding can be blocked using this IIS inhibitor at 100 µM (7.6 ± 1.6% L3i feeding. To determine the tissues where promoters of ILP-encoding genes are active, we expressed promoter::egfp reporter constructs in transgenic S. stercoralis post-free-living larvae. Ss-ilp-1 and Ss-ilp-6 promoters are active in the hypodermis and neurons and the Ss-ilp-7 promoter is active in the

  13. Mutations in the bacterial ribosomal protein l3 and their association with antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Rasmus N; Ntokou, Eleni; Nørgaard, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of antibiotics bind to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the large subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Resistance to these groups of antibiotics has often been linked with mutations or methylations of the 23S rRNA. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number...... of studies where mutations have been found in the ribosomal protein L3 in bacterial strains resistant to PTC-targeting antibiotics but there is often no evidence that these mutations actually confer antibiotic resistance. In this study, a plasmid exchange system was used to replace plasmid-carried wild...... background. Ten plasmid-carried mutated L3 genes were constructed, and their effect on growth and antibiotic susceptibility was investigated. Additionally, computational modeling of the impact of L3 mutations in E. coli was used to assess changes in 50S structure and antibiotic binding. All mutations...

  14. PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KEPITING BAKAU, Scylla olivacea DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BIOFLOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak lengkap dapat dilihat pada Full PDF   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek penambahan bioflok pada pemeliharaan larva kepiting bakau Scylla olivacea terutaman pada sintasan dan perkembangan larva hingga mencapai stadia krablet.

  15. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... caught larvae had RNA/DNA ratios between the mean values found for starving and fed laboratory larvae. Only larvae aged 8-11 days had higher mean RNA/DNA ratios above 45 m than below (t-test, P...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OM to OX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. Decapod larvae from the nearshore waters of Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Paulinose, V.T.

    Abundance of decapod larvae at three stations in Binge Bay, Karwar has been reported based on surface collections taken during the period October 1975 to September 1976. The larvae were very common in the Bay and the postmonsoon months sustained...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  3. Low salinity tolerance 0/ eggs and larvae.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the larvae permitting C. krauss; to spread into areas where it is unable to breed successfully. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author acknowledges the financial assistance of the Department of Nature Conserva- tion of the Cape Province of South Africa, and the South African National Committee for. Oceanographic Research ...

  4. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  5. The behaviour of the L3 muon chambers in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onvlee, Johannes

    Different parts of the L3 detector (one of 4 detectors in the collider developed for experimental high energy physics in the Large Electron Positron (LEP) facility) are detailed. The magnetic field of L3 is described. Results of different drift velocity and diffusion measurements are presented. The drift velocity as function of the electric field was measured at B = 0.5 Telsa. Effects playing a role in the drift time drift distance relation are discussed. Data from a testbeam experiment are analyzed, and a technique is suggested to remove systematic errors found.

  6. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) L3-181 N basin cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of this Safety Analysis Report (SARP) is to authorize the onsite transfer of a Type B, Fissile Excepted, non-highway route controlled quantity in the L3-181 packaging from the N Basin to a storage/disposal facility within 200 West Area. This SARP provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the L3-181 meets the requirements of the 'Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping', WHC- CM-2-14, by meeting the applicable performance requirements for normal conditions of transport

  7. The effect of protons on E2V Technologies L3Vision CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Holland, A.D.; Robbins, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of different 10 MeV equivalent proton fluences on the performance of E2V Technologies (formerly Marconi applied technologies, formerly EEV) L3Vision Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) was investigated. The first experimental radiation damage results of the L3Vision device are presented, with emphasis given to the analysis of damage to the gain register of the device. Changes in dark current and generation of bright pixels in the CCD image, store, readout register and gain register as a result of proton irradiation are reported and viewed in light of the potential use of the device in space-based applications

  8. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  9. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  10. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  11. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    with electric shock in normal and mutant larvae and Tully et al. reported the passage of olfactory ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of ..... Pairing odour with shock drives the larvae to the opposite zone. Preference learning index PLI.

  12. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Peculiarities of Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Development of Оesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda, Strongylidae Larvae Cultured in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevstafieva V. А.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric peculiarities of the development of Оesophagostomum dentatum Rudolphi, 1803 from egg to infective larva were studied under laboratory conditions at various temperatures. The determined optimum temperature for embryonic and post-embryonic development of О. dentatum larvae from domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 is 22 °С. At this temperature, 81 % of larvae develop to the third stage (L3 on the 10th day. Temperatures of 24 °С and 20 °С are less favorable for the development of the nematode, at those temperatures only 67 and 63 % of larvae, respectively, reached infective stage by the 10th day of cultivation. Embryonic development of О. dentatum eggs is characterized by their lengthening (by 8.87-9.50 %, р < 0.01 and widening (by 6.77-9.35 %, р < 0.05-0.01, and post-embryonic larval development is associated with lengthening (by 4.59-17.33 %, р < 0.01-0.001.

  14. Study of photon-induced L3 vacancy alignment for elements La to U

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Alignment of photon-induced L3 vacancies is studied in rare earth and high. Z elements at energies of experimental interest, near thresholds to 60 keV, under non- relativistic dipole approximation. Numerical calculations of the matrix element are un- dertaken to produce theoretical data for comparison with the ...

  15. Formation, spectroscopy and reactivity of the [L3Cu 2Cu O2] core: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Formation, spectroscopy and reactivity of the [L3Cu. II. 2Cu. III. O2]. 3+ core: A new structural motif in copper dioxygen chemistry. PULAKESH MUKHERJEE 1, TIM MACHONKIN 1,. JENNIFER L DUBOIS 1, ADAM P COLE 1, BRITT HEDMAN 1,2,. KEITH O HODGSON 1,2, EDWARD I SOLOMON 1 and T D P STACK 1.

  16. Study of photon-induced L3 vacancy alignment for elements La to U

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alignment of photon-induced L3 vacancies is studied in rare earth and high elements at energies of experimental interest, near thresholds to 60 keV, under non-relativistic dipole approximation. Numerical calculations of the matrix element are undertaken to produce theoretical data for comparison with the experimental ...

  17. L3 Acquisition of Simple and Present Progressive Tenses by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Jabbari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the role of transfer at the initial states of the third language (L3 acquisition. The following hypotheses were investigated in this study: (a the second language transfer hypothesis (“L2 Status Factor” proposing that L2 impedes transfer from L1 into L3; (b the Cumulative Enhancement Model (“CEM”, proposing selective transfer from the previously learned languages, here L1 and L2; and (c the Full Transfer/Full Access Hypothesis (FT/FA, suggesting that the Universal Grammar (UG is available in acquiring the succeeding languages. The data were elicited via two experimental groups: one, Persian learners of English as a second language, and the other, Turkmen learners of English as a third language who had already acquired Persian as a second one. The structures tested in this study were simple present and present progressive tenses across the languages mentioned above. The L2 and L3 learners were tested at the initial state of their English acquisition. Data were gathered through grammaticality judgment and translation tasks. The results demonstrated that there is a significant advantage of L1 transfer in L3 acquisition.

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-3 - Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-3... section. (5) Integration or offset level. The integration or offset level specified in the plan must... attributable to average annual compensation up to the integration level (the “base portion”) and the portion of...

  19. An Experimental Study of Early L3 Development: Age, Bilingualism and Classroom Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Catherine A.; Sanz, Cristina; Bowden, Harriet Wood

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated Spanish-English bilingual adults' initial learning of a third language (L3), Latin, comparing the learning processes and outcomes of early- and late-onset bilinguals. Thirty-three participants were classified as Early or Late Bilinguals according to their age of arrival to the USA, and they were introduced to Latin by…

  20. Chemical shift of U L3 edges in different uranium compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    the chemical environment of the metal ion. The change in absorption edge which could be attributed to different chemical environment of a metal ion inside a compound is generally known as the chemical shift. In the present study, the effect of chemical environ- ment on shifting of L3 X-ray absorption edge of uranium.

  1. The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soares, P.; Alshamali, F.; Pereira, J. B.; Fernandes, V.; Silva, N. M.; Afonso, C.; Costa, M. D.; Musilová, E.; Macaulay, V.; Richards, M. B.; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2012), s. 915-927 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA * complete genomes * haplogroup L3 * out of Africa * modern human expansions Sub ject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 10.353, year: 2012

  2. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  3. Fast detection of alpha-fetoprotein-L3 using lens culinaris agglutinin immobilized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Qin, Liubin; Liu, Dejun; Liu, Changhong; Sun, Yongwei; Duan, Yourong

    2014-06-01

    Colloidal gold is extensively used for molecular sensing because that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands are affected by changes in the dielectric properties in the close vicinity of these structures due to the binding of ligands to the corresponding receptor molecules immobilized onto the nanostructures through chemi- or physisorption. We describe a simple method for the detection of Alpha-Fetoprotein-L3 which is a new generation of tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the aggregation of Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) Immobilized Gold Nanoparticles. The LCA conjugated GNPs obtained were 15-20 nm in diameter. The visible color change of the gold nanoparticles from purple to blue on interaction with 100 ng/mL of AFP-L3 is the principle applied here for the sensing of AFP-L3 level. UV/Vis spectroscopy also allows assay monitoring by quantifying the red shift of the plasmon resonance wavelength. With this method, the protein AFP-L3 can be rapidly detected as demanded for clinical diagnosis.

  4. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  5. Pasture contamination with infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after grazing by sheep resistant or susceptible to parasitic infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetto, César Cristiano [UNESP; Silva, Bruna Fernanda da [UNESP; Fernandes, Simone [UNESP; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O grau de contaminação da pastagem por larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) de nematoides gastrintestinais foi avaliado em piquetes pastejados por ovelhas resistentes ou susceptíveis à verminose. O experimento foi realizado de 23 de novembro de 2007 a 22 de julho de 2008. Inicialmente, realizou-se a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) de amostras individuais de 130 ovelhas adultas da raça Bergamácia. Dessas, foram selecionadas as nove ovelhas com contagens mais elevadas de OPG (susceptíveis)...

  6. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  7. The active evolutionary lives of echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, R A; Byrne, M

    2006-09-01

    Echinoderms represent a researchable subset of a dynamic larval evolutionary cosmos. Evolution of echinoderm larvae has taken place over widely varying time scales from the origins of larvae of living classes in the early Palaeozoic, approximately 500 million years ago, to recent, rapid and large-scale changes that have occurred within living genera within a span of less than a million years to a few million years. It is these recent evolutionary events that offer a window into processes of larval evolution operating at a micro-evolutionary level of evolution of discrete developmental mechanisms. We review the evolution of the diverse larval forms of living echinoderms to outline the origins of echinoderm larval forms, their diversity among living echinoderms, molecular clocks and rates of larval evolution, and finally current studies on the roles of developmental regulatory mechanisms in the rapid and radical evolutionary changes observed between closely related congeneric species.

  8. Sporulation and Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Osama S; Fisher, Nathan A

    2018-02-22

    Endospores are metabolically dormant cells formed by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes in response to nutrient limiting or otherwise unfavorable growth conditions. American foulbrood disease (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybees that is caused by the introduction of Paenibacillus larvae endospores into a honeybee colony. Progression to fulminant disease and eventual collapse of the colony requires multiple rounds of endospore germination, vegetative replication, endospore formation, and subsequent spread within the colony. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro sporulation and germination of P. larvae to assist investigators in the study of these processes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Finding Wolbachia in Filarial larvae and Culicidae Mosquitoes in Upper Egypt Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyab, Ahmed K; Galal, Lamia A; Mahmoud, Abeer E; Mokhtar, Yasser

    2016-06-01

    Wolbachia is an obligatory intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium, present in over 20% of all insects altering insect reproductive capabilities and in a wide range of filarial worms which is essential for worm survival and reproduction. In Egypt, no available data were found about Wolbachia searching for it in either mosquitoes or filarial worms. Thus, we aimed to identify the possible concurrent presence of Wolbachia within different mosquitoes and filarial parasites, in Assiut Governorate, Egypt using multiplex PCR. Initially, 6 pools were detected positive for Wolbachia by single PCR. The simultaneous detection of Wolbachia and filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens) by multiplex PCR was spotted in 5 out of 6 pools, with an overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) of 0.24%. Unexpectedly, the highest ERI (0.53%) was for Anopheles pharoensis with related Wolbachia and W. bancrofti, followed by Aedes (0.42%) and Culex (0.26%). We also observed that Wolbachia altered Culex spp. as a primary vector for W. bancrofti to be replaced by Anopheles sp. Wolbachia within filaria-infected mosquitoes in our locality gives a hope to use bacteria as a new control trend simultaneously targeting the vector and filarial parasites.

  10. Immunity through early development of coral larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C V; Graham, E; Baird, A H

    2012-10-01

    As a determinant of survival, immunity is likely to be significant in enabling coral larvae to disperse and successfully recruit, however, whether reef-building coral larvae have immune defenses is unknown. We investigated the potential presence and variation in immunity in the lecithotrophic larvae of Acropora tenuis through larval development. Enzymes indicative of tyrosinase and laccase-type melanin-synthesis were quantified, and the concentration of three coral fluorescent proteins was measured over six developmental stages; egg, embryo, motile planula, planula post-exposure to crustose coralline algae (CCA; settlement cue), settled, settled post-exposure to Symbiodinium (endosymbiont). Both types of melanin-synthesis pathways and the three fluorescent proteins were present in A. tenuis throughout development. Laccase-type activity and red fluorescence increased following exposure of planula to CCA, whereas tyrosinase-type activity and cyan fluorescence increased following settlement. No change was detected in the measured parameters following exposure to Symbiodinium. This study is the first to document coral larval immune responses and suggests the melanin-synthesis pathways have disparate roles-the laccase-type potentially non-immunological and the tyrosinase-type in cytotoxic defense. Our results indicate that corals have the potential to resist infection from the earliest life history phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solvothermal removal of the organic template from L 3 ("sponge") templated silica monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Mulders, Norbert; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2006-10-01

    We compare the methods of continuous solvent (Soxhlet) and supercritical solvent extractions for the removal of the organic template from nanostructured silica monoliths. Our monoliths are formed by templating the L 3 liquid crystal phase of cetylpyridinium chloride in aqueous solutions with tetramethoxy silane. The monoliths that result from both Soxhlet and supercritical extraction methods are mechanically robust, optically clear, and free of cracks. The Soxhlet method compares favorably with supercritical solvent extraction in that equivalent L 3-templated silica can be synthesized without the use of specialized reactor hardware or higher temperatures and high pressures, while avoiding noxious byproducts. The comparative effectiveness of various solvents in the Soxhlet process is related to the Hildebrand solubility parameter, determined by the effective surface area of the extracted silica.

  12. Revising the worksheet with L3: a language and environment foruser-script interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, Michael H.

    2008-01-22

    This paper describes a novel approach to the parameter anddata handling issues commonly found in experimental scientific computingand scripting in general. The approach is based on the familiarcombination of scripting language and user interface, but using alanguage expressly designed for user interaction and convenience. The L3language combines programming facilities of procedural and functionallanguages with the persistence and need-based evaluation of data flowlanguages. It is implemented in Python, has access to all Pythonlibraries, and retains almost complete source code compatibility to allowsimple movement of code between the languages. The worksheet interfaceuses metadata produced by L3 to provide selection of values through thescriptit self and allow users to dynamically evolve scripts withoutre-running the prior versions. Scripts can be edited via text editors ormanipulated as structures on a drawing canvas. Computed values are validscripts and can be used further in other scripts via simplecopy-and-paste operations. The implementation is freely available underan open-source license.

  13. Operationalizing the TANIC and NICA-L3/L4 Tools to Improve Informatics Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Carolyn; McGonigle, Dee; Hunter, Kathy; Hebda, Toni; Hill, Taryn; Lamblin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Two tools were developed for nurses to self-assess different levels of informatics competencies. The TANIC is used for all nurses to self-assess; the NICA-L3/L4 is a tool for the informatics nurse specialist (INS) to self-assess skill levels. There are 167 informatics items in the TANIC and 178 advanced informatics items in the NICA-L3/L4. These tools were piloted; the results presented here. Based on the evaluation, the tools have been integrated into informatics courses at the BSN and MSN programs at Chamberlain College of Nursing, and presented in two AACN webinars and other national conferences. Numerous requests have been honored to provide the tools for other schools of nursing to use in their courses, including DNP programs. Other requests include those from CNIOs and managers to include in their job descriptions for informatics nurses.

  14. The alignment of the L3 forward-backward muon chambers at LEP200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Burgos, C.; Cerrada, M.; Deiters, K.; Fabre, M.; Lustermann, W.; Robohm, A.; Van Rossum, W.

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the detection requirements of LEP200, the L3 muon spectrometer was extended to cover the angular range of 44 circle > θ> 24 circle , where θ denotes the polar angle. The new system installed consists of three layers of drift chambers attached to the doors returning the flux of the L3 magnetic field. This note is describes in detail the alignment system, relating the central detector to the closest layer of the added forward-backward system as well as the relative alignment between its three layers. The achieved alignment resolutions are 70 μm in x, 150 μm in y, and 580 μm in z, for the link between the central detector and the closest forward-backward layer. For the relative alignment of the three layers 50 μm in x and y, and 200 μm in z are reached. (orig.)

  15. Infective Larvae of Brugia malayi Induce Polarization of Host Macrophages that Helps in Immune Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Sharma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Filarial parasites suppress, divert, or polarize the host immune response to aid their survival. However, mechanisms that govern the polarization of host MΦs during early filarial infection are not completely understood. In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3 and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. Results showed that MΦs displayed M2-phenotype by day 3 p.i. characterized by upregulated IL-4, but reduced IL-12 and Prostaglandin-D2 secretion. Increased arginase activity, higher arginase-1 but reduced NOS2 expression and poor phagocytic and antigen processing capacity was also observed. M2 MΦs supported T-cell proliferation and characteristically upregulated p-ERK but downregulated NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Notably, Bm-L3 synergized with host regulatory T-cells (Tregs and polarized M2 MΦs to regulatory MΦs (Mregs by day 7 p.i., which secreted copious amounts of IL-10 and prostaglandin-E2. Mregs also showed upregulated expression levels of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86 and exhibited increased antigen-processing capacity but displayed impaired activation of NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Neutralization of Tregs by anti-GITR + anti-CD25 antibodies checked the polarization of M2 MΦs to Mregs, decreased accumulation of regulatory B cells and inflammatory monocytes, and reduced secretion of IL-10, but enhanced IL-4 production and percentages of eosinophils, which led to Bm-L3 killing. In summary, we report hitherto undocumented effects of early Bm-L3 infection on the polarization of splenic MΦs and show how infective larvae deftly utilize the functional plasticity of host MΦs to establish themselves inside the host.

  16. Monitoring and control of the muon detector in the L3 experiment at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E.

    1990-01-01

    In this report the monitoring system of the muon spectrometer of the L3 detector in LEP at CERN is presented. The system is based on a network of VME's using the OS9 operating system. The design guiding lines and the present system configuration are described both from the hardware and the software point of view. In addition, the report contains the description of the monitored parameters showing typical data collected durintg the first months of LEP operation. (Author)

  17. Single tagged 2γ events with BGO, ALR, and VSAT of L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksay, Laszlo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Hohlmann, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    In order to extend the investigation of the Q^2 evolution of the hadronic structure function F_2^γ with L3, to Q^2 as low as 0.5GeV^2 and as high as 3850GeV^2, we will include the electromagnetic calorimeters (BGO), active lead rings (ALR), and the very small angle tagging detectors (VSAT) as tagging devices for single tagged 2γ events. Strategies for selecting events with these detector components will be presented.

  18. Spacecraft trajectories to the L3 point of the Sun-Earth three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantardini, Marco; Fantino, Elena; Ren, Yuan; Pergola, Pierpaolo; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.

    2010-11-01

    Of the three collinear libration points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP), L3 is that located opposite to the Earth with respect to the Sun and approximately at the same heliocentric distance. Whereas several space missions have been launched to the other two collinear equilibrium points, i.e., L1 and L2, taking advantage of their dynamical and geometrical characteristics, the region around L3 is so far unexploited. This is essentially due to the severe communication limitations caused by the distant and permanent opposition to the Earth, and by the gravitational perturbations mainly induced by Jupiter and the close passages of Venus, whose effects are more important than those due to the Earth. However, the adoption of a suitable periodic orbit around L3 to ensure the necessary communication links with the Earth, or the connection with one or more relay satellites located at L4 or L5, and the simultaneous design of an appropriate station keeping-strategy, would make it possible to perform valuable fundamental physics and astrophysics investigations from this location. Such an opportunity leads to the need of studying the ways to transfer a spacecraft (s/c) from the Earth’s vicinity to L3. In this contribution, we investigate several trajectory design methods to accomplish such a transfer, i.e., various types of two-burn impulsive trajectories in a Sun-s/c two-body model, a patched conics strategy exploiting the gravity assist of the nearby planets, an approach based on traveling on invariant manifolds of periodic orbits in the Sun-Earth CR3BP, and finally a low-thrust transfer. We examine advantages and drawbacks, and we estimate the propellant budget and time of flight requirements of each.

  19. Determination of the masses of electrical weak gauge bosons with L3

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbleck, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the masses of the carriers of the weak force in the Standard Model of Particle Physics, the gauge bosons W and Z. The masses are determined using the kinematics of the bosons' decay products. The data were collected by the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at centre-of-mass energies, sqrt(s), between 183 GeV and 209 GeV in the years 1997 to 2000. The mass of the Z-boson, mZ, is already known very precisely: The L3 collaboration determined it to be mZ = 91.1898 +- 0.0031 GeV from a scan of the Z resonance. Therefore the main aim of this analysis is not the determination of the numerical value of mZ; instead the analysis is used to cross-check the measurement of the W boson mass since the methods are similar. Alternatively, the analysis can be used to measure the mean centre-of-mass energy at the L3 interaction point. The Z-boson mass is determined to be mZ = 91.272 +- 0.046 GeV. If interpreted as measurement of the centre-of-mass energy, this va...

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire L-3: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Saggino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Schema Therapy (ST is a well-known approach for the treatment of personality disorders. This therapy integrates different theories and techniques into an original and systematic treatment model. The Young Schema Questionnaire L-3 (YSQ-L3 is a self-report instrument, based on the ST model, designed to assess 18 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs. During the last decade, it has been translated and validated in different countries and languages. This study aims to establish the psychometric properties of the Italian Version of the YSQ-L3. We enrolled two groups: a clinical (n = 148 and a non-clinical one (n = 918. We investigated the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity with anxiety and depression between clinical and non-clinical groups. The results highlighted a few relevant findings. Cronbach's alpha showed significant values for all the schemas. All of the factor models do not seem highly adequate, even if the hierarchical model has proven to be the most significant one. Furthermore, the questionnaire confirms the ability to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical groups and could represent a useful tool in the clinical practice. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  1. Search on charginos and neutralinos with the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chereau, Xavier

    1998-01-01

    This work presents an experimental search for supersymmetric particles, the charginos and the neutralinos, at center of mass energies √ 161, 172 and 183 GeV, with the L3 detector at the e + e - collider LEP. Assuming R-parity conservation, SUSY events have a large missing energy, carried by the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), which allow us to distinguish them from standard events. Then, for all the studied final states and all the energies, we optimized the selections in order to have the best signal-to-noise ratio. No excess of events were observed with respect to the standard model predictions. We set upper limits on the chargino and neutralino production cross sections. In the frame of the constraint MSSM, these results were combined with the results from the L3 slepton analyses to set lower limits on the chargino and neutralino masses: particularly, we exclude a neutralino χ 1 0 bar lighter than 25.9 GeV/c 2 (95% C.L.). This result plays an important role for the interpretation of the dark matter in universe. The search for events with missing energy needs a detector with a good hermeticity. At the end of 1995, a new electromagnetic calorimeter was installed in the L3 experiment. Here we present the improvements of performances and the calibration of this detector composed of 48 bricks made with lead and scintillating fibers (SPACAL)

  2. Search for supersymmetry in 2 different topologies with the L3 detector at Lep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandras, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present thesis presents two different aspects of my work in the L3 experiment, which are on one side the search for supersymmetric particles, the scalar leptons, in two different topologies 'electron + X + E' and '2 leptons + 2 photons + E', each of them being related to two theoretical SUSY models, m-SUGRA and GMSB. On the other side my work has been completed by the study of the BGO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter of L3, and the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter EGAP. After the essential motivations being reviewed, the production and disintegration modes are detailed concerning the scalar lepton sector at LEP. Then one presents the analysis techniques which I used to perform my selection, and also the results obtained from the data collected by L3 for center of mass energies between √ S =183 GeV and 202 GeV. The selection criteria that allow to isolate the events I looked for, including efficiencies but also the background rate coming from Standard Model that one can expect are presented. The final interpretations of those results in both frameworks of m-SUGRA and GMSB are detailed at the end of this thesis. I took benefit of those results to derive some limits on the masses of the scalar leptons that do not depend on the free parameters of the SUSY models, especially on the selectron mass in the framework of m-SUGRA: M e -tilde R > 71.2 GeV. (authors)

  3. Search for scalar leptons at LEP with the L3 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Lei

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, I present a search for scalar leptons in e+e- annihilation using the L3 detector at LEP. Data collected in 1999 and 2000, at center-of-mass energies between 192 GeV and 208 GeV, was used in this analysis. This work covered the scalar lepton searches in both SUGRA and GMSB models. To achieve this analysis, a parametrized selection was developed to handle the different event signatures in SUGRA models. Improvement of the L3 simulation and reconstruction program packages was carried out so that one can simulated the scalar leptons in GMSB models correctly. The simulation of the L3 Time Expansion Chamber (TEC) dE/dx measurement was rewritten to facilitate the analysis for a stable slepton signal, which is relevant in some parts of the parameter space in GMSB models. In this analysis, we didn't abserve any significant indication of scalar lepton production of any type. We achieved the following mass exclusion limits for scalar leptons in SUGRA models, for large dM: M(scalar e) > 97 GeV (expected 97...

  4. Ultrastructural changes in the third-stage, infective larvae of ruminant nematodes treated with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Fourquaux, I; Hoste, H

    2011-12-01

    Plants rich in condensed tannins are an alternative to chemical anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in ruminants. Previous functional studies have shown that sainfoin extracts affect the two forms of infective larvae (L3), ensheathed and exsheathed. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown. The aim of this study was thus to compare ultrastructural changes in ensheathed and exsheathed L3 of two GIN species after in vitro contact with sainfoin extracts using transmission electron microscopy. The main changes identified were an alteration of the hypodermis, the presence of numerous vesicles in the cytoplasm and degeneration and/or death of muscular and intestinal cells. The changes suggested similar and nonspecies-specific lesions in the two nematode species. Comparison of the modifications found in the ensheathed vs. exsheathed L3s revealed different locations of the main cellular changes depending on the larval form. It is hypothesized that these spatial differences in lesions are mainly influenced by the presence of the sheath which favors contact between the active compounds and either the cuticle or the digestive tract. Overall, our observations suggest that the functional changes observed in the biology of GIN L3s after contact with sainfoin extracts are mediated through a direct mode of action, i.e. different interactions between the bioactive plant metabolites and the nematode structure depending on the route of contact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From trochophore to pilidium and back again - a larva's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; Hiebert, Terra C

    2014-01-01

    Nemerteans, a phylum of marine lophotrochozoan worms, have a biphasic life history with benthic adults and planktonic larvae. Nemertean larval development is traditionally categorized into direct and indirect. Indirect development via a long-lived planktotrophic pilidium larva is thought to have evolved in one clade of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora, from an ancestor with a uniformly ciliated planuliform larva. Planuliform larvae in a member of a basal nemertean group, the Palaeonemertea, have been previously shown to possess a vestigial prototroch, homologous to the primary larval ciliated band in the trochophores of other spiralian phyla, such as annelids and mollusks. We review literature on nemertean larval development, and include our own unpublished observations. We highlight recent discoveries of numerous pilidiophoran species with lecithotrophic larvae. Some of these larvae superficially resemble uniformly ciliated planuliform larvae of other nemerteans. Others possess one or two transverse ciliary bands, which superficially resemble the prototroch and telotroch of some spiralian trochophores. We also summarize accumulating evidence for planktotrophic feeding by larvae of the order Hoplonemertea, which until now were considered to be lecithotrophic. We suggest that 1) non-feeding pilidiophoran larval forms are derived from a feeding pilidium; 2) such forms have likely evolved many times independently within the Pilidiophora; 3) any resemblance of such larvae to the trochophores of other spiralians is a result of convergence and that 4) the possibility of planktotrophy in hoplonemertean larvae may influence estimates of pelagic larval duration, dispersal, and population connectivity in this group.

  6. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  7. First feeding of Eugerres brasilianus (Carapeva larvae with Acartia tonsa (Copepod nauplii increases survival and resistance to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotifer Brachionus sp. is commonly used for larval feeding in marine fish hatcheries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii in the initial diet of carapeva larvae improves their survival, growth and resistance to stress when compared to the regimen containing only rotifers. Adult copepods were collected in the wild and cultured with the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata to obtain nauplii. Carapeva larvae were grown for 15 days using four treatments and three replicates: 1 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (10 to 15/mL; 2 A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5/mL; 3 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (5 to 7.5/mL + A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25/mL, and 4 no supply of live feed. After 15 days, the carapeva larvae were subjected to stress by exposure to air for 10 seconds and then returned to the source tank to evaluate survival after 24 h. Survival and stress resistance were higher in carapeva larvae fed B. plicatilis + A. tonsa nauplii (P<0.05, 20.9 ± 11.2% and 88.9%, respectively. These results confirm the positive effect of the inclusion of copepod nauplii in the diet of fish larvae. However, more research is needed to validate these results.

  8. Chromatin reader L(3)mbt requires the Myb-MuvB/DREAM transcriptional regulatory complex for chromosomal recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Daniel P; Georlette, Daphne; Antoszewski, Lisa; Botchan, Michael R

    2014-10-07

    Lethal malignant brain tumors (lmbt) result from the loss of the conserved transcriptional repressor l(3)mbt, in Drosophila melanogaster. Similar mutations in the human homolog L3MBTL1 correlate with some cancers. The protein's C-terminal MBT repeats bind mono and dimethylated histones in vitro, which could influence recruitment of L3MBTL1 to its target sites. The L(3)mbt chromatin targeting mechanism, however, is controversial and several studies suggest insufficiency or a minor role for histone methylation in determining the site specificity for recruitment. We report that L(3)mbt colocalizes with core members of the Myb-MuvB/DREAM (MMB/DREAM) transcriptional regulatory complex genome-wide, and that L(3)mbt-mediated repression requires this complex in salivary glands and larval brains. Loss of l(3)mbt or of MMB components through mutation cause similar spurious expression of genes, including the transposon regulatory gene piwi, in terminally differentiated cells. The DNA-binding MMB core component Mip120 (Lin54) is required for L(3)mbt recruitment to chromosomes, whereas Mip130 (Lin9) (an MMB core protein) and E2f2 (an MMB transcriptional repressor) are not, but are essential for repression. Cytolocalization experiments suggest the presence of site-specific differential composition of MMB in polytene chromosomes where some loci were bound by a Myb-containing or alternatively, an E2f2 and L(3)mbt form of the complex.

  9. SEBARAN LARVA IKAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Sulawesi diketahui sebagai daerah penangkapan ikan yang potensial sekaligus diduga sebagai lokasi pemijahan. Berbagai jenis larva ikan pelagis maupun demersal ditemukan di perairan ini. Kelimpahan dan sebaran larva ikan di suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi oseanografi seperti temperatur, salinitas dan sejumlah parameter lainnya termasuk ketersediaan pakan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter oseanografi terhadap kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan di Laut Sulawesi, telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan kapal riset KR Baruna Jaya VII pada Oktober 2012. Parameter oseanografi yaitu temperatur dan salinitas diukur menggunakan iCTD dan sampling larva menggunakan bonggo net pada 18 stasiun pengukuran. Analisa hubungan kondisi oseanografi dengan sebaran larva dilakukan secara deskriptif dan pemetaan sebarannya dilakukan secara spasial. Hasil menunjukan keterkaitan sejumlah parameter oseanografi dengan kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan. Sebaran larva famili Scombroidae dominan berada pada perairan bersalinitas tinggi karena merupakan jenis ikan oseanik. Larva ikan demersal banyak ditemukan di perairan sekitar Kep.Sangihe Talaud. Kelimpahan larva tertinggi ditemukan di perairan bagian utara dan barat lokasi penelitian dimana kelimpahan plankton tinggi ditemukan.   Celebes Sea is known as a potential fishing and spawning grounds for several pelagic fish species. Abundance and distribution of fish larvae are allegedly linked to oceanographic conditions such as temperature, salinity and others oceanographic parameters including food availablity. To see the effect of oceanographic on the abundance and spatial distribution of fish larvae in the Celebes Sea, has conducted a research in October 2012using the research vessel KR Baruna Jaya VII. The measurement of oceanographic parameters including temperature and salinity and larval sampling were done respectively by using iCTD and Bonggo net at 18 measuring stations. The

  10. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  11. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  12. Predictive factors for a distal adjacent disorder with L3 as the lowest instrumented vertebra in Lenke 5C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kei; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Akito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    To investigate what type of Lenke 5C patient benefits most from a fusion to L3 as the LIV. The subjects were 16 patients who underwent fusion surgery to L3 as the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV), and who were then observed for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. We considered an unsatisfactory radiologic outcome for the distal adjacent curve (DAD) to be an L3 or L4 tilt angle less than 10° or L3/4 disc wedging less than 10°. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the radiologic outcome of the distal curve: the distal adjacent disorder+ (DAD+) and the distal adjacent disorder-(DAD-). We compared global balance, Cobb angles (thoracic and lumbar), L3 and L4 tilt angles and L3/4/5 disc angles between the 2 groups on preoperative, postoperative and final radiographs. Seven patients (43.8 %) met the criteria for the DAD+ group. On preoperative radiographs, there was a significant difference in the L3/4 disc angle: the DAD+ group opened to the preoperative convex side (-2.1° ± 3.0°) and the DAD- group opened to the preoperative concave side (4.7° ± 5.1°). The standing L3- and L4-CSVL and the L4-CSVL under traction were significantly different. In Lenke 5C patients who underwent fusion surgery to L3 as the LIV, preoperative LIV (L3), LIV + 1 (L4) translation and L3/4 disc angle on standing, plus LIV + 1 translation under traction were very important parameters correlating with postoperative global coronal balance.

  13. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  14. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  15. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  16. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  18. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  19. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  20. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  1. The arouser EPS8L3 gene is critical for normal memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly LaFerriere

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms that influence memory formation and sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on behavior in Drosophila have some common elements. So far, these have centered on the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, synapsin and fas2-dependent processes, pumilio-dependent regulators of translation, and a few other genes. However, there are several genes that are important for one or the other behaviors, suggesting that there is an incomplete overlap in the mechanisms that support memory and ethanol sensitive behaviors. The basis for this overlap is far from understood. We therefore examined memory in arouser (aru mutant flies, which have recently been identified as having ethanol sensitivity deficits. The aru mutant flies showed memory deficits in both short-term place memory and olfactory memory tests. Flies with a revertant aru allele had wild-type levels of memory performance, arguing that the aru gene, encoding an EPS8L3 product, has a role in Drosophila memory formation. Furthermore, and interestingly, flies with the aru(8-128 insertion allele had deficits in only one of two genetic backgrounds in place and olfactory memory tests. Flies with an aru imprecise excision allele had deficits in tests of olfactory memory. Quantitative measurements of aru EPS8L3 mRNA expression levels correlate decreased expression with deficits in olfactory memory while over expression is correlated with place memory deficits. Thus, mutations of the aru EPS8L3 gene interact with the alleles of a particular genetic background to regulate arouser expression and reveals a role of this gene in memory.

  2. Precise measurement of muon momenta at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Romero, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this PhD report the author presents the studies and methods developed to achieve the optimization of the resolution in the momentum measurement of the L3 moun detector. Chapters 1 and 2 show the motivations to build a precision muon detector for the LEP e + e - collider. Special emphasis is applied to the study of the Higgs scalar boson search and identification and the guiding principles used to design the L3 muon detector are outlined. Chapter 3 is devoted to the description of the drift chambers. They are located in three concentric octagonal cylinders inside one solenoidal magnet, around the interaction point and coaxial with the beams. These chambers are the measuring elements of the detector. The chapter includes the description or the different tests applied to the chambers to obtain their resolution and calibration. In chapter 4 the alignment system of this chambers is described. This system is a key element to the precision of the detector, that being 12 meters long and of 12 meters of diameter has to measure the particles trajectories with precisions of just a few micrometers. Chapter 5 describes the third key piece for the detector precision, the monitoring and control system. It allows to know continually the precise values of the critical parameters of the detector. Finally in chapter 6 the author presents the results of the many test applied to the detector using cosmic rays, UV lasers and even the actual muons produced in the e + e - interactions. These tests prove that the L3 muon detector is the most precise measuring system for muon momenta installed at present in one e + e - collider ring. (Author)

  3. The second level trigger of the L3 experiment. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Blaising, J.J.; Chollet-Le Flour, F.; Degre, A.; Dromby, G.; Goy, C.; Lecoq, J.; Morand, R.; Moynot, M.; Perrot, G.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Forconi, G.

    1993-07-01

    The events recorded by the L3 Data Acquisition System are selected by three levels of trigger. The event filtering performed by software at the second trigger level is described. First coded offline in FORTRAN, the filtering software is microcoded for online execution in a farm of 3 XOP processors operating in a round robin mode. It identifies and rejects background events. Depending on running conditions and trigger type, rejection factors ranging from 45% to 80% are obtained on first level energy, muon and tec triggers. Selection efficiencies greater than 99.95% are achieved. (authors). 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Galactosylation of steroidal saponins by β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Lili; Lu, Li; Zhao, Yang; Kang, Liping; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jingyuan; Jiang, Tengchuan; Xiao, Min; Ma, Baiping

    2016-02-01

    The galactosylation of furostanosides and spirostanosides were investigated by using β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3 as a catalyst and lactose as a sugar donor. Four novel galactosylated furostanoside products (compounds 1-4) from compound F, compound G, compound I, and compound H were obtained and their structures were identified by HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The result showed that galactosyl moiety was found to be added to the 6-OH of the 26-O-glucosyl in these four furostanoside substrates.

  5. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  6. After-dinner speech: the path of LISA to become ‘L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M. C. E.

    2017-05-01

    We describe the state of fundamental-physics experiments in space in the mid 1980s on both sides of the Atlantic, and then follow the development of this field within ESA’s Scientific Programme. The special case of LISA — a fundamental physics experiment in space also supported by astronomers, and now, following the ground-based detection of gravitational waves, the means to extend the observable spectrum of such waves towards lower frequencies and long-lasting signals — is then followed in its rise to become the ‘Large Project L3’ of ESA.

  7. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Perception: L2 and L3 Perception of Japanese Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the possible influence of language learners' second language (L2) on their perception of phonological contrasts in their third language (L3). Previous studies on Third Language Acquisition (TLA) suggest various factors as possible sources of cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of an L3. This dissertation…

  8. The Development of Suppletive and Affixal Tense and Agreement Morphemes in the L3 English of Basque-Spanish Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Mayo, Maria del Pilar; Villarreal Olaizola, Izaskun

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the third language (L3) developing morphology of 78 Basque-Spanish bilinguals following a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program and a mainstream English as a foreign language (non-CLIL) program. The analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal oral data shows that (1) the omission of inflection in the L3

  9. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  10. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  11. The effect of sire selection on the response of lambs to vaccination with irradiated Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, J.K.; Windon, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Rams selected for responsiveness and unresponsiveness to vaccination with irradiated T. colubriformis larvae at an early age were mated to unselected random bred ewes. Progeny were vaccinated with 20,000 irradiated larvae at 8 and 12 weeks of age, given anthelmintic treatment at 16 weeks and challenged with 20,000 normal larvae at 17 weeks. The results, based on wether worm counts and ewe faecal egg counts, showed significant differences between responder and non-responder progeny. There was a significant correlation between worm counts and faecal egg counts of half-sibs from the same sire group. The occurrence of globule leucocytes was inversely related to worm burdens of wether progeny, however, no clear relationship was found with eosinophils. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation using T. colubriformis L 3 antigen, concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide showed that statistically defined responder progeny, pooled from both responder and non-responder sire groups, gave higher responses than non-responder lambs after vaccination. The results confirm that genetically-determined factors are involved in the response of lambs to vaccination at an early age, and indicate that rapid genetic progress may be achieved in the type of mating usually carried out under field conditions. (author)

  12. The Solar Flare of the 14th of July 2000 (L3+C detector results)

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Dela Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grabosch, H J; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herv, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, A; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Rembeczki, S; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schöneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, G; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P

    2006-01-01

    Several experiments have reported observations on possible correlations between the flux of high energy muons and intense solar flares. If confirmed, these observations would have significant implications for acceleration processes in the heliosphere able to accelerate protons and other ions to energies of at least tens of GeV. The solar flare of the 14 July 2000 offers a unique opportunity for the L3+C experiment to search for a correlated enhancement in the flux of muons using the L3 precision muon spectrometer. Its capabilities for observing a directional excess in the flux of muons above 15 GeV (corresponding to primary proton energies above 40 GeV) are presented along with observations made on the 14th of July 2000. We report an excess which appeared at a time coincident with the peak increase of solar protons observed at lower energies. The probability that the excess is a background fluctuation is estimated to be 1%. No similar excess of the muon flux was observed up to 1.5 hours after the solar flare ...

  13. The central error analyser of the L3 experiment at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    De Salvo, A; Luci, C

    2002-01-01

    We describe the central error analyser (CEA) system developed for the L3 experiment at CERN. The goal was to have a centralized environment to collect error and diagnostic messages coming from the several subsystems of the detector and of the data acquisition system as well as from the slow control. The CEA has been operational during the last three years of the L3 data taking, namely from 1998 till 2000. It reduced significantly the time needed to detect and fix DAQ failures, resulting in an overall efficiency exceeding 90%. We describe how the system handled the error messages and how it managed at a central level the correlation among different error situations. The mechanism to exchange messages among independent processes, running on different platforms like VAX-VMS, HP-Unix and PC-Linux, was based on TCP client-server relationships, while the whole CEA architecture was implemented in C++ on a Linux PC platform and it was based on a relational database (postgresql). (3 refs).

  14. Solitary lower lumbar osteochondroma (spinous process of L3 involvement): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem

    2009-12-20

    Solitary osteochondromas, which are the most common benign bone tumors of long bones, are rarely found in the vertebral column. A 16-year-old female patient presented with a hard palpable mass at lower lumbar region like a congenital deformity. Plain radiography illustrated a well-defined solid mass arising from the posterior elements of the L3 and ruled out any congenital anomalies. A computed tomography scan further determined a mass that arose from the spinous process of L3. The tumor was excised en bloc through a posterior approach and histopathological examination verified the diagnosis of osteocondroma.Osteochondromas are rarely found in the spine, when present in the spine, however, have a predilection for cervical or upper thoracic region arising usually from lamina of vertebrae and are rare in lumbosacral region and very rare at spinous process of the vertebrae.We present a case of osteochondroma locates in lumbar region and spinous process of vertebrae with unusual presentation and was considered clinically as congenital lumbar kyphosis.

  15. XPS and Ag L3-edge XANES characterization of silver and silver-gold sulfoselenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Pal'yanova, Galina A.; Tomashevich, Yevgeny V.; Vishnyakova, Elena A.; Vorobyev, Sergey A.; Kokh, Konstantin A.

    2018-05-01

    Gold and silver sulfoselenides are of interest as materials with high ionic conductivity and promising magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, optical, and other physico-chemical properties, which are strongly dependent on composition and structure. Here, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Ag L3 X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) to study the electronic structures of low-temperature compounds and solid solutions Ag2SxSe1-x (0 gold is more pronounced, and the number of Ag d holes and the negative charge of S and Se notably decreased for Au-containing compounds; in particular, the Ag L3-edge peak is about 35% lower for AgAuS relative to Ag2S. At the same time, the Au 4f binding energy and, therefore, charge at Au(I) sites increase with increasing S content due to the transfer of electron density from Au to Ag atoms. It was concluded that the effects mainly originate from shortening of the metal-chalcogen and especially the Ausbnd Ag interatomic distances in substances having similar coordination geometry.

  16. Search for Higgs bosons using the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, A.

    2000-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the search for Higgs bosons predicted by various theoretical models. By the introduction of these particles into the theory, the masses of bosons and fermions can be explained. The search is performed in experimentally related channels, which are characterised by charged leptons in the final state. The analysis uses data taken during the years 1996-1998 with the L3 detector at the large electron positron collider LEP. The observed candidates are consistent with the expectation from standard model background processes. Evidence for Higgs boson production could not be found. New mass limits were determined superseding previous mass limits established by L3 and other experiments. In the search for the Higgs boson of the standard model the channels hZ → b anti bl + l - (l = e,μ,τ) and hZ → τ + τ - q anti q were analysed at centre-of-mass energies between 183 and 189 GeV. A lower mass limit of m h > 87.5 GeV is derived at the 95% confidence level. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenamyre, J.T.; Young, A.B.; Penney, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in the rat central nervous system. Autoradiography was carried out in the presence of Cl- and Ca2+ ions. Scatchard plots and Hill coefficients of glutamate binding suggested that glutamate was interacting with a single population of sites having a K-D of about 300 nM and a capacity of 14.5 pmol/mg of protein. In displacement studies, ibotenate also appeared to bind to a single class of non-interacting sites with a KI of 28 microM. However, quisqualate displacement of [3H]glutamate binding revealed two well-resolved sites with KIS of 12 nM and 114 microM in striatum. These sites were unevenly distributed, representing different proportions of specific glutamate binding in different brain regions. The distribution of glutamate-binding sites correlated very well with the projection areas of putative glutamatergic pathways. This technique provides an extremely sensitive assay which can be used to gather detailed pharmacological and anatomical information about L-[3H]glutamate binding in the central nervous system

  18. Feeding behaviour of snake head fish, Channa striatus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding scheme experiments were done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 of two-dayold larvae (stage at first feeding. It was found that larval snake head fish aged 3-11 days (average total length 6.08-10.86 mmconsumed Moina. Larvae aged 12-15 days (average total length 10.79-14.61 mm consumed both Moina and commercialpellet (40 % crude protein. Larvae aged more than 16 days consumed only commercial pellet.Determining the daily food uptake by the larvae and juveniles was done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10liters containing 1,000 larvae. The larvae consumed Moina ,provide of a density of Moina 10 individual/ml. The amount offood intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae at 2-hour intervals.It was found that larvae aged 3-15 days consumed Moina. The average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvaeage 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days old was 28.7, 115.70, 162.27, 195.30 and 227.30 individual/larva, respectively at water temperaturesranging between 25 and 28°C.A starvation experiment was carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters with three replications.Two hundred newly hatched larvae were kept without feeding. Larvae started to die at 216 hr and totally died within 326 hrafter hatching at water temperature ranging between 28.0 and 30.5°C.

  19. Survival and infectivity studies of in-vitro cultivated larvae of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Sonibare

    Full Text Available The survival and infectivity of indigenous isolates of Haemonchus contortus and in vitro cultivated infective larvae (L3 were studied. Active motile gravid females, adult and immature parasites were morphologically and morphometrically characterized and isolated from Haemonchus infected goats. These were subsequently inoculated into the abomasum of parasite free lambs through left sided laparatomy for production of fertile eggs to be used for coproculture. Harvested faeces from these lambs were cultured in a nutritive medium and kept in the incubator at 320C and room temperature 24-280C to obtain in vitro cultivated L of H. contortus. The infectivity and survival of in vitro cultivated L3 stored in refrigerator at 4-80C and under room temperature 24-280C were evaluated. Incubation period of 3 coproculture was observed to be shorter in medium at 320C than under room temperature 24-280C. The storage of in vitro cultivated L under different temperature range showed that the quantity of active larvae in a given volume 3 decreased at p<0.05 from the 5th day under 24-280C while at 4-80C became significantly lower from 20th day. Infectivity of isolate kept at 4-80C was sustained for 18-20 days while at 24-280C it was maintained for 10-12 days. Laboratory invitro cultivated L of H. contortus had limited infectivity and larvae mortality increase with time under different 3 temperatures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 533-536

  20. Atividade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Artrobotrys robusta sobre larvas infectantes de Strongyloides stercoralis Predatory activity of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Arthrobotrys robusta on Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ribeiro Braga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Strongyloides stercoralis é um nematoide que infecta grande parte da população mundial. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a capacidade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 e Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31 sobre larvas infectantes (L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis em condições laboratoriais no meio ágar-água 2%. RESULTADOS: Ao final do experimento, os percentuais de redução de L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis observados foram de: 83,7% (AC001; 75,5% (NF34 e 73,2% (I-31. CONCLUSÕES: Os fungos nematófagos foram capazes de capturar e destruir in vitro as L3, podendo ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de Strongyloides stercoralis.INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode that infects much of the population worldwide. METHODS: This study aimed to compare the ability of predatory nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 and Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31 on infective larvae (L3 of Strongyloides stercoralis in laboratory conditions on 2% water-agar. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the percentage reductions in Strongyloides stercoralis L3 were 83.7% (AC001, 75.5% (NF34 and 73.2% (I-31. CONCLUSIONS: The nematophagous fungi were able to capture and destroy the L3 in vitro and may be used as biological controls of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  1. A note on the correlation between rainfall and the prevalence of Gnathostoma spp. infective stage larvae in swamp eels in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gnathostoma spinigerum is the major causative agent of human gnathostomiasis, a parasitic zoonosis with a great variety of clinical manifestations. Generally, humans are infected by consumption of third-stage larvae (L3 of G. spinigerum in infected hosts in the form of partially cooked or uncooked food. Surveys of the contamination of Gnathostoma spp. L3 in swamp eels are useful for prevention and control of diseases and have been continuously performed in Thailand. The author performed a retrospective study on 33 previous cross-sectional surveys with geographical data and the prevalence of Gnathostoma spp. L3 that covered 12 provinces in Thailand. The relation between rainfall (derived from the geographical data and the prevalence of Gnathostoma spp. L3 in swamp eels (derived from the overall infection rate of Gnathostoma spp. L3 was investigated. The least- square equation plot rainfall (y versus prevalence (x is y = 9.68x + 1,035.1 2 (r = 0.83; p < 0.01. A significant correlation was discerned between rainfall and the prevalence of eel infection but not for the season of the survey. Similar to the previous study, the prevalence of eel infection may depend on rainfall rather than season. However, this study focused on only 33 cross-sectional surveys in Thailand; further similar study in other countries to assess the correlation between rainfall and the prevalence of infection is required to substantiate this conclusion.

  2. Preliminary screening of plant essential oils against larvae of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary screenings of 22 plant essential oils were tested for mortality of the mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Percent (%) mortality of the mosquito larvae were obtained for each essential oil. At different exposure periods, viz. 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h among the 22 plant oils tested, eight ...

  3. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Biological control of mosquito larvae by using fish has shown many advantages over ... number of malaria cases in India that has been reduced from 75 million to 150,000 and deaths from 750,000 to ... aquatic weeds and G. affinis on the mosquito larvae. In addition to that G. affinis has some adverse effects ...

  4. Temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae (Diptera : Chaoboridae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaoborus larvae are voracious predators of zooplankton able to change their specific composition and size structure. Thus they appear as competitors of fish. They also represent food for planktophage fish. The temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae was studied (from january to october 1997) in the fishery of Bakro ...

  5. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of

  6. Protein Metabolism in Lecithotrophic Larvae (Gastropoda: Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, J; Manahan, D T

    1999-04-01

    Rates of protein depletion, synthesis, and turnover were measured in larvae of the abalone Haliotis rufescens as an approach to understanding macromolecular metabolism during lecithotrophic development. Protein content decreased linearly during development to metamorphic competence, with 34% of the initial protein in eggs depleted during the 8-day larval life span. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percentage of total body-protein synthesized per day) decreased during development, from 40% (1-day-old trochophore larva) to 14% (7-day-old veliger larva). Separation of proteins by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that protein pools in larvae are dominated by two high-molecular-weight protein classes (88 and 121 kDa). When the proteins of 1- and 3-day-old larvae were labeled with a mixture of 35S-methionine and cysteine, the pattern on two-dimensional gels showed that the turnover process (protein synthesis and degradation) involved hundreds of different proteins. The energy gained from loss of protein could account for 20% of the protein turnover rates for trochophore larvae and 79% of the lower turnover costs for late-stage veligers. Lecithotrophic larvae of H. rufescens maintained high biosynthetic activities, with up to 40% of their whole-body protein being turned over each day. Such dynamic processes during development of nonfeeding larvae would contribute significantly to maintenance metabolism.

  7. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  8. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  9. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  10. The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila. Abstract. The abundance of digenean larvae in snails at a pond in Mbezi-Temboni, Dar es Salaam, was investigated from July 1996 to June 1997. A total of 2,112 snails belonging to three species, ...

  11. Larvicidal effects of lemon peels on mosquito larvae | ANYANWU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the dry peels of the common edible plant, Citrus limon (family, Rutaceae), was obtained using a Soxhlet extractor and its larviciding effect evaluated against the larvae of two household mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each batch of larvae (20-30) were treated with 3.90, 15.63, ...

  12. Shrinkage Rates In Newly Hatched Larvae Of Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of formalin/sea-water solution (2% and 4% formalin conc. buffered with borax) on the total lengths of preserved samples of newly hatched Macrobrachium vollenhovenii larvae was investigated. The influence of an aesthesia on larvae in 2% and 4% formal in was also studied to determine the combine influence of ...

  13. Rapid bioassay to screen potential biopesticides in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simplified assay was devised to evaluate the response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to potential insect control products. The assay incorporates punched disks of flattened whole-grain bread placed in 96-well plates, with treatments applied topically, and neonate larvae added to each well. To evalua...

  14. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...

  15. Nutritional condition of fish larvae in South African estuaries: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is concluded that the individual RNA/DNA ratio can provide a reliable, sensitive and cost-effective method to assess the immediate effects of environmental changes on the nutritional condition of estuarine fish larvae. Keywords: estuarine ecology, Gilchristella aestuaria larvae, lipid content, protein content, RNA/DNA ratio, ...

  16. Observations on the seasonal dynamics of Caddisfly larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trichoptera fauna in the water body consisted of two genera, Cheumatopsyche and Amphipsyche, which closely associated with the moss, Fontinalis (Bryophyta). The density of larvae increased with the occurrence and bloom of moss. The changes in density of larvae are discussed with reference to the resources ...

  17. Preliminary notes on the decapod larvae of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, M.K.; Menon, P.G.; Paulinose, V.T.

    fairly good numbers were captured are described and illustrated with suitable charts The possible effect of the time of haul and the season on the number of larvae caught is explained The probable parentage of the more commonly encountered types of larvae...

  18. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  19. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  20. Sulfolipid in mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1975-01-01

    Sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride (sulfolipid) were separated by chromatography on a ECTEOLA cellulose column from the extracts of mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae. Lipid from the leaves which had been labeled with 35 S-sulfuric acid for 24 hours separated to five 35 S containing fractions on column chromatography. Most of the 35 S in the lipid fraction was recovered as sulfolipid. No appreciable amounts of 35 S, however, were recognized as sulfolipid in the extract of the faeces of silkworm larvae which were fed 35 S-containing mulberry leaves. These results suggest that silkworm larvae actively dissimilate sulfolipid, which is the most abundant among the sulfur containing lipids in mulberry leaves. When 35 S labeled sulfolipid which was recovered from the extract of mulberry leaves was fed to the larvae, 35 S was not incorporated into the cell constituent of the larvae and 35 S of sulfolipid was entirely excreted. (auth.)

  1. Combined Effect of the Cfr Methyltransferase and Ribosomal Protein L3 Mutations on Resistance to Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Kevin K; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2017-09-01

    Several groups of antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 have been associated with resistance to linezolid and tiamulin, which both bind at the peptidyl transferase center in the ribosome. Resistance to these and other antibiotics also occurs through methylation of 23S rRNA at position A2503 by the methyltransferase Cfr. The mutations in L3 and the cfr gene have been found together in clinical isolates, raising the question of whether they have a combined effect on antibiotic resistance or growth. We transformed a plasmid-borne cfr gene into a uL3-depleted Escherichia coli strain containing either wild-type L3 or L3 with one of seven mutations, G147R, Q148F, N149S, N149D, N149R, Q150L, or T151P, expressed from plasmid-carried rplC genes. The L3 mutations are well tolerated, with small to moderate growth rate decreases. The presence of Cfr has a very minor influence on the growth rate. The resistance of the transformants to linezolid, tiamulin, florfenicol, and Synercid (a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin [Q-D]) was measured by MIC assays. The resistance from Cfr was, in all cases, stronger than the effects of the L3 mutations, but various effects were obtained with the combinations of Cfr and L3 mutations ranging from a synergistic to an antagonistic effect. Linezolid and tiamulin susceptibility varied greatly among the L3 mutations, while no significant effects on florfenicol and Q-D susceptibility were seen. This study underscores the complex interplay between various resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance, even from antibiotics with overlapping binding sites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Fixation of Ilyanassa snail embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiah, Maey; Cooley, James; Leise, Esther M; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

    2009-04-01

    The marine gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta is a long-standing and very useful model for studies of embryonic development. It is an especially important model for spiralian development, and for studies of asymmetric cell division. The embryos are amenable to classic embryological manipulation techniques, as well as a growing number of molecular approaches. Ilyanassa is also an important model for studies of metamorphosis, the ecology of parasitism, the effects of environmental contaminants on morphology and sexual function, and comparative neurobiology. Ilyanassa embryos are particularly well suited for RNA and protein localization studies because of the relatively large cells and favorable properties for imaging. This protocol describes how to fix and store Ilyanassa embryos and larvae for use in whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies.

  3. The other gastropod larvae: larval morphogenesis in a marine neritimorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Louise R; Ferguson, Samuel J

    2013-04-01

    Two of the three major gastropod clades with feeding larvae are sister groups and larval morphogenesis for members of these clades, the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, has been well studied. The third clade, the Neritimorpha, has an unstable phylogenetic position and little is known about development of their planktotrophic larvae. Information about larval morphology of neritimorphs and resolution of their controversial phylogenetic placement is critically important for understanding evolution of larval feeding within the Gastropoda. We describe larval morphogenesis to metamorphic competence for laboratory-reared larvae of Nerita melanotragus (Smith, 1884) (Neritimorpha: Neritidae). Preliminary observations suggest that prehatch larvae are capable of delayed hatching, possibly by entering a diapause state. Our description of larval morphogenesis, as based on tissue sections for light and transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, three-dimensional-reconstructions of sectioned tissue, and labeling of muscles with fluorphore-tagged phalloidin, revealed four features that are unprecedented among both feeding and nonfeeding gastropod larvae. Larvae of N. melanotragus have muscles on the left and right side that both meet current criteria of a larval retractor muscle; shell-anchored muscles with oblique striations that project inside the visceral nerve loop to insert mainly on the velar lobes. They also have left and right digestive glands of similar size and a left and right hypobranchial gland. A larval "heart" is absent, but water circulation through the mantle cavity may be facilitated by large circular orifices, lined by patches of motile cilia, leading in and out of the mantle cavity. Comparison of larval traits among all three groups of gastropods with feeding larvae indicates that larvae of N. melanotragus have many unique characteristics, but they show more similarities to caenogastropod than to heterobranch larvae. These results are a

  4. L3 subshell alignment in bismuth induced by swift silicon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Agnihotri, A. N.; Misra, D.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Sarkadi, L.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    Angular- and impact energy- dependence of L x-rays of bismuth in collisions with silicon ions has been measured. Unlike isotropic emission of the {{L}α }-group and the {{L}β }-group x-rays, the Ll x-ray yield was observed to have impact energy dependent anisotropy emission. The anisotropy parameter for the Ll x-ray line was obtained by using the intensity ratio of the Ll-to-other L x-rays in the same spectrum. The alignment parameter of the L3 subshell was deduced from the measured anisotropy parameter of the Ll x-ray and has been compared with those obtained from the collisional theoretical models based on the plane-wave Born approximation and its extension.

  5. Leptonic two-photon events measured with L3 at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP)

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmelt, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Virtual photons can fluctuate into diverse final states and among other processes, such fluctuations can yield muon-pairs. The fluctuation is a statistical process and can be described in terms of structure functions for photons. Apart from supplying another test of QED, purely leptonic processes provide a calibration fro the hadronic processes. We report on a measurement of dimuon events with single-tagged two-photon events from the LEP experiment L3, at c.m.s. energies between 189 GeV and 206 GeV, with an integrated luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}$ = 600 pb$^{-1}$. An overview of the fundamental physical processes, the detector and the anaytical tools, used for measuring dimuon events, and a discussion of the structure of dimuon events will be presented.

  6. Contribution to the elaboration and implementation of LEP-L3 second level microcoded Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, F.

    1988-03-01

    This thesis is devoted to the elaboration of the L3 second level trigger which is based on the dedicated programmable XOP processor. This system will reduce the trigger rate by a factor of ten and will ensure that the hardwired level-one processors function correctly. The present document describes all developments that L.A.P.P. is engaged in from the system design up to the complete experimental set up, especially: - The hardware development of the fast input memories as well as the FASTBUS interface unit which allows the microprocessor XOP to run as a performant FASTBUS Master, - the associated software developments, - the implementation of a VME test system dedicated to all control tasks [fr

  7. 2016 CSSE L3 Milestone: Deliver In Situ to XTD End Users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchett, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nouanesengsy, Boonthanome [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fasel, Patricia Kroll [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahrens, James Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the activities in FY16 toward satisfying the CSSE 2016 L3 milestone to deliver in situ to XTD end users of EAP codes. The Milestone was accomplished with ongoing work to ensure the capability is maintained and developed. Two XTD end users used the in situ capability in Rage. A production ParaView capability was created in the HPC and Desktop environment. Two new capabilities were added to ParaView in support of an EAP in situ workflow. We also worked with various support groups at the lab to deploy a production ParaView in the LANL environment for both desktop and HPC systems. . In addition, for this milestone, we moved two VTK based filters from research objects into the production ParaView code to support a variety of standard visualization pipelines for our EAP codes.

  8. Lack of effects of quebracho and sainfoin hay on incoming third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, V; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2005-09-01

    The effects of tannins on adult populations of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta in goats are characterised mainly by a decrease in egg excretion without any significant changes in worm number. In contrast, the impact of tannins on T. colubriformis or T. circumcincta third-stage larvae (L3) is associated with a significant reduction in worm establishment. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of quebracho extract tannins on H. contortus L3. The consequences of consumption of sainfoin hay were also examined. Twenty-one naïve kids were divided into three experimental groups. Group Q received quebracho extract and group S received sainfoin hay from days D3 to D5. Group C remained as an infected control group. All kids received 1500 L3 H. contortus on D0, D1 and D2. On D18, post-infection, the kids were slaughtered and the worm populations compared in the different groups. Compared to the control values, the worm counts decreased, respectively, by 33% and 38% in groups Q and S but the differences were not significant. No differences were found in pathophysiological measurements between the three groups. The results confirm differences in tannin effect according to nematode species but not parasitic stage.

  9. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C2.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  11. Combined Effect of the Cfr Methyltransferase and Ribosomal Protein L3 Mutations on Resistance to Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakula, Kevin K; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Several groups of antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 have been associated with resistance to linezolid and tiamulin, which both bind at the peptidyl transferase center in the ribosome. Resistance to these and other antibiotics....... The presence of Cfr has a very minor influence on the growth rate. The resistance of the transformants to linezolid, tiamulin, florfenicol, and Synercid (a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin [Q-D]) was measured by MIC assays. The resistance from Cfr was, in all cases, stronger than the effects...... of the L3 mutations, but various effects were obtained with the combinations of Cfr and L3 mutations ranging from a synergistic to an antagonistic effect. Linezolid and tiamulin susceptibility varied greatly among the L3 mutations, while no significant effects on florfenicol and Q-D susceptibility were...

  12. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11C2.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  13. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance Daily L3 Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) MCD43A4N, MODIS Combined Aqua and Terra Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance is the daily L3 16-day composite global gridded tiled product...

  14. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11C3.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  15. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra plus Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Nadir BRDF Adjusted...

  16. MODIS/Terra Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MOD08_M3). MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am...

  17. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones data product (MSLERNNL3zm) is derived from observations...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area (MYDCSR_D) product contains global, 25-km resolution, daily average data composited from...

  19. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  20. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11C1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  1. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John

    2010-01-01

    lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...... tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  4. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  6. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  7. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Surface Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A1 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Downward Shortwave Radiation (DSR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution with...

  8. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Photosynthetically Active Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A2 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution...

  9. OMPS-NPP L3 NM Ozone (O3) Total Column 1.0 deg grid daily V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L3 NM Ozone (O3) Total Column 1.0 deg grid daily product provides total ozone measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS)...

  10. MODIS/Terra Vegetation Cover Conversion 96-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD44A.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 23, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Vegetation Continuous Fields Yearly L3 Global...

  11. T cell antigen receptor expression by subsets of Ly-2-L3T4- (CD8-CD4-) thymocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, A; Ewing, T; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    The V beta 8-specific mAb F23.1 and KJ16 were used as fluorescent stains to test for TCR expression on the surface of subpopulations of early, CD4-CD8- (L3T4-Ly-2-) thymocytes from adult CBA mice. A surprisingly high proportion (27%) of Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes were strongly F23.1 and KJ16 positive...

  12. Determining the Degree of Anthelmintic Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Small Strongylus, Based on the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA in Horses from Grasslands in the Department of Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alonso Prada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the grasslands of the Department of Casanare, seeking to determine the degree of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance against macrocyclic lactones in small populations of Strongylus in this region of the country. Samples were taken from four municipalities in the department: Aguazul, Paz de Ariporo, Maní and El Yopal, between June, 2006 and April, 2007, where ten fresh fecal samples were collected in each municipality, directly from the field and in a completely random way. The samples were processed using the MacMaster coprological technique, thus determining the highest count of fecal epg by municipality. L3 larvae were extracted from each of the six samples with the highest count of fecal epg through the coprological and Baermann-Wetzel tests with which the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA test was run, detecting Small Strongylus highly susceptible to the action of macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin.

  13. Larvas migrans ganglionar: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Luis Álvarez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. Se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.Visceral larvae migrans caused by the infestation with larvae of toxocara canis or cati are more frequent among children under 10. The case of an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed ganglionar larva migrans is presented. Comments are made on some etioepidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as on his clinical picture and evolution. Emphasis is made on the hygienic and sanitary measures of control and manipulation of stools from pegs as dogs and cats. Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.

  14. Tools for automating the imaging of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulak, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The VAST BioImager system is a set of tools developed for zebrafish researchers who require the collection of images from a large number of 2-7 dpf zebrafish larvae. The VAST BioImager automates larval handling, positioning and orientation tasks. Color images at about 10 μm resolution are collected from the on-board camera of the system. If images of greater resolution and detail are required, this system is mounted on an upright microscope, such as a confocal or fluorescence microscope, to utilize their capabilities. The system loads a larvae, positions it in view of the camera, determines orientation using pattern recognition analysis, and then more precisely positions to user-defined orientation for optimal imaging of any desired tissue or organ system. Multiple images of the same larva can be collected. The specific part of each larva and the desired orientation and position is identified by the researcher and an experiment defining the settings and a series of steps can be saved and repeated for imaging of subsequent larvae. The system captures images, then ejects and loads another larva from either a bulk reservoir, a well of a 96 well plate using the LP Sampler, or individually targeted larvae from a Petri dish or other container using the VAST Pipettor. Alternative manual protocols for handling larvae for image collection are tedious and time consuming. The VAST BioImager automates these steps to allow for greater throughput of assays and screens requiring high-content image collection of zebrafish larvae such as might be used in drug discovery and toxicology studies. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vaccination of lambs with irradiated larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S.; Subramanian, G.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of 2,000 infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum, irradiated at 40 kR, caused 80 per cent reduction in worm establishment and such lambs withstood a challenge infection which was otherwise fatal to non-vaccinated lambs. The female worms, which developed from irradiated larvae, were irregular in shape, had cuticular thickening at the genital opening and in many male worms the copulatory bursa was rudimentary. The sex ratio was adversely affected in worms developing from irradiated larvae. The population had preponderant sterile females and a very few male worms. (author)

  16. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  17. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  18. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. However, the rearing of larvae suffers from high larval mortalities, and water quality might be a crucial factor...

  19. Small bowel entrapment and ureteropelvic junction disruption associated with L3 Chance fracture-dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, Sebastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Faure, Alice; Peltier, Emilie; Launay, Franck; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric Chance fracture are rare lesions but often associated with abdominal injuries. We herein present the case of a seven years old patient who sustained an entrapment of small bowel and an ureteropelvic disruption associated with a Chance fracture and spine dislocation following a traffic accident. Initial X-rays and computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a Chance fracture with dislocation of L3 vertebra, with an incarceration of a small bowel loop in the spinal canal and a complete section of the left lumbar ureter. Paraplegia was noticed on the initial neurological examination. A posterior L2-L4 osteosynthesis was performed firstly. In a second time she underwent a sus umbilical laparotomy to release the incarcerated jejunum loop in the spinal canal. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed on a JJ probe to suture the left injured ureter. One month after the traumatism, she started to complain of severe headaches related to a leakage of cerebrospinalis fluid. Three months after the traumatism there was a clear regression of the leakage. One year after the trauma, an anterior intervertebral fusion was done. At final follow-up, no neurologic recovery was noticed. In case of Chance fracture, all physicians should think about abdominal injuries even if the patient is asymptomatic. Initial abdominal CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging provide in such case crucial info for management of the spine and the associated lesions. PMID:27672641

  20. Ultralow bias power all-optical photonic crystal memory realized with systematically tuned L3 nanocavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramochi, Eiichi, E-mail: kuramochi.eiichi@lab.ntt.co.jp; Nozaki, Kengo; Shinya, Akihiko; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Takeda, Koji; Matsuo, Shinji [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Device Technology Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Sato, Tomonari [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    An InP photonic crystal nanocavity with an embedded InGaAsP active region is a unique technology that has realized an all-optical memory with a sub-micro-watt operating power and limitless storage time. In this study, we employed an L3 design with systematic multi-hole tuning, which realized a higher loaded Q factor (>40 000) and a lower mode volume (0.9 μm{sup 3}) than a line-defect-based buried-heterostructure nanocavity (16 000 and 2.2 μm{sup 3}). Excluding the active region realized a record loaded Q factor (210 000) in all for InP-based nanocavities. The minimum bias power for bistable memory operation was reduced to 2.3 ± 0.3 nW, which is about 1/10 of the previous record of 30 nW. This work further established the capability of a bistable nanocavity memory for use in future ultralow-power-consumption on-chip integrated photonics.

  1. Cu L 3 x-ray absorption of formally trivalent Cu compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, A.; Budnick, J.; Demazeau, G.; Flank, A. M.; Fontaine, A.; Lagarde, P.; Jegoudez, J.; Revcolevski, A.; Marcelli, A.; Verdaguer, M.

    1988-06-01

    The Cu L 3 X-ray Absorption Spectra (XAS) of formally trivalent Cu compounds NaCuO 2, La 2Li 0.5Cu 0.5O 4, and KCu(III)(biuret) 2 have been measured. The spectra of trivalent systems exhibit two white lines. The low energy white line is found to be at about the same energy, between 930.9 eV and 931.2 eV on the contrary the high energy white line in the range between 933 eV and 933.9 eV is dependent on the chemical bond and it is assigned to the 3d 9L initial state. The joint analysis of the Cu 2p XPS and XAS spectra of NaCuO 2 shows that both white lines are below the XPS main line 3d 10L2 and the energy separation between the XAS(3d 10L) and the XPS (3d 10L2) final state Δ = 1.7 ± 0.2eV is related to the energy for excitation of a ligand hole.

  2. Autoradiographic characterization of L-[3H]glutamate binding sites in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenamyre, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative autoradiographic technique was developed to study L-[ 3 H[glutamate binding in sections of central nervous system tissue. This technique circumvented some problems associated with conventional receptor binding methodologies and allowed direct assessment of regional distribution, numbers and affinities of glutamate binding sites. The sensitivity and high degree of anatomical resolution attainable by autoradiography obviated the need for pooled samples of microdissected specimens. Under assay conditions, [ 4 H]glutamate bound rapidly and reversibly to sections of rat brain and was not metabolized appreciably. The distribution of glutamate binding sites corresponded to the projection areas of putative glutamatergic pathways. Thus, there was heavy glutamate binding in regions where there is evidence for glutamatergic innervation and little binding in nuclei which apparently do not receive glutamatergic input. Scatchard and Hill plots suggested that glutamate was interacting with a single population of sites; however, competition studies revealed binding site heterogeneity. Anatomical and pharmacological evidence suggested that the NMDA-, high affinity quisqualate-, and kainate-sensitive glutamate binding sites may correspond to physiologically-defined NMDA, quisqualate and kainate receptors

  3. Foraging strategy switching in an antlion larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Jen; Okuyama, Toshinori

    2012-09-01

    Antlion larvae are typically considered as trap-building predators, but some species of antlions always forage without using pits or only sometimes use pits to capture prey; they can ambush prey without pits. This study examined a species that switches its strategy between pit-trapping and ambushing and asked the mechanism behind the switching behaviour. A dynamic optimization model incorporating tradeoffs between the two strategies was built. The tradeoffs were prey capture success and predation risk (both are higher when pit-trapping). The model predicted that antlions should use the trap-building strategy when their energy status is low and should use the ambush strategy when their energy status is high. These predictions as well as an assumption (i.e., predation risk associated with pit-trapping is higher than that associated with ambushing) of the model were empirically confirmed. The results suggest that antlions flexibly switch between pit-trapping and ambushing to maximize their fitness by balancing the costs and benefits of the two strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of low race performance with mtDNA haplogroup L3b of Australian thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Davie, Allan; Zhou, Shi; Wen, Li; Meng, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Aladaer, Qimude; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wu-Jun; Yao, Xin-Kui

    2018-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes the genes for respiratory chain sub-units that determine the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The aim of this study was to determine if there were any haplogroups and variants in mtDNA that could be associated with athletic performance of Thoroughbred horses. The whole mitochondrial genomes of 53 maternally unrelated Australian Thoroughbred horses were sequenced and an association study was performed with the competition histories of 1123 horses within their maternal lineages. A horse mtDNA phylogenetic tree was constructed based on a total of 195 sequences (including 142 from previous reports). The association analysis showed that the sample groups with poor racing performance history were enriched in haplogroup L3b (p = .0003) and its sub-haplogroup L3b1a (p = .0007), while those that had elite performance appeared to be not significantly associated with haplogroups G2 and L3a1a1a (p > .05). Haplogroup L3b and L3b1a bear two and five specific variants of which variant T1458C (site 345 in 16s rRNA) is the only potential functional variant. Furthermore, secondary reconstruction of 16s RNA showed considerable differences between two types of 16s RNA molecules (with and without T1458C), indicating a potential functional effect. The results suggested that haplogroup L3b, could have a negative association with elite performance. The T1458C mutation harboured in haplogroup L3b could have a functional effect that is related to poor athletic performance.

  5. Amino Acid Absorption by Tiger Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Larvae. (Absorbsi Asam Amino oleh Larva Ikan Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambariyanto Ambariyanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Kerapu merupakan salah satu ikan unggulan yang ditargetkan sebagai komoditi eksport Indonesia. Usaha budidayanya saat ini sangat terganggu dengan tingginya mortalitas pada stadia larva. Usaha untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah dengan menggunakan obat seperti antibiotik yang ternyata tidak membuahkan hasil maksimal tetapi justru menimbulkan resistensi beberapa jenis bakteria. Salah satu aspek yang belum pernah dilihat dalam rangka mengatasi masalah ini adalah dengan mengusahakan percepatan pertumbuhan pada stadia larva sehingga akan lebih mampu menghindari dari beberapa penyebab mortalitas. Salah satu sumber energi yang terdapat dalam perairan namun dalam jumlah yang tidak besar adalah dissolved organic matter (DOM. Penelitian ini ditekankan untuk melihat kemampuan larva ikan Kerapu dalam memanfaatkan DOM (digunakan asam amino terlarut ;ATT yang terdapat di air laut. Sebanyak 16 (enam belas jenis asam amino yang terdiri dari tiga klas yakni neutral, basic, dan acidic digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Sedangkan larva ikan Kerapu yang digunakan berumur 2 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa larva ikan Kerapu menyerap seluruh jenis asam amino baik neutral, basic, dan acidic. Namun jenis asam amino yang diserap adalah glutamat, histidin, lisin, serin, metionin, tritopan dan iso leusin. Sedangkan yang paling banyak diserap oleh larva ikan ini adalah lisin. Hal yang menarik dalam penelitian ini adalah terdapat beberapa jenis asam amino yang diduga justru dikeluarkan oleh larva ikan tersebut yakni glysin, alanin, tyrosin, valin, phenil alanin dan leusin. Penyerapan beberapa jenis asam amino ini diduga dimanfaatkan oleh larva ikan Kerapu dalam proses pertumbuhannya. Kata kunci : asam amino terlarut, larva, Kerapu Macan, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus   Kerapu (grouper fish is known as an important and highly economic value fish and a good candidate for major export commodity for Indonesia. However, there is an important problem faced by its

  6. Automated high-throughput behavioral analyses in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Créton, Robbert

    2013-07-04

    We have created a novel high-throughput imaging system for the analysis of behavior in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae in multi-lane plates. This system measures spontaneous behaviors and the response to an aversive stimulus, which is shown to the larvae via a PowerPoint presentation. The recorded images are analyzed with an ImageJ macro, which automatically splits the color channels, subtracts the background, and applies a threshold to identify individual larvae placement in the lanes. We can then import the coordinates into an Excel sheet to quantify swim speed, preference for edge or side of the lane, resting behavior, thigmotaxis, distance between larvae, and avoidance behavior. Subtle changes in behavior are easily detected using our system, making it useful for behavioral analyses after exposure to environmental toxicants or pharmaceuticals.

  7. Bacteria and fungi isolated from housefly ( Musca domestica L.) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of microorganisms, which includes the pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerruginosa, Aspergillus tamarii and Bacullus cereus were found. Also, nonpathogenic microbes werer recovered including Bacillus subtilis and Stroplococcus faecalis. Keywords: Microorganism, isolation, housefly larvae.

  8. Spatial habitat for eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Supriatna

    2017-07-01

    The estuarine ecosystem is known as suitable breeding sites for fishes because this particular habitat is receiving continuous organic matters from river ways and constant sunlight due to its depth that allows sunlight penetration. Cimandiri estuary is one of the estuaries located in the south of Java Island close to the Indian Ocean and known as a suitable habitat for eel larva that routinely collected by local people. Eel habitat has a relationship with the dynamic of space. This dynamic influenced by season, water flow, tide, bathymetry, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The geographic information system is an approach in studying habitat dynamic, through modeling. Furthermore, the spatial model for eel larva habitat is required for land use planning that aimed to achieve sustainable eels larva rearing and conserve estuarine habitat as well. The aim of this research was to investigate dynamics on spatial habitat of eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java.

  9. Culturing Embryos and Larvae of Marine Molluscs and Protochordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, R.; Turner, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description for maintaining adult forms of molluscs and protochordates in order to obtain gametes for laboratory studies of animal development. The methods also include those for culturing embryonic larvae forms in vitro. (Author/SA)

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L.B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M.; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  11. Rearing gymnolaemate bryozoan larvae for cellular and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Gymnolaemates represent the largest group of extant bryozoans, having more than 3,000 described species. Gymnolaemates display a diverse array of reproductive and developmental patterns including planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, and matrotrophy. The larvae of gymnolaemates have been broadly grouped into three types, cyphonautes (shelled, feeding), pseudocyphonautes (shelled, nonfeeding), and coronate (unshelled, nonfeeding), although each group is heterogeneous and probably includes various morphologies that are largely undescribed. Here, methods for rearing bryozoan colonies and larvae are presented.

  12. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  13. Larval structure of Passalus gravelyiand sexual dimorphism in Passalid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Mattos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adults and larvae of Passalidae are subsocial insects commonly found in tropical forests, living in decaying wood gallery systems constructed by adults. Currently, few repots on the larvae of Neotropical Passalidae have been published and information is scarce. In this study, the Passalus (Pertinax gravelyiMoreira, 1922 larvae is described for the first time, based on ten larval specimens 1 (1° instar, 4 (2° instar, and 5 (3° instar associated with three adults collected from a single colony at the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The description was carried out based on electronic and digital photographs of diagnostic structures, with some details on the systematic of the species. The larvae of Passalus gravelyihas the general setal 'Pertinax' pattern and differed from others by 16 to 18 setae on the anal ring, the other larvae data from Brazilian species show the anal ring with 10 to 12 setae. A discussion on the presence of sexual dimorphism in 62 species of two and three instars of Passalidae larvae is provided for the first time. Besides, a description of the terminal ampullapresent as a cuticular structure found in the medial-ventral area of the 9th abdominal sternite in males is also given. The terminal ampullawas only observed in the Passalidae male larvae and was not visible in female larvae. The terminal ampullaare acknowledged now in males of 64 passalid species, that are taxonomically distributed in world tropical forests, at the Oriental and Australian subfamily Aulacocyclinae (Aulacocyclini & Ceracupini and the cosmotropical subfamily Passalinae (Solenocyclini, Macrolinini, Passalini, & Proculini.

  14. Potential of turmeric rhizome essential oils against Aedes aegypti larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselina Panghiyangani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF has long been a serious health problem in Indonesia, including Kalimantan (Borneo, as is evident from the increased case fatality rate in Banjarbaru city. Synthetic chemical insecticides have frequently been used to eradicate mosquitoes, but are toxic to the body and resistance of adult and larvae mosquito Aedes aegypti has been reported. The present study aims to assess the effect of essential oils of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma domestica Val against Aedes aegypti larvae Methods This was an experimental study of post test one group design, performed in two phases, using Aedes aegypti larvae as test organisms. In the first phase, laboratory-reared larvae were used for calculation of the LC50 and LC90, while in the second phase the test organisms were larvae taken from 75 buildings that had been designated based on a preliminary survey in four sub-districts in Banjarbaru city with a high incidence of dengue cases. Probit analysis of was used to calculate LC50 and LC90, and the Kruskal-Wallis test to determine the larvicidal potency of turmeric rhizome essential oils. Results This study demonstrates that turmeric rhizome essential oils effectively killed laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti larvae at an LC50 of 9.239 ppm and an LC90 of 13.565 ppm. The effectiveness of the essential oils of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma domestica Val. for killing Aedes aegypti larvae in residential areas was 68%. Conclusion Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. rhizome essential oils can kill Aedes aegypti larvae, are environment friendly and can be used for the control of mosquitoes.

  15. Evaluation of growth performance of Clarias gariepinus larvae fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial, involving the use of two starter diets (artemia and aqualis) was carried out in the laboratory, to evaluate the growth performance of C. gariepinus larvae fed artemia and aqualis fish feeds. A total of 200 (48 hours old C. gariepinus larvae) of mean weight 4.8 ± 0.01mg and length 6.16 ± 0.03mm were reared for ...

  16. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  17. Long-duration feedings and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    The duration of feedings received by Bombus terrestris larvae was studied using video-recordings. In the last days of development all larvae received feedings mainly of long duration. Worker larvae of the third brood received significantly longer feedings than worker larvae reared in the other

  18. Effects of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract and monomers of condensed tannins on the association of abomasal nematode larvae with fundic explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Jackson, F; Hoste, H

    2008-06-01

    Tannin-rich forages offer an alternative to anthelmintic chemicals to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, the mode of action of such bioactive plants still needs to be assessed. Previous studies have shown that extracts of tannin-rich plants interfere with the first phase of host invasion, i.e., the exsheathment of infective larvae (L3s). In the current study, we examined the hypothesis that exposure to tannins could also affect the second phase of larval establishment, i.e., the tissue association/penetration of the exsheathed L3s into the digestive mucosae. An in vitro direct challenge technique using fundic explants was applied in this study. The main parasite model was Haemonchus contortus. The objectives were to verify: (i) whether a modification of the association/penetration of L3s with the mucosae occurred after contact with sainfoin extract; (ii) whether this is a dose-dependent phenomenon; (iii) whether tannins were responsible for these effects; (iv) whether these effects were dependent on the parasite species; and (v) how the biochemical structure of tannins might influence these effects. Following 3h contact with sainfoin extract at 1,200 microg/ml, the penetration of exsheathed L3s of H. contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta into fundic explants was significantly reduced. Moreover, a dose-response relationship was found for H. contortus. For both nematodes, the changes were totally alleviated after addition of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, to the sainfoin extract, suggesting that tannins play a major role in the observed effects. Comparison of results obtained with different monomers of condensed tannins confirms a relationship between structure and activity, the prodelphinidin monomers and galloyl-derivatives being more effective than the procyanidin monomers. Combined with the delay or the inhibition of larval exsheathment previously shown, these effects could explain how tanniniferous plants reduce the establishment

  19. Biorheological action of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae on human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Del Balzo, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Bibiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that A. lumbricoides extracts capture sialic acid (SA) from human red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to study hemorheological alterations in vitro caused by parasite larvae. The biorheological action of three larva concentrates of first and second larval stage on group O erythrocytes was analyzed by incubating the erythrocyte packed together with an equal volume of larvae (treated RBC) and PBS (control RBC). Distribution and parameters of aggregation (digital image analysis), aggregation kinetics (erythroaggregameter), and viscoelasticity (erythrodeformeter) were measured. The digital image analysis showed that all the larvae diminished the isolated cells percentage and increased the size of the formed aggregates. The aggregate formation velocity was lower in the treated than in the control. The deformability index (ID) values of treated RBC did not present variations with respect to those of the control, but a decrease in the erythrocyte elastic modulus (μ(m)) and membrane surface viscosity (η(m)) values was observed, indicating that the larvae not only induced a diminution in the membrane surface viscosity of RBC but also altered the dynamic viscoelasticity of the membrane. Experiments carried out in vitro support the conclusion that the contact between larvae and RBC produces hemorheological alterations.

  20. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  1. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  3. Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884, the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.

  4. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  5. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities.

  6. Recovery after fracture dislocation of L3/L4 ASIA B: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caldera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In fracture dislocations of the lumbar region, two anatomical facts can help preserve neurological damage in patients, when compared with trauma in the cervical or thoracic region. Firstly, the spinal cord in adults extends only to the lower edge of the first lumbar vertebra, and secondly, the large vertebral space in this region gives ample space for the roots of the cauda equine. As a result, the nerve injury may be minimal, because the nerve roots in this region are accommodated in a larger area, with less content and space. This study presents the case of a 48-year-old male, a construction worker, who suffered a fall from a height of approximately 15 meters, directly hitting the lumbar region against a beam, and presenting pain and inability to move the legs. The patient was brought to the emergency room 1 hour after the accident, clinically assessed, submitted to x-rays and a CT scan, and diagnosed as having an ASIA B L3-L4 fracture dislocation. Three hours after the accident, reduction was performed via posterior transpedicular fixation. One week later, an anterior approach was performed. The patient progressed to ASIA C 24 hours after the first surgery. Three months later, the patient was functional with ASIA D and good sphincter control. The author's purpose is to show the results obtained by an intervention in the initial hours of the trauma, which helped promote the evolution from a nonfunctional injury to a functional one, with near-total recovery. Keywords: Spine fracture, Recovery, Neurological deficit, Asia scale, Dislocation

  7. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  8. Contribution to the design and implementation of the trigger and acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, X.

    1994-10-01

    The thesis is devoted to the trigger and data acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP. It is a large distributed system with multiple levels to trigger, collect and record events detected by the L3 detector. The three trigger levels are designed to reduce a possible first level trigger rate of 100 Hz to a few Hz. The readout and event building systems have intermediate buffering so that the only dead time is only introduced during digitization of the detector signals. The emphasis of this thesis is on the Hadron Calorimeter (one of the sub detectors) readout system, the L3 event building system and the upgraded level-3-trigger system. Both hardware and software are described. (author). 126 refs., 48 figs., 23 tabs

  9. An autosomal recessive DNASE1L3-related autoimmune disease with unusual clinical presentation mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonella, A; Mancano, G; Gremese, E; Alkuraya, F S; Patel, N; Gurrieri, F; Ferraccioli, G

    2017-06-01

    We describe the third family in the world, after Arabian and Turkish ones, displaying an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease (AID), mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with unusual manifestations due to a homozygous frame-shift variant in DNASE1L3. SLE is a complex AID characterized by multiple organ involvement. Genetic risk variants identified account for only 15% of SLE heritability. Rare Mendelian forms have been reported, including DNASE1L3-related SLE. Through specific genetic tests we identified a homozygous 2 bp-deletion c.289_290delAC (NM_004944.2) in DNASE1L3, predicting frameshift and premature truncation (p.Thr97Ilefs*2). The same mutation was previously reported in three sisters, born from consanguineous parents and affected with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS). As approximately 50% of individuals affected with HUVS develop SLE, it is still unclear whether it is a SLE sub-phenotype or a separate condition.

  10. Humoral immune response in cattle experimentally infested with larvae of Dermatobia Hominis Resposta imune humoral em bovinos infestados experimentalmente com larvas de Dermatobia Hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Guimarães Barbosa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Six bovines were infested with 60 first instar larvae of Dermatobia hominis. The animals were bleed weekly, and their antibodies levels to D. hominis L1, L2 and L3 instars measured during the time, following the infestation course. The antisera were submitted to a titration against optimal dilutions of antigen coated wells of microplates, previously sensitized with L1, L2 and L3 preparations, respectively. The ELISA assay was used to test single dilutions of antisera, which results were comparatively analyzed with a control of not infested animals. Antibodies against L1 were detected between the first and 21st day post-infestation (DPI and, from the 42nd DPI on. Anti-L2 antibodies, could be detected on the 21st DPI and from the 35th DPI until approximately the 49th DPI, when it was observed a decreasing of antibodies titration equivalent to the control group. No antibodies were detected against the L3 instar-antigens. Antibodies levels against L1 showed absorbance higher than 1.500 O.D. at 492nm in the ELISA assay, when compared to the 0.096 O.D. observed to the negative animals. High anti-L2 antibodies were also detected on the 21st DPI, where two animals showed O.D. of 0.450 and 0.900 at 492nm, with a cut-off estimated on 0.110 O.D. It was also demonstrated a rising of anti-L2 antibodies in the same four animals, which presented antibodies response against L1 instar. The obtained results, with an estimated prevalence of 50%, were comparatively evaluated, taking the double diffusion immunoassay precipitation test as a standard, and showed a concordance of 98%. The association between infestation and presence of specific antibodies was also discussed.Foram estudadas as alterações imunológicas em um grupo de seis bovinos infestados, experimentalmente, com 60 larvas de primeiro ínstar (L1 de Dermatobia hominis por animal, enquanto que outro grupo de seis animais foi utilizado como controle. Amostras de sangue tomadas, semanalmente, durante a

  11. Parasitic infection levels by Anisakis spp. larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae in the black scabbardfish Aphanopus carbo (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae from Portuguese waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aphanopus carbo, black scabbardfish, specimens from 3 Portuguese regions (the mainland, Madeira and the Azores during four (mainland and Madeira or two (Azores seasons of the year were examined for the presence of Anisakis. All the fish examined (n=287 were infected with Anisakis L3 larvae (prevalence = 100%. Significant geographical differences in intensity were found: the Azores showed the lowest mean intensity value (53.7 and Madeira the highest one (253.9. The intensity of infection was positively correlated with the host length in specimens of Sesimbra and Madeira. Significant seasonal differences in intensity were found in the studied regions. The very high values in prevalence and intensity strongly suggest that the consumption of raw or undercooked black scabbard fish is a potential risk for human health.

  12. Populasi Ascaridia galli Dalam Usus Halus Ayam Yang Diberikan Kombinasi Ekskretori/Sekretori L3 dan Imunoglobulin Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi Darmawi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascaridia galli populations in intestine of chickens treated with combination of excretory/secretory L3 and immunoglobulin yolk ABSTRACT. The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence of worm populations in intestine of chickens vaccinated and combined with egg yolk to experimental Ascaridia galli infection. Amount of 18 head chickens were devided into six groups (A – F. Group A, the chickens were not vaccinated. Group B, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3. Group C, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3, challenged with dose 1000 L2, and treated ten times with 0,875 mg egg yolk with an interval of one day intra orally. Group D, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3 and challenged with dose 1000 L2. Group E, the chickens were challenged with dose 1000 L2 and treated ten times with 0,875 mg egg yolk with an interval of one day intra orally. Group E, the chickens were challenged with dose 1000 L2. Intestinal worm burdens of infected groups were recorded. The result showed that excretory/secretory of A. galli L3 combined with egg yolk decreased significantly A. galli survival in intestine of laying hens. Vaccinations were positively correlated with worm burden at 12 weeks after chalanged. The results suggest that A. galli L3 excretory/secretory product contain potential antigen and that antibody-mediated mechanisms contribute to immune protection.

  13. Learning minimally different words in a third language: L2 proficiency as a crucial predictor of accuracy in an L3 word learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Escudero, P.; Broersma, M.; Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K.; Wrembel, M.; Kul, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency in the L2 (English) and L3 (Dutch) on word learning in the L3. Learners were 92 L1 Spanish speakers with differing proficiencies in L2 and L3, and 20 native speakers of Dutch. The learners were divided into basic and advanced English and Dutch

  14. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  15. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSN7L3dref) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  16. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSN7L3mref) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  17. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSN7L3dery) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. Four TOMS...

  18. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSN7L3mery) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MYD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  20. An Immunochip-based interrogation of scleroderma susceptibility variants identifies a novel association at DNASE1L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochling, Jane; Newell, Felicity; Charlesworth, Jac C; Leo, Paul; Stankovich, Jim; Cortes, Adrian; Zhou, Yuan; Stevens, Wendy; Sahhar, Joanne; Roddy, Janet; Nash, Peter; Tymms, Kathleen; Rischmueller, Maureen; Lester, Sue; Proudman, Susanna; Brown, Matthew A

    2014-10-21

    The aim of the study was to interrogate the genetic architecture and autoimmune pleiotropy of scleroderma susceptibility in the Australian population. We genotyped individuals from a well-characterized cohort of Australian scleroderma patients with the Immunochip, a custom array enriched for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at immune loci. Controls were taken from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. After data cleaning and adjusting for population stratification the final dataset consisted of 486 cases, 4,458 controls and 146,525 SNPs. Association analyses were conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. A replication study was performed using 833 cases and 1,938 controls. A total of eight loci with suggestive association (P <10-4.5) were identified, of which five showed significant association in the replication cohort (HLA-DRB1, DNASE1L3, STAT4, TNP03-IRF5 and VCAM1). The most notable findings were at the DNASE1L3 locus, previously associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and VCAM1, a locus not previously associated with human disease. This study identified a likely functional variant influencing scleroderma susceptibility at the DNASE1L3 locus; a missense polymorphism rs35677470 in DNASE1L3, with an odds ratio of 2.35 (P = 2.3 × 10(-10)) in anti-centromere antibody (ACA) positive cases. This pilot study has confirmed previously reported scleroderma associations, revealed further genetic overlap between scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus, and identified a putative novel scleroderma susceptibility locus.

  1. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E Monthly L3 Global CMG product (Short name: MYD11C3) is a monthly composited average, derived from the MYD11C1 daily global product, and stored...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone 8-Day L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone 8-Day L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_E3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  3. MODIS/Terra Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MOD08_D3). MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator...

  4. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E Monthly L3 Global CMG product (Short name: MOD11C3) is a monthly composited average, derived from the MOD11C1 daily global product, and...

  5. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MOD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  6. Examining Teachers' Views on the Implementation of English as L3 into Primary Schools: A Case of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhetpisbayeva, Bakhytgul A.; Shelestova, Tatyana Y.; Abildina, Saltanat K.

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan changed the State Educational Program for primary education and the curriculum for teaching English as a third language (L3) to grades 1-4 in 2013. As with many changes in the curriculum, English language teaching has also been changed and the starting age for learning of English…

  7. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global CMG (Short name: MOD11C1) products incorporate 0.05º (5600 meters at the equator) pixels, which are derived from the MOD11B1 daily...

  8. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MOD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels, which are produced daily using the day/night LST algorithm (Wan...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 km Grid (Short name: MYD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels (4.63 km pixels for versions prior to V005), which are produced daily...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global CMG (Short name: MYD11C1) products incorporate 0.05 degree (5600 meters at the equator) pixels, which are derived from the MOD11B1...

  11. Effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on gait in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, Arjan; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on the swing phase of gait. Materials and Methods. Five subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) with spasticity were included. Two electrical stimulation methods were investigated, i.e.,

  12. AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.3 level 3 collated (L3C) global 4km sea surface temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.3 (PFV53) L3C Sea Surface Temperature data set is a collection of global, twice-daily (Day and Night) 4km sea surface temperature...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  14. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_M3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  16. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Campos Zanelatto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies.

  17. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_D3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  18. Image enhancement for tracking the translucent larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant Khurana

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-dish edges encountered in many behavioral paradigms. To alleviate these issues, we enhanced the larval contrast to obtain complete tracks. Our method employed a dual approach of optical-contrast boosting and post-hoc image processing for contrast enhancement. We reared larvae on black food media to enhance their optical contrast through darkening of their digestive tracts. For image processing we performed Frame Averaging followed by Subtraction then Thresholding (FAST. This algorithm can remove all static objects from the movie, including petri-dish edges prior to processing by the image-tracking module. This dual approach for contrast enhancement also succeeded in overcoming fluctuations in illumination caused by the alternating current power source. Our tracking method yields complete tracks, including at the edges of the behavioral arena and is computationally fast, hence suitable for high-throughput fine-grained behavioral measurements.

  19. Food web changes under ocean acidification promote herring larvae survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sswat, Michael; Stiasny, Martina H; Taucher, Jan; Algueró-Muñiz, Maria; Bach, Lennart T; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Riebesell, Ulf; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2018-05-01

    Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO 2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO 2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO 2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability. The community was exposed to projected end-of-the-century CO 2 conditions (~760 µatm pCO 2 ) over a period of 113 days. In contrast with laboratory studies that reported a decrease in fish survival, the survival of the herring larvae in situ was significantly enhanced by 19 ± 2%. Analysis of the plankton community dynamics suggested that the herring larvae benefitted from a CO 2 -stimulated increase in primary production. Such indirect effects may counteract the possible direct negative effects of ocean acidification on the survival of fish early life stages. These findings emphasize the need to assess the food web effects of ocean acidification on fish larvae before we can predict even the sign of change in fish recruitment in a high-CO 2 ocean.

  20. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Odor-taste learning assays in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bertram; Biernacki, Roland; Thum, Jeannette

    2013-03-01

    The Drosophila larva is an emerging model for studies in behavioral neurogenetics because of its simplicity in terms of cell number. Despite this simplicity, basic features of neuronal organization and key behavior faculties are shared with adult flies and with mammals. Here, we describe a pavlovian-type learning assay in fruit fly larvae. A group of larvae is sequentially exposed to specific odors in the presence or the absence of sugar, and then tested to determine whether they prefer the odor previously experienced with the reward. The protocol uses a two-group, reciprocal training design: One group of Drosophila larvae is exposed to n-amyl acetate (AM) with a sugar reward (+), then subsequently exposed to 1-octanol (OCT) with no reward (denoted AM+/OCT). The other group receives the reciprocal training (AM/OCT+). The two groups of larvae are then tested for their choices between AM and OCT. Relatively higher preferences for AM after AM+/OCT training than after AM/OCT+ training reflect associative learning and are quantified by the learning index (LI). This method offers a robust, simple, cheap, and reasonably quick test for learning ability (an aversive version is available as well, using either high-concentration salt or quinine as punishment). With the concerted efforts of the Drosophila research community, we anticipate it will allow us to unravel the full circuitry underlying odor-taste learning on a single-cell level.

  2. Dimethyl Sulfide is a Chemical Attractant for Reef Fish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foretich, Matthew A; Paris, Claire B; Grosell, Martin; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel D

    2017-05-31

    Transport of coral reef fish larvae is driven by advection in ocean currents and larval swimming. However, for swimming to be advantageous, larvae must use external stimuli as guides. One potential stimulus is "odor" emanating from settlement sites (e.g., coral reefs), signaling the upstream location of desirable settlement habitat. However, specific chemicals used by fish larvae have not been identified. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is produced in large quantities at coral reefs and may be important in larval orientation. In this study, a choice-chamber (shuttle box) was used to assess preference of 28 pre-settlement stage larvae from reef fish species for seawater with DMS. Swimming behavior was examined by video-tracking of larval swimming patterns in control and DMS seawater. We found common responses to DMS across reef fish taxa - a preference for water with DMS and change in swimming behavior - reflecting a switch to "exploratory behavior". An open water species displayed no response to DMS. Affinity for and swimming response to DMS would allow a fish larva to locate its source and enhance its ability to find settlement habitat. Moreover, it may help them locate prey accumulating in fronts, eddies, and thin layers, where DMS is also produced.

  3. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-04-11

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an "all-or-none" manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish.

  4. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P microplastic concentrations (P microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum...... of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly...... will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3...

  6. Growth, survival and bone alterations in Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae under different rearing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roque Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is a neotropical freshwater fish. It is one of the most important species farmed in areas of the Parana and Paraguay Rivers basins. The effects of different rearing protocols on growth, survival and incidence of skeletal malformations in pacu larvae were analyzed. A total of six experimental treatments were considered, consisting of: a semi-intensive larviculture (LS in ponds; intensive larviculture (LIn in laboratory (both LS and LIn until 60 days of life; and mixed larviculture, with 20 days of semi-intensive larviculture into cages in ponds after 14 (L1, 21 (L2, 33 (L3 or 40 (L4 days of laboratory larviculture. At the end of the experimental period, LSlarvae showed higher growth rate, with average weight values (2.28g and total length (TL-48.20mm statistically higher than the rest (P1 to L4 treatments showed intermediate growth values, without differences between them (P>0.05, while LIn presented the lowest growth (PS, that presented a significantly lower value (17.5%, PIn and L1 presented the lowest incidence. In no case, visible morphological alterations were found. This study shows that prolonging pacu rearing under laboratory conditions at high densities improves temporal availability and survival of juvenile without affecting growth or subsequent osteological development of fish.

  7. Control of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes in heifers using different isolates of nematophagous fungi Controle de larvas infectantes de nematóides gastrintestinais de novilhas por diferentes isolados dos fungos nematófagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available The effect of different nematophagous fungi [Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 and CG722 and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34] with regard to controlling infective larvae (L3 of nematodes after gastrointestinal transit in female cattle (3/4 Holstein × Zebu was evaluated. A total of 24 pubescent female cattle were used, weighing approximately 320 kg each one. There were three treatment groups, each contained six animals that received 150 g of pellets (0.2 g of mycelium, orally in a single dose, in a sodium alginate matrix containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans (AC001 or CG722 or M. thaumasium (NF34; and one control group (without fungi. Fecal samples were collected from the animals at intervals of 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 48, and 72 hours. At the end of 17 days, the L3 not subjected to predation were recovered by means of the Baermann method. The fungal isolates tested were capable of destroying the L3 after gastrointestinal transit. It was observed that within 72 hours, the isolates AC001, CG722, and NF34 showed a higher predatory activity (81.2%, 97.3%, and 98.3%, respectively. The results justify the need for studies in the field, and over longer intervals, in order to observe the efficiency of the fungus D. flagrans, or even M. thaumasium, for environmental control over nematodes in naturally infected cattle.No presente estudo, foi avaliado o efeito de diferentes fungos nematófagos [Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 e CG722 e Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34] no controle de larvas infectantes (L3 de nematóides após o trânsito gastrointestinal em fêmeas bovinas (3/4 Holandês x Zebu. Um total de 24 fêmeas bovinas pubescentes foram utilizadas, pesando aproximadamente 320 kg cada. Foram utilizados três grupos de tratamento; cada um contendo seis animais que receberam por via oral de 150 g de péletes (0,2 g de micélio, em dose única, em uma matriz de alginato de sódio contendo massa micelial dos fungos D. flagrans (AC001 ou

  8. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  9. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives.

  10. Reorientation and Swimming Stability in Sea Urchin Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.; Chan, K. Y. K.; Anderson, E.; Helfrich, K. R.; Mullineaux, L. S.; Sengupta, A.; Stocker, R.

    2016-02-01

    Many benthic marine invertebrates have two-phase life histories, relying on planktonic larval stages for dispersal and exchange of individuals between adult populations. The dispersal of planktonic larvae is determined by two factors: passive advection by the ambient flow and active motility. By modifying dispersal and ultimately settlement, larval motility influences where and when individuals recruit into benthic communities. Despite its ecological relevance, our understanding of larval motility and behavior in the plankton remains limited, especially regarding the interactions of larval motility and ambient turbulence. As most larvae are smaller than the Kolmogorov scale, they experience ocean turbulence in part as a time-changing viscous torque produced by local fluid shear. This torque causes larval reorientation, impacting swimming direction and potentially dispersal at the macroscale. It is therefore paramount to understand the mechanisms of larval reorientation and the stability of larvae against reorientation. Here we report on the larval reorientation behavior of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Heliocidaris crassispina. Both species have life histories characterized by ontogenetic changes to internal density structure and morphology, which we hypothesized to impact stability. To test this hypothesis, we performed "flip chamber" experiments, in which larvae swim freely in a small chamber that is intermittently inverted, mimicking the overturning experienced by larvae in turbulence. We investigated the role of larval age, body size, species, morphology (number of arms), and motility (live versus dead) on the reorientation dynamics. Our work contributes to a more mechanistic understanding of the role of hydrodynamics in the motility and transport of planktonic larvae.

  11. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  12. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    , larvae of flatfishes undergo a particularly evident and dramatic metamorphosis, because flatfishes completely reprogram their body to move from the pelagic habitat, in the water column, to the benthic habitat, on the sea floor. Due to the complex morphological and physiological changes, in aquaculture...... capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...

  13. Ultrastructural observations of the larva of Tubiluchus corallicola (Priapulida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. P.; Storch, V.

    1989-03-01

    Larvae of Tubiluchus corallicola van der Land 1968 were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The scalids are sensory organs, each has a bipolar receptor cell with a single apical cilium similar to the scalid in the adult. Muscle cells of the larva are more differentiated than previously reported for other Priapulida; the larval arrangement of circular and longitudinal musculature differs from that of the adult, and a diaphragm is reported for the first time in Priapulida. The diaphragm may function in hydrostatic control of eversion and inversion of the introvert and mouth cone. The functional morphology of these two structures is discussed and contrasted with the Kinorhyncha.

  14. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  15. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.1 code to the LOFT test L3-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pylev, S.S.; Roginskaja, V.L.

    1998-02-01

    A calculation of LOFT Experiment L3-6, a small break equivalent to a 4-in diameter rupture in the cold leg of a four-loop commercial pressurized water reactor, has been performed to help validate RELAP5/MOD3.1 for this application. The version of the code to be used is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1.8d0. Three calculations were carried out in order to study the sensitivity to change break nozzle superheated discharge coefficient. Conducted comparative analysis of the LOFT L3-6 experiment shows on the whole a reasonable agreement between calculated data. Some discrepancies in the system pressure do not distort a picture of the transient. 6 refs

  16. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.1 code to the LOFT test L3-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylev, S.S.; Roginskaja, V.L.

    1998-02-01

    A calculation of LOFT Experiment L3-6, a small break equivalent to a 4-in diameter rupture in the cold leg of a four-loop commercial pressurized water reactor, has been performed to help validate RELAP5/MOD3.1 for this application. The version of the code to be used is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1.8d0. Three calculations were carried out in order to study the sensitivity to change break nozzle superheated discharge coefficient. Conducted comparative analysis of the LOFT L3-6 experiment shows on the whole a reasonable agreement between calculated data. Some discrepancies in the system pressure do not distort a picture of the transient. 6 refs.

  17. Summary and evaluation: fuel dynamics loss-of-flow experiments (tests L2, L3, and L4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barts, E.W.; Deitrich, L.W.; Eberhart, J.G.; Fischer, A.K.; Meek, C.C.

    1975-09-01

    Three similar experiments conducted to support the analyses of hypothetical LMFBR unprotected-loss-of-flow accidents are summarized and evaluated. The tests, designated L2, L3, and L4, provided experimental data against which accident-analysis codes could be compared, so as to guide further analysis and modeling of the initiating phases of the hypothetical accident. The tests were conducted using seven-pin bundles of mixed-oxide fuel pins in Mark-II flowing-sodium loops in the TREAT reactor. Test L2 used fresh fuel. Tests L3 and L4 used irradiated fuel pins having, respectively, ''intermediate-power'' (no central void) and ''high-power'' (fully developed central void) microstructure. 12 references

  18. L-[3H]glutamate binds to kainate-, NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive binding sites: an autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, D.T.; Yao, Deborah; Cotman, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of L-[ 3 H]glutamate binding sites was determined in the presence of various glutamate analogues using quantitative autoradiography. The binding of L-[ 3 H]glutamate is accounted for by the presence of 3 distinct binding sites when measured in the absence of Ca 2+ , Cl - and Na + ions. The anatomical distribution and pharmacological specificity of these binding sites correspond to that reported for the 3 excitatory amino acid binding sites selectively labelled by D-[ 3 H]2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (D-[ 3 H]AP5), [ 3 H]kainate ([ 3 H]KA) and [ 3 H]α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ([ 3 H]AMPA) which are thought to be selective ligands for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), KA and quisqualate (QA) receptors, respectively. (Auth.)

  19. The Coulomb deflection effect on the L3-subshell alignment in low-velocity proton impact ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palinkas, J.; Schlenk, B.; Valek, A.

    1981-01-01

    The alignment parameter of the L 3 subshell of gold has been determined by measuring the angular distribution of the Lsub(l)/Lsub(γ) intensity ratio following proton impact ionisation in the 0.25-0.60 MeV energy range. The experimental results make it clear that the minimum of the alignment parameter at low energies found earlier for He + impact also exists in the case of proton impact ionisation. (author)

  20. Pig heart short chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase revisited: sequence analysis and crystal structure determination.

    OpenAIRE

    Barycki, J. J.; O'Brien, L. K.; Birktoft, J. J.; Strauss, A. W.; Banaszak, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    Short chain L-3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) is a soluble dimeric enzyme critical for oxidative metabolism of fatty acids. Its primary sequence has been reported to be conserved across numerous tissues and species with the notable exception of the pig heart homologue. Preliminary efforts to solve the crystal structure of the dimeric pig heart SCHAD suggested the unprecedented occurrence of three enzyme subunits within the asymmetric unit, a phenomenon that was thought to have hampere...

  1. A novel biosurfactant produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a tiger lily wild flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Shik Kim

    Full Text Available Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability. Thus, we have isolated and examined biosurfactant-producing yeast for various industrial and medical applications. A rapid and simple method was developed to screen biosurfactant-producing yeasts for high production of eco-friendly biosurfactants. Using this method, several potential niches of biosurfactant-producing yeasts, such as wild flowers, were investigated. We successfully selected a yeast strain, L3-GPY, with potent surfactant activity from a tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Here, we report the first identification of strain L3-GPY as the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. In addition, we isolated a new low-surface-tension chemical, designated glycerol-liamocin, from the culture supernatant of strain L3-GPY through consecutive chromatography steps, involving an ODS column, solvent partition, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and an ODS Sep-Pak cartridge column. The chemical structure of glycerol-liamocin, determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicates that it is a novel compound with the molecular formula C33H62O12. Furthermore, glycerol-liamocin exhibited potent biosurfactant activity (31 mN/m. These results suggest that glycerol-liamocin is a potential novel biosurfactantfor use in various industrial applications.

  2. Crystal Structures of the uL3 Mutant Ribosome: Illustration of the Importance of Ribosomal Proteins for Translation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailliot, Justine; de Loubresse, Nicolas Garreau; Yusupova, Gulnara; Meskauskas, Arturas; Dinman, Jonathan D.; Yusupov, Marat

    2017-01-01

    The ribosome has been described as a ribozyme in which ribosomal RNA is responsible for peptidyl-transferase reaction catalysis. The W255C mutation of the universally conserved ribosomal protein uL3 has diverse effects on ribosome function (e.g., increased affinities for transfer RNAs, decreased rates of peptidyl-transfer), and cells harboring this mutation are resistant to peptidyl-transferase inhibitors (e.g., anisomycin). These observations beg the question of how a single amino acid mutation may have such wide ranging consequences. Here, we report the structure of the vacant yeast uL3 W255C mutant ribosome by X-ray crystallography, showing a disruption of the A-site side of the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC). An additional X-ray crystallographic structure of the anisomycin-containing mutant ribosome shows that high concentrations of this inhibitor restore a “WT-like” configuration to this region of the PTC, providing insight into the resistance mechanism of the mutant. Globally, our data demonstrate that ribosomal protein uL3 is structurally essential to ensure an optimal and catalytically efficient organization of the PTC, highlighting the importance of proteins in the RNA-centered ribosome. PMID:26906928

  3. Bacillus licheniformis BlaR1 L3 Loop Is a Zinc Metalloprotease Activated by Self-Proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sépulchre, Jérémy; Amoroso, Ana; Joris, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis 749/I, BlaP β-lactamase is induced by the presence of a β-lactam antibiotic outside the cell. The first step in the induction mechanism is the detection of the antibiotic by the membrane-bound penicillin receptor BlaR1 that is composed of two functional domains: a carboxy-terminal domain exposed outside the cell, which acts as a penicillin sensor, and an amino-terminal domain anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, which works as a transducer-transmitter. The acylation of BlaR1 sensor domain by the antibiotic generates an intramolecular signal that leads to the activation of the L3 cytoplasmic loop of the transmitter by a single-point cleavage. The exact mechanism of L3 activation and the nature of the secondary cytoplasmic signal launched by the activated transmitter remain unknown. However, these two events seem to be linked to the presence of a HEXXH zinc binding motif of neutral zinc metallopeptidases. By different experimental approaches, we demonstrated that the L3 loop binds zinc ion, belongs to Gluzincin metallopeptidase superfamily and is activated by self-proteolysis. PMID:22623956

  4. A novel biosurfactant produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a tiger lily wild flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Shik; Lee, In Kyoung; Yun, Bong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability. Thus, we have isolated and examined biosurfactant-producing yeast for various industrial and medical applications. A rapid and simple method was developed to screen biosurfactant-producing yeasts for high production of eco-friendly biosurfactants. Using this method, several potential niches of biosurfactant-producing yeasts, such as wild flowers, were investigated. We successfully selected a yeast strain, L3-GPY, with potent surfactant activity from a tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Here, we report the first identification of strain L3-GPY as the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. In addition, we isolated a new low-surface-tension chemical, designated glycerol-liamocin, from the culture supernatant of strain L3-GPY through consecutive chromatography steps, involving an ODS column, solvent partition, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and an ODS Sep-Pak cartridge column. The chemical structure of glycerol-liamocin, determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicates that it is a novel compound with the molecular formula C33H62O12. Furthermore, glycerol-liamocin exhibited potent biosurfactant activity (31 mN/m). These results suggest that glycerol-liamocin is a potential novel biosurfactantfor use in various industrial applications.

  5. Biochemical characterization of an autoradiographic method for studying excitatory amino acid receptors using L-[3H]glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincotta, M.; Summers, R.J.; Beart, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for radiolabeling excitatory amino acid receptors of rat brain with L-[ 3 H]glutamate. Effective labeling of glutamate receptors in slide-mounted 10-microns sections was obtained using a low incubation volume (0.15 ml) and rapid washing: a procedure where high ligand concentrations were achieved with minimal waste. Saturation experiments using [ 3 H]glutamate revealed a single binding site of micromolar affinity. The Bmax was trebled in the presence of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) and Cl- (20 mM) with no change in the Kd. Binding was rapid, saturable, stereospecific, and sensitive to glutamate receptor agonists. The proportions of [ 3 H]glutamate binding sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) were 34, 54, and 51%, respectively. NMDA inhibited binding at a distinct subset of L-[ 3 H]glutamate sites, whereas AMPA and kainate competed for some common sites. Labeling of sections with L-[ 3 H]glutamate in the presence of the selective agonists allowed autoradiographic visualization of glutamate receptor subtypes in brain tissue

  6. Diet and prey selection in late-stage larvae of five species of fish in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pelagic prey. All larvae selected P. hessei as a prey item. Myxus capensis and R. holubi also selected this copepod and showed the largest diversity in diet. Keywords: copepod eggs, insect larvae, larval fish assemblage, predation, seasonality

  7. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  8. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    -1 53 BOTHID LARVAE (PLEURONECTIFORMES - PISCES) OF THE GULF OF THAILAND AND SOUTH CHINA SEA. C. B. LALITHAMBIKA DEVI National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Dr. Salim All Road, Kochi - 682031. ABSTRACTS The larvae of bothids were found...

  9. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  10. Response of larvae of Cirina forda Westwood (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Older leaves contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) micronutrients than immature leaves of the same plant, and larvae developed faster with access to foliage of different ages significantly (P < 0.05) than those fed on exclusive diets. Variation in micronutrient content and, probably, phytosterols in the leaves of different ...

  11. Microbial Quality of Roasted Larvae of the Palm Weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean total viable bacterial and fungal counts were 6.24x104 and 4.1x104 cfu/g respectively. Although these larvae are rich sources of protein, their exposure to dust during hawking in motorized traffic is a major route of contamination with bacterial and fungal pathogens. Keyword: Rhyncophorus phoenicis, Microbial ...

  12. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review attempts to give an account on the recent advances on the killifish Aphanius dispar dispar as a biological control agent for mosquito larvae. Thirty six (36) articles of literature (scientific papers, technical and workshop reports) on this subject covering the period between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed.

  13. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed to different ...

  14. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P micro- and nanoplastics were readily ingested by oyster larvae, exposure to plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study.

  15. Roasted maggots (Dipteran larvae) as a dietary protein source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roasted maggots (Dipteran larvae) as a dietary protein source for laboratory animals. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... One set were fed with the convectional feed (set G,) with Clarias fish as its protein portion while the other set (M) were fed with same diet with maggots from poultry wastes ...

  16. Metabolic alterations and molecular mechanism in silkworm larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori (L), is an important economic insect and also a tool to convert leaf protein into silk. The industrial and commercial use of silk, the historical and economic importance of production and its application in all over the world finely contributed to the silkworm promotion as a powerful laboratory model ...

  17. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Oros, M.; Ferguson, J.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 351-353 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alaska * Diphyllobothrium * human * larva * nonhuman * Oncorhynchus * seashore Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 8.222, year: 2016

  18. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  19. (a photo-activated insecticide) in Culex pipiens larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effect of hematoporphyrin on the mid-gut and the integument of the fourth larval instar of C. pipiens was studied using a transmission electron microscope. In this study C. pipiens larvae were treated with different concentration of hematoporphyrin. The concentration 5 × 10-4 M/L was found to produce ...

  20. Simple clearing technique as species determination tool in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Wartenberg, Nelly; Spiess, Roland; Mall, Gita

    2011-03-20

    A simple clearing technique is presented by which species specific structures and organs of blowfly larvae can easily be visualized and displayed without any danger of mechanical damages or dislocations of delicate formations and without fixation of the object. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the susceptibility of bacteria Paenibacillus larvae. causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    American foulbrood is a very serious disease of the honeybee Apis mellifrea worldwide and Algeria. It caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AFB in the central region of Algeria (Algiers, Bouira, Blida, Boumerdes, Tizi Ouzou, Tipaza, Medea and Ain Defla) ...

  2. Diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae was studied in the northern Benguela during a survey in April 2001. The diel pattern is described in relation to the degree of swimbladder inflation and the vertical structure of temperature and dissolved oxygen. During the survey, samples were also ...

  3. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) ...

  4. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    monsoons. In Bay of Bengal E. grandisquamis was dominant during both the seasons with a preference for S.W. monsoon and larvae of E. cocosensis, E. latifrons, Arnoglossus tapeinosoma and Bothus pantherinus dominated during N.E. monsoon. In the Arabian Sea...

  5. POTENSI DAUN PANDAN WANGI UNTUK MEMBUNUH LARVA NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of umbrella tree (Pandanus amoryllifolius Roxb. contained several compounds that can be used as natural insecticide. It is containing poliphenol, flavonoid, saponin, volatile oil and alkaloid. However, lethal concentration of the leaves extract of pandamus tree was unknown. The objectives of the research was to determine the LC50 of the extract towards Aedes aegypti larvae. A 24600 ppm water suspension of the umbrella tree extract was prepared. A series of suspension was prepared by diluting 16.25 ml; 19.3 ml; 22.36 ml; 25.4 ml respectively to approximately 200 ml, and than transferred them into 250 ml glass aquaria. To each aquarium, 20 larvas were added and the volume of the mixtures was adjusted to 250 ml by adding distill water. Mortality of the larva was observed in 24 to 48 hours. Log probit analysis of the larva mortality showed that the LC50 were 2198.4655 ppm and 1669.1678 ppm for 24 and 48 hours respectively.   Keywords: Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb, Aedes aegypti, lethal concentration

  6. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  7. Effect of Root Extracts of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on Larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal activity of three solvent root (bark and wood) extracts of Lantana camara Linn. was investigated against first and fourth instars of Aedes aegypti larvae after 24 and 48 h post-treatment exposure to serial concentrations (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.001 %) of aqueous, ethanolic and acetone crude extracts. All extracts ...

  8. Mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyou; Shimogonya, Yuji; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2017-04-21

    Due to its transparency, the intestine of zebrafish larvae has been widely used in studies of gastrointestinal diseases and the microbial flora of the gut. However, transport phenomena in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have not been fully clarified. In this study, therefore, transport caused by peristaltic motion in the intestine of zebrafish larvae was investigated by numerical simulation. An anatomically realistic three-dimensional geometric model of the intestine at various times after feeding was constructed based on the experimental data of Field et al. (2009). The flow of digested chyme was analyzed using the governing equations of fluid mechanics, together with peristaltic motion and long-term contraction of the intestinal wall. The results showed that retrograde peristaltic motion was the main contributor to the mixing function. The dispersion caused by peristalsis over 30min was in the order of 10 -12 m 2 /s, which is greater than the Brownian diffusion of a sphere of 0.4µm diameter. In contrast, anterograde peristaltic motion contributed mainly to the pumping function. The pressure decrease due to peristalsis was in the order of millipascals, which may reduce the activation and maintenance heat of intestinal muscle. These findings enhance our understanding of the mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed ...

  10. Anaphe venata larva extract-induced purposeless chewing in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the effect of the crude aqueous and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) extracts of this larva on altered spontaneous rat behavior in a novel environment particularly chewing behaviour, with a view to determine the mechanism(s) involved in these behavioural alteration. Animals were randomly ...

  11. Aluminium chloride-induced toxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Grimaldi, M C; Ferrandino, I

    2017-05-01

    Embryos at shield stage and larvae at protruding mouth stage were exposed to different concentrations of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) for 72 h with the purpose to analyse their phenotype and lethality. After 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment, higher toxicity of the metal was observed on larvae with minimal lethal concentration of 0.25, 0.20 and 0.08 mm, respectively, while for embryos the corresponding values were 40, 25 and 16 mm. We observed pericardial oedema and alteration of heart rate in 50% of larvae after 48 h of exposure to 100 μm. In larvae exposed to the same concentration, there was also a neurological injury at the level of glial cells, with the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells being significantly reduced. This study confirms the toxic nature of this metal and shows that aluminium could also interestingly represent a cardiotoxin in addition to its neurotoxic ability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.

  13. Hydrodynamics of burst swimming fish larvae; a conceptual model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    Burst swimming of fish larvae is analysed from a hydrodynamic point of view. A picture of the expected flow pattern is presented based on information in literature on unsteady-flow patterns around obstacles in the intermediate Reynolds number region. It is shown that the acceleration stage of burst

  14. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Tidal exchange of larvae of Sesarma catenata (Decapoda, Brachyura)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tidal exchange of larvae of the salt-marsh grapsid crab Sesarma catenata was studied in the Swartkops estuary, a tidally driven, shallow estuary in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Plankton samples were collected bimonlhly during spring and neap tides from October to March at the tidal inlet. Samples were collected hourly for ...

  16. Nursing protects honeybee larvae from secondary metabolites of pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A.; Kilchenmann, Verena; Glauser, Gaetan; Praz, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    The pollen of many plants contains toxic secondary compounds, sometimes in concentrations higher than those found in the flowers or leaves. The ecological significance of these compounds remains unclear, and their impact on bees is largely unexplored. Here, we studied the impact of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) found in the pollen of Echium vulgare on honeybee adults and larvae. Echimidine, a PA present in E. vulgare pollen, was isolated and added to the honeybee diets in order to perform toxicity bioassays. While adult bees showed relatively high tolerance to PAs, larvae were much more sensitive. In contrast to other bees, the honeybee larval diet typically contains only traces of pollen and consists predominantly of hypopharyngeal and mandibular secretions produced by nurse bees, which feed on large quantities of pollen-containing bee bread. We quantified the transfer of PAs to nursing secretions produced by bees that had previously consumed bee bread supplemented with PAs. The PA concentration in these secretions was reduced by three orders of magnitude as compared to the PA content in the nurse diet and was well below the toxicity threshold for larvae. Our results suggest that larval nursing protects honeybee larvae from the toxic effect of secondary metabolites of pollen. PMID:29563265

  17. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaneil Lahiri

    Full Text Available When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1 peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2 asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  18. Abundance, distribution and species composition of fish larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attemptwas made to correlate the data with environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity and rainfall. The ichthyoplankton of the Swartkops is dominated by few species. The family Gobiidae (59,44%) and a clupeid species, Gilchristella aestuarius (31,12%), accounted for 90,56% of all the fish larvae sampled.

  19. Variations in body shape of European seabass larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rates of body deformities is one of the most challenging problems in fish culture and is a common source of downgrading the product value of commercially raised fish. The aims of this study are explore the effects of xenic and axenic rearing conditions on the seabass larvae and check whether the rearing condition has ...

  20. The larvae of decapods and fishes of Amba estuary, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Govindan, K.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.

    larvae to the total zooplankton population were 3.63 and 0.03 respectively. In the assessment of larval stocks environmental parameters and the presence of adult fish caught in the area were considered. The estuarine area supported fairly high fishery...

  1. Patrón espacio-temporal de larvas y huevecillos de nemátodos gastrointestinales en pastizales ganaderos de Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Flota-Bañuelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocer la disposición espacio-temporal y diseminación de las larvas de nematodos gastrointestinales en los pastizales, y estimar el efecto de la ivermectina aplicada a bovinos sobre la abundancia de sus huevecillos, permite estimar dónde y cuándo se presentan las poblaciones más altas, que puede servir para establecer planes de muestreo y orientar medidas de control, así como para definir el riesgo de contaminación de los pastizales de manera diferencial. Para la determinación de la disposición espacio-temporal de L3 en el pastizal, se recolectaron, contaron e identificaron mensualmente las larvas en 30 puntos de muestreo, posteriormente se generaron mapas de disposición espacial con los datos obtenidos de los conteos de L3 en cada punto y mes de muestreo, y se calculó el patrón de disposición mediante los índices varianza/media y K binomial negativa. El número de huevecillos por gramo de heces de los bovinos con (CI y sin ivermectina (SI, se calculó con la técnica de McMaster. En el pastizal se recuperaron 20 276L3, correspondiendo el 80% a H contortus. En octubre 2008 se detectó la más alta densidad de nematodos con más de 5 000L3/kgMS. Las L3 presentaron un patrón espacial agregado de intensidad variable durante todo el año. Las mayores densidades poblacionales de nematodos fueron en octubre 2008 y las menores en febrero y marzo 2009. La aplicación de ivermectina a los bovinos no redujo el número de huevecillos presentes en las heces, debido a que los tratamientos fueron estadísticamente iguales. De julio a noviembre 2008, se observaron las mayores cargas parasitarias.

  2. Third-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larva excretory secretory antigens modulate function of Fc gamma receptor I-mediated monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjathummarak, Surachet; Kumsiri, Ratchanok; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Kalambaheti, Thareerat; Waikagul, Jitra; Viseshakul, Nareerat; Maneerat, Yaowapa

    2016-01-01

    Third (infective)-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae (L3) mainly cause human gnathostomiasis. G. spinigerum L3 migrate throughout the subcutaneous tissues, vital organs, and central nervous system and can cause various pathogenesis including sudden death. Interestingly, G. spinigerum L3 can survive and evade host cellular immunity for months or years. The effects of G. spinigerum excretory-secretory (ES) products involved in larval migration and immune-evasive strategies are unknown. Monocytes are innate immune cells that act as phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells and also play roles against helminthic infections via a complex interplay between other immune cells. Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI) is a high-affinity receptor that is particularly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The cross-linking of FcγRI and antigen-antibody complex initiates signal transduction cascades in phagocytosis, cytokine production, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). This study investigated whether ES antigen (ESA) from G. spinigerum L3 affects monocyte functions. Cultures of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) separated from healthy buffy coats were used as a human immune cell model. ESA was prepared from G. spinigerum L3 culture. Using Real-Time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the effect of ESA to down-regulate FcγRI mRNA expression in monocytes during 90 min of observation was not well delineated. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant phenotypic-decreased FcγRI expression on the monocyte surface at 12 hours (h) of cultivation with the ESA (p = 0.033). Significantly reduced monocyte-mediated phagocytosis capacity was consistently observed after 12 h of ESA pretreatment (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that G. spinigerum ESA modulates monocyte function via depletion of FcγRI expression. This study provides preliminary information for future in-depth studies to

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Trophic ecology of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, I A; Tejedor, A; Alemany, F; Reglero, P

    2011-05-01

    Feeding intensity, diet composition, selectivity, energy ingestion and dietary niche breadth of larval Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus were studied on the eastern (Mediterranean) spawning grounds of the species. Larval T. thynnus were collected in the Balearic Archipelago (north-west Mediterranean Sea) during 2004 and 2005 using surveys specific for larval scombrids. Larvae between 2·6 and 8·7 mm standard length (L(S) ) are diurnal feeders, and 94% of the guts collected during daylight hours were full. The mean ±s.d. number of prey per gut was 7·1 ± 5·7, with mean ±s.d. ranging from 3·0 ± 1·6 in the smallest T. thynnus larvae to 11·1 ± 5·8 in 5·0-6·0 mm L(S) larvae. Up to 21 prey were found in a single larval gut (5·0-6·0 mm L(S) ) at the end of the day. Larvae progressively selected larger prey and exhibited increased carbon content concurrent with preflexion development of feeding and locomotory structures. Larvae of 5·0-6·0 mm L(S) exhibited positive selection of cladocerans over other prey (Chesson's index), whereas copepod nauplii dominated the diets of earlier stages. The dietary niche breadth measured increased initially but decreased at c. 5·5 mm L(S) . Appendicularians were found in the diet of larger larval sizes, but no piscivory was observed. Results are discussed in light of the sparse existing data for larval T. thynnus and other larval tuna species. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  6. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Chris J; Haley, Brian A; Schrader, Paul; Brunner, Elizabeth L; Gray, Matthew W; Miller, Cale A; Gimenez, Iria; Hutchinson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4) with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material affected only by

  7. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Waldbusser

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4 with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material

  8. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects.

  9. Nosema algerae (Nosematidae, Microsporida): laboratory infections of Anopheles larvae and prospects for field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugud, A D; White, G B

    1985-04-01

    Different larval instars of Anopheles arabiensis were infected experimentally using different dosages of Nosema algerae spores. The N. algerae infections killed most of the exposed larvae at the instar treated. Chronic infections in adults developing from treated larvae decreased fecundity and shortened the life of the adults. The possibility of applying N. algerae as a control agent against An. arabiensis larvae is discussed.

  10. Description of the larva of Triaenodes sp. McLachlan, 1865 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... particular species is at best conjectural. Efforts are ongoing to breed out adult from larva for proper association and determination of the species. Larvae were found in a slow-flowing forested stream, where they were associated with leaf litter accumulations. Keywords: Trichoptera, Leptoceridae, Triaenodes, larva, Nigeria, ...

  11. Diel variation in the sizes of larvae of Bugula neritina in field populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Ellen T; Pernet, Bruno

    2009-02-01

    The scale of planktonic larval dispersal affects a variety of ecological and evolutionary processes. Recent work suggests that the dispersal ability of obligately lecithotrophic larvae is influenced by the amount of energy supplied to each larva: larger larvae may stay in the plankton longer and thus travel greater distances than smaller larvae. We examined a prediction of this hypothesis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina, which each morning releases brooded larvae that settle within a few hours. If larger larvae stay in the plankton longer than smaller larvae, than larger larvae should increase in frequency in the planktonic population as the day progresses. However, field surveys revealed a negative relationship between time of day and the sizes of planktonic larvae. Because these results may have been complicated by prolonged larval release, we sequestered groups of brooding colonies in field mesocosms to examine release patterns. Larvae were released over a period of 8-9 h, with smaller larvae increasing in frequency as the day progressed. We conclude that populations of larvae of B. neritina may not be homogenous in energetic content throughout the day; this must be taken into consideration when designing studies of many aspects of larval biology.

  12. Distribution and seasonal abundance of carangid larvae in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.; Balachandran, T.

    Carangid larvae were recorded from 8.8% of the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) stations in the Arabian Sea and 13.2% in the Bay of Bengal. Their total contribution was 1.1% of the total larvae collected. The highest number of larvae...

  13. Nutrition and related ontogenetic aspects in larvae of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, J.

    1994-01-01


    The absence of adequate techniques for rearing fish larvae constitutes a bottleneck for sustainable aquacultural growth. Important constraints are the tiny size of the larvae, the dependance on live food organisms and the developmental stage of the fish larvae. The development

  14. Dietary potentials of the edible larvae of Cirina forda (westwood) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of broiler chicks to the replacement of fishmeal with the larvae of Cirina forda. Three diets, namely Diet A (100% C. forda larvae and 0% Fish meal); Diet B (50% C. forda larvae and 50% Fish meal); and Diet C, which was the control (100% Fish meal and 0% C.

  15. Search for supersymmetry in 2 different topologies with the L3 detector at Lep; Recherche de supersymetrie dans les canaux avec un ou deux leptons avec le detecteur L3 a LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balandras, A

    2000-11-13

    The present thesis presents two different aspects of my work in the L3 experiment, which are on one side the search for supersymmetric particles, the scalar leptons, in two different topologies 'electron + X + E' and '2 leptons + 2 photons + E', each of them being related to two theoretical SUSY models, m-SUGRA and GMSB. On the other side my work has been completed by the study of the BGO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter of L3, and the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter EGAP. After the essential motivations being reviewed, the production and disintegration modes are detailed concerning the scalar lepton sector at LEP. Then one presents the analysis techniques which I used to perform my selection, and also the results obtained from the data collected by L3 for center of mass energies between {radical} S =183 GeV and 202 GeV. The selection criteria that allow to isolate the events I looked for, including efficiencies but also the background rate coming from Standard Model that one can expect are presented. The final interpretations of those results in both frameworks of m-SUGRA and GMSB are detailed at the end of this thesis. I took benefit of those results to derive some limits on the masses of the scalar leptons that do not depend on the free parameters of the SUSY models, especially on the selectron mass in the framework of m-SUGRA: M{sub e}-tilde{sub R} > 71.2 GeV. (authors)

  16. Contaminação da pastagem com larvas infectantes de nematoides gastrintestinais após o pastejo de ovelhas resistentes ou susceptíveis à verminose Pasture contamination with infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after grazing by sheep resistant or susceptible to parasitic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cristiano Bassetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O grau de contaminação da pastagem por larvas de terceiro estágio (L3 de nematoides gastrintestinais foi avaliado em piquetes pastejados por ovelhas resistentes ou susceptíveis à verminose. O experimento foi realizado de 23 de novembro de 2007 a 22 de julho de 2008. Inicialmente, realizou-se a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG de amostras individuais de 130 ovelhas adultas da raça Bergamácia. Dessas, foram selecionadas as nove ovelhas com contagens mais elevadas de OPG (susceptíveis e as 10 com as menores contagens (resistentes. As ovelhas resistentes apresentaram menor contagem de OPG, maiores valores de volume globular, de proteína plasmática total e de eosinófilos sanguíneos, do que as ovelhas susceptíveis. O peso também foi maior no grupo resistente. Na pastagem, foram identificadas larvas de Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp. e Oesophagostomum spp. Em média, as quantidades de L3 de Haemonchus spp. e de Trichostrongylus spp., na pastagem, foram 2,19 e 2,31 vezes, respectivamente, maiores nos piquetes pastejados pelo grupo susceptível do que nos do grupo resistente. Portanto, os animais susceptíveis devem ser eliminados do rebanho a fim de reduzir a contaminação da pastagem e otimizar a profilaxia das infecções por nematoides gastrintestinais.The degree of contamination of herbage with third stage larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated in paddocks grazed by resistant or susceptible ewes. The trial occurred from November 23, 2007 to July 22, 2008. Initially, fecal egg counts (FEC were performed with individual samples of 130 adult ewes of the Bergamacia breed. Of those animals, nine ewes with the highest FEC (susceptible group and 10 with the lowest counts (resistant group were selected and moved to separate paddocks. The resistant ewes presented lower FEC, higher values of packed cell volume, total plasma protein and blood eosinophils than the susceptible ewes. The weight was also higher in the

  17. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    André Iwersen de São Thiago; Emil Kupek; Joaquim Alves Ferreira Neto; Paulo de Tarso São Thiago

    2002-01-01

    Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.Foi desenvolvido um programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, vetores biológicos de dengue e febre amarela. O programa possibilita rá...

  18. Studi Laju Umpan pada Proses Biokonversi Limbah Pengolahan Tuna menggunakan Larva Hermetia illucens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Rahman Hakim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan berkembangnya industri tuna, limbah pengolahan yang dihasilkan semakin meningkat. Namun demikian pemanfaatan limbah tersebut belum optimal. Biokonversi bahan organik limbah tuna menjadi biomassa larva sebagai bahan pakan diharapkan mampu mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Biokonversi menggunakan larva Hermetia illucens atau Black Soldier Fly (BSF memiliki keunggulan dibandingkan proses konversi lain; di antaranya larva BSF mampu mengkonversi berbagai macam bahan organik, memiliki kandungan nutrisi tinggi serta bukan vektor penyakit. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mempelajari laju umpan larva BSF dalam mengkonversi limbah tuna menjadi biomassa larva. Limbah tuna yang digunakan sebagai umpan larva BSF adalah kepala dan jeroan. Larva dipelihara selama 19 hari dengan pemberian umpan bervariasi (60, 80, 100 mg/larva/hari. Analisa dilakukan terhadap konsumsi umpan, indeks pengurangan limbah (waste reduction index/WRI, efisiensi konversi umpan tercerna (efficiency of conversion of digested-feed/ECD, tingkat kelulusan hidup (survival rates /SR, bobot larva, kandungan protein dan lemak larva. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kepala dan jeroan tuna dapat digunakan sebagai pakan BSF, dengan nilai SR 41,33 – 98,33%. Laju umpan yang menghasilkan proses biokonversi paling optimum adalah umpan berupa kepala tuna sebesar 60 mg/larva/hari (K60. Nilai parameter pada perlakuan K60 adalah konsumsi umpan 77,09 %, WRI 4,06 % per hari, ECD 8,32 %, bobot larva 72,59 mg dan SR 98,33 %. Limbah berupa kepala tuna menghasilkan konsumsi umpan, WRI, ECD, bobot larva dan SR yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan limbah jeroan tuna. Penggunaan limbah kepala tuna dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mereduksi limbah sekaligus menghasilkan bahan pakan yang potensial. Kandungan larva BSF dengan umpan kepala tuna 60 mg/larva/hari meliputi protein 25,38 %, lemak 6,85 % dan air 62,81 %.

  19. Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae on tone surfaces in an uncontaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Hibino, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae in an uncontaminated river were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) via the k 0 -standardization method. The aquatic insect larvae found were all intolerant species. No significant difference was observed int he elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae long the river. Similar elemental concentrations were observed in the aquatic insect larvae collected at a fixed sampling point for two years. An analysis by the ratio-matching technique indicated a higher generic relationship between aquatic insect larvae and attached algae than river water. (author)

  20. Oesophagostomum columbianum : immunization of young lambs using gamma ray attenuated inefective larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.; Dhar, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infective Oesophagostomum columbianum larvae were successfully attenuated by exposing them to a gamma radiation dose levels of either 40 or 50 Krad. Lambs receiving a single vaccination dose of 2000 infective larvae attenuated at 40 Krad developed partial protection, whereas those vaccinated with similar dose of infection with 50 Krad irradiated larvae failed to develop any protection. A double vaccination schedule comprising of 500 and 2000 gamma attenuated (40 Krad) infective larvae induced a significantly higher level of protection against the challenge dose. The possible use of radiation attenuated larvae as vaccine for immunoprophylaxis against ovine Oesophagostomiasis has been discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables

  1. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  2. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudoterranova azarasi LARVAE IN COD (Gadus sp.) SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARIGO, Juliana; TANIWAKI, Sueli Akemi; PINTO, Pedro Luiz Silva; SOARES, Rodrigo Martins; CATÃO-DIAS, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Anisakiasis and Pseudoterranovosis are human diseases caused by the ingestion of live Anisakidae larvae in raw, undercooked or lightly marinated fish. Larvae were collected from one salted cod sold for human consumption in a Sao Paulo market in 2013. One section of one brownish larva was used for molecular analyses. The partial COX2 gene sequence from the larva had a nucleotide identity of 99.8 % with Pseudoterranova azarasi, which belongs to the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex. The risk of allergy when consuming dead larvae in salted fish is not well known and should be considered. PMID:27049712

  3. A search for flaring Very-High-Energy cosmic-ray sources with the L3+C muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, H; Grabosch, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberría, M I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, i; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmitt, V; Schöneich, B; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R F; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L

    2006-01-01

    The L3+C muon detector at the Cern electron-position collider, LEP, is used for the detection of very-high-energy cosmic \\gamma-ray sources through the observation of muons of energies above 20, 30, 50 and 100 GeV. Daily or monthly excesses in the rate of single-muon events pointing to some particular direction in the sky are searched for. The periods from mid July to November 1999, and April to November 2000 are considered. Special attention is also given to a selection of known \\gamma-ray sources. No statistically significant excess is observed for any direction or any particular source.

  4. Interpretation of the U L3-edge EXAFS in uranium dioxide using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, Dmitry; Chollet, Melanie; Krack, Matthias; Bertsch, Johannes; Grolimund, Daniel; Martin, Matthias; Kuzmin, Alexei; Purans, Juris; Kotomin, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is employed to study the local structure of pure and Cr-doped UO 2 at 300 K. The U L 3 -edge EXAFS spectrum is interpreted within the multiplescattering (MS) theory using the results of the classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, allowing us to validate the accuracy of theoretical models. The Cr K-edge XANES is simulated within the full-multiple-scattering formalism considering a substitutional model (Cr at U site). It is shown that both unrelaxed and relaxed structures, produced by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations, fail to describe the experiment. (paper)

  5. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Janis C; Roberts, William M; Robinson, Kristin J; Keaney, Melissa; Vermeire, Jon J; Urban, Joseph F; Lockery, Shawn R; Hawdon, John M

    2016-12-01

    The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s) that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1) conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2) rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a 'flutter'); and (3) hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG 'events.' EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM) inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A. ceylanicum L4s and A

  6. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  7. Roles of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and processing speed in L3, L2 and L1 reading comprehension: a structural equation modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, A.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.; Hulstijn, J.; Snellings, P.; Simis, A.; Stevenson, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present an analysis of the relationship between L3 reading comprehension and its constituent skills for bilingual Dutch students for whom English is a third language(L3) compared to monolingual Dutch students for whom English is a second language(L2). An analogous analysis is made

  8. English L3 Learning in a Multilingual Context: The Role of Parental Education and L2 Exposure within the Living Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines two factors in relation to English L3 proficiency development and school performance in a third language: (a) parental education and (b) second language exposure within the living community. Participants (n?=?50) are Italian L1 students with German L2 and English L3. All students (eighth grade, 14 years of age) were…

  9. An Exploratory Study on the Role of L1 Chinese and L2 English in the Cross-Linguistic Influence in L3 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hansong; Cai, Luna Jing

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates cross-linguistic influence in the comprehension of L3 French past tense. A close examination was made on the L1 (Chinese) and L2 (English) transfer patterns among 20 English majors in their early acquisition of L3 French passé compose (PC). Data were collected through introspective think-aloud protocol in a comprehension…

  10. The dynamical impact of mesoscale eddies on migration of Japanese eel larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the dynamical role of mesoscale eddies on fish larvae migration using the example of Subtropical Counter Current eddies and the migration of Japanese eel larvae in the western North Pacific Ocean. An idealized experiment is conducted to isolate the effects of eddies, and use a three-dimensional particle-tracking method to simulate virtual eel larvae (v-larvae migration, including both horizontal and vertical swimming behaviors. The impact of eddies strongly depends on the swimming speed of v-larvae relative to the eddy speed. Eddies accelerate the movement of v-larvae that swim slower than the propagation speed of the eddy, whereas faster-swimming v-larvae are dragged by eddies. A modified stream function that incorporates biological swimming ability explains the non-uniform trapping of v-larvae in mesoscale eddies. A high swimming speed and/or a small eddy rotation speed results in a weak trapping capacity. Simulations of v-larvae migration in realistic cases of eddy fields indicate that the abundance of eddies significantly affects the duration of larval migration, with the effects being largely dependent on the larvae swimming speed. We noted a negative relationship between the observed annual eel recruitment index in Taiwan and the eddy index subtropical countercurrent (STCC region, which suggests a potentially important role of mesoscale eddies in eel larvae migration.

  11. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. We incorporated a Tunable Acoustic Gradient (TAG) lens into a two-photon microscope to achieve a 70kHz axial scan rate, enabling volumetric imaging at tens of hertz. We then implemented a tracking algorithm based on a Kalman filter to maintain the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva. Preliminary results show successful tracking of a neuron moving at speeds reaching 500 μm/s. NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  13. VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS AND TROPICAL PYOMYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAMBERTUCCI Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tropical pyomyositis in a boy who presented with a severe febrile illness associated with diffuse erythema, and swelling in many areas of the body which revealed on operation extensive necrotic areas of various muscles that required repeated débridement. The patient gave a history of contact with dogs, and an ELISA test for Toxocara canis was positive. He also presented eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacteria isolated from the muscles affected. We suggest that tropical pyomyositis may be caused by the presence of migrating larvae of this or other parasites in the muscles. The immunologic and structural alterations caused by the larvae, in the presence of concomitant bacteremia, would favour seeding of the bacteria and the development of pyomyositis.

  14. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Hassan, Soaib Ali; Din, Sadrud

    2017-09-01

    Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae. Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri ) had the lowest LC 50 value (200.79ppm), while musambi ( C. sinensis var musambi ) had the highest LC 50 value (457.30ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. aegypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine operational feasibility.

  15. The immunogenic effect of irradiated Hemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Cruz, B.; Perfuse, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. The use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables one to take advantage of the special immunological properties of living parasites; the radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. This report deals with our attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Hemonchus contortus infection in adult goats. Hemonchus contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against Hemonchus contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  16. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A series of night hauls were made both along a transect from the Danish coast to the Dogger Bank and at a fixed position in the southern North Sea. The aim was to evaluate the suitability of two midwater trawls (IKMT and MIK) for catching large herring larvae (20-40 mm), with special attention...... given to the influence of gear speed on catching effectiveness. An additional objective was to investigate larval distributional patterns of potential importance to sampling strategy. Gear speed had a pronounced influence on the efficiency of the IKMT. Catches per unit volume filtered decreased to one...... third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...

  17. Architecture of the primary taste center of Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Colomb, Julien; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F.

    2007-01-01

    A simple nervous system combined with stereotypic behavioral responses to tastants, together with powerful genetic and molecular tools, have turned Drosophila larvae into a very promising model for studying gustatory coding. Using the Gal4/UAS system and confocal microscopy for visualizing gustatory afferents, we provide a description of the primary taste center in the larval central nervous system. Essentially, gustatory receptor neurons target different areas of the subesophageal ganglion (...

  18. Cockchafer larvae smell host root scents in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weissteiner

    Full Text Available In many insect species olfaction is a key sensory modality. However, examination of the chemical ecology of insects has focussed up to now on insects living above ground. Evidence for behavioral responses to chemical cues in the soil other than CO(2 is scarce and the role played by olfaction in the process of finding host roots below ground is not yet understood. The question of whether soil-dwelling beetle larvae can smell their host plant roots has been under debate, but proof is as yet lacking that olfactory perception of volatile compounds released by damaged host plants, as is known for insects living above ground, occurs. Here we show that soil-dwelling larvae of Melolontha hippocastani are well equipped for olfactory perception and respond electrophysiologically and behaviorally to volatiles released by damaged host-plant roots. An olfactory apparatus consisting of pore plates at the antennae and about 70 glomeruli as primary olfactory processing units indicates a highly developed olfactory system. Damage induced host plant volatiles released by oak roots such as eucalyptol and anisol are detected by larval antennae down to 5 ppbv in soil air and elicit directed movement of the larvae in natural soil towards the odor source. Our results demonstrate that plant-root volatiles are likely to be perceived by the larval olfactory system and to guide soil-dwelling white grubs through the dark below ground to their host plants. Thus, to find below-ground host plants cockchafer larvae employ mechanisms that are similar to those employed by the adult beetles flying above ground, despite strikingly different physicochemical conditions in the soil.

  19. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang G. Purnama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic with case-control design. Data was collected through interviews and field observations to 150 respondents. The survey entomologist with indicators maya index, house index (HI, container index (CI, breteau index (BI and pupa index (PI to see the density of larvae and pupae in survey area. Dengue transmission risk was categorized mild, moderate and severe based on density figure. Water storage containers inspected in 1215 containers that as many as 675 containers in the case and 540 containers in control. Water reservoirs (TPA that the most larvae was tub (29.27%, dispenser (18.29%, container tirta (10.98%, wells (10.98%. Maya index status was lower in the case (24% smaller thancontrols (37.33%. Value of HI = 23.33; CI=10.69; BI=55; PI=15.33. Based on HI and CI indicator South Denpasar District means have moderate the risk of transmission spread of dengue disease. Based on the BI, have a high risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease. Based on the maya index showed house cases have highest risk as breeding place compare than control house. House index, Breteau index, container index, pupa index and maya index have correlation with dengue infection. Kind of breeding place have the high risk is bath tub

  20. Salinity tolerance of larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus ( ) X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen and twenty one day larvae were exposed to abrupt stepwise change in salinity (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 ppt) for 96 hours to determine mortality, median lethal mortality, MLS and median lethal time, MLT. The fourteen day-old fry that were exposed to 0 – 6 ppt recorded 90%, 87.5% 77.5% and 10% survival at the end of ...

  1. Involvement of phenoloxidase in browning during grinding of Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Renske H; Lakemond, Catriona M M; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Insects are investigated as alternative protein source to meet the increasing demand for proteins in the future. Enzymatic browning occurring during grinding of insect and subsequent extraction of proteins can influence the proteins' properties, but it is unclear which enzymes are responsible for this phenomenon. This study was performed on larvae of three commonly used insect species, namely Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens. Oxygen consumption measurements on protein extracts showed activity on L-tyrosine, L-3,4-di-hydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) and L-dopamine, indicating phenoloxidase as a key player in browning. Furthermore, no reaction on 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) was observed, ruling out an important contribution of laccase to browning. The browning reaction was most prominent at pH 6 for T. molitor and A. diaperinus, and 7 for H. illucens. As the enzyme activity of H. illucens was the lowest with the darkest color formation, this was likely caused by another factor. The activity of phenoloxidase was confirmed for T. molitor and A. diaperinus by activity measurements after fractionation by anion-exchange chromatography. Color measurements showed the presence of activity on both L-DOPA and L-tyrosine in the same fractions. Both substrates were converted into dopachrome after incubation with enzyme-enriched fractions. No DOPA-decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and peroxidase activities were observed. By using native PAGE with L-DOPA as staining-solution, active T. molitor protein bands were resolved and characterized, identifying a tyrosinase/phenoloxidase as the active enzyme species. All together, these data confirmed that tyrosinase is an important enzyme in causing enzymatic browning in T. molitor and likely in A. diaperinus.

  2. Involvement of phenoloxidase in browning during grinding of Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske H Janssen

    Full Text Available Insects are investigated as alternative protein source to meet the increasing demand for proteins in the future. Enzymatic browning occurring during grinding of insect and subsequent extraction of proteins can influence the proteins' properties, but it is unclear which enzymes are responsible for this phenomenon. This study was performed on larvae of three commonly used insect species, namely Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens. Oxygen consumption measurements on protein extracts showed activity on L-tyrosine, L-3,4-di-hydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA and L-dopamine, indicating phenoloxidase as a key player in browning. Furthermore, no reaction on 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid was observed, ruling out an important contribution of laccase to browning. The browning reaction was most prominent at pH 6 for T. molitor and A. diaperinus, and 7 for H. illucens. As the enzyme activity of H. illucens was the lowest with the darkest color formation, this was likely caused by another factor. The activity of phenoloxidase was confirmed for T. molitor and A. diaperinus by activity measurements after fractionation by anion-exchange chromatography. Color measurements showed the presence of activity on both L-DOPA and L-tyrosine in the same fractions. Both substrates were converted into dopachrome after incubation with enzyme-enriched fractions. No DOPA-decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and peroxidase activities were observed. By using native PAGE with L-DOPA as staining-solution, active T. molitor protein bands were resolved and characterized, identifying a tyrosinase/phenoloxidase as the active enzyme species. All together, these data confirmed that tyrosinase is an important enzyme in causing enzymatic browning in T. molitor and likely in A. diaperinus.

  3. Examining teachers’ views on the implementation of English as L3 into primary schools: A case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhytgul A Zhetpisbayeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan changed the State Educational Program for primary education and the curriculum for teaching English as a third language (L3 to grades 1-4in 2013. As with many changes in the curriculum, English language teaching has also been changed and the starting age for learning of English language has been lowered to 6-7 years of age (Grade 1. However, implementation of the curriculum requires readiness on the part of the teachers and teachers' views about teaching English in primary school is important for successful implementation of English language policy. Thus, this research aims to investigate the teachers’ views about the starting age for L3 learning, teachers' professional development, teaching materials and problems of implementation of a language policy in primary schools in Kazakhstan. The data for the study was gathered from 105 English teachers working in different primary schools. The study revealed that most have not yet made a transition to the organized system of teaching English languages in primary school.

  4. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): intracellular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Benjamin; Stout, John; Atkins, Gordon

    2003-03-01

    The L3 auditory interneuron in female Acheta domesticus, produces two different responses to the male calling song: an immediate response and a prolonged response. The prolonged response exhibited spiking activity and a correlated prolonged depolarization, both of which are clearly seen in intracellular recordings. The morphology revealed by intracellular staining was clearly the L3 neuron. The amplitude of the prolonged depolarization associated with the prolonged response increased with increases in sound intensity, resulting in increased spiking rates. Both depolarization and sound presentation increased the spiking rate and the slope of pre-potentials (thus leading to spiking threshold more quickly). Injecting hyperpolarizing current had the expected opposite effect. The effects of positive current injection and sound presentation were additive, resulting in spiking rates that were approximately double the rates in response to sound alone. Short postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), whose duration ranged from 15-60 ms, which may lead to action potentials were also observed in all recordings and summated with the prolonged depolarization, increasing the probability of spiking. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  6. Unique rostrate larvae and basidiomycophagy in the beetle family Corylophidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorskaya, Margarita I; Leschen, Richard A B; Polilov, Alexey A; Beutel, Rolf G

    2014-03-01

    The head morphology of larvae of two undescribed species of the corylophid genus Holopsis were examined. Both are associated with the same basidiomycete host Ganoderma cf applanatum. Whereas the round and convex adults are very similar, one of the disc-shaped larvae is characterized by an elongate weevil-like snout, which is a unique feature in larval beetles. The posterior head region, the mouthparts and the general configuration of the musculature are similar in the larvae of both species. However, in the rostrate Holopsis sp. 1 most muscles are either widened along the longitudinal axis or elongated. Moreover, an additional bundle of M. frontobuccalis posterior is present, which strengthens the pharyngeal pumping apparatus. Both species share an unusual connection between the prepharynx and pharynx. This is a potential autapomorphy of the genus. The larval cephalic morphology of Holopsis sp. 2 and the corylophine genus Sericoderus is quite similar. However, they differ in some muscular features and in the configuration of the foregut. Holopsis species are associated with Basidiomycetes. Whether this is an ancestral condition in Corylophidae remains ambiguous due to conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses and the largely unknown biology of the Australian subfamily Periptyctinae. Several features of Holopsis are likely plesiomorphic and possibly related with the association with basidiomycetes. However, the larval rostrum of sp. 1 is doubtlessly derived, and could have a performance advantage over other species feeding on the spores of Ganoderma cf applanatum including Holopsis sp. 2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Macroevolutionary interplay between planktic larvae and benthic predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J.

    2005-12-01

    Many marine invertebrates have a complex life cycle in which the egg develops into an intermediate planktic larval form rather than developing directly to the benthic juvenile stage. Because of the evolutionary and ecological complexity of pelagic-benthic life cycles, the reasons behind the origin of larvae and their subsequent maintenance over geological time are not well understood. Using both a molecular clock and the fossil record, I show that the initial exploitation of the predator-free pelagic realm by lecithotrophic larvae was achieved independently multiple times by the end of the Early Cambrian, and that the convergent evolution of planktotrophy from lecithotrophic ancestors evolved between the latest Cambrian and Middle Ordovician at least four, and possibly as many as eight, times. Both the exploitation of the pelagic realm by nonfeeding larvae and the acquisition of planktotrophy correlate in time with novel modes of benthic predation, including the dramatic rise in the number and type of epifaunal suspension feeders in the Early Ordovician.

  8. Identification of Ruffe larvae (Gymnocephalus cernuus) in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua; family Percidae) were first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1986, and are not included in the Great Lakes larval fish key which was published several years prior to their discovery. In addition, subsequent scientific literature has inconsistently described Ruffe larvae. As a result, identification of larval Ruffe remains challenging. We used traditional morphology paired with DNA technology to develop diagnostics for Ruffe larvae collected in the lower St. Louis River, and compared them to similar species. Ruffe < 6 mm total length have myomere counts and a phenotype that more closely resemble centrarchids like Black Crappie, Bluegill and Pumpkinseed rather than percids. However, morphometrics and pigment patterns can be used to distinguish Ruffe from similar centrarchids at this size. As Ruffe larvae develop, they increasingly resemble other percids such as Yellow Perch, but can be distinguished using myomere counts and morphological features. The findings presented here clarify conflicting descriptions in the scientific literature, and provide additional data to support more confident morphological identification of larval Ruffe. The impact of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on the ecology of Great Lakes systems is currently being studied. Reproduction and early life history data, however, may be hampered by a general lack of information regarding their early life stage morphological description.

  9. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial concentr......We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial...... of prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...... to presence of fish larvae. There were no significant differences between A. aurita feeding rates in light and darkness for yolk sac prey ages 0-7 days (at 7.5 degrees C). Although prey vision and escape abilities of fish may develop rapidly during early larval ontogeny, these factors apparently have little...

  10. Nutritional Transition Period in Early Larvae Clarias Gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ing, N.S.; Chew, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional transition period of Clarias gariepinus were described based on the early development from hatching to 120 hours after hatching (hAH) reared at 27.5 - 28.6 degree Celsius. Newly hatched larvae had a large greenish yolk sac volume (0.99 ± 0.31 mm 3 ) located below a straight undeveloped digestive tract, mouth not opened, eyes unpigmented and the larvae lie on the bottom of rearing tank. During endogenous feeding period, the larval feeding system has developed rapidly with development oesophagus. Yolk sac were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (36 hAH, 0.19 ± 0.11 mm 3 ), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 68 hAH when yolk was completely exhausted. Yolk sac volume was significantly different by time at hatching, 6, 12 and 18 to 36 hAH (ANOVA, P<0.05). At 36 hAH, the larvae commenced feeding once morphologically developed with opened anus, functional jaw and intestine, and demonstrated horizontally swimming. The rudimentary chemoreceptors like olfactory organs and taste buds that were found on the barbels and oral cavity assisted in food detection and commenced feeding without vision. Due to the cannibalistic behaviour at early stage, feed are suggested to be provided during 36 hAH and avoided delay feeding in the larval rearing. (author)

  11. Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Vladimir F; Moreira, Bruno H; Moraes, Caroline S; Pereira, Marcos H; Genta, Fernando A; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2012-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal species of phlebotomine incriminated as vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Despite its importance as vector, almost nothing related to the larval biology, especially about its digestive system has been published. The objective of the present study was to obtain an overview of carbohydrate digestion by the larvae. Taking in account that phlebotomine larvae live in the soil rich in decaying materials and microorganisms we searched principally for enzymes capable to hydrolyze carbohydrates present in this kind of substrate. The principal carbohydrases encountered in the midgut were partially characterized. One of them is a α-amylase present in the anterior midgut. It is probably involved with the digestion of glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate of fungi. Two other especially active enzymes were present in the posterior midgut, a membrane bound α-glucosidase and a membrane bound trehalase. The first, complete the digestion of glycogen and the other probably acts in the digestion of trehalose, a carbohydrate usually encountered in microorganisms undergoing hydric stress. In a screening done with the use of p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates other less active enzymes were also observed in the midgut. A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mananoligossacarídeo em dietas para larvas de tilápia Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for tilapia larvae

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    Kátia Kalko Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar níveis crescentes de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS na dieta de larvas de tilápias-do-nilo (linhagem Supreme® na fase de reversão sexual durante 30 dias. Larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (n=1500, P=0,01 g ± 0,001 g foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 30 tanques de 100 litros. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. A dieta controle (isenta de MOS foi elaborada para conter aproximadamente 35% de proteína bruta e 3.100 kcal de ED/kg. As demais foram suplementadas com 0; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% de MOS em substituição ao milho da dieta controle. Com o aumento nos níveis de MOS nas dietas, foi observado aumento linear sobre o comprimento do intestino, a altura das vilosidades intestinais e a densidade dos vilos. Não houve diferença na composição corporal, no ganho em peso, no peso final, no comprimento final, no fator de condição, na taxa de sobrevivência e no número de células caliciformes do intestino das larvas. Os níveis de MOS tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, cujos melhores resultados foram obtidos com 0,34% de MOS. A utilização de MOS no nível de 0,34% em dietas para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo melhora a conversão alimentar e promove aumento do comprimento do intestino, da altura das vilosidades e da densidade de vilos intestinal.This experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing levels of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS in the diet of Nile tilapia larvae (Supreme® at the sex reversal stage for 30 days. Nile tilapia larvae (n = 1500, p = 0.01 ± 0.001 g, were randomly distributed in 30 tanks of 100 liters each, for 30 days. The fish were distributed in a randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. The control diet (no MOS was elaborated to contain approximately 35% of crude protein and 3,100 kcal DE/kg. Mannanoligosaccharides were included in the other diets

  13. Development and functional morphology of the mouthparts and foregut in larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cristina Pantoja; Souza, Adelson Silva de; Maciel, Murilo; Maciel, Cristiana R; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the mouthparts and foregut of the larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated to determine their functional roles in feeding, in order to understand the larval feeding behaviour and the changes that occur during its development. The mouthparts and foregut of the zoea I and II are morphologically similar, rudimentary and non-functional in feeding. Only in the final larval stage, zoea III, do the external mouthparts and foregut become structurally more complex and thus likely to play a potential role in feeding. Two behavioral trials (point of no return, point of reserve saturation) evaluated the resistance to starvation in zoea I, II, and III. The results indicate that they have sufficient nutritional reserves to permit them to complete metamorphosis without feeding. Overall, our results suggest that the zoea I and II of Macrobrachium jelskii engage in obligate lecithotrophy and zoea III in facultative lecithotrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

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    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  15. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadulina, Albina; Panzera, Aurora; Verasztó, Csaba; Liebig, Christian; Jékely, Gáspár

    2012-12-03

    Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere) of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE), which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP) in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental stage. We then registered to these templates the

  16. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadulina Albina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Results Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2’-thiodiethanol (TDE, which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4’6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental

  17. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  18. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  19. Alimentação e comportamento de larvas de pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Feeding and behavior of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lopes Beerli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de dietas naturais e artificiais sobre o desempenho e comportamento de larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, entre o 2º e o 10º dia de vida. Foram utilizadas 30 caixas plásticas, cada uma com 30 litros de água e renovação contínua, onde as larvas foram mantidas durante o período experimental. Cada caixa recebeu 10 larvas por litro, totalizando 300 larvas/caixa. Foram testados 6 tratamentos, cada qual com 5 repetições. Os tratamentos foram: T1-ração, T2-plâncton, T3-artêmia, T4-plâncton + ração, T5-artêmia + ração e T6-artêmia + plâncton. As larvas foram alimentadas 6 vezes ao dia, nos horários de 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 e 24 horas. A temperatura da água foi mantida constante a 27ºC, o oxigênio dissolvido permaneceu na faixa de 6,16 ± 0,34 e o pH, entre 7,16 ± 0,22. Aos 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias de vida, foram coletadas amostras de 30 larvas para determinação do comprimento total e peso. No final do experimento (10º dia, as larvas que receberam artêmia + plâncton (T6 alcançaram os maiores valores de comprimento total (8,35 mm e peso corporal (3518 µg, em relação a todas as outras dietas testadas. As larvas devem permanecer em laboratório por um período de 6 dias após a eclosão, recebendo alimento do terceiro ao sexto dia. A partir do sexto dia, as larvas estão com a vesícula gasosa completamente inflada e apresentam nado contínuo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial diets on the development and behavior of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae, between the 2nd and 10th day post hatch. The larvaes were kept in 30L - plastic boxes (n = 30 boxes, in constant flow-through. The larvae density was 10 post-larvae/L (300 larvae/box. Six diets with 4 sampling days (4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-hatch, n = 30 larvae using 5 repetitions were tested. The diets were: T1- commercial feed, T2- plancton, T3

  20. Skin penetration of infective hookworm larvae. II. The path of migration of infective larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense in the metacarpal foot pads of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, J C; van der Linden, M E

    1977-11-10

    The hairless metacarpal foot pads of six hookworm-free puppies were exposed to infective larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense. Serial sections of the biopts stained with Harris' haematoxylin and eosin showed that the infective larvae are able to penetrate the toughest region of canine skin. Pores of eccrine sweat glands did not seem to constitute sites of entry and no larvae were detected in these glands. Larvae were only observed in the epidermis. The histopathology of the infected skin of the foot pads of the puppies was similar to that in human skin with "creeping eruption" as described by Fülleborn (1927). The biopts appeared to consist of hairy skin as well. In the unexposed adjacent hairy skin of the foot pads, larvae were also observed. They were found in the epidermis, hair follicle systems and dermis, suggesting that the migration from the epidermis into deeper tissue depends on the presence of the hair follicle systems.