WorldWideScience

Sample records for banano musa aaa

  1. EFECTO DE DOS TIPOS DE FUNDAS SOBRE EL FRUTO DE BANANO (Musa AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de dos fundas en la protección del racimo de banano (Musa AAA . En dos épocas climáticas (adversa y favorable bajo condiciones del Ca ribe de Costa Ri ca se evaluaron dos fundas: 1- azul Sa nta Lucía (bifentrina 0,1%, polie tileno de 12,7 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 86,4 cm de ancho y 2- transparente con aditivos para filtrar la luz ultravioleta e infrarroja (bifentrina 0,1%, 20,3 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 88,9 cm de ancho. El peso del racimo así como el grosor y la longitud del fruto central de la fila externa en la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano no difirieron (P> 0,0556 entre ambas fundas. Tampoco hubo diferencias entre estas en la apa rie ncia del racimo (P>0,4699 ni en la firmeza de la cáscara en grado 1 de maduración (P= 0,6268. En las varia bles de medición del color del fruto solamente L* presentó un valor (56,48 más alto (P=0,0109 con la funda transparente fotosensible, mie ntras que las otras dos varia bles relacionadas (a* y b* no fueron diferentes (P>0,1011 entre las fundas. El incremento adicional de 7,6 ¿ en el grosor del polie tileno de la funda transparente con respecto a la azul Sa nta Lucía, no ocasionó un incremento productivo ni una mejor apa rie ncia del racimo de banano y sus frutos.

  2. Utilización del método de superficie de respuesta para formular una base de banano (Musa AAA para batidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gamboa White

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El Método de Superficie de Respuesta se utiliza para optimizar o reformular productos. Se usa principalmente para economizar dinero y reducir el tiempo de pruebas, al disminuir el número de ensayos. Se presenta la aplicación del Método de Superficie de Respuesta para desarrollar una base a partir de bananos (Musa AAA var. Cavendish cv. Gran Enano de rechazo de exportación a manera de caso para estudiar su uso. Por medio de una encuesta se identificó que el dulzor, espumosidad y sabor fueron los atributos que los consumidores consideraron más importantes en un batido. Con base en estos atributos y con los ingredientes: pulpa de banano, goma guar y azúcar, se elaboraron y seleccionaron varias mezclas base, que fueron degustadas, en forma de batidos en leche, por un grupo de 90 consumidores. Por medio del diseño de superficie de respuesta se determinó que el batido con la mayor aceptación estuvo constituido por un 77,0 % de leche y un 23,0 % de mezcla base, compuesta esta última por 0,12 % de goma guar, 80,50 % de pulpa de banano y un 19,50 % de azúcar. Un Análisis de Componentes Principales permitió determinar que el contenido de sacarosa, que define el grado de dulzor, fue el atributo más importante para la aceptación del batido y se demostró que la combinación del Método de Superficie de Respuesta con el Análisis de Componentes Principales constituyó una herramienta útil en la formulación y optimización de productos, sobre todo para entender la interrelación de las variables.

  3. Utilización del método de superficie de respuesta para formular una base de banano (Musa AAA para batidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gamboa White

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El Método de Superficie de Respuesta se utiliza para optimizar o reformular productos. Se usa principalmente para economizar dinero y reducir el tiempo de pruebas, al disminuir el número de ensayos. Se presenta la aplicación del Método de Superficie de Respuesta para desarrollar una base a partir de bananos (Musa AAA var. Cavendish cv. Gran Enano de rechazo de exportación a manera de caso para estudiar su uso. Por medio de una encuesta se identificó que el dulzor, espumosidad y sabor fueron los atributos que los consumidores consideraron más importantes en un batido. Con base en estos atributos y con los ingredientes: pulpa de banano, goma guar y azúcar, se elaboraron y seleccionaron varias mezclas base, que fueron degustadas, en forma de batidos en leche, por un grupo de 90 consumidores. Por medio del diseño de superficie de respuesta se determinó que el batido con la mayor aceptación estuvo constituido por un 77,0 % de leche y un 23,0 % de mezcla base, compuesta esta última por 0,12 % de goma guar, 80,50 % de pulpa de banano y un 19,50 % de azúcar. Un Análisis de Componentes Principales permitió determinar que el contenido de sacarosa, que define el grado de dulzor, fue el atributo más importante para la aceptación del batido y se demostró que la combinación del Método de Superficie de Respuesta con el Análisis de Componentes Principales constituyó una herramienta útil en la formulación y optimización de productos, sobre todo para entender la interrelación de las variables.

  4. Caracterización de harina y almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Montoya-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas, térmicas y reológicas de la harina y el almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata cosechado en fincas del departamento del Quindío, Colombia. En el análisis proximal, la harina presentó un contenido de fibra de 18.82% y el almidón presentó contenidos de proteína de 1.92%, grasa de 5.3% y fibra de 2.76%. La harina presentó la temperatura más alta de absorción de calor (68.88 °C y su entalpía de gelatinización fue de 2.17 J/g; mientras que para el almidón estos valores fueron de 48.36 °C y 44.62 J/g, respectivamente. El análisis termogravimétrico (TGA de la harina o temperaturas en las cuales se registra la descomposición de carbohidratos (componentes de bajo peso molecular y polisacáridos (componentes de alto peso molecular fueron, respectivamente, de 284.51 °C y 470.42 °C; y para el almidón fueron de 307.51 °C y 500.46 °C. Los gránulos de almidón de banano tienen forma elipsoidal con un tamaño longitudinal promedio de 39.39 µm y tamaño transversal promedio de 29.47 µm. Los difractogramas de rayos X mostraron patrones de difracción tipo B. Los viscoamilogramas mostraron que para la harina la temperatura de inicio de gelatinización (Tg es de 76.3 °C, la viscosidad máxima de 1120 cP, y para el almidón la Tg fue de 70.75 °C y la viscosidad máxima de 2087 cP.

  5. EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN Y LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN LA ACUMULACIÓN DE BIOMASA EN PLANTAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MICORRHIZATION AND FERTILIZATION EFFECT ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION IN BANANA PLANTS (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de invernadero (ubicado en el municipio de Bello - Antioquia (Colombia se evaluó el efecto independiente y combinado de los factores: tipo de inóculo de Hongos Micorriza Arbuscular (HMA, fertilización y aplicación de materia orgánica sobre el porcentaje de asociación de HMA en plantas de banano (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano, así como en la acumulación de materia seca foliar y radical. Dentro del factor tipo de inóculo, se evaluaron inóculos nativos, de agroecosistemas bananeros y ecosistemas naturales del Urabá (Antioquia-Colombia, uno comercial y la especie Acaulospora morrowiae; con respecto a la fertilización se probó la mitad, completa y dos veces la dosis de la fertilización recomendada de acuerdo al análisis de suelo y a los requerimientos de la planta, y cada uno de estos factores con y sin la aplicación de materia orgánica; como testigos se usaron, la no aplicación del respectivo factor. Se usó como material vegetal plantas de banano micropropagadas del grupo Cavendish cv. Gran Enano (AAA. El sustrato utilizado para el crecimiento de las plantas de banano se compuso de suelo y arena en relación 70/30 v/v. El suelo se obtuvo de la granja experimental de Augura, ubicado en el municipio de Carepa en la región de Urabá. Los resultados encontrados, muestran que los factores que más incidieron en la asociación así como en la acumulación de biomasa en toda la planta son la micorrización y la adición de materia orgánica. Los resultados, también muestran un comportamiento positivo respecto al uso de inóculos nativos de agroecosistemas bananeros, con bajas aplicaciones de fertilizantes.The effects of independent an combined factors such as inoculum type, fertilization and organic matter application on the percentage of association of ‘H.M.A’ in banana plants (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’, and on the accumulation of leaves and rrots material, were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Natives samples

  6. CORRELACIÓN ENTRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL SUELO Y LOS NEMATODOS DE LAS RAÍCES DEL BANANO (Musa AAA EN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C\\u00E9sar Ch\\u00E1vez-Velazco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue correlacionar las características físico-químicas del suelo con el peso de raíces y su número de nematodos en banano. Se emplearon muestras pareadas de cinco hectáreas de banano en una plantación comercial del Ecuador en el 2006. En 120 unidades de producción se tomaron las muestras de raíces y suelo. Se hizo análisis físico y químico del suelo y sus valores se correlacionaron con peso de raíz total, funcional y número de nematodos presentes en las raíces de banano. De las variables de suelo estudiadas, cuatro se asociaron con peso de raíz total, nueve con el de raíz funcional, cinco con el número de Radopholus similis, seis con el de Helicotylenchus spp., cuatro con el de Pratylenchus spp. y nueve con el de nematodos totales. De las características físicas (contenidos de arena, limo y arcilla estudiadas, un 50 % correlacionaron ya fuera con el peso de raíces o número de nematodos, mientras de las químicas, solamente se encontró correlación en 15 % de las relaciones estudiadas. A pesar de la significancia estadística, el valor de correlación fue bajo o muy bajo, con un máximo de r= 0,53; P< 0,0001 para el contenido de arena y número de nematodos totales. Los resultados sugieren futuros estudios en dos líneas: el efecto de la nutrición en el número y daño de los nematodos y el efecto de los nematodos en la absorción de nutrientes.

  7. MULTIPLICACIÓN DE HONGOS MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR (H.M.A Y EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN EN PLANTAS MICROPROPAGADAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MULTIPLICATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE FUNGI (AMF AND MYCORRHIZATION EFFECT IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF BANANA (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’ (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el proceso de multiplicación de hongos que forman micorriza arbuscular (HMA, para lo cual se usaron diferentes tipos de inóculos entre ellos nativos de agroecosistemas bananeros del Urabá (Antioquia-Colombia, en sustrato sólido, con diferentes plantas hospedadoras y la infectividad y efectividad sobre plantas de banano (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano. La colonización micorrizal promedio general de los HMA a las plantas trampa fue de 37,76 ± 21,86 %, con respecto a este porcentaje, las plantas B (Brachiaria decumbens y S (Sorgum vulgare fueron las que más favorecieron la simbiosis. Teniendo en cuenta el sustrato, el S2 (Arena 50 - suelo 50 y el S6 (Vermiculita 50-suelo 50 permitieron expresiones significativamente mayores respecto a los demás. El Sorgum vulgare y Pueraria phaseoloides y en el sustrato S1 (Arena 30 - suelo 70, se encontró un mayor número de esporas. La combinación planta-sustrato que más favoreció la asociación fue la planta trampa B en los sustratos S2 y S4 (cascarilla de arroz 50-suelo50 y la producción de esporas fueron las plantas K y S en el sustrato S1. La asociación micorrícica general en plantas de banano provenientes de cultivo de tejidos fue de 48,74 ± 30,44. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0,05 entre plantas de cero días con plantas de 30 de aclimatadas. Los inóculos que significativamente favorecieron la asociación fueron los provenientes de agroecosistemas bananeros al compararse con el inóculo comercial y el proveniente de ecosistemas naturales del Urabá. El mayor peso seco foliar y radical se encontró en plántulas de banano inoculadas con I5 (Inóculo proveniente de agroecosistema bananeros de la zona de estudio. Para las variables de crecimiento no se encontraron diferencias.The process of multiplication of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF from indigenous banana agro-environments from Urabá (Antioquia - Colombia was evaluated, using solid substrate, with different

  8. EFFECT OF NUMBER OF FUNCTIONAL LEAVES AT FLOWERING ON YIELD OF BANANA GRAND NAINE (Musa AAA Simmonds EFECTO DEL NÚMERO DE HOJAS FUNCIONALES A LA FLORACIÓN SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BANANO GRAN ENANO (Musa AAA Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodríguez González

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The effect of the selective removal of leaves at flowering on yield, growth, maturity and quality of Grand Nain banana fruits was evaluated. The present study was conducted in three regions of Urabá (Colombia with precipitation low (experiment 1, medium (experiment 2 and high (experiment 3. The experimental design used randomized complete blocks, four treatments (6, 8, 10 and 12 leaves from the start of flowering and three replications. Every 15 days, the thickness (cm and length (cm of central fruit from the second hand were measured and two fruits were taken to record fresh weight and dry weight. At harvest, leaf number, bunch weight (kg, and the thickness (cm and length (cm of central fruit from the second hand were measured. During fruit ripening (8 and 15 days, the contents of starch and sugars in the pulp were determined. The thickness and length of the fruit, bunch weight and the box-stem ratio were not affected (PResumen. Se evaluó el efecto de la eliminación selectiva de hojas a la floración sobre la producción, crecimiento, maduración y calidad de los frutos de banano Gran Enano. El estudio se realizó en tres zonas de Urabá (Colombia, con precipitación baja (experimento 1, media (experimento 2 y alta (experimento 3. Se usó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar, cuatro tratamientos (6, 8, 10 y 12 hojas desde el inicio de floración y tres repeticiones. Cada 15 días se midieron el grosor (cm y la longitud (cm del fruto central de la segunda mano y se tomaron dos frutos más para registrar el peso fresco y el peso seco. A la cosecha se midieron el número de hojas, el peso del racimo (kg, el grosor (cm y la longitud (cm del fruto central de la segunda mano. Durante la maduración de los frutos (8 y 15 días se determinaron los contenidos de almidón y azúcares en la pulpa. El grosor y la longitud del fruto, peso del racimo y la cantidad de cajas a partir de un racimo (ratio, no fueron afectados (P<0,05 por la

  9. Algunos Aspectos sobre el Riego del Banano (Musa Sapietum L. en la Zona de Urabá (Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Francisco

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del banano (Musa spietum L. es la principal explotación agrícola que existe en la región ocupando un lugar muy destacado en las exportaciones, reportando considerables divisas al país y generando una gran cantidad de mano de obra. El banano es un cultivo poco resistente a la sequía. En estas condiciones las plantas detienen gradualmente su crecimiento y llegan a un completo descanso. Las hojas muestran evidencia de desecación y llegan a ser amarillas y marchitas. Los racimos pequeños o de pobre calidad maduran lentamente. En sequías severas pueden caer al suelo por causarse la rotura del raquis en su parte blanda, punto que queda expuesto al desecarse las vainas de las hojas.

  10. Fisiología de maduración postcosecha de banano Variedad Nanica (Musa Cavendishii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Villamizar de Borrero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Después de la cosecha, gran número de frutas llamadas climatéricas sufren profundas transformaciones bioquímicas que influyen directamente la calidad de esos productos. La respiración medida como la cantidad de CO2 producido por Kg de producto por hora, es el proceso metabólico más importante entre los demás que ocurren en las frutas después de la cosecha, siendo que su intensidad se refleja en la mayor o menor deterioración del producto, para una determinada condición de almacenamiento. La importancia del conocimiento de la intensidad respiratoria de un producto, hace posible relacionar algunas de las transformaciones físicas y bioquímicas tales como la variación del peso, volumen, firmeza, desarrollo de azúcares, ácidos, etc., que en conjunto son responsables por la buena calidad y conservación posterior. En el presente trabajo se tuvo como objetivo principal el estudio de la tasa respiratoria del banano, variedad NANICA (MUSA Cavendishii, en dos condiciones diferentes de almacenamiento: 26" C y 60% de humedad relativa y 15" C Y 90% de humedad relativa. Se estudió paralelamente su incidencia en los parámetros físicos, de peso, peso especifico, volumen, firmeza y químicos en sólidos solubles, pH, acidez, azúcares reductores y azúcares totales. Los resultados obtenidos pueden considerarse de gran utilidad para el estudio de los parámetros que intervienen en procesos de almacenamiento, empaque, transporte y conservación de este producto.

  11. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musa spp. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA A. SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

  12. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musa spp. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEPULVEDA-CANO PAULA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

    Palabras clave: picudos, plátano, banano, Polytus, Colombia.

    ABSTRACT

    This synopsis is about beetle’s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

    Key words: weevils, plantain, banana, Polytus, Colombia.

  13. Mineral fertilizers improve the sensory quality of East African Highland bananas (Musa AAA-EA, cv. Kisansa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Nowakunda, K.; Kaddu-Mukasa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Some farmers in Uganda believe that fertilizers negatively affect the sensory attributes of cooking type bananas. This belief may hamper the adoption of fertilizers. To verify the validity of this belief, bunches (Musa AAA-EA, cv. ‘Kisansa’) from fertilized (i.e. N-P-K-Mg-Zn-S-B-Mo) and non-fertiliz

  14. Mineral fertilizer response and nutrient use efficiencies of East African highland banana (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB, cv. Kisansa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Corbeels, M.; Taulya, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Poor yields of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB) on smallholder farms have often been attributed to problems of poor soil fertility. We measured the effects of mineral fertilizers on crop performance at two sites over two to three crop cycles; Kawanda in central Uganda and Ntungamo

  15. Caracterização do grânulo de amido de bananas (Musa AAA-Nanicão e Musa AAB-Terra Characterization of starch granules from bananas Musa AAA-Nanicão and Musa AAB-Terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.J. Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O amido de bananas tem sido pesquisado na área de nutrição a partir da introdução do conceito de Amido Resistente. O amido de Musa AAA-Nanicão e Musa AAB-Terra foram caracterizados quanto as suas respostas fisiológicas [12]. Em continuidade, o presente trabalho estudou características físicas e morfológicas dos grânulos de amido de ambas as espécies de banana comparando-as com amido nativo de milho comercial. O amido de bananas foi extraído segundo CHIANG, CHU & CHU [3]. A morfologia dos grânulos foi realizada após tratamento enzimático in vitro a 37°C/24h com alfa-amilase pancreática. Foram efetuados os respectivos amilogramas e difractogramas de raios-X. Os grânulos de amido da Musa Tipo AAA-Nanicão apresentaram comprimento entre 30-40µm. Em Musa AAB-Terra, os grânulos, também ovais e alongados, eram um pouco menores, 20-30µm. A corrosão enzimática in vitro iniciava-se sobre a superfície anteriormente lisa e formavam estrias superficiais e apicais. A Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV mostrou que a hidrólise in vitro por 24 horas foi pequena e ocorria sobretudo nas camadas amorfas dos grânulos de ambas as espécies. O padrão de corrosão demonstrou-se distinto daquele ocorrido no amido de milho. As suspensões de amido de bananas ao viscosímetro demonstraram forte capacidade de hidratação e menor capacidade de retrogradação em relação ao milho, sobretudo do amido de Musa Tipo AAA-Nanicão; o amido de Musa Tipo AAB-Terra apresentou maior estabilidade de pasta. Na análise de difração de raios-X, os grânulos de bananas apresentaram padrão tipo B e C para Musa Tipo AAA-Nanicão e Musa Tipo AAB-Terra, respectivamente. Conclui-se que os amidos de Musa AAA-Nanicão e Musa AAB-Terra são estruturalmente distintos, justificando as respostas fisiológicas distintas encontradas posteriormente pelos mesmos autores. As distinções das propriedades físicas e bioquímicas obtidas para os grânulos, embora

  16. Caracterización morfológica y contenido de almidón resistente y disponible en bananos (Musa sapientum exportables del Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Omar Martínez-Mora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La investigación tuvo como objetivo fundamental, la caracterización morfológica del almidón nativo de banano (Musa sapientum, contenido en almidón resistente (AR y disponible (AD, de las variedades de banano de exportación: Cavendish (AC, Filipino (AF, Orito (AO y Valery (AV.Material y Métodos: Se determinó tamaño y forma del gránulo de almidón a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido. La cuantificación del AR por medición de su fracción no hidrolizada, luego de un ataque de pepsina, y para la fracción del AD un ataque de amilasa pancreática a la fracción no hidrolizada. Se midió la absorbancia de las dos soluciones de AR y AD a 510nm contra el blanco del reactivo.Resultados: El tamaño de los gránulos de almidón de: AF, AV y AC fueron en promedio 28μm y para el AO, de 35μm aproximadamente. La forma que predominó fue la oval esférica. El contenido de AR y AD estuvo en el rango de 49 a 58,5% y de 41 a 50%, respectivamente.Conclusiones: El almidón resistente, análogo de la fibra y útil en la nutrición humana, se presentó en valores importantes en las muestras de las diferentes variedades de banano exportable del Ecuador, alrededor del 54%. Según los resultados, el almidón de banano de las variedades estudiadas puede ser incorporado en la elaboración de alimentos que demanden características funcionales, principalmente por su alto contenido en almidón resistente.

  17. Formulation and evaluation of semisolid jelly produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noor Azwani Mohd Rasidek; Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin; Kamyar Shameli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the jelly formulation produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels and evaluate its antioxidant properties which are related to the product quality. Methods: The formulations of peel jelly were established under two-level full factorial designs within two blocks and one center point. Regarding response optimizer, the amount of sugar and citric acid was obtained; hence, the peel jellies were produced. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was conducted by using total phenolic content (TPC) assay and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. Results: The TPC of peel powder varied from 91.8 to 602.26 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight, and 5%–7% peel jellies had phenolic content ranging from 29.38 to 48.31 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight. The results of DPPH test indicated that at 10 mg/mL, the peel powder showed 89% DPPH inhibition, while 7% peel jelly prominently exhibited 84% DPPH inhibition. The correlation between DPPH IC50 value and TPC of peel powder as well as peel jelly was quite reasonably high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.843 7 to 0.995. Conclusions: TPC can be used as an indicator in assessing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. The present investigation reveals that TPC is mainly responsible for DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of semisolid jelly produced by Musa acuminata Colla(AAA Group) peels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noor Azwani Mohd Rasidek; Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin; Kamyar Shameli

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the jelly formulation produced by Musa acuminata Colla(AAA Group) peels and evaluate its antioxidant properties which are related to the product quality.Methods:The formulations of peel jelly were established under two-level full factorial designs within two blocks and one center point.Regarding response optimizer,the amount of sugar and citric acid was obtained;hence,the peel jellies were produced.The evaluation of antioxidant properties was conducted by using total phenolic content(TPC)assay and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical assay.Results:The TPC of peel powder varied from 91.8 to 602.26 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight,and 5%-7% peel jellies had phenolic content ranging from 29.38 to 48.31 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight.The results of DPPH test indicated that at 10 mg/mL,the peel powder showed 89% DPPH inhibition,while 7% peel jelly prominently exhibited 84% DPPH inhibition.The correlation between DPPH IC50 value and TPC of peel powder as well as peel jelly was quite reasonably high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.843 7 to 0.995.Conclusions:TPC can be used as an indicator in assessing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables.The present investigation reveals that TPC is mainly responsible for DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

  19. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  20. Spatial distribution of nematodes in three banana ( Musa AAA) root parts considering two root thickness in three farm management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M.; De Waele, D.

    2004-10-01

    The spatial location of the banana ( Musa AAA) root parasitic nematodes within three root parts considering two root thickness was determined in three commercial farm management systems, which differ in weed and nematode management. Roots in each farm management system were classified in thick (>5 mm-d) and thin (1 ≤ 5 mm-d) roots. From each root type, the epidermis, the cortical parenchyma (CP) and the vascular cylinder (VC) were separated by fingernail, and nematodes were extracted by maceration of each root part. Independent of the farm management system, and for either root thickness, highest numbers of Radopholus similis per gram of root was found in the CP, followed by the epidermis and VC. The highest number of Helicotylencus spp., Pratylenchus spp. and the total nematode population per gram of root was found in the epidermis. Considering the number of nematodes per root part, the highest number of R. similis and total nematodes was located in the CP, while Helicotylenchus spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were concentrated in the epidermis. These patterns were approximately reproduced in the two root thickness and in the three farm management systems. This behavior suggests that injection of systemic nematicides into the plant pseudostem to replace the granular applications on surface soil might be promissory.

  1. EFECTO DE BIOFERTILIZANTES SOBRE LA TOLERANCIA DE BANANO A LA DESINFECCIÓN E INDUCCIÓN DE ORGANOGÉNESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Sandoval-Cancino; Leobardo Iracheta-Donjuan; Carlos Iván Cruz-Cárdenas; María de Lourdes Adriano-Anaya; Pablo López-Gómez; Alfredo Sandoval-Esquivez

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de biofertilizantes y medios de cultivo sobre la tolerancia al establecimiento aséptico y la inducción de la organogénesis en banano. Se utilizaron explantes de hijuelos de dos genotipos de Musa cavendish AAA, cultivares Clon Francés y Clon Oaxaqueño. Se evaluaron tres aplicaciones de biofertilizante (1 g de Glomus intraradices, 1 ml de la bacteria diazotrófica 11B y la interacción de ambos microorganismos) y una sin biofertilizantes. Se sembr...

  2. Norms for multivariate diagnosis of nutrient imbalance in the East African highland bananas (musa spp.aaa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wairegi, L.; Asten, van P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite low yields and soil fertility problems, fertilizer use in the East African Highland banana (AAA-EA) production is absent. High fertilizer costs increase the need for site-specific fertilizer recommendations that address deficiencies. This study aimed to derive and compare norms for AAA-EA ba

  3. Dynamics of Growth and Development of Banana (Musa AAA Simmonds cvs. Gran Enano and Valery Dinámica del Crecimiento y Desarrollo del Banano (Musa AAA Simmonds cvs. Gran Enano y Valery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Martínez Acosta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the banana zone on Urabá (Colombia, whith cvs. Gran Enano and Valery. Since planting, each three to four leaves sprouted, three plants per variety were sampled, each corresponding to a repetition. These were separated into its different organs and the total dry matter was estimated. Each cv. was analyzed on a growth curve. The dry matter accumulation on both cvs. is adjusted to the typical sigmoid curve of the plant growth. In the exponential phase, the corm was the main source of assimilates for the development; while in the lineal and senescence phase, the pseudo-stem and leaves were the reservoir organs; when the bunch is formed, such reserves were sent to this drain. In general, while the development progressed, the vegetative organs did not show any dry matter lost, only reduction in the assimilates accumulation rate; unlike the bunch that from its emission kept a high rate, leading the fruit to represent, in the harvest season, almost 50% of the total dry matter of the plant.El estudio se realizó en la zona bananera de Urabá (Colombia; con los cvs. Gran Enano y Valery. A partir de la siembra, cada tres a cuatro hojas emitidas, se muestrearon tres plantas por cv., cada una correspondiente a una repetición. Estas se separaron en sus diferentes órganos y se estimó la materia seca total. Se analizó cada cv. a partir de curvas de crecimiento. La acumulación de materia seca en ambos cvs. se ajustó al modelo típico de la curva sigmoidea del crecimiento vegetal. En la fase exponencial, el cormo fue la principal fuente de asimilados para el desarrollo;mientras que en la fase lineal y de senescencia,el pseudotallo y hojas fueron órganos reservorio; al formarse el racimo, tales reservas fueron enviadas a ese sumidero. En general, a medida que avanzaba el desarrollo, los órganos vegetativos no presentaron pérdidas de materia seca, solo disminución en la tasa de acumulación de asimilados;a diferencia del racimo que desde su emisión mantuvo una tasa elevada, llevando a que al momento de la cosecha el fruto, representara cerca del 50% de la materia seca total de la planta.

  4. Análisis de patrones morfológicos y anatómicos en la embriogénesis somática del banano Williams (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ramírez-Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en ingles: Analysis of the morphological and anatomical patterns in the somatic embryogenesis of Williams banana (AAAResumen: La embriogénesis somática representa una herramienta esencial en el mejoramiento genético y en la micropropagación clonal masiva de bananos mejorados. En el presente trabajo se analizaron los patrones morfológicos y anatómicos que ocurren durante la embriogénesis somática del banano Williams, dirigidos a conocer y mejorar este proceso. En la investigación se establecieron suspensiones celulares embriogénicas (SCE a partir de callo embriogénico obtenido de manos florales inmaduras masculinas, las cuales originaron abundantes embriones que regeneraron plantas. Hacia los tres meses de cultivo se detectaron embriones somáticos (ES primarios color blanco-crema en las manos florales de los nudos nueve a doce, contados a partir del ápice floral. Al cuarto mes estos ES primarios dieron origen al callo embriogénico, de color blanco crema, estructura granular, con abundantes ES torpedo en su periferia y con una organización celular en tres diferentes zonas. De este callo se cultivaron porciones pequeñas con ES torpedo en medio de multiplicación durante dos meses

  5. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  6. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group cv. Berangan Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sin Lee

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  7. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  8. EFEITO DO PERÍODO DE ARMAZENAMENTO SOBRE A BROTAÇÃO DE MUDAS DE BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME IN THE BUDDING OF BANANA ROOTSTOCK CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A grande procura atual de mudas de bananeiras do cultivar Nanicão (Musa acuminata AAA em Goiás, principalmente na região do Mato Grosso Goiano, tem forçado o transporte de mudas a grandes distâncias. A maioria destas mudas são transportadas sob a forma de pedaços de rizoma com aproximadamente 1 Kg. Tem-se observado uma falha acima do previsto quando se utiliza este tipo de muda. O presente trabalho foi realizado para determinar o efeito do período de armazenamento sobre a brotação deste cultivar. Com base nos resultados concluiu-se que no período de armazenamento estudado (45 dias praticamente não houve diferença na brotação das mudas. Somente aquelas armazenadas por 5 (cinco semanas apresentaram inexplicavelmente um índice baixo de pegamento.

    Because of the tremendous current demand for Nanicão (Musa acuminata AAA banana shoots in the state of Goiás, notably in the “Mato Grosso Goiano” area, shoots have had to be imported from far away. The greater part of these shoots are transported in rootstalk form. Each rootstalk weighs approximately 1 Kg. A larger portion of these shoots than been anticipated, are defective. The present study was made to determine the effect of storage time on the budding of this particular banana rootstalk. The results of the experiment show that during the period of storage, forty-two (42 days, that was studied, there was almost no difference in budding among the rootstalks. Only those which were stored for five (5 weeks showed, unexplainably, a low budding index.

  9. RESPUESTA A LA APLICACIÓN DE NEMATICIDA EN BANANO EN LA ZONA DE URABÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Castillo-Russi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar si los nematodos fitoparásitos afectan la producción de banano en la zona de Uraba, Colombia. El estudio se realizó en tres fincas comerciales de banano (Musa AAA donde se aplicaron dos tratamientos. En el primer tratamiento se aplicó el nematicida ethoprop, el cual fue usado para reducir las poblaciones de nematodos fitoparásitos y el segundo tratamiento fue utilizado como control. El experimento se replicó en tres fincas en la zona de Urabá: Estadero (zona sur, Toscana (zona centro y La Llave (zona norte y se evaluó las poblaciones de nematodos, contenidos de raíces, daño en las raíces y variables de producción. En las tres fincas se encontró que los nematodos predominantes fueron: Radopholus similis (67-74% y Helicotylenchus multicinctus (22-28%. El ethoprop incrementaron en 2,5 kg (P= 0,025, 2 kg (P= 0,0612 y 2,2 kg (P= 0,046 el peso del racimo y en 0,4 (P= 0,0202, 0,7 (P= 0,1994 y 0,3 (P= 0,0459 unidades el número de manos, en las fincas Estadero, Toscana y La Llave, respectivamente. Estos aumentos concuerdan con una reducción significativa en la población de nematodos fitoparásitos y un aumento en el contenido de raíces. Los resultados reflejan que los fitonematodos en las fincas comerciales donde se desarrollaron los experimentos, estan reduciendo la producción y que el control químico con nematicida es factible, sin embargo es necesario encontrar otras estrategias de manejo.

  10. Deteminación de un índice de calidad del suelo en áreas productoras de banano (Musa x paradisiaca L.) de la vertiente del Pacifico de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal Nuñez, José Ezequiel

    2010-01-01

    El cultiu de la banana (Musa x paradisíaca L.) és un dels conreus agrícoles més importants en molts països tropicals i és el quart producte amb major volum d'exportació al món, només superat per l'arrós, el blat i el blat de moro (FAO, 2004). A Panamà, a pesar de l'aplicació de tècniques i insums d'alt cost, s'ha registrat una considerable reducció en la productivitat, Causa el canvi i deteriorament accelerat de les propietats físico-químiques i biològiques del sòl. Aquest treball es va reali...

  11. 巴西香蕉苗静置水培营养液配方的初步筛选%Screening of the Nutrient Solution Formulas for Static Hydroponics of Banana (Musa AAA Cavendish Subgroup 'Brazil') Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小娟; 杨腊英; 谢德啸; 周端咏; 魏巍; 郭利佳; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    采用静置水培法,使用4种不同的营养液配方,并以清水培养和椰糠基质栽培为对照,对巴西香蕉苗进行生长比较试验。结果表明:在香蕉苗增加的生物量方面,BXM配方(巴西木植物营养液)处理与椰糠栽培的差异不显著,但与日本园试配方、Hoagland植物营养液配方、1/2 MS培养基营养元素配方和清水培养的差异显著;在株高和叶面积方面,均以椰糠栽培的最大,BXM配方处理的居次,接下来依次是Hoagland植物营养液配方、日本园试配方、1/2 MS培养基配方和清水培养。综上所述,在这4种营养液配方中,BXM配方是巴西香蕉苗生长的最适营养液配方。%In order to study water culture techniques, growths of the banana (Musa AAA cavendish subgroup cv. Brazil) plantlets under the static culture and substrate culture were 'compared. Four nutrient solutions including Hoagland solution, Murashige and Skoog (1/2MS) solution, BXM solution and RSYY solution were used to culture banana plantlets, which grew in tap water or in substrate culture (pearlite as substrate). The data showed that banana plantlets grew well in the four tested nutrient solutions, and there was a significant increase in biomass of the banana plantlets grew in static nutrient solution over that in tap water. Among the four nutrient solutions, the biomass of the banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution was next to that in substrate (pearlite) culture, and was significantly more than that in Hoagland solution, 1/2MS solution and RSYY solution. The indexes such as plant height and leaf area of banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution were largest among the four nutrient solutions, and then that grew in Hoagland solution, RSYY solution and MS solution reduced in turn. In conclusion, the banana plantlets grew best in BXM solution among the four nutrient solutions. So BXM solution is suggested, when growing banana plantlets in water culture.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Expression of MaNPR1E Gene from Banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish)%香蕉NPR 1E 基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓; 徐碧玉; 贾彩红; 李健平; 刘菊华; 张建斌; 苗红霞; 金志强

    2015-01-01

    NPR1基因可参与调节植物对病原菌的广谱抗性,在植物系统抗性中起着关键的调控作用。通过RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends)方法从香蕉根系中获得NPR1E基因,命名为MaNPR1E(GenBank登录号分别为: KF582550)。 MaNPR1E是香蕉NPR1基因编码框全长cDNA,包含一个1755 bp的最大开放阅读框,编码一个含584个氨基酸的蛋白质。经蛋白质序列同源比对发现,其含有完整的BTB/POZ结构域、锚蛋白重复ANK序列和NPR1-like-C结构域,属于典型的NPR1蛋白。系统进化树比对分析表明, MaNPR1E与海枣PdNPR3(XP_008808341.1)和油棕EgNPR3(XP_010914123.1)的亲缘关系较近。组织特异性研究表明,该基因组成型表达于香蕉各组织。实时荧光定量PCR分析表明,接种枯萎病菌后MaNPR1E的表达在感病品种中被抑制,而在抗病品种中被激活; MaNPR1E的表达受乙烯利和水杨酸的诱导。上述结果表明, MaNPR1E可能在香蕉抗枯萎病过程中扮演重要的调控角色。%NPR1(nonexpressor of PR gene 1), involved in regulating plant broad-spectrum resistance, plays important roles in plant system resistance. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of NPR1E gene cloned from banana(Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish)using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. MaNPR1E(accession number: KF582550) contained an open reading frame of 1 755 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 584 amino acids. Protein alignment showed that they contain the complete typical conserved BTB/POZ (BR-C, ttk and bab/Pox virus and Zinc finger)domain, ankyrin repeats and NPR1/NIM1 like defence protein C terminal, which belongs to a typical NPR1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaNPR1E also have high similarity to PdNPR3 (XP_008808341.1) and EgNPR3 (XP_010914123.1) from Phoenix dactylifera and Elaeis guineensis, respectively. Tissue-specific studies showed that the expression of MaNPR1E was constitutive

  13. MECANISMO DE GELATINIZACIÓN DEL ALMIDÓN NATIVO DE BANANO EXPORTABLE DEL ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Martínez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo fundamental estudiar el mecanismo de gelatinización del almidón nativo de banano de la especie Musa sapientum L. exportable del Ecuador. Se estudiaron las variedades Cavendish, Filipino, Valery y Orito, y a su vez, se estudió su potencial para ser añadido en alimentos que demanden características tecnológicas funcionales deseables como agentes espesantes, gelificantes y estabilizantes. También se determinó el tamaño, la forma de gránulos de almidón, temperatura de gelatinización y viscosidad máxima; obteniéndose los siguientes valores: de 25 a 35 μm; 77,7 a 80 °C y de 259 a 270 UB, respectivamente. Según los resultados obtenidos, el almidón nativo de banano de las variedades estudiadas, puede ser incorporado en la elaboración de alimentos que demanden  las características mencionadas.

  14. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... an abdominal aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  15. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  16. COMPORTAMENTO FISIOLÓGICO IN VITRO DE BANANEIRA (Musa sp., AAA e AAB cvs. NANICA E PRATA ANÃ: INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE POTÁSSIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidan Humberto Actis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas abordagens biotecnológicas de propagação de plantas, os meios de cultura devem ter uma composição química adequada à essa finalidade permitindo a otimização da produção. Como a bananeira (Musa sp. é exigente em potássio, a busca do nível adequado desse macronutriente envolve não somente o comprometimento com o nível dos outros nutrientes (balanço iônico, mas também a relação entre eles. Para acompanhar os efeitos fisiológicos dos vários teores de K, explantes caulinares dos cvs. "Nanica" e "Prata Anã" foram cultivados em meio MS modificado, em presença de BAP (2,5 mg/L, sacarose, vitaminas e agar, em seis diferentes concentrações de K: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 mM, sendo 20 mM a concentração de K no MS básico. Foram feitas análises de massa de matéria seca (MMS, K na parte aérea, raiz e plântulas inteiras, e determinado o número de plântulas, aos 90 dias de idade. Após início de cultivo todos os parâmetros foram analisados segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As plântulas que se desenvolveram em baixas concentrações de K apresentaram sintomas visuais de deficiência de K, como clorose e necrose nas folhas mais velhas. Os cultivares apresentaram diferenças quantitativas entre si, relacionados à concentração de K presente no meio de cultura, seja em relação aos valores de MMS, ou quanto ao número de plântulas formadas. Em ambos os cultivares, foi observada uma relação direta entre o desenvolvimento de plântulas e as concentrações de K com otimização ao redor de 15 a 20 mM de K.

  17. PINZOTE de Musa balbisiana y Musa acuminata como Fuente de Fibras para Papel RACHIS of Muse balbisiana and Muse acuminata as Source of Fibers for Paper Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Turrado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una alternativa de uso industrial del pinzote (centro leñoso del racimo de banano como fuente de fibra para la estructuración de papel. El pinzote se considera residuo agroindustrial en los países productores de banano, material que representa el 2.8 % del racimo en la variedad de Musa balbisiana y el 4.4 % en la de Musa acuminata. Por sus características similares a la del bagazo caña de azúcar, se utilizó un proceso químico similar al empleado para obtener fibras a partir de este material. El proceso de obtención de fibras se llevó a cabo de acuerdo a un diseño experimental factorial, diseño que permite relacionar variables las independientes (tiempo de cocción, concentración de reactivo en cuatro niveles con variables independientes (rendimiento, consumo de reactivos, rechazo y lignina residual. El pinzote de Musa acuminata requiere menor temperatura y reactivo para liberar las fibras con respecto al pinzote de Musa balbisiana. Por lo tanto, el rendimiento en fibra para Musa acuminata es mayor al de Musa balbisiana.This work presents an alternative of industrial use of the banana rachis (the woody center of the cluster of bananas, as source of fibers for the structure of paper. Banana rachis is considered to be an agroindustrial residue in producing countries of banana it represents 2.8 % of the cluster of Muse balbisiana and 4.4 % of the cluster of Muse acuminata. The physical and chemical structure of the rachis is almost simliar to that of the sugar cane so a chemical process similar to that employed to obtain fibers from the sugar bagasse cane was used. An experimental factorial design that allows the correlation of independent variables (cooking time, reagent concentration in four levels with response parameters (yield, reagents consumption, rejects and residual lignin was adopted. The rachis of Muse acuminata needs lower temperature and less reagent consumption to liberate fibers in comparison with

  18. Efecto de la densidad de inóculo en la multiplicación y diferenciación de suspensiones celulares embriogénicas en el cultivar híbrido de banano FHIA-18 (Musa spp. AAAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Barranco Olivera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La obtención de un sistema de regeneración eficiente por medio de la embriogénesis somática en las Musaceas, es hoy una gran herramienta ante los enormes problemas que presenta este género con el ataque de enfermedades como la sigatoka negra. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar las densidades celulares adecuadas para las etapas de multiplicación de suspensiones celulares embriogénicas y formación de los embriones somáticos en medios de cultivo líquidos. Como material vegetal se usaron brotes inmaduros de la inflorescencia masculina de Musa AAAB, cv. FHIA-18. Los resultados demostraron que es posible el establecimiento de suspensiones celulares homogéneas a partir de embriones somáticos en etapa globular, y obtener los mayores volúmenes de biomasa celular al multiplicar dichas suspensiones con una densidad del 3% del volumen de células sedimentadas. A partir del decimoquinto día en el medio de cultivo de formación de embriones comenzaron a formarse estructuras compuestas por proembriones y embriones somáticos en etapa globular; entre las densidades estudiadas los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con 100 mgMF en la cual se formaron 1 871 ES.l-1 con un peso de 248 mgMF.l-1 Palabras clave: embrión somático, Musaceas, densidad celular.

  19. BABA诱导香蕉果实抗病性与贮藏期活性氧积累的关系%Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Related to Disease Resistance Induced by BABA in Postharvest Banana (Musa AAA. cv. Brazil) Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭卫萍; 庞学群; 张昭其; 黄雪梅

    2014-01-01

    果实的抗病性。%[Objective]Effects of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) on diseases-tolerance of harvested banana (Musa AAA Group cv. Brazil) and the possible mechanism were investigated to provide theoretical basis for the new technology of resistant and preservation.[Method] In this study, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase specific inhibitor, was used to inhibit ROS generation in BABA treated fruits. After 5 g·L-1 BABA treatment or 3.14 mg·L-1DPI followed with 5 g·L-1BABA treatment, banana fruits were inoculated withCollectotrichum musae (2× 105 spores/mL) at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, and stored at20±2℃ and RH 85%-95%. The disease spot sizes were determined at 5 d to 16 d. The fruit inoculated withC. musae at 24 h after BABA or DPI treatments and stored at (20±2)℃ and RH85%-95%, and the peel was used for determination of production rate, activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), β-1, 3-glucanase(GUN), phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL), chitinase (CHI), gene expressions ofMaCAT,MaAPX,MaGLU, MaCHI,MaPAL1andMaNOX during storage.[Result] BABA treatment effectively reduced the disease spot sizes on the peel of inoculated banana at 24 h after BABA treatment and cultured for 5 d, showing that BABA treatment needed proper time to have an effect. The production rate andMaNOX gene expression of BABA treated fruits were evidently higher than those of control during 5-12 d storage. Compared with the control, CAT activity andMaCAT expression were higher on day 5 and 1-5 d, respectively. APX activity andMaAPX expression were higher on 5-8 d and 14 d, and 1-5 d, respectively. CHI activity andMaCHI expression was higher on 5-12 d and 1-5 d, respectively. Both of GUN activity and MaGLU expression were higher on 8-14 d. Both PAL activity andMaPAL1 gene expression were higher on 12-14 d . No significant difference was found in other time points. DPI combined with BABA treatment suppressed the above effects of BABA treatment.[Conclusion]These results strongly suggest

  20. EL IMPACTO DE LAS TALTUZAS EN EL CULTIVO DE BANANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge-Meza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se hace referencia a la problemática de las taltuzas (Orthogeomys spp en los cultivos de banano en Costa Rica. Para ello se citan diferentes fuentes bibliográficas que coinciden en que este roedor ocasiona daños importantes a este cultivo, que pueden alcanzar el 50% de pérdidas. Posteriormente a través de la sobreposición de mapas de distribución de las especies de taltuzas y el de las áreas de producción de banano, se identificaron las zonas de acuerdo con la presencia de alguna especie de taltuza en la producción de banano. Se analizaron las particularidades del agroecosistema con banano y sus efectos en el uso de algunos signos que evidencien la presencia de las taltuzas, en especial los montículos generados al ampliar sus sistemas de túneles. Finalmente, se hace referencia a diferentes técnicas a las que se ha recurrido para el control de este roedor, así como la importancia de atender la legislación vigente que las protege, ya que aunque las taltuzas sean consideradas plaga, son parte de la vida silvestre.

  1. Isolation and Identification of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) Fusarium Wilt Disease Pathogen and Pathogenicity Test%大蕉枯萎病病原菌的分离、鉴定和致病性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立佳; 彭军; 杨腊英; 王国芬; 梁昌聪; 刘磊; 黄俊生

    2013-01-01

    从表现枯萎病症状的大蕉球茎病组织中获得10株分离物,采用形态学分类方法将这些分离物鉴定为尖孢镰刀菌.利用分离物DJ1的rDNA-ITS区序列和IGS序列开展的系统发育分析迸一步确定DJ1为尖孢镰刀菌.对不同香蕉品系的致病性测定结果表明,DJ1对粉蕉(Musa sp.ABB)的致病性最强,其次是特威(Musa sp.AAA)、巴西蕉(Musa sp.AAA)和泰蕉(Musa sp.AAA),对皇帝蕉(Musa sp.AA)的致病性较弱,根据DJ1的寄主范围确定DJ1为尖孢镰刀菌古巴专化型生理4号小种.对IGS序列的进一步比对分析表明DJ1不属于热带4号生理小种菌株.这些结果为大蕉枯萎病的防治提供了重要依据和指导.%Plantain (Musa paradisiaca linn.) is an edible banana, and the causal agent of plantain wilt disease hasn't been reported until now. In this study, ten isolates (DJ1-10) from the conns of the plantains that showed wilt symptoms were isolated. These isolates were preliminarily identified as Fusarium oxysporm based on their morphological characteristics. Then phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of rDNA-ITS and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions added proof that the isolate DJ1 was F. oxysporum. The pathogenicity assays showed that DJ1 was able to infect 5 varieties of the genus Musa including Fenjiao (Musa sp. ABB), Hangdijiao (Musa sp. AA), Taijiao (Musa sp. AAA), Tewei (Musa sp. AAA) and Brazilian (Musa sp. AAA), but it was most pathogenic to Fenjiao, then Tewei, Taijiao and Bazilian, and it was less pathogenic to Huangdijiao. These results imply that DJ1 might be an isolate from race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foe).

  2. PROPAGACIÓN In Vitro DEL PLÁTANO MACHO (Musa sp. AAB) CLÓN SOBRINO CON LOS BIOESTIMULANTES CUBANOS BB-6 Y BIOSTAN COMO SUSTITUTOS DE LOS REGULADORES DEL CRECIMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    E. Héctor; Torres, A; S. Algoe; M. Cabañas; López, A.

    2007-01-01

    La posibilidad de emplear bioestimulantes cubanos, como sustitutos de los reguladores del crecimiento convencionales, en la propagación masiva de los plátanos y bananos abriría una nueva perspectiva, para las biofábricas que actualmente se dedican a la multiplicación del género Musa en Cuba, e incrementaría las potencialidades exportables de los productos biotecnológicos cubanos. Se estudió el efecto de los bioestimulantes cubanos, BB-6 y Biostan, como sustitutos potenciales de los reguladore...

  3. The LHC at the AAAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science held its annual meeting in the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in Washington D.C. last week.   Veteran science writer Tim Radford introduces LHC scientists during a media briefing at the AAAS annual meeting. Left to right: Felicitas Pauss, Tom LeCompte, Yves Schutz and Nick Hadley. As the world’s largest popular science meeting, the AAAS meeting is a major event in the calendar of science journalists.  At this year’s LHC session, CERN’s coordinator for international relations, Felicitas Pauss, opened the discussion, paving the way for Tom LeCompte of ATLAS, Joe Incandela of CMS, Yves Schutz of ALICE and Monica Pepe-Altarelli of LHCb to report on the status of the first year’s analysis from their experiments.    

  4. Deshidratación de banano y cambio químicos ocurridos durante el proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reyes de

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Como el banano es una fruta muy alterable, es necesario transformarlaa estados más estables para prolongar su conservación.Uno de los procesos más sencillos y fáciles de realizar es la deshidratación; en nuestro país ya se efectúa pero necesita una tecnificación y un estudio químico a fondo sobre los cambios ocurridosa los diferentes constituyentes de la pulpa de banano.En este trabajo se buscaron las condiciones óptimas en lascuales podría realizarse la deshidratación del banano, para que lapérdida de nutrientes fuera mínima, y se evaluaron los cambiosquímicos ocurridos durante dicho proceso.

  5. Efecto del riego deficitario controlado en la productividad del banano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Martínez Varona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El banano es una especie muy sensible al déficit hídrico, por lo que no es de esperar que responda positivamente a la falta de humedad en el suelo en ninguna de sus fases de desarrollo. Sin embargo la escasez de lluvia que ha caracterizado al país en los últimos años, aconseja determinar en cuales fases se producen las mayores afectaciones, con el objetivo de establecer estrategias de riego efectivas en los momentos de baja disponibilidad de agua. Con este fin se realizó la presente investigación, utilizando para la misma un testigo que se regó durante todo el ciclo de cultivo y cuatro tratamientos en los que se suspendió el riego en diferentes meses por los cuales transitaron sus respectivos ciclos. Los resultados indican que las fases de mayor afectación, donde no debe existir déficit hídrico fueron; la que va desde la plantación hasta alcanzar el 50% de floración y la que va desde el 90% de floración hasta el final de la cosecha, ambas con valores de afectación de la productividad superiores al 20%. La menos afectada resultó ser entre el 50 - 90% de floración, donde solo se afectó la productividad en menos del 15%.

  6. Papel de raquis de banano en Costa Rica: historia y aspectos técnicos, periodo de 1976 a 2002,

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se adjunta el Primer Capítulo del Libro Papel de raquis de banano en Costa Rica.  Historia y aspectos técnicos, periodo de 1976 a 2002. Revisión bibliográfica. Residuos de la actividad bananera y uso de las fibras del raquis de banano en la producción de pulpa celulósica.

  7. Allometric growth relationships of East Africa highland bananas (Musa AAA-EAHB) cv. Kisansa and Mbwazirume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Corbeels, M.; Kaizzi, C.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Highland bananas are an important staple food in East Africa, but there is little information on their physiology and growth patterns. This makes it difficult to identify opportunities for yield improvement. We studied allometric relationships by evaluating different phenological stages of highland

  8. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of semisolid jelly produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azwani Mohd Rasidek

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: TPC can be used as an indicator in assessing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. The present investigation reveals that TPC is mainly responsible for DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

  10. Chemical and microbiological interactions between soils and roots in commercial banana plantations (Musa AAA, cv. Cavendish)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segura Mena, R.; Serrano, E.; Pocasangre, L.; Acuna, O.; Bertsch, F.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Sandoval, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the relationships between soil chemical and microbiological con-ditions and how they impact soil production. The study was carried out on six Costa Rican commercialbanana farms with high, medium and low productivity. In each of the farms sector with relatively good

  11. La academia poética Musa Musae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Utrera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La academia poética Musa Musae, primera tertulia cultural de calado formada tras la guerra civil española, pues abrió sus puertas el 17 de enero de 1940, diez meses y medio después de finalizada oficialmente la contienda (1 de abril de 1939, fue un tímido y frustrado intento por sentar las bases de una futura reconciliación nacional sobre utópicos y románticos presupuestos literarios y artísticos. Denostada por sus críticos, en este artículo se fija y contextualiza su aparición y participantes, se reúnen diferentes testimonios de asistentes, algunos de ellos inéditos o poco conocidos, y se definen sus principales características como la pionera iniciativa literaria de los sectores más aperturistas y conciliadores del régimen, sucediéndole la revista Escorial, las tertulias del Café Gijón y el suplemento cultural del diario Arriba en una España destruida y con sus heridas bélicas aún abiertas, pues su exilio percibía todos estos movimientos con bastante escepticismo.

  12. TOXICIDAD DE HERBICIDAS PROMISORIOS PARA EL CONTROL DE Dieffenbachia oerstedii EN HIJOS DE BANANO

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Brenes-Prendas; Ren\\u00E1n Aguero-Alvarado

    2012-01-01

    Entre los meses de agosto a diciembre del 2006, se evaluó la toxicidad potencial y el efecto sobre el crecimiento de hijos espada de banano, bajo seis tratamientos herbicidas para el control de sainillo: testigo absoluto (T1), carfentrazone + surfactante (T2), glifosato + surfactante (T3), glifosato + carfentrazone + surfactante (T4), glifosato + sulfato de amonio + surfactante (T5) y metsulfuron metil + carfentrazone + surfactante (T6). Se utilizó un diseño irrestricto al azar con 20 repetic...

  13. LMIP/AAA: Local Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Protocol for Mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenait, Manel

    Mobile IP represents a simple and scalable global mobility solution. However, it inhibits various vulnerabilities to malicious attacks and, therefore, requires the integration of appropriate security services. In this paper, we discuss two authentication schemes suggested for Mobile IP: standard authentication and Mobile IP/AAA authentication. In order to provide Mobile IP roaming services including identity verication, we propose an improvement to Mobile/AAA authentication scheme by applying a local politic key management in each domain, hence we reduce hando latency by avoiding the involvement of AAA infrastructure during mobile node roaming.

  14. Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piffanelli, P.; Ciampi, A.Y.; Silva, F.R.; Santos, C.R.; Dhont, A.; Vilarinhos, A.; Pappas, G.; Souza, M.T.; Milller, R.N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Musa species (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) including bananas and plantains are collectively the fourth most important crop in developing countries. Knowledge concerning Musa genome structure and the origin of distinct cultivars has greatly increased over the last few years. Until now, however, no la

  15. Geographical distribution of Musa gracilis Holttum in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.

  16. AAA-DDD triple hydrogen bond complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Barry A; Camara-Campos, Amaya; Djurdjevic, Smilja; Kaller, Martin; Leigh, David A; McMillan, Fiona M; McNab, Hamish; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2009-10-01

    Experiment and theory both suggest that the AAA-DDD pattern of hydrogen bond acceptors (A) and donors (D) is the arrangement of three contiguous hydrogen bonding centers that results in the strongest association between two species. Murray and Zimmerman prepared the first example of such a system (complex 3*2) and determined the lower limit of its association constant (K(a)) in CDCl(3) to be 10(5) M(-1) by (1)H NMR spectroscopy (Murray, T. J. and Zimmerman, S. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 4010-4011). The first cationic AAA-DDD pair (3*4(+)) was described by Bell and Anslyn (Bell, D. A. and Anslyn, E. A. Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 7161-7172), with a K(a) > 5 x 10(5) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. We were recently able to quantify the strength of a neutral AAA-DDD arrangement using a more chemically stable AAA-DDD system, 6*2, which has an association constant of 2 x 10(7) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) (Djurdjevic, S., Leigh, D. A., McNab, H., Parsons, S., Teobaldi, G. and Zerbetto, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 476-477). Here we report on further AA(A) and DDD partners, together with the first precise measurement of the association constant of a cationic AAA-DDD species. Complex 6*10(+)[B(3,5-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3))(4)(-)] has a K(a) = 3 x 10(10) M(-1) at RT in CH(2)Cl(2), by far the most strongly bound triple hydrogen bonded system measured to date. The X-ray crystal structure of 6*10(+) with a BPh(4)(-) counteranion shows a planar array of three short (NH...N distances 1.95-2.15 A), parallel (but staggered rather than strictly linear; N-H...N angles 165.4-168.8 degrees), primary hydrogen bonds. These are apparently reinforced, as theory predicts, by close electrostatic interactions (NH-*-N distances 2.78-3.29 A) between each proton and the acceptor atoms of the adjacent primary hydrogen bonds.

  17. Cultivo in - vitro para la propagación y conservación de germoplasma de Musa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila l

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available El laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos de la UNAN-León realiza la clonación de 15 variedades de Musáceas mejoradas genéticamente, proporcionadas por la Universidad Católica de Leuven (KULeuven, que muestran resistencia a la Sigatoka negra, una de las principales plagas que afectan el cultivo de banano y plátano. Para la micropropagación de las variedades se utiliza un medio Murashige y Skoog suplementado con 10-2 mM de BAP y 10-3 mM de ALA para multiplicación y 10-3 mM de BAP y 10-3 mM de AIA para regeneración. Se estableció una colección in vitro a mediano plazo de germoplasma de Musa para conservar la variabilidad genética indispensable para iniciar programas de mejoramiento genético y seguridad alimentaria.

  18. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  19. TOXICIDAD DE HERBICIDAS PROMISORIOS PARA EL CONTROL DE Dieffenbachia oerstedii EN HIJOS DE BANANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de agosto a diciembre del 2006, se evaluó la toxicidad potencial y el efecto sobre el crecimiento de hijos espada de banano, bajo seis tratamientos herbicidas para el control de sainillo: testigo absoluto (T1, carfentrazone + surfactante (T2, glifosato + surfactante (T3, glifosato + carfentrazone + surfactante (T4, glifosato + sulfato de amonio + surfactante (T5 y metsulfuron metil + carfentrazone + surfactante (T6. Se utilizó un diseño irrestricto al azar con 20 repeticiones, para un total de 120 hijos. El tratamiento con metsulfuron metil afectó el crecimiento de los hijos espada, causando la muerte de algunos de ellos, mientras que el glifosato + carfentrazone + surfactante no afectó a los hijos espada y no se diferenció del testigo. Se confi rma el potencial del tratamiento glifosato + carfentrazone como alternativa para el control del sainillo en plantaciones comerciales de banano, pues provee un control aceptable de la maleza con selectividad a los hijos espada del cutlivo.

  20. Diseño experimental para el control del pardeamiento del banano tipo cavendish en la elaboración de harina

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla un Diseño Experimental para el Control del Pardeamiento del Banano tipo Cavendish en el proceso de elaboración de harina a nivel de laboratorio. Se tomo como respuesta experimental el color del producto, cuantificada a través de un colorímetro, dado que en la harina de banano el color de la misma indica el grado de oscurecimiento u oxidación sufrida en la fruta durante su procesamiento.

  1. ÍNDICE DE CALIDAD DEL SUELO EN ÁREAS CULTIVADAS CON BANANO EN PANAMÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Villarreal-N\\u00FA\\u00F1ez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener un índice para la gestión agrícola y ambiental en suelos cultivados con banano en Panamá. El estudio se realizó en cinco fincas independientes del distrito de Alanje y seis per- tenecientes a la Cooperativa COOSEMUPAR en Barú, en el Pacífico de Panamá. Los suelos pertenecen a los órdenes in-ceptisol (Andic Dystrudepts, Udic Haplustepts y Dystric Ha- plustepts y entisol (Andic Udifluvents. Para la descripción de los indicadores se abrieron cuatro calicatas, por cada área de alta y baja productividad, en la banda de fertilización de plantas de banano recién florecidas. Se registraron los datos biométricos de veinte plantas cercanas a cosecha. En cada sitio se midió la infiltración básica, el peso total de raíces y se tomaron muestras para determinar las propiedades físico- químicas y biológicas del suelo. En todas las fincas se pudo observar elevados niveles de Ca, Mg y K, bajas concentra- ciones de materia orgánica, relacionado con la baja actividad biológica y escasa biomasa microbiana. En la mayoría de las fincas la infiltración era lenta y había presencia de estructu- ras degradadas en los horizontes inferiores. El conjunto mí-nimo de datos que mejor ayudaron a diferenciar entre áreas de alta y baja productividad fueron: porcentaje de arena, pH, Ca, K, materia orgánica, respiración microbiológica, índice de mineralización y peso total de raíces.

  2. Integrated Control of Axonemal Dynein AAA+ Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are AAA+ enzymes that convert ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. This leads to the sliding of doublet microtubules with respect to each other and ultimately the generation of ciliary/flagellar beating. However, in order for useful work to be generated, the action of individual dynein motors must be precisely controlled. In addition, cells modulate the motility of these organelles through a variety of second messenger systems and these signals too must be integrated by the dynein motors to yield an appropriate output. This review describes the current status of efforts to understand dynein control mechanisms and their connectivity focusing mainly on studies of the outer dynein arm from axonemes of the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas. PMID:22406539

  3. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  4. Fermentación sólida del banano de rechazo, en la obtención de alimentos.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    Ecuador, es por excelencia un país agrícola. Dentro de la amplia gama de productos que se cultivan en el país, las frutas tropicales son quizás uno de los más interesantes y potenciales recursos disponibles. Entre ellos el banano sigue ocupando un papel importantísimo en la producción y exportación agrícola ecuatoriana.

  5. SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES Y EXPERIMENTACIÓN CAMPESINA EN AGRICULTURA URBANA EN EL CULTIVO DEL PLÁTANO (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los A. Pino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue probar si mediante la aplicación de la metodología de selección participativa de variedades y experimentación campesina en agricultura urbana en San José de las Lajas, provincia La Habana y Arroyo Naranjo, Ciudad de La Habana, se podía introducir, adoptar y diseminar biodiversidad vegetal en el cultivo de plátanos y bananos (Musa spp en parcelas y patios. Los resultados mostraron las posibilidades que brindan las metodologías participativas para introducir y adoptar materiales a partir de una feria de agrobiodiversidad de frutos y las diferencias en la selección de los materiales, en función de los criterios de selección y los contextos particulares de cada municipio. Estos resultados también brindan las primeras evidencias concretas de este tipo de experiencias en un entorno urbano y para este tipo de cultivo.

  6. Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Tiappi, Florian Mathias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Richel, Aurore; Jacques, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82 ± 3.51 and 49.78 ± 1.39%w/w WCLB dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56 ± 1.33%w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47 ± 0.00%w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70 ± 0.71%w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2%w/w of the LF DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210 °C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerization, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors, such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210, were the highest (41 and 21 µg ml(-1), respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments.

  7. East African highland bananas (Musa spp. AAA-EA) 'worry' more about potassium deficiency than drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress, potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) deficiencies are major constraints to rain-fed East African highland banana (EAHB) production in Uganda. It was hypothesised that the reduction in fresh bunch mass and increase in dry matter (DM) allocation to corms with drought stress, K and N deficien

  8. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana.

  9. Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzel Diedrik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis, and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody. Results Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs, mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs, proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM. This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP treatment showed aberrant non-compact epidermis with discontinuous ECM at the outer surface as well as much less immunolabelling with the JIM11 antibody. This treatment also decreased the plant regeneration capacity in embryogenic banana cultures. Finally, immunomodulation of surface hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins by co-culture of embryos with the JIM11 antibody resulted in a much lower germination capacity of these embryos. Conclusions These results suggest that hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins play an important developmental role, especially in the process of regeneration and germination of embryos during plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Proper content and localization of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins seem to be essential for the formation and regeneration of banana somatic embryos.

  10. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  11. Inhibitors of the AAA+ Chaperone p97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Chapman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is remarkable that a pathway as ubiquitous as protein quality control can be targeted to treat cancer. Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the proteasome, was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA more than 10 years ago to treat refractory myeloma and later extended to lymphoma. Its use has increased the survival rate of myeloma patients by as much as three years. This success was followed with the recent accelerated approval of the natural product derived proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis®, which is used to treat patients with bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. The success of these two drugs has validated protein quality control as a viable target to fight select cancers, but begs the question why are proteasome inhibitors limited to lymphoma and myeloma? More recently, these limitations have encouraged the search for additional targets within the protein quality control system that might offer heightened cancer cell specificity, enhanced clinical utility, a lower rate of resistance, reduced toxicity, and mitigated side effects. One promising target is p97, an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ chaperone. p97 figures prominently in protein quality control as well as serving a variety of other cellular functions associated with cancer. More than a decade ago, it was determined that up-regulation of p97 in many forms of cancer correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Since these initial discoveries, a mechanistic explanation for this observation has been partially illuminated, but details are lacking. Understandably, given this clinical correlation, myriad roles within the cell, and its importance in protein quality control, p97 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. This review provides an overview of efforts towards the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of p97, offering a synopsis of efforts that parallel the excellent reviews that currently exist on p97 structure, function, and

  12. Diseño de un proceso para la maduración acelerada de banano utilizando etefón como agente madurador

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La presente tesis desarrolla el diseño de un proceso para la maduración acelerada de banano utilizando un inductor de maduración como es el etefón. Esta alternativa ofrece a los productores una tecnología económica que permita una maduración rápida y homogénea del fruto sin perder su calidad. De esta manera puedan abastecer al mercado y la industria nacional agregando valor al banano de rechazo de la exportación. El proceso de maduración se evaluará considerando el incremento del porce...

  13. Utilización del banano en la elaboración de mezclas de jugos, néctar de frutas y concentrado

    OpenAIRE

    Víquez Rodríguez, Floribeth

    1995-01-01

    La mezcla de jugo clarificado de banano con jugos de otras frutas tropicales, la elaboración de un néctar y la concentración del jugo para la obtención de una miel, fueron las tres alternativas que se analizaron en este estudio para la utilización del banano de rechazo y como medio de utilizar el jugo clarificado desarrollado en un estudio anterior. En el análisis sensorial de las mezclas de jugos frutales. no se encontró diferencia significativa entre las seis combinaciones de jugo de ban...

  14. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  15. Validation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm at extended SSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Eduardo; Brown, Derek; Dunscombe, Peter

    2010-06-08

    The accuracy of dose calculations at extended SSD is of significant importance in the dosimetric planning of total body irradiation (TBI). In a first step toward the implementation of electronic, multi-leaf collimator compensation for dose inhomogeneities and surface contour in TBI, we have evaluated the ability of the Eclipse AAA to accurately predict dose distributions in water at extended SSD. For this purpose, we use the Eclipse AAA algorithm, commissioned with machine-specific beam data for a 6 MV photon beam, at standard SSD (100 cm). The model was then used for dose distribution calculations at extended SSD (179.5 cm). Two sets of measurements were acquired for a 6 MV beam (from a Varian linear accelerator) in a water tank at extended SSD: i) open beam for 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 20 x 20 and 40 x 40 cm2 field sizes (defined at 179.5 cm SSD), and ii) identical field sizes but with a 1.3 cm thick acrylic spoiler placed 10 cm above the water surface. Dose profiles were acquired at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depths. Dose distributions for the two setups were calculated using the AAA algorithm in Eclipse. Confidence limits for comparisons between measured and calculated absolute depth dose curves and normalized dose profiles were determined as suggested by Venselaar et al. The confidence limits were within 2% and 2 mm for both setups. Extended SSD calculations were also performed using Eclipse AAA, commissioned with Varian Golden beam data at standard SSD. No significant difference between the custom commissioned and Golden Eclipse AAA was observed. In conclusion, Eclipse AAA commissioned at standard SSD can be used to accurately predict dose distributions in water at extended SSD for 6 MV open beams.

  16. EFECTO DEL DESMANE INTENSIVO SOBRE EL DESARROLLO DEL RACIMO DE BANANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta del racimo de banano a un desmane intensivo. El estudio se efectuó en el Caribe de Costa Rica del 2010 al 2011 en racimos de seis y ocho manos provenien - tes de racimos de nueve, diez y once (experimento 1 y de once, doce y trece manos (experimento 2. Mensualmente se midió en la segunda y quinta mano, el grosor y la distancia entre el ápice del fruto y el raquis y, a la cosecha, el peso del racimo, el grosor y el largo externo e interno del fruto, la distancia del ápice del fruto al raquis y se calculó, mediante la relación de ambos largos, el índice de curvatura. El grosor presentó un comportamiento lineal creciente y fue similar (P>0,0508 entre desmanes en la mayoría de las evaluacio - nes de cada tamaño de racimo. La distancia tuvo una fase exponencial decreciente hasta la evaluación cuatro o cinco y, posteriormente se incrementó linealmente. No se observa - ron diferencias significativas (P>0,3797 para esta variable entre evaluaciones en los racimos de menor tamaño (nueve y diez manos, experimento 1 pero aumentó (P0,0540 en algunas comparaciones. El in - tervalo floración-cosecha y el peso del racimo disminuyeron en los racimos más desmanados. A la cosecha, el grosor y el largo del fruto fueron similares (P>0,0732 entre desmanes y tamaños de racimo. La distancia solo varió en el experi - mento 2 donde fue mayor (P0,0645 en la mayoría de los casos.

  17. Producción de etanol a partir de la cáscara de banano y de almidón de yuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN F. MONSALVE G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la hidrólisis ácida del almidón presente en yuca y de la celulosa presente en cáscara de banano y su posterior fermentación a etanol, se ajustaron los medios de fermentación para los microorganismos Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 y Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Se caracterizó la cáscara de banano, la cual posee un contenido de almidón, celulosa y hemicelulosa que representan más del 80 % de la cáscara ameritando el estudio de ésta como fuente de carbono. La hidrólisis ácida de cascara de banano produce 20 g/l de azúcares reductores. Para la Yuca con 170 g/l de almidón a; pH 0.8 en 5 horas se logra conversión completa a azúcares reductores y no se nota ningún efecto inhibitorio por parte de los cultivos realizados con cáscara de banano y yuca por la presencia de cianuro en la yuca y por la formación de compuestos tóxicos al hidrolizar la celulosa en banano. Para la fermentación realizada con Sacharomyces cerevisiae se logra una concentración de etanol de 7.92±0.31% y no se aprecia una producción considerable de etanol (menor de 0.1 g/l para ninguno de los medios fermentados con Zymomonas mobilis.

  18. Increased levels of thioredoxin in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A potential link of oxidative stress with AAA evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Pinna, R; Lindholt, Jes S.; Blanco-Colio, L M;

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a main mechanism involved in vascular pathologies. Increased thioredoxin (TRX) levels have been observed in several oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases. We aim to test the potential role of TRX as a biomarker of oxidative stress in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)....

  19. Molecularly Defined Nanostructures Based on a Novel AAA-DDD Triple Hydrogen-Bonding Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papmeyer, Marcus; Vuilleumier, Clément A; Pavan, Giovanni M; Zhurov, Konstantin O; Severin, Kay

    2016-01-26

    A facile and flexible method for the synthesis of a new AAA-DDD triple hydrogen-bonding motif is described. Polytopic supramolecular building blocks with precisely oriented AAA and DDD groups are thus accessible in few steps. These building blocks were used for the assembly of large macrocycles featuring four AAA-DDD interactions and a macrobicyclic complex with a total of six AAA-DDD interactions.

  20. Aortocaval fistula (ACF) in patients operated for ruptured aortic aneurysm (rAAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warning, Karina; Houlind, Kim Christian; Ravn, Hans

    Aortocaval fistula (ACF) in patients operated for Ruptured Acute Aorta Aneurysm (rAAA): A surgical challenge. Introduction Aortocaval fistula is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). It been reported to be present in less than 1% of all AAAs. ACF arise in patients with large...

  1. Atividade antiviral de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae Antiviral activity of Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Otaviano Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a atividade antiviral de extratos e frações de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae, coletada em duas regiões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis e Santo Antônio de Pádua. As inflorescências de M. acuminata apresentaram excelente atividade para os dois vírus avaliados: herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 e herpesvírus simples humano tipo 2, ambos resistentes ao Aciclovir. Os resultados indicam que os extratos de M. acuminata testados podem constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias antivirais.This study evaluates the antiviral activity of extracts and fractions of Musa acuminata Colla collected in two regions of Rio de Janeiro State (Petrópolis and Santo Antônio de Pádua. The inflorescences of M. acuminata showed excellent activity for the two virus evaluated: simple human herpesvirus type 1 and simple human herpesvirus type 2, both resistant to Acyclovir. The results indicate that the tested extracts of M. acuminata can be potential target for use in antiviral therapy.

  2. A taxonomic revision of Musa aurantiaca (Musaceae) in Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markku H(A)KKINEN; Henry V(A)RE

    2008-01-01

    Since the initial description, the name Musa aurantiaca Baker (1893) has been unclear to most botanists. The aim of this study is to settle its true identity and to update the description. The plant is distributed in the regions of Upper Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India, Northern Myanmar and Tibet, China where it occurs commonly but it is not mentioned in Chinese literature at all. In this paper, the authors also review the description and the literature history of M. aurantiaca from 1893 to the present. Musa aurantiaca Baker is typified here.

  3. Poblaciones de lombrices bajo seis estrategias de manejo de malezas en una plantación de banano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren\\u00E1n Ag\\u00FCero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En la finca bananera San Pablo, ubicada en la Zona Atlántica, se establecieron seis tratamientos de manejo de malezas, para evaluar su efecto sobre el número de lombrices. Los tratamientos fueron: un testigo con libre crecimiento de las malezas, chapeas mensuales, aplicación de glifosato (Ranger Plus-680 g/kg; al 0,687% p/v cada dos meses, aplicación de paraquat (Gramoxone-200 g/l; al 0,75% v/v cada mes, aplicación de glufosinato (Finale-150 g/l; al 1% v/v cada dos meses y un tratamiento en el que se realiza un combate racional con herbicida y machete, sólo en las rodajas. Cada tratamiento const ó de tres repeticiones, y en cada una se tomaron cuatro muestras de suelo de 15625 cm3 y se contaron las lombrices presentes. Las muestras se tomaron en diferentes microhabitats: bajo cobertura espontánea de Paspalum conjugatum o Panicum zizanoides, en suelo desprovisto de vegetación, y bajo hojarasca de banano en descomposición. Se observó que los diferentes manejos de malezas no afectaron la cantidad de lombrices, pero sí se determinó diferencias en la cantidad de lombrices entre los distinos hábitats. Una mayor poblaci ón de lombrices fue encontrada en sitios bajo hojarasca de banano en descomposición y bajo Paspalum conjugatum y una menor población de estos organismos bajo Panicum zizanoides y en suelo desprovisto de vegetación.

  4. GROSOR DEL FRUTO DE LA ÚLTIMA Y SEGUNDA MANO COMO CRITERIO DE COSECHA EN BANANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grosor del fruto de la última y segunda mano como criterio de cosecha en banano. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la relación entre el grosor del fruto central de las manos última y segunda, como criterio de cosecha en el banano. Las mediciones se efectuaron semanalmente (mm de la segunda a la décima semana después de la fl oración y fueron transformadas a treintaidosavos de pulgada (tdp donde 1 tdp= 0,7914 mm, para la generación de ecuaciones de regresión para ambas manos, considerando, o ignorando, el tamaño del racimo. El grosor del fruto central de la última mano fue estimado a partir del grosor del fruto central de la segunda mano, y viceversa para el grosor del fruto de la segunda mano. Los valores de grosor del fruto central de la última mano (valores Y obtenidos aplicando los grosores mínimos preestablecidos de cosecha para el fruto central de la segunda mano (valores x: 43; 44 y 45 tdp fueron superiores a 40 tdp, independientemente del tamaño del racimo, e inclusive superó en la mayoría de las veces, a 41 tdp. Inversamente, aplicando los valores mínimos de grosor de la última mano, predefi nidos para la cosecha (valores x: 39; 40 y 41 tdp, se obtuvieron valores de grosor del fruto central de la segunda mano (valores Y, que no superaron el valor de 43 tdp excepto para x=41 en los racimos de siete a nueve manos. Los racimos cosechados con la exigencia mínima de empaque aplicada para la última mano, tuvieron menos peso, por estar conformados de frutos con menor grosor, que aquellos que se cosecharían mediante la medición en la segunda mano.

  5. Alimentación de bovinos con ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo y ráquis en diferentes proporciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. De la Cruz-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de bovinos consumiendo ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo como fruta y ráquis en diferentes proporciones, se realizó una prueba de alimentación con 12 bovinos cebú comercial, machos, enteros, con un peso promedio de 168±17 kg, a los que se les asignó, de manera aleatoria, cada uno de los siguientes tratamientos: I ensilado con 50% banano y 50% ráquis; II ensilado con 75% banano y 25% ráquis; y III un grupo testigo con zacate Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum. Los animales recibieron, además, 1.1 kg de pasta de soya como fuente proteica y 50 g de una premezcla comercial de minerales y sal común. La prueba tuvo una duración de 120 días, más un tiempo de adaptación de 15, periodo en el que las dietas se ofrecieron a libertad. Los animales fueron pesados cada 30 días y se les llevó diariamente el control de consumo de alimento. Las mejores (P0.05 entre ellos. El consumo de alimento base húmeda (CABH no presentó diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre tratamientos; sin embargo, el consumo de alimento base seca (CABS fue mayor (P<0.05 en el tratamiento ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 comparado con el de 50:50 (6.433 vs. 4.308 kg. El consumo de materia seca/100 kg de peso vivo fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 (2.334 y 1.990, comparados con los del ensilado 50:50 (1.413. El consumo de proteína cruda en kg fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales alimentados con zacate Taiwán. Porcentualmente, el consumo de proteína cruda fue mayor (P<0.05 en los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50 (16.99 y 17.36 %. La mayor eficiencia alimenticia (P<0.05 la obtuvieron los animales que consumieron el ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50. El análisis económico de este sistema de alimentación nos indica que se obtuvieron las mayores ganancias con el uso de los ensilados, siendo el mejor

  6. Efectos Ambientales y Socieconómicos de los Procesos Productivos del Café y del Banano: Una Mirada Multifactorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Vásquez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX y hasta la actualidad la produccion del sector agricola y en particular de los subsectores de cafe y banano han jugado un importante papel en la economia antioquena, tanto en la generacion de empleo y divisas, como en la construccion de una cultura asociada a ambos sectores. Las investigaciones realizadas por diversas instituciones en ambos subsectores si bien han orientado la introduccion de mejoras en la produccion, han dejado de lado un analisis comparativo de ambos subsectores con miras a la identificacion politicas propendan por el mejoramiento conjunto de ambos procesos productivos en aspectos de indole socioeconomico, y ambiental. El articulo presenta los resultados y conclusiones de un analisis comparativo de los procesos productivos del cafe y el banano en el departamento de Antioquia, desde los aspectos socioeconomico y ambiental, haciendo uso de una metodologia de analisis factorial (cuantitativo.

  7. Differentiation Potential and Chromosome Number of Embryogenic Suspension Cells of Musa spp. in Subculture%香蕉胚性悬浮细胞分化能力及染色体数目变异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪林; 劳世辉; 梁国鲁; 魏岳荣; 刘正富

    2012-01-01

    以野生阿宽蕉(Musa itinerans Cheesman,AA)、抗枯1号(Kangku 1,AAA)、大蕉(Musa Paradidiaca L.,ABB)3个香蕉品种为试材,研究其胚性悬浮细胞在长期继代培养后的分化能力和染色体数目的变异.结果表明,3个香蕉品种ECS在继代培养过程中,胚性悬浮细胞染色体数目均不稳定,染色体数目从6个到116个不等,各ECS均为整倍体和非整倍体组成的混倍体,随继代次数的增加,染色体数目变异的细胞比例随之增多,体细胞胚胎分化能力逐渐下降.野生阿宽蕉、抗枯1号和大蕉的ECS继代培养1.5 a后,细胞变异率分别为96.3%、93.0%和94.0%,而体胚分化能力分别为0.96×103、0.55×103、0.65×103个/mL PCV.试验为进一步研究香蕉ECS染色体变异机理提供新的线索.%A study on the changes of somatic embryogenesis potential and chromosome number of embryogenic suspension cells of Musa itinerans Cheesman, Kangku 1, Musa Paradidiaca L. in subculture was undertaken. The results showed that the chromosome number of the embryogenic suspension cells of three banana varieties ranged from 6 to 116 during subculture. After subculturing, ECS were mixoploidy which contained euploid and aneuploid. The percentage of cells with chromosome number changed in ECS was increased, however the overall differentiation of somatic embryos gradually fell down accompanyied by increased number of subculture. After subcultured 1.5 a later, the ECS mutation rates of Musa itinerans Cheesman, Kangku 1, Musa Paradidiaca L. was 96.3%, 93.0% and 94.0%, and somatic embryogenesis frequency of ECS was 0.96xl03, 0.55×103, 0.65x103 per mL packed cell volume respectively. The experimental results also provided new clue for further working on the mechanism of ECS variation.

  8. Modelo económico para el aprovechamiento de los residuos organicos de mango y banano generados en la Central Mayorista de Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Vergara, Jaime de Jesús; Mejía Echeverry, Astrid Elena

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas, 2013 Este trabajo presenta un modelo que permite simular el impacto de las alternativas de aprovechamiento de los residuos orgánicos de dos frutas, banano y mango , en la Central Mayorista de Antioquia, en el municipio de Itagüí Antioquia, Colombia Los Maestrantes que presentan la tesis y la Central Mayorista de Antioquia

  9. Wild Musa Species Collection of Purwodadi Botanic Garden: Inventory and Its Morpho - taxonomic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia, being part of the center of origin of bananas (Musaceae, has a large number diversity of bananas both wild seeded species and edible seedless cultivated varieties. Inventory of wild Musa species in Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been conducted through compiling data records from PBG’s Registration section, field inspection and observation to living collections in the garden, herbarium specimens and literature studies. The results show that total 17 wild Musa accessions has been recorded planted in Purwodadi Botanic Garden since 1990 until 2012; comprises of 8 Musa acuminata sub species, 2 Musa balbisiana forms, 1 Musa ornata, 1 Musa troglodytarum, 1 Musa borneensis and 4 unidentified species Musa spp.; but only 8 living accessions remained in 2012. Morphotaxonomic review of those 8 wild Musa accessions remained will be discussed in this paper including their geographical distributions. According to its differentiated morphological characteristics observations, it is known that there are three accessions were resembled cultivars and one unidentified species have been determined its species level, so that their registration identity needs to be revised. It is important next to prioritize ex-situ conservation of wild Musa species not yet collected in Purwodadi Botanic Garden especially from Eastern Indonesia.

  10. The oligomeric state of the active Vps4 AAA ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Nicole; Han, Han; Gonciarz, Malgorzata D.; Eckert, Debra M.; Karren, Mary Anne; Whitby, Frank G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular ESCRT pathway drives membrane constriction toward the cytosol and effects membrane fission during cytokinesis, endosomal sorting, and the release of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. A component of this pathway, the AAA ATPase Vps4, provides energy for pathway progression. Although it is established that Vps4 functions as an oligomer, subunit stoichiometry and other fundamental features of the functional enzyme are unclear. Higher-order oligomers have thus far only been characterized for a Walker B mutant of Vps4 in the presence of ATP. Here, we report that although some mutant Vps4 proteins form dodecameric assemblies, active wild-type S. cerevisiae and S. solfataricus Vps4 enzymes can form hexamers in the presence of ATP and ADP, as assayed by size exclusion chromatography and equilibrium analytical ultracentifugation. The Vta1p activator binds hexameric yeast Vps4p without changing the oligomeric state of Vps4p, implying that the active Vta1p:Vps4p complex also contains a single hexameric ring. Additionally, we report crystal structures of two different archaeal Vps4 homologs, whose structures and lattice interactions suggest a conserved mode of oligomerization. Disruption of the proposed hexamerization interface by mutagenesis abolished the ATPase activity of archaeal Vps4 proteins and blocked Vps4p function in S. cerevisiae. These data challenge the prevailing model that active Vps4 is a double ring dodecamer, and argue that, like other type I AAA ATPases, Vps4 functions as a single ring with six subunits. PMID:24161953

  11. “estudio del efecto de la aplicación de micronutrientes sobre parámetros agronómicos y sanitaríos en plantas de banano, grupo cavendish en condiciones controladas.”

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Gallegos, José Luis; Jiménez Feijoo, María Isabelita; Efrén Germán, Santos Ordóñez

    2013-01-01

    El cultivo de banano es el mas importante en la economía del país y desde hace dos décadas enfrenta un problema fitosanitario foliar de difícil manejo conocido como Sigatoka negra el cual es producido por el hongo Mycosphaerella fijiensis, esto representa un rubro substancial en los costos de producción del banano y un impacto ambiental negativo por las excesivas aplicaciones de fungicidas, causando daños al medio ambiente [19] .En el presente estudio, se evalúo el efecto de micronutrientes O...

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DEL BANANO (Cavendish Valery CHARACTERIZATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA (Cavendish Valery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bananos (Cavendish Valery fueron sometidos a cargas de compresión unidireccional usando un analizador de textura TA-XT2i. Los resultados de las pruebas de fuerza de fractura a flexión y compresión mostraron que tanto el producto en su estado natural y su pulpa tienen una resistencia mayor a flexión que a compresión. Los modelos estadísticos indicaron que las propiedades mecánicas del producto definidas en firmeza, fractura y módulos elásticos son altamente dependientes del tiempo poscosecha. Situación similar ocurrió en la caracterización físico-química.Bananas (Cavendish Valery were subjected to unidirectional compression loads using a TA-XT21 texture analyzer. The results of the force to fracture and compression tests indicated that the mechanical properties of the product in its natural state and its pulp have a higher resistance to flexion than to compression. The statistical models indicated that the mechanical properties of the products defined by firmness, fracture and elastic modulus are highly dependent upon post-harvest time. A similar situation occurred in the physical-chemical characterization.

  13. Amending Storage Vessel and Media Improves Subculture Interval of Musa sp. Tissue Culture Plantlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are some of the most important food crops in the world. The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa spp. collection consists of 140 accessions maintained as clonally propagated plants in field plots as well as in tissue culture. Accessions maintained i...

  14. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Wild Musa Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Čížková

    Full Text Available The production of bananas is threatened by rapid spreading of various diseases and adverse environmental conditions. The preservation and characterization of banana diversity is essential for the purposes of crop improvement. The world's largest banana germplasm collection maintained at the Bioversity International Transit Centre (ITC in Belgium is continuously expanded by new accessions of edible cultivars and wild species. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the accessions is necessary for efficient management of the collection and utilization of banana diversity. In this work, nuclear DNA content and genomic distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA were examined in 21 diploid accessions recently added to ITC collection, representing both sections of the genus Musa. 2C DNA content in the section Musa ranged from 1.217 to 1.315 pg. Species belonging to section Callimusa had 2C DNA contents ranging from 1.390 to 1.772 pg. While the number of 45S rDNA loci was conserved in the section Musa, it was highly variable in Callimusa species. 5S rRNA gene clusters were found on two to eight chromosomes per diploid cell. The accessions were genotyped using a set of 19 microsatellite markers to establish their relationships with the remaining accessions held at ITC. Genetic diversity done by SSR genotyping platform was extended by phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. ITS sequence data supported the clustering obtained by SSR analysis for most of the accessions. High level of nucleotide diversity and presence of more than two types of ITS sequences in eight wild diploids pointed to their origin by hybridization of different genotypes. This study significantly expands the number of wild Musa species where nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of rDNA loci is known. SSR genotyping identified Musa species that are closely related to the previously characterized accessions and provided data to aid in their classification. Sequence analysis of

  15. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA EXTRACCIÓN ENZIMÁTICA DE JUGO DE BANANO A PARTIR DE LOS CULTIVARES ENANO GIGANTE, FHIA-17 Y FHIA-23

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se optimizó la extracción de una bebida de banano por métodos enzimáticos en tres cultivares. Se emplearon dos enzimas comerciales: una amilasa (Glucozyme-400) y una combinación de celulasa, hemicelulasa y p ectinasa (Macerex PM). Se optimizó el estado de madurez de la fruta, la variedad, el tipo de enzima y la dilución, usando como variables de respuesta la concentración de sólidos solubles ( o Brix) y el rendimiento de la extracción. La enzima amilasa no mostró un efecto pos...

  16. La cadena de valor en la exportación de banano: el caso de la Empresa Agrocomercial de la EARTH

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez De La O, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    En este análisis de caso se aplica la propuesta de Michael Porter (1985) para la generación de valor al cliente en la cadena de valor de un producto fresco como el banano. El estudio se enfocó en el análisis de la situación en el caso de la Empresa Agrocomercial de la EARTH en las etapas del proceso comercial y de envío del producto al mercado de destino y a sus clientes. Del análisis de la cadena de valor, se identificó el problema que enfrenta la Empresa Agrocomercial el cual...

  17. Endovascular repair of acute AAAs under local anesthesia with bifurcated endografts : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, ELG; Prins, TR; van den Dungen, JJAM; Tielliu, IFJ; Hulsebos, RG; van Schilfgaarde, R

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) under local anesthesia in the acute setting. Methods: Between 1998 and 2001, 47 patients with an acute AAA were evaluated for endovascular repair after informed consent, provided they were in a stable, albeit hypotensive co

  18. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ponmurugan Karuppiah; Muhammed Mustaffa

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. Methods:The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. Results: All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63-250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25-250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. Conclusions: The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp.

  19. Influencia de la pérdida foliar sobre la cosecha en el cv. Gruesa, Musa acuminata Colla (AAA, cultivado bajo invernadero en las Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cabrera Cabrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la variedad de platanera Gruesa, selección local de Dwarf Cavendish, ha experimentado un importante aumento en los últimos años en las Islas Canarias, tanto al aire libre como bajo invernadero. La eliminación de hojas, tras la floración, es una práctica habitual en los cultivos bajo invernadero. Asimismo es frecuente la pérdida de hojas por el efecto de los vientos en los cultivos al aire libre. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar, mediante simulación de pérdida foliar por daños mecánicos, la influencia que tiene la disminución de superficie foliar sobre el llenado y cosecha de la fruta en dicho cultivar. Para ello, cuatro meses antes de la cosecha se efectuaron cinco niveles de defoliación: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% y 100%. Se valoran dos métodos diferentes de defoliación, eliminación de limbo foliar y tronchado de hojas con posterior corte de éstas. Se analizan y presentan datos morfológicos, fenológicos y productivos, así como valoración de la metodología empleada en este trabajo para la simulación de daños. A partir de un 25% de defoliado, equivalente a 7.5 hojas funcionales por planta, se detectaron diferencias significativas con las plantas testigos.

  20. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  2. Struktur und Funktionsmechanismus der mitochondrialen m-AAA-Protease aus S. cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    ATP-abhängige Proteasen (AAA+ Proteasen) nutzen die Energie aus der ATP-Hydrolyse, um Substratproteine zu entfalten und in eine proteolytische Kammer zu translozieren, in der der Abbau zu Peptiden erfolgen kann. In der mitochondrialen Innenmembran der Hefe S. cerevisiae sind zwei konservierte ATP-abhängige Proteasen lokalisiert, die homo-oligomere i-AAA-Protease und die hetero-oligomere m-AAA-Protease; letztere ist aus Yta10- und Yta12-Untereinheiten aufgebaut. Weder der katalytische Mechanis...

  3. Generation of Five New Musa Hybrids With Resistance To Black Sigatoka and High Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify genetic variation is indispensable to effective management and use of genetic resources. This work is the first approach concerning to generation and genetic differentiation of new Musa hybrid lines obtained in INIVIT (Cuba, crossing Musa acuminata male diploid (AA x female triploid (ABB, genotypes selected by their resistant character to pests and diseases. From the obtained hybrids, only five were chosen because of their agronomic behavior and were genetically discriminated among them and also respect to the commercial clone FHIA-18 by AFLP polymorphism. Thanks to this prior genetic characterization Musa breeding programs could be consistently dinamised.

  4. Musa chunii Hakkinen, a new species (Musaceae) from Yunnan,China and taxonomic identity of Musa rubra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markku H(A)KKINEN

    2009-01-01

    The center of diversity of the genus Musa (Musaceae) is in Southeast Asia, a region not studied in detail and where new species and varieties continue to be reported. A new wild banana species, M. chunii Hakki-nen from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated based on observed morphological characteristics in the field. This extremely rare new species was only found in Tongbiguan Nature Reserve, Dehong District, West Yunnan. A key to M. chunii and related taxa is provided. In addition, critical notes regarding M. rubra Kurz identity are given.

  5. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  6. Anthelmintic Activity of Musa paradisiaca (L. cv. Puttabale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh, V. Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale (AB group is an indigenous banana cultivar commonly cultivated in the Malnad region of Karnataka, India. Helminthes infections are acute and chronic illness in human beings and cattle. About 3 million people are infected with helminthes worldwide. Traditionally, the plant M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale was used to expel parasitic worms. In order to justify the ethanomedicinal claim with scientific report, sincere attempts have been made to investigate the Anthelmintic activity from corm ethanol extracts of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale using Pheretima posthuma as an experimental model. Three concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of corm ethanol extract were used to study their effect in time of paralysis and death of worm. The results suggest that the ethanol extract at the concentration of 100 mg/ml showed significant effect in time of paralysis at 42.33±1.45 min and death time was 54.00±0.58 min than control group in time of paralysis (142.67±1.45 min and death (168.00±1.53 min. Standard drug piperazine citrate showed paralysis on 39.67±0.88 min and death at 59.00±0.58 min. The corm ethanol extract confirmed antihelmintic activity in dose depend manure and efficient, than standard drug piperazine citrate. This investigation revealed that the antihelmintic property of ethanol extracts of Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale against Pheretima posthuma to support its medicinal claims.

  7. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  8. María Rosa Lojo, La musa ribelle. Il romanzo di Victoria Ocampo.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    María Rosa Lojo, La musa ribelle. Il romanzo di Victoria Ocampo. Traduzione di Immacolata Forlano. Introduzione di Rosa Maria Grillo, (Salerno, Oèdipus, 2010, 187 pp., ISBN – 10 8873411352)di Camilla Cattarulla

  9. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant efficacy of Musa paradisiaca pseudostem on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Nibash Panigrahi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate the efficacy of MUSA in EG-induced urolithiasis, which might be mediated through inhibiting various pathways involved in renal calcium oxalate formation, antioxidant effect, and potential to inhibit biochemical markers of renal impairment.

  10. An AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded complex easily accessible for supramolecular polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi-Fei; Chen, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yuan, Ying-Xue; Wu, Na-Na; Song, Xiang-Zhi; Yang, Lan

    2014-12-15

    For a complementary hydrogen-bonded complex, when every hydrogen-bond acceptor is on one side and every hydrogen-bond donor is on the other, all secondary interactions are attractive and the complex is highly stable. AAA-DDD (A=acceptor, D=donor) is considered to be the most stable among triply hydrogen-bonded sequences. The easily synthesized and further derivatized AAA-DDD system is very desirable for hydrogen-bonded functional materials. In this case, AAA and DDD, starting from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, were synthesized with the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and Friedländer annulation reaction. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration in chloroform at room temperature is 2.09×10(7)  M(-1) . The AAA and DDD components are not coplanar, but form a V shape in the solid state. Supramolecular polymers based on AAA-DDD triply hydrogen bonded have also been developed. This work may make AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded sequences easily accessible for stimuli-responsive materials.

  11. Mechanism of homotropic control to coordinate hydrolysis in a hexameric AAA+ ring ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jörg; Joly, Nicolas; Claeys-Bouuaert, Inaki Leoz; Aziz, Shaniza Abdul; Rappas, Mathieu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2008-08-01

    AAA(+) proteins are ubiquitous mechanochemical ATPases that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to remodel their versatile substrates. The AAA(+) characteristic hexameric ring assemblies raise important questions about if and how six often identical subunits coordinate hydrolysis and associated motions. The PspF AAA(+) domain, PspF(1-275), remodels the bacterial sigma(54)-RNA polymerase to activate transcription. Analysis of ATP substrate inhibition kinetics on ATP hydrolysis in hexameric PspF(1-275) indicates negative homotropic effects between subunits. Functional determinants required for allosteric control identify: (i) an important link between the ATP bound ribose moiety and the SensorII motif that would allow nucleotide-dependent *-helical */beta subdomain dynamics; and (ii) establishes a novel regulatory role for the SensorII helix in PspF, which may apply to other AAA(+) proteins. Consistent with functional data, homotropic control appears to depend on nucleotide state-dependent subdomain angles imposing dynamic symmetry constraints in the AAA(+) ring. Homotropic coordination is functionally important to remodel the sigma(54) promoter. We propose a structural symmetry-based model for homotropic control in the AAA(+) characteristic ring architecture.

  12. Ecophysiological and agronomic response of Abaca (Musa textilis) to different resource conditions in Leyte Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Bande, Marlito M.

    2012-01-01

    Abaca (Musa textilis Née) is closely related to edible bananas (Musa acuminata Colla and M. balbisiana Colla). Abaca usually thrives in the shade beneath tall trees, especially important for protecting the young plants from the sun and the older, taller plants from wind breakage. However, there is still disagreement on the need for shade trees in abaca cultivation. Hence, this study was conducted to ascertain the ecophysiological and agronomic response of abaca grown in different shade condit...

  13. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  15. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de brotos no processo de micropropagação de cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Establishment and in vitro multiplication of banana (Musa spp. cultivars with the use of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hérica Santos de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A banana (Musa spp. é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo, e amplamente cultivada no Brasil, porém doenças como as sigatokas, negra e amarela, vêm reduzindo a sua produção. A disponibilização imediata de novas cultivares resistentes às principais doenças é limitada pela propagação convencional. A micropropagação é uma alternativa para a produção de mudas com qualidade fitossanitária e vegetativa, mas apresenta fatores que dificultam sua aplicação como a contaminação por fungos e bactérias, associada à oxidação dos explantes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi adaptar e/ou otimizar as etapas do processo de micropropagação para diferentes cultivares de bananeira, por meio do controle de oxidação, contaminação, e multiplicação de brotos, sendo utilizadas as cultivares Caipira (AAA, BRS Caprichosa (AAAB, Pacovan Ken (AAAB, Preciosa (AAAB, PV 03-76 (AAAB, Thap Maeo (AAB. No estudo foram utilizados o antibiótico sulfato de estreptomicina e o fungicida Opera® (BASF visando reduzir a contaminação in vitro provocada por bactérias e fungos, além do anti-oxidante PVP (polivinilpirrolidona para controlar a oxidação. Houve redução da contaminação com uso do sulfato de estreptomicina à concentração de 100 mg L-1 e da oxidação com PVP a 4 g L-1. Na fase de multiplicação de brotos, as cultivares apresentaram médias que variaram de 1,90 a 4,75 brotos/explante. A cultivar caipira (AAA destacou-se das demais com a maior taxa de multiplicação de brotos após três subcultivos, média de 41,50 brotos por rizoma.The banana (Musa spp is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and is widely consumed in Brazil, but diseases such as yellow and black sigatoka have been reducing its production. The immediate availability of new cultivars resistant to major diseases is limited by conventional propagation. The micropropagation, is an alternative for the production of seedlings with phytosanitarium and vegetative

  16. AAA application in diagnosis exams in a large public hospital, RS, Brazil; Aplicacao do AAA na realizacao de exames diagnosticos em um hospital publico de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar, A.; Ferret, A.A.; Vanni, S.; Galhardi, M.P.; Lykawka, R., E-mail: abacelar@hepa.ufrgs.br, E-mail: allferret@gmail.com, E-mail: svanni@hepa.ufrgs.br, E-mail: mpgalhardi@gmail.com, E-mail: rlykawka@hepa.ufrgs.br [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: the initiative AAA - Awareness , Appropriateness and Audit , promotes consciousness ( Awareness) , fitness ( Appropriateness ) and Audit ( Audit) . This paper analyzes the application of the concept in the AAA requests and justifications examinations using ionizing radiation within a large public hospital. Materials and methods: we collected and analyzed data between the years 2011 and 2012, concerning the number of exams performed with the use of radiation and their justifications. After, we sought to raise awareness of the clinical team through training on the risks and benefits of the various modalities of the radiology department and the need to justify the use of ionizing radiation on health. After the data were collected again of test requests for verification of the effectiveness of training. Results: the mean requests that need to be appropriate to the AAA in the last quarter of 2011 was 75 % lower than the average demands of the first quarter, matched against the last two months of 2012 increased by up to four times the number requests that require improvements in relation to the excellent results obtained in July 2012. Conclusion: it is shown in this paper the need of implementing this initiative AAA continuously added to the clinical staff awareness about the risk of the use of ionizing radiation, the appropriateness of the requests of these tests , as well as the control of this process in order to optimize use of ionizing radiation on health.

  17. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musaspp. EN COLOMBIA Dryophthorinae Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Associted to Platain and Banana crops (Musaspp. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA A SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.This synopsis is about beetle&#’;s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

  18. HOSPEDANTES DE Ralstonia solanacearum EN PLANTACIONES DE BANANO Y PLÁTANO EN COLOMBIA HOSTS OF Ralstonia solanacearum ON BANANA AND PLANTAIN PLANTATIONS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Obregón Barrios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad del “Moko” causada por la bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum Raza 2, es uno de los problemas fitopatológicos más limitantes en la producción de plátano y banano en las regiones productoras. La bacteria cuenta con un amplio rango de hospederos, cerca de 50 familias botánicas y más de 200 especies. En plantaciones de banano y plátano de Colombia la bacteria se asocia con arvenses que se encuentran en altas poblaciones contribuyendo a su sobrevivencia y permanencia en el campo. Para la determinación de los hospedantes silvestres sintomáticos y asintomáticos en áreas afectadas en plantaciones de plátano y banano del Valle del Cauca, Quindío y Urabá, se realizó la colección de arvenses frecuentes en los focos afectados y el aislamiento en medio semiselectivo SMSA de la bacteria. 124 aislamientos fueron sometidos a pruebas bioquímicas y de patogenicidad en plantas de banano y plátano bajo condiciones similares a las de Urabá y Valle del Cauca. En las pruebas de patogenicidad 67 de 124 aislamientos evaluados fueron positivos, reproduciendo los síntomas típicos de la enfermedad como flacidez, clorosis, amarillamiento de hojas y muerte de las plantas. Se encontraron nuevas especies de arvenses hospedantes de la bacteria que corresponden a Chaptalia nutans, Seneciodes cinerea, Tripogandra glandulosa, Plenax hirtus, Peperomia pellucida, Tripogandra cumanenses, Desmodium sp, y Cissus sicyoides esta última perteneciente a la familia Vitaceae, la cual corresponde al registro de una nueva familia como hospedera. Se confirmó la presencia de la bacteria en hospedantes silvestres previamente mencionados.The moko disease caused by the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 2, is one of the most limiting phytosanitary problem to deal with in plantain and banana production in Colombia . The bacterium has a wide host range, nearly 50 botanical families and over two hundred species. In plantain and banana plantations in Colombia

  19. Análisis de precios de transferencia aplicado a una empresa exportadora de banano del Ecuador: Guayaquil, período fiscal 2005

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo explica la metodología aplicable en el estudio y análisis de Precios de Transferencia entre compañías relacionadas que realizan operaciones durante un período fiscal. La compañía en la cual se realizó el estudio se dedica a la exportación de banano, y el análisis efectuado es con respecto a las operaciones que dicha compañía efectuó con su relacionada en el país vecino de Chile, durante el período fiscal 2005. En el capítulo I se resume el Marco Teórico sobre Preci...

  20. Análisis de precios de transferencia aplicado a una empresa exportadora de banano del Ecuador: Guayaquil, período fiscal 2005.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo explica la metodología aplicable en el estudio y análisis de Precios de Transferencia entre compañías relacionadas que realizan operaciones durante un período fiscal. La compañía en la cual se realizó el estudio se dedica a la exportación de banano, y el análisis efectuado es con respecto a las operaciones que dicha compañía efectuó con su relacionada en el país vecino de Chile, durante el período fiscal 2005. En el capítulo I se resume el Marco Teórico sobre Preci...

  1. RECUPERACIÓN DEL 15N EN LA PLANTA DE BANANO Y EN EL SUELO DE ÁREAS CON ORIGEN SEDIMENTARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ac\\u00F3n-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre octubre, 2003 a febrero, 2004 en la Finca Venecia, situada en Matina de Limón, se determinó la movilidad del nitrógeno en el suelo y la recuperación en la planta de banano. Se empleó el procedimiento isotópico con 15N, mediante método directo. Se evaluaron tres fuentes enriquecidas con 15N: úrea (U, nitrato de amonio (NA y sulfato de amonio (SA, con una dosificación de 424 kg de N por hectárea por año; estas se "monitorearon" a través del perfil a cuatro profundidades: 10, 30, 60 y 90 cm del suelo y el cultivo del banano en cuatro estados fenológicos (F10, Fm, floración y cosecha. Se determinaron formas de N disponibles provenientes del SA, en mayor cantidad en el suelo y en menor cantidad en los tejidos de la planta, lo que indica una menor tendencia a perderse o absorberse del sistema que las otras fuentes. La urea es la fuente nitrogenada que produjo la mayor acumulación de N en la fruta y afectó de forma positiva el peso seco de la planta, en comparación con las otras fuentes nitrogenadas evaluadas (NA y SA. El uso de SA parece tener un efecto negativo en el crecimiento del rizoma de la madre y del hijo de sucesión, por lo cual su uso como única fuente de fertilización nitrogenada no es recomendable. Tal comportamiento podría indicar la necesidad de emplear una fertilización donde la concentración total de N, provenga de una mezcla de varias fuentes.

  2. Abortifacient and antioxidant activities of different extracts of Musa rosacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Srikanth; T. Rajananda Swamy; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; B. Ganga Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate abortifacient and antioxidant activity of Musa rosacea (M. rosacea).Methods:Abortifacient activity was evaluated in rats, compared with standard drug (Mifepristone) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by using three free radicals (Superoxide, Hydroxyl and DPPH). Results: The extracts showed preimplantation loss, postimplantation loss of implantations and decreased the survival ration of foetuses. Among all extracts hydroalcoholic extract showed better activity. The selected plant extracts showed concentration dependent percentage inhibition of free radicals. Among four extracts hydroalcoholic extract showed better activity with IC50 values on superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH radicals were 180 µg, 218 µg and 116 µg. Conclusion:From the results obtained during the study it could be concluded that M. rosacea extracts have abortifacient and antioxidant components and the results support its folklore usage as abortifacient plant. Further is necessary for isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules which are responsible for these activities.

  3. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  4. Gestión empresarial en tres organizaciones socio empresariales de pequeños productores de banano orgánico y de comercio justo del valle del Chira, provincia de Sullana, Región Piura

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Gutiérrez, Manuel; Chávez Lozada, July Antonieta; García Vilela, Lucy Mariella

    2015-01-01

    El problema planteado en la presente investigación, ha sido identificado de nuestra experiencia de trabajo con familias rurales organizadas en asociaciones de productores de banano orgánico y de Comercio Justo, las cuales han alcanzado niveles exitosos en su desarrollo, pero que encuentran cuellos de botella en su proceso de fortalecimiento y sostenibilidad debido, entre otros aspectos, a la forma como implementan sus diferentes procesos de gestión, problema que podría afectar ...

  5. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  6. Influencia de la pérdida foliar sobre la cosecha en el cv. Gruesa, Musa acuminata Colla (AAA, cultivado bajo invernadero en las Islas Canarias Influence of leaf removal in yield of cv. Gruesa, Musa acuminata Colla (AAA, cultivated under greenhouse in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cabrera Cabrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la variedad de platanera Gruesa, selección local de Dwarf Cavendish, ha experimentado un importante aumento en los últimos años en las Islas Canarias, tanto al aire libre como bajo invernadero. La eliminación de hojas, tras la floración, es una práctica habitual en los cultivos bajo invernadero. Asimismo es frecuente la pérdida de hojas por el efecto de los vientos en los cultivos al aire libre. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar, mediante simulación de pérdida foliar por daños mecánicos, la influencia que tiene la disminución de superficie foliar sobre el llenado y cosecha de la fruta en dicho cultivar. Para ello, cuatro meses antes de la cosecha se efectuaron cinco niveles de defoliación: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% y 100%. Se valoran dos métodos diferentes de defoliación, eliminación de limbo foliar y tronchado de hojas con posterior corte de éstas. Se analizan y presentan datos morfológicos, fenológicos y productivos, así como valoración de la metodología empleada en este trabajo para la simulación de daños. A partir de un 25% de defoliado, equivalente a 7.5 hojas funcionales por planta, se detectaron diferencias significativas con las plantas testigos.The banana cultivar Gruesa, a local Dwarf Cavendish selection, is increasingly planted in the Canary Islands, both in greenhouse and in the open air. Both methods present some degree of leaf loss throughout the crop cycle: the leaves of greenhouse plants are traditionally cut back after flowering, and open air plantations experience frequent wind damage. A trial was set up four months prior to harvest to evaluate fruit filling rate and yield of Gruesa subjected to five levels of defoliation (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% loss of leaf area. Two defoliation techniques were used to simulate damage: removal of the midrib, and slashing the leaf blade followed later by complete removal. Morphological, phenological and production data are presented.

  7. EFEITO DO PESO DE MUDA TIPO PEDAÇO DE RIZOMA NO ENRAIZAMENTO INICIAL DA BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA EFFECT OF THE WEIGHT OF RHIZOME TYPE SEEDLING IN THE INITIAL ROOTING OF BANANA CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln F. Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O uso de mudas do tipo pedaço de rizoma, vem, a cada dia, sendo procurado intensivamente como material de propagação de bananeiras. Porém, ao se trabalhar com esse tipo de mudas há necessidades de se conhecer o efeito do peso do rizoma em relação ao seu enraizamento inicial, pois quanto maior o peso das raízes, melhores serão as mudas. De acordo com a análise estatística concluiu-se que há um maior enraizamento em pedaços de rizomas de maior peso.

    Pieces of rootstalk are being used more and more intensively as a means of reproducing banana plants. However, in order to work effectively with this means of reproduction, it is necessary to know the effect of the rootstalk’s weight when it is first planted, because the greater the weight of the rootstalk, the better the shoots will be. On the basis of statistical analysis, it was concluded that the heavier pieces of rootstalk root better.

  8. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN COMMERCIALIZATION UNITS OF BANANA "NANICÃO" (Musa acuminata AAA IN GOIÁS, BRAZIL CORRELAÇÕES ENTRE UNIDADES DE COMERCIALIZAÇÃO PARA BANANAS “NANICÃO” (Musa acuminata AAA EM GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In Goiás, wholesalers of the “Giant Cavendish” banana use different systems of measuring. This causes constant confusion. This study was undertaken to try to establish empirical formulas which can be used to correlate the diverse systems.

    Na comercialização de bananas do sub-grupo cavendishi, em Goiás, utiliza-se de várias unidades de medida. Esta diversidade causa problemas no bom entendimento entre vendedores e compradores. Com a finalidade de estabelecer fórmulas empíricas de transformações de unidades de comercialização, empreendeu-se o presente trabalho. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que as melhores fórmulas de transformações são as seguintes: a - Peso de um carregamento em cachos para número de frutas (NF = 80,4 P/ 11,41, sendo P tomado em Kg; b - Para a obtenção do peso líquido ( PL de frutas a serem encaixadas, subtrai-se 10% do peso bruto; c - Peso líquido (PL de frutas em caixas tipo torito (Cx (Cx = PL/ 18,85; d - Cento de frutas (CF em caixas tipo torito (Cx (Cx = CF/ 14.

  9. Molecular Determinants for PspA-Mediated Repression of the AAA Transcriptional Activator PspF

    OpenAIRE

    Elderkin, Sarah; Bordes, Patricia; Jones, Susan; Rappas, Mathieu; Buck, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli phage shock protein system (pspABCDE operon and pspG gene) is induced by numerous stresses related to the membrane integrity state. Transcription of the psp genes requires the RNA polymerase containing the σ54 subunit and the AAA transcriptional activator PspF. PspF belongs to an atypical class of σ54 AAA activators in that it lacks an N-terminal regulatory domain and is instead negatively regulated by another regulatory protein, PspA. PspA therefore represses its own exp...

  10. The mouse fidgetin gene defines a new role for AAA family proteins in mammalian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, G A; Mahaffey, C L; Nystuen, A; Letts, V A; Frankel, W N

    2000-10-01

    The mouse mutation fidget arose spontaneously in a heterogeneous albino stock. This mutant mouse is characterized by a side-to-side head-shaking and circling behaviour, due to reduced or absent semicircular canals. Fidget mice also have small eyes, associated with cell-cycle delay and insufficient growth of the retinal neural epithelium, and lower penetrance skeletal abnormalities, including pelvic girdle dysgenesis, skull bone fusions and polydactyly. By positional cloning, we found the gene mutated in fidget mice, fidgetin (Fign), which encodes a new member of the 'meiotic' or subfamily-7 (SF7; ref. 7) group of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). We also discovered two closely related mammalian genes. AAA proteins are molecular chaperones that facilitate a variety of functions, including membrane fusion, proteolysis, peroxisome biogenesis, endosome sorting and meiotic spindle formation, but functions for the SF7 AAA proteins are largely unknown. Fidgetin is the first mutant AAA protein found in a mammalian developmental mutant, thus defining a new role for these proteins in embryonic development.

  11. The two faces of hydrogen-bond strength on triple AAA-DDD arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alfredo Henrique Duarte; Caramori, Giovanni Finoto; Coimbra, Daniel Fernando; Parreira, Renato Luis Tame; da Silva, Éder Henrique

    2013-12-01

    Systems that are connected through multiple hydrogen bonds are the cornerstone of molecular recognition processes in biology, and they are increasingly being employed in supramolecular chemistry, specifically in molecular self-assembly processes. For this reason, the effects of different substituents (NO2, CN, F, Cl, Br, OCH3 and NH2) on the electronic structure, and consequently on the magnitude of hydrogen bonds in triple AAA-DDD arrays (A=acceptor, D=donor) were evaluated in the light of topological [electron localization function (ELF) and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM)], energetic [Su-Li energy-decomposition analysis (EDA) and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO)], and geometrical analysis. The results based on local H-bond descriptors (geometries, QTAIM, ELF, and NBO) indicate that substitutions with electron-withdrawing groups on the AAA module tend to strengthen, whereas electron-donating substituents tend to weaken the covalent character of the AAA-DDD intermolecular H-bonds, and also indicate that the magnitude of the effect is dependent on the position of substitution. In contrast, Su-Li EDA results show an opposite behavior when compared to local H-bond descriptors, indicating that electron-donating substituents tend to increase the magnitude of H-bonds in AAA-DDD arrays, and thus suggesting that the use of local H-bond descriptors describes the nature of H bonds only partially, not providing enough insight about the strength of such H bonds.

  12. Fluid Characteristics in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and Its Correlation to Thrombus Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rubing; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Z.; Lasheras, Juan

    2008-11-01

    It has been observed that most large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) develop an intraluminal thrombus as they progressively enlarge. Previous studies have suggested that the build up of the thrombus may be associated with the altered hemodynamic patterns that arise inside the AAA. We have performed a parametrical computational study of the flow patterns inside enlarging AAA to investigate the possible mechanism controlling the thrombus formation. Pulsatile blood flows were simulated in idealized models of fusiform aneurysms with different dilatation ratios and the effects of shear-activated platelet accumulation and platelet/wall interaction were evaluated based on the calculated flow fields. The platelet activation level (PAL) was determined by computing the integral over time of flow shear stresses exerted over the platelets as they are transported throughout the aneurysm. Our results have shown that the values of PAL in AAAs are in fact smaller than the maximum value obtained in a healthy abdominal aorta. However, we show that the transportation of blood cells towards the wall and the formation of stagnation points on the aneurysm's wall play more significant roles in thrombus formation than PAL.

  13. Obtención de Etanol y Biogás a Partir de Banano de Rechazo Biogas and Bioethanol Production from Non-Exportable Low Quality Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Guevara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un proceso fermentativo mediante hidrólisis endógena inducida para producir etanol a partir de banano verde no apto para exportación. El potencial de las vinazas también fue evaluado para obtener biogás. A escala de 1 litro se comparó la hidrólisis endógena inducida con la hidrólisis exógena usando enzimas comerciales, y la hidrólisis ácida tomando como punto de referencia el etanol producido en la fermentación. Con la hidrólisis endógena se obtuvo los mayores rendimientos y con esta metodología se realizaron fermentaciones a 15 litros Los rendimientos de etanol en promedio fueron 0.065 litros por kilogramo de banano verde y los del biogás fueron 2.24 litros por litro de vinaza. El proceso propuesto presenta rendimientos comparables con los de la fermentación de caña de azúcar. Además presenta ventajas, tales como su bajo costo, fácil operación y por ser una alternativa de solución ambientalmente compatible en el área del manejo de residuos de cosecha.In this study was developed a fermentative process to produce ethanol from green banana non optimal for exportation through one induced endogenous hydrolysis. The potential of the stillage to produce biogas was also evaluated. It was compared the induced endogenous hydrolysis, with the exogenous hydrolysis that uses commercial enzymes and the traditional acid hydrolysis done all of them in a final volume of 1 liter, the reference point was the ethanol produced in the fermentation process. The maximum performance was obtained with the endogenous hydrolysis and with these methodology fermentations at 15 liter as done. The average of ethanol produced was 0.065 liters from one kilogram of green banana and the biogas production was 2.24 liter per liter of stillage. The proposed process shows performance comparable with that obtained by sugar cane fermentation. Also the methodology demonstrated several advantages, such as low cost, simple to operate, and because it

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmala M; Girija K; Lakshman K; Divya T

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods:Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results:Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M.paradisiaca. Conclusions: The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  15. Antimicrobial and antihyperglycemic activities of Musa paradisiaca flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Jawla; Y Kumar; MSY Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the antimicrobial and antihyperglycemic activities of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) flowers. Methods: The EtOH and EtOH: water (1:1) extracts of M. paradisiaca flowers were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard strains of Bacillussubtilis (K. pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa),Streptococcus pneumoniae (B. subtilis), Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Candida albicans (C. albicans), Cryptococcus albidus (C.albidus (S. pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Salmonella ) against amikacin and clotrimazole respectively. Both the extracts were also administered to normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured daily after oral administration of extracts at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/(kg.d). Result: The EtOH and EtOH:water (1:1) extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 5.62-25.81 and 7.60-31.50 μg/mL respectively. Both the extracts reversed the permanent hyperglycemia within a week in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The EtOH extract (250 mg/kg) was found to be 7.69% more potent hypoglycemic effect than standard oral hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide 0.2 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Conclusion: The alcoholic extracts of M. paradisiaca flowers showed potent antihyperglycemic and moderate antimicrobial activities.

  16. Valorization and Miscellaneous Prospects of Waste Musa balbisiana Colla Pseudostem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Gogoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resourceful utilization of the enormous quantum of agrowastes generated via agricultural practices can be supportive in waste management, environmental upgradation, and subsequent material and energy recovery. In this regard, the present study aimed at highlighting waste banana (Musa balbisiana Colla pseudostem (an agrowaste as a potential bio-based feedstock with miscellaneous applications. The pseudostem was characterized by carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen (CHN analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGDTA, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were estimated as a part of biochemical characterization. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were carried out as a part of antioxidant characterization. The waste banana pseudostem biomass (WBPB was also tried successfully as a natural filler in polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer composite. Thermal properties and water uptake test of the WBPB polymer composite were accessed as a part of composite characterization. The pseudostem had calorific value (15.22 MJ/kg, high holocellulose (58.67%, high free radical scavenging potential (69.9%, and a low ash content (6.8%. Additionally, the WBPB polymer composite showed improved water resistance and thermostability. The study suggests feasibility of WBPB as a prospective bioenergy feedstock, primary antioxidant source, and reinforcing agent in polymer composites.

  17. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  18. Correlações entre caracteres da planta e do cacho em bananeira (Musa spp Correlations among characters of the plant and of the bunch in banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os caracteres observados em áreas experimentais têm natureza fenotípica e suas correlações são estimadas visando mensurar alterações em um caráter quando se altera outro relacionado. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, quantificar a relação entre os caracteres da planta e do cacho observados na época do florescimento e da colheita de 13 genótipos (variedades e híbridos de bananeira (Musa spp., em dois ciclos de produção, em Guanambi, Bahia. Foram utilizadas as variedades Prata anã, Pacovan (AAB, Grande naine e Nanicão (AAA, e os híbridos PA42-44, PV42-85, PV42-142, PV42-68 e ST12-31 (AAAB e Ambrosia, Calipso, Bucaneiro e FHIA02 (AAAA, selecionados na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Consideraram-se os caracteres: altura da planta; perímetro do pseudocaule; número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita; número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita; intervalo florescimento à colheita; peso do cacho, da ráquis e da pencas; comprimento e diâmetro do engaço; número de pencas e de frutos; peso da segunda penca; peso, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto e espessura da casca. As correlações entre o peso do cacho e os demais caracteres estudados, variaram entre genótipos e ciclos. As associações entre o peso do cacho e os caracteres da planta, de forma geral foram não-significativas, e entre o peso do cacho e os caracteres do cacho significativas e positivas para a maioria dos genótipos, nos ciclos avaliados. As correlações entre os caracteres envolvendo todos os genótipos ao longo dos dois ciclos foram predominantemente positivas e não- significativas, entretanto, as associações entre os caracteres do cacho foram em maioria significativas, positivas e com valores expressivos.The characters observed in a experimental areas has phenotypic nature and their correlations are estimated with the purpose to verify alterations in one character when is altered another. The objectives of this work were to

  19. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  20. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  1. Diploid Musa acuminata genetic diversity assayed with sequence-tagged microsatellite sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin, A; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Dambier, D; Baurens, F C; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1998-06-01

    The sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) discrimination potential was explored using nine microsatellite primer pairs. STMS polymorphism was assayed by nonradioactive urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Genetic relationships were examined among 59 genotypes of wild or cultivated accessions of diploid Musa acuminata. The organization of the subspecies was confirmed and some clone relationships were clarified.

  2. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how cons

  3. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  4. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were le

  5. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  6. Structural and Function Prediction of Musa acuminata subsp. Malaccensis Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Munir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical proteins (HPs are the proteins whose presence has been anticipated, yet in vivo function has not been built up. Illustrating the structural and functional privileged insights of these HPs might likewise prompt a superior comprehension of the protein-protein associations or networks in diverse types of life. Bananas (Musa acuminata spp., including sweet and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister grouped to the all-around considered Poales, which incorporate oats. Bananas are crucial for nourishment security in numerous tropical and subtropical nations and the most prominent organic product in industrialized nations. In the present study, the hypothetical protein of M. acuminata (Banana was chosen for analysis and modeling by distinctive bioinformatics apparatuses and databases. As indicated by primary and secondary structure analysis, XP_009393594.1 is a stable hydrophobic protein containing a noteworthy extent of α-helices; Homology modeling was done utilizing SWISS-MODEL server where the templates identity with XP_009393594.1 protein was less which demonstrated novelty of our protein. Ab initio strategy was conducted to produce its 3D structure. A few evaluations of quality assessment and validation parameters determined the generated protein model as stable with genuinely great quality. Functional analysis was completed by ProtFun 2.2, and KEGG (KAAS, recommended that the hypothetical protein is a transcription factor with cytoplasmic domain as zinc finger. The protein was observed to be vital for translation process, involved in metabolism, signaling and cellular processes, genetic information processing and Zinc ion binding. It is suggested that further test approval would help to anticipate the structures and functions of other uncharacterized proteins of different plants and living being.

  7. High Frequency Plant Regeneration of Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shashi Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High frequency plant regeneration protocol has been standardized from banana cultivar Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan, an endemic cultivar of Malnad region of Karnataka. The fruits are used as glomerular protective to solve kidney problems. To minimize the microbial contamination and to promote healthy growth, explants were treated with 70 % absolute alcohol for 6 min, 0.1 % Mercuric chloride for 10 min and 0.2 % for 10 min, 1 % Sodium hypochlorite for 15 min, 0.1 % Cefotaxime for 5 min and 0.05 % Gentamicin for 5 min. The high frequency shoot initiation (93.33 % was recorded at 5 mg/l BAP. The synergetic effect of BAP (4 to 6 mg/l, TDZ (0.1 to 1.2 mg/l and coconut water (0.1 to 0.9 ml/l induced multiple shoot buds and it was optimized at the concentration of 5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.5 ml/l coconut water with 15.90 ± 1.66 frequency of shoots per propagule. Supplementation of 1.0 mg/l IBA induced 5.33 ± 1.21 numbers of roots with a mean root length of 7.50 ± 1.87 roots. The 99% of plantlets with distinct roots and shoots were successfully acclimatized in the green house and transferred to the field to evaluate the agro-morphological variations. The weight of the bunch (kg, number of hands in a bunch, number of fingers in a hand, length of the finger (cm, girth of the finger (cm and girth of the pseudostem (cm exhibited by in vitro plants were higher than the in vivo plants.

  8. Estudio del impacto de la aplicación de la legislación de precios de transferencia en las empresas exportadoras de banano del Ecuador: caso e.b. expobanana s.a

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    “Precios de Transferencia” es un régimen de control fiscal sobre la determinación de la renta gravable y sus elementos. El objetivo de este régimen es comprobar que los “precios de transferencia” convenidos entre partes vinculadas se correspondan con aquellos fijados entre partes independientes en operaciones celebradas bajo términos y condiciones idénticas o similares. En el Ecuador este régimen está vigente desde el 1 de enero del 2005. En el año 2005, las exportaciones de banano del Ecu...

  9. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Prabha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD, encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m-nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the

  11. Plant i - AAA protease controls the turnover of the essential mitochondrial protein import component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalińska, Magdalena; Parys, Katarzyna; Murcha, Monika W; Jańska, Hanna

    2017-03-06

    Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that play a central role in energy metabolism. Due to life-essential functions of these organelles, mitochondrial content, quality, and dynamics are tightly controlled. Across the species, highly conserved ATP - dependent proteases prevent malfunction of mitochondria through versatile activities. This study focuses on a molecular function of plant mitochondrial inner membrane-embedded i - AAA protease, FTSH4, providing its first bona fide substrate. Here, we report that the abundance of Tim17-2 protein, the essential component of the TIM17:23 translocase, is directly controlled by the proteolytic activity of FTSH4. Plants that are lacking functional FTSH4 protease are characterized by significantly enhanced capacity of preprotein import through the TIM17:23 - dependent pathway. Together with the observation that FTSH4 prevents accumulation of Tim17-2, our data points towards the role of this i - AAA protease in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in plants.

  12. The AAA+ ATPase, Thorase Regulates AMPA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Wang, Yue; Chi, Zhikai; Keuss, Matthew J.; Pai, Ying-Min Emily; Kang, Ho Chul; Shin, Jooho; Bugayenko, Artem; Wang, Hong; Xiong, Yulan; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Mattson, Mark P.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) plays critical roles in the regulation of synaptic activity reflected in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). The cellular events underlying this important process in learning and memory are still being revealed. Here we describe and characterize the AAA+ ATPase, Thorase, that regulates the expression of surface AMPAR. In an ATPase-dependent manner Thorase mediates the internalization of AMPAR by disassembling the AMPAR-GRIP1 complex. Following genetic deletion of Thorase, the internalization of AMPAR is substantially reduced, leading to increased amplitudes of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, enhancement of LTP and elimination of LTD. These molecular events are expressed as deficits in learning and memory in Thorase null mice. This study identifies an AAA+ ATPase that plays a critical role in regulating the surface expression of AMPAR and thereby regulates synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. PMID:21496646

  13. Mutations of the AAAS gene in an Indian family with Allgrove's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya; Sumita Danda; Angela Huebner; Ashok Chacko

    2006-01-01

    The triple A or Allgrove's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of achalasia cardia, alacrima and ACTH resistant adrenocortical insufficiency. Mutations of the Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrima-Syndrome (AAAS) gene on chromosome 12q13 are associated with this syndrome. We report an Indian family where two siblings were homozygous for a known mutation of the AAAS gene and presented with the classical triad of symptoms. The mother and the brother were heterozygous and asymptomatic. The affected siblings had iron deficiency anemia and the younger sister had pes cavus and palmoplantar keratosis.Neurological symptoms were absent in both affected children. Recognition of this syndrome can lead to early treatment of adrenal insufficency and genetic counselling.

  14. Substituent effects in double-helical hydrogen-bonded AAA-DDD complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Mudraboyina, Bhanu P; Wisner, James A

    2012-01-27

    Two series of DDD and AAA hydrogen-bond arrays were synthesized that form triply-hydrogen-bonded double-helical complexes when combined in CDCl(3) solution. Derivatization of the DDD arrays with electron-withdrawing groups increases the complex association constants by up to a factor of 30 in those arrays examined. Derivatization of the AAA arrays with electron donating substituents reveals a similar magnitude effect on the complex stabilities. The effect of substitution on both types of arrays are modeled quite satisfactorily (R(2) > 0.96 in all cases) as free energy relationships with respect to the sums of their Hammett substituent constants. In all, the complex stabilities can be manipulated over more than three orders of magnitude (>20 kJ mol(-1)) using this type of modification.

  15. Functional characterization of fidgetin, an AAA-family protein mutated in fidget mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L; Bérubé, Nathalie; Nystuen, Arne; Frankel, Wayne N

    2005-03-10

    The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on the subcellular localization of fidgetin as well as that of two closely related proteins, fidgetin-like 1 and fidgetin-like 2. Epitope-tagging and immunostaining revealed that both fidgetin and fidgetin-like 2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus, whereas fidgetin-like 1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Furthermore, deletion studies identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal in the middle portion of the fidgetin protein. Since AAA proteins are known to form functional hetero- or homo-hexamers, we used reciprocal immunoprecipitation to examine the potential interaction among these proteins. We found that fidgetin interacted with itself and this specific interaction was abolished when either the N- or C-terminus of the protein was truncated. Taken together, our results suggest that fidgetin is a nuclear AAA-family protein with the potential to form homo-oligomers, thus representing the first step towards the elucidation of fidgetin's cellular function and the disease mechanism in fidget mutant mice.

  16. Experimental and computational studies on the flow fields in aortic aneurysms associated with deployment of AAA stent-grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiwen Zhang; Zhaohui Yao; Yan Zhang; Shangdong Xu

    2007-01-01

    Pulsatile flow fields in rigid abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models were investigated numerically, and the simulation results are found in good agreement with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. There are one or more vortexes in the AAA bulge, and a fairly high wall shear stress exists at the distal end, and thus the AAA is in danger of rupture. Medical treatment consists of inserting a vascular stent-graft in the AAA, which would decrease the blood impact to the inner walls and reduce wall shear stress so that the rupture could be prevented. A new computational model, based on porous medium model, was developed and results are documented. The rapeutic effect of the stent-graft was verified numerically with the new model.

  17. Pharmacological evaluation of Musa seminifera Lour.fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjib Saha; Faroque Hossain; Md.Anisuzzman; Md.Khirul Islam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study potential antioxidant,analgesic,antidiarrheal,and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of Musa seminifera Lour.fruit in different established in vivo and in vitro experimental models.METHODS:In vitro antioxidant activity was studied in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay.Phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent.Reducing ability was evaluated by ferric reducing power assay.Peripherally and centrally acting analgesic activity was studied in three different in vivo models,namely,acetic acid-induced writhing,hot-plate test,and tail-flick test in Swiss albino mice.In vivo antidiarrheal activity was evaluated in castor oil-and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea in mice.Gastrointestinal motility test was also carried out in mice.All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.Antibacterial activity was assessed by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.Acute toxicity test was conducted to assess the safe doses of the extract.RESULTS:The extract showed 50% inhibitory concentration value of 12.65 μg/mL in DPPH radicalscavenging assay.Phenolic content was found to be 589.83 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dried fruits extract.Reducing power was in a concentration-dependent manner,and strongly comparable with the standard ascorbic acid.The extract demonstrated significant inhibition of writhing in acetic acid-induced writhing test at both dose levels (P<0.01).The extract also raised pain threshold in both hot-plate and tail-flick test in a dose-dependent manner,and the results were statistically significant (P<0.01).The extract significantly (P<0.01) increased latent period,and decreased defecation in both castor oil-and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea.The extract also decreased gastrointestinal motility in mice.In disk diffusion assay,the extract showed potential antibacterial activity against all the

  18. Ripening of fruits of 'Dwarf Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group)irradiated and treated with calcium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella [Instituto de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo, E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br, E-mail: masv@ufrrj.br [Departamento de Fitotecnia. Instituto de Agronomia. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear. Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The competing effects resulting from the exposure of fruits of 'warf prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group) to gamma radiation and to calcium carbide have been investigated in this work. The fruits were harvested in a pre-climateric stage (green colored though physiologically developed) in the city of Jaiba, state of Minas Gerais, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0.25 or 0.50 kGy in a research irradiating facility at the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Some samples were also exposed to calcium carbide for 32 hours in order to accelerate ripening. Quantitative estimates of peel color, disease index and fresh mass loss were performed for 9 days while the fruits were kept at an average temperature of 23 deg C. The analyses were performed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, located in the city of Seropedica. The following treatments or combination of processes have been tested: untreated (control); treated only with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy; treated with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy and then exposed to calcium carbide. The fruits treated solely with irradiation with 0.25 kGy exhibited a better response during the first days of storage, although their initial green coloration vanished with time. In addition, the fungi Colletotrichum musae and Lasidioplodia theobroma were detected in samples submitted to the combination of both processes. In contrast, such fungi were not observed in fruits that had only been exposed to 0.25 kGy and exhibited low disease indices. Also, 1-2 cm lesions were detected on fruits.(author)

  19. A molecular marker-based linkage map of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C; Gońzalez de León, D

    1993-12-01

    A partial molecular linkage map of the Musa acuminata diploid genome is presented. This map is based on 58 RFLP, four isozyme and 28 RAPD markers segregating in an F2 population of 92 individuals. A total of 90 loci was detected, 77 of which were placed on 15 linkage groups while 13 segregated independently. Segregation distortions were shown by 36% of all loci, mostly favoring the male parent. Chromosome structural rearrangements were believed to be one of the main causes of these distortions. The use of genetic linkage data to further the genetic and evolutionary knowledge of the genus Musa, as well as to help improve the design of breeding strategies, is discussed.

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF MUSA SAPIENTUM L. SUBSP. SYLVESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mohammad Zafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the different extracts of Musa sapientum L. subsp. sylvestris fruits. The methanolic extracts of Musa sapientum L. subsp. sylvestris peel (MSPE, pulp (MSPU and seed (MSSE were investigated for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and for cytotoxic activity by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Good antimicrobial activity was shown by MSPU while moderate activity by MSPE against 5 gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus and 8 gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio parahemolyticus bacteria and 3 fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Sacharomyces cerevaceae. Antimicrobial activity of MSSE against the organisms was insignificant. The order of Brine Shrimp lethality was found as Vincristine sulphate > MSPU > MSSE > MSPE. These findings suggest the potentiality of finding novel compounds with antimicrobial property in the investigated fruit.

  1. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Alabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals used for the study were grouped into three: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Results: Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Conclusion: Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  2. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  3. Characterization of some physicist, mechanics and chemistries properties in the banana (Musa spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Modesto Martínez Hernández; Tania de la Caridad Bermúdez Camacho

    2016-01-01

    The present work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of the banana (Musa spp.). For its investigation, they took samples in the Municipal Company of Cultivos Varios, municipality Taguasco, provinces of Sancti-Spíritus. They were carried out rehearsals related to some physical, mechanical and chemical variables as: pH, oBrix, total regular acids, static coefficients of friction and mechanical impact damages deal with the established norms. The objective of ...

  4. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. Results An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin. Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7% deviated (p Conclusions We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker

  5. Ploidy Variation in Hybrids from Interploid 3x X 2x Crosses in Musa

    OpenAIRE

    Osuji, JO.; Vuylsteke, D.; Ortiz, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrids were obtained after in vitro germination of embryos from interploid crosses between triploid 'French' plantain cultivars (Musa spp. AAB group) 'Ntanga 2' and 'Bobby Tannap' with diploid banana (Ivlusa acuminata subsp. burmannicoidesj 'Calcutta 4'. Cross-pollinated bunches were harvested at full maturity and ripened with acetylene in a room for 4 days. Seeds were extracted from peeled ripe fruits by squashing. Embryos from the seeds were excised aseptically after 2 days and germinated ...

  6. Morphological State as a Predictor for Reintervention and Mortality After EVAR for AAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohrlander, Tomas [Eksjoe County Hospital (Sweden); Dencker, Magnus [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine (Sweden); Acosta, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.acosta@telia.com [Malmoe University Hospital, Vascular Center Malmoe-Lund (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess aorto-iliac morphological characteristics in relation to reintervention and all-cause long-term mortality in patients undergoing standard EVAR for infrarenal AAA. Methods: Patients treated with EVAR (Zenith{sup Registered-Sign} Stentgrafts, Cook) between May 1998 and February 2006 were prospectively enrolled in a computerized database where comorbidities and preoperative aneurysm morphology were entered. Reinterventions and mortality were checked until December 1, 2010. Median follow-up time was 68 months. Results: A total of 304 patients were included, of which 86% were men. Median age was 74 years. The reintervention rate was 23.4% (71/304). A greater diameter of the common iliac artery (p = 0.037; hazard ratio (HR) 1.037 [1.002-1.073]) was an independent factor for an increased number of reinterventions. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.0% (9/304). Aneurysm-related deaths due to AAA occurred in 4.9% (15/304). Five patients died due to a concomitant ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. The mortality until end of follow-up was 54.3% (165/304). The proportion of deaths caused by vascular diseases was 61.6%. The severity of angulation of the iliac arteries (p = 0.014; HR 1.018 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.033]) and anemia (p = 0.044; HR 2.79 [95% CI 1.029-7.556]) remained as independent factors associated with all-cause long-term mortality. The crude reintervention-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 84.5%, 64.8%, and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The initial aorto-iliac morphological state in patients scheduled for standard EVAR for AAA seems to be strongly related to the need for reinterventions and long-term mortality.

  7. NASA Astrophysics E/PO Impact: NASA SOFIA AAA Program Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral; Inverness Research Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team, Wested Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, studying the universe at infrared wavelengths, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA also inspires the development of new scientific instrumentation and fosters the education of young scientists and engineers.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches). The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program and Outreach Offices are located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.Data will be collected to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star cycles, solar system formation, identification of complex molecules in space, our solar system, galactic dust, nebulae and ecosystems.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador (AAA) Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to elevate public scientific and technical literacy.The AAA effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Evaluation has confirmed the program's positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. The inspirational experience has positively impacted their practice and career trajectory. AAAs have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given

  8. Determination of lupenone and β-sitosterol in Rhizoma Musae by UPLC with DAD and ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Wu, Hongmei; Wang, Yuanmin; Yang, Ye; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xiangpei

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoma Musae has been used for centuries in Miao medicine practice in China, and it usually uses for treating diabetes and bruises. In this study, lupenone and β-sitosterol in Rhizoma Musae were separated by reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) and simultaneously detected by a diode array detector (DAD) and an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) using methanol and 0.1% aqueous acetic acid (100 : 4, v/v) as a mobile phase in 20 min. The flow rate of 0.1 mL/min was set with isocratic, the temperature of column compartment maintained at 50°C and ultraviolet detection set at 206 nm wavelength. The injection volume was 1.0 µL. The parameter for the ELSD was set to a probe temperature of 45°C, and the nebulizer for nitrogen gas was adjusted to 1.5 L/min. The RP-UPLC method was validated for accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. It applied to the quantification of the active chemical constituents of Rhizoma Musae, and results indicated that both DAD and ELSD were suitable for the determination of lupenone and β-sitosterol, and the DAD has a better sensitivity than the ELSD.

  9. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  10. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Abayasekara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity and cell wall lignification. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  11. OGLE16aaa - a signature of a hungry supermassive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Zieliński, M.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Hamanowicz, A.; Jonker, P. G.; Arcavi, I.; Guillochon, J.; Brown, P. J.; Kozłowski, S.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K. A.; Greiner, J.; Krühler, T.; Bolmer, J.; Smartt, S. J.; Maguire, K.; Smith, K.

    2017-02-01

    We present the discovery and first three months of follow-up observations of a currently on-going unusual transient detected by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) survey, located in the centre of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.1655. The long rise to absolute magnitude of -20.5 mag, slow decline, very broad He and H spectral features make OGLE16aaa similar to other optical/UV tidal disruption events (TDEs). Weak narrow emission lines in the spectrum and archival photometric observations suggest the host galaxy is a weak-line active galactic nucleus, which has been accreting at higher rate in the past. OGLE16aaa, along with SDSS J0748, seems to form a sub-class of TDEs by weakly or recently active supermassive black holes (SMBHs). This class might bridge the TDEs by quiescent SMBHs and flares observed as `changing-look quasars', if we interpret the latter as TDEs. If this picture is true, the previously applied requirement for identifying a flare as a TDE that it had to come from an inactive nucleus, could be leading to observational bias in TDE selection, thus affecting TDE-rate estimations.

  12. OGLE16aaa - a Signature of a Hungry Super Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Hamanowicz, A; Jonker, P G; Arcavi, I; Guillochon, J; Brown, P J; Kozłowski, S; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Poleski, R; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M; Rybicki, K A; Greiner, J; Krühler, T; Bolmer, J

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery and first three months of follow-up observations of a currently on-going unusual transient detected by the OGLE-IV survey, located in the centre of a galaxy at redshift z=0.1655. The long rise to absolute magnitude of -20.5 mag, slow decline, very broad He and H spectral features make OGLE16aaa similar to other optical/UV Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs). Weak narrow emission lines in the spectrum and archival photometric observations suggest the host galaxy is a weak-line Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), which has been accreting at higher rate in the past. OGLE16aaa, along with SDSS J0748, seems to form a sub-class of TDEs by weakly or recently active supermassive black holes (SMBHs). This class might bridge the TDEs by quiescent SMBHs and flares observed as "changing-look QSOs", if we interpret the latter as TDEs. If this picture is true, the previously applied requirement for identifying a flare as a TDE that it had to come from an inactive nucleus, could be leading to observational bi...

  13. ATP-dependent transcriptional activation by bacterial PspF AAA+protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jörg; Zhang, Xiaodong; Jones, Susan; Bordes, Patricia; Buck, Martin

    2004-05-14

    Transcription activation by bacterial sigma(54)-dependent enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs) requires their tri-nucleotide hydrolysis to restructure the sigma(54) RNA polymerase (RNAP). EBPs share sequence similarity with guanine nucleotide binding-proteins and ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA) proteins, especially in the mononucleotide binding P-loop fold. Using the phage shock protein F (PspF) EBP, we identify P-loop residues responsible for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, consistent with their roles in other P-loop NTPases. We show the refined low-resolution structure of an EBP, PspF, revealing a hexameric ring organisation characteristic of AAA proteins. Functioning of EBPs involves ATP binding, higher oligomer formation and ATP hydrolysis coupled to the restructuring of the RNAP. This is thought to be a highly coordinated multi-step process, but the nucleotide-driven mechanism of oligomerisation and ATP hydrolysis is little understood. Our kinetic and structural data strongly suggest that three PspF dimers assemble to form a hexamer upon nucleotide binding. During the ATP hydrolysis cycle, both ATP and ADP are bound to oligomeric PspF, in line with a sequential hydrolysis cycle. We identify a putative R-finger, and show its involvement in ATP hydrolysis. Substitution of this arginine residue results in nucleotide-independent formation of hexameric rings, structurally linking the putative R-finger and, by inference, a specific nucleotide interaction to the control of PspF oligomerisation.

  14. Estructura de mercado en la comercialización del banano tipo exportación producido en la Zona Bananera del Magdalena y comportamiento estratégico de las empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janny Acuña Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La estructura de mercado en la comercialización del banano tipo exportación producido en el departamento del Magdalena históricamente ha sido imperfecta, siendo las comercializadoras multinacionales quienes fijan las cantidades de banano que compran a los productores, o el precio, generando una pérdida de bienestar social a los productores de banano. En la presente investigación se midió el grado de concentración de mercado por parte de las comercializadoras a través del índice de concentración Herfindahl-Hirschman (IHH; posteriormente, a través de econometría de series de tiempo, se procedió a mostrar la relación entre los precios pagados a los productores y el IHH, por último, mediante el modelo de Cournot y de Stackelberg, a partir de la estimación econométrica de una función inversa de oferta y la aplicación de estrategias puras en juegos no cooperativos, se probó empíricamente las estrategias que las comercializadoras están llevando a cabo.Palabras Clave: Cournot; Stackelberg; Bertrand; Equilibrio de Nash; índice Herfindahl-Hirschman; teoría de juegos Market structure in the marketing of bananas export type produced in the area of Magdalena and strategic business behaviorAbstractThe market structure in the marketing of banana export type produced in the department of Magdalena historically has been imperfect, with multinational marketers who will determine the quantities of bananas they buy from the producers or the price, generating a loss of social welfare to banana producers. In the present study measured the degree of market concentration by marketers across the Herfindahl concentration index-Heirschman (HHI, then through econometric time series proceeded to show the relationship between the prices paid to producers and the concentration index (HHI, finally using the model of Cournot and Stackelberg, from the econometric estimation of an inverse function of supply and application of pure strategies in

  15. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Friedrich [Department of Structural Biology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3), University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco (United States); Lasker, Keren [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3), University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco (United States); Blavatnik School of Computer Science, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan [Department of Structural Biology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Sali, Andrej [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3), University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco (United States); Baumeister, Wolfgang, E-mail: baumeist@biochem.mpg.de [Department of Structural Biology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  16. ATPase site architecture is required for self-assembly and remodeling activity of a hexameric AAA+ transcriptional activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Nicolas; Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

    2012-08-10

    AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) are oligomeric ATPases that use ATP hydrolysis to remodel their substrates. By similarity with GTPases, a dynamic organization of the nucleotide-binding pockets between ATPase protomers is proposed to regulate functionality. Using the transcription activator PspF as an AAA+ model, we investigated contributions of conserved residues for roles in ATP hydrolysis and intersubunit communication. We determined the R-finger residue and revealed that it resides in a conserved "R-hand" motif (R(x)D(xxx)R) needed for its "trans-acting" activity. Further, a divergent Walker A glutamic acid residue acts synergistically with a tyrosine residue to function in ADP-dependent subunit-subunit coordination, forming the "ADP-switch" motif. Another glutamic acid controls hexamer formation in the presence of nucleotides. Together, these results lead to a "residue-nucleotide" interaction map upon which to base AAA+ core regulation.

  17. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  18. Moyamoya disease-associated protein mysterin/RNF213 is a novel AAA+ ATPase, which dynamically changes its oligomeric state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morito, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kouki; Hoseki, Jun; Kitamura, Akira; Kotani, Yuri; Kiso, Kazumi; Kinjo, Masataka; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic human cerebrovascular disorder that is characterized by progressive stenosis and abnormal collateral vessels. We recently identified mysterin/RNF213 as its first susceptibility gene, which encodes a 591-kDa protein containing enzymatically active P-loop ATPase and ubiquitin ligase domains and is involved in proper vascular development in zebrafish. Here we demonstrate that mysterin further contains two tandem AAA+ ATPase modules and forms huge ring-shaped oligomeric complex. AAA+ ATPases are known to generally mediate various biophysical and mechanical processes with the characteristic ring-shaped structure. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and biochemical evaluation suggested that mysterin dynamically changes its oligomeric forms through ATP/ADP binding and hydrolysis cycles. Thus, the moyamoya disease-associated gene product is a unique protein that functions as ubiquitin ligase and AAA+ ATPase, which possibly contributes to vascular development through mechanical processes in the cell.

  19. Analysis of positional candidate genes in the AAA1 susceptibility locus for abdominal aortic aneurysms on chromosome 19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrell Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a complex disorder with multiple genetic risk factors. Using affected relative pair linkage analysis, we previously identified an AAA susceptibility locus on chromosome 19q13. This locus has been designated as the AAA1 susceptibility locus in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM database. Methods Nine candidate genes were selected from the AAA1 locus based on their function, as well as mRNA expression levels in the aorta. A sample of 394 cases and 419 controls was genotyped for 41 SNPs located in or around the selected nine candidate genes using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Single marker and haplotype analyses were performed. Three genes (CEBPG, PEPD and CD22 were selected for DNA sequencing based on the association study results, and exonic regions were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining of aortic tissue sections from AAA and control individuals was carried out for the CD22 and PEPD proteins with specific antibodies. Results Several SNPs were nominally associated with AAA (p CEBPG, peptidase D (PEPD, and CD22. Haplotype analysis found a nominally associated 5-SNP haplotype in the CEBPG/PEPD locus, as well as a nominally associated 2-SNP haplotype in the CD22 locus. DNA sequencing of the coding regions revealed no variation in CEBPG. Seven sequence variants were identified in PEPD, including three not present in the NCBI SNP (dbSNP database. Sequencing of all 14 exons of CD22 identified 20 sequence variants, five of which were in the coding region and six were in the 3'-untranslated region. Five variants were not present in dbSNP. Immunohistochemical staining for CD22 revealed protein expression in lymphocytes present in the aneurysmal aortic wall only and no detectable expression in control aorta. PEPD protein was expressed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the media-adventitia border in both aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal tissue samples. Conclusions Association testing

  20. Simulation of bifurcated stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Freisleben, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a method is introduced, to visualize bifurcated stent grafts in CT-Data. The aim is to improve therapy planning for minimal invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Due to precise measurement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm and exact simulation of the bifurcated stent graft, physicians are supported in choosing a suitable stent prior to an intervention. The presented method can be used to measure the dimensions of the abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as simulate a bifurcated stent graft. Both of these procedures are based on a preceding segmentation and skeletonization of the aortic, right and left iliac. Using these centerlines (aortic, right and left iliac) a bifurcated initial stent is constructed. Through the implementation of an ACM method the initial stent is fit iteratively to the vessel walls - due to the influence of external forces (distance- as well as balloonforce). Following the fitting process, the crucial values for choosing a bifurcated stent graft are measured, ...

  1. The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Joonyoung [Departments of Biology and Integrated Omics for Biomedical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, In Kwon, E-mail: topoviro@yonsei.ac.kr [Departments of Biology and Integrated Omics for Biomedical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 associates with catalytically active telomerase via an interaction with hTERT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding and telomerase assembly. -- Abstract: Continued cell proliferation requires telomerase to maintain functional telomeres that are essential for chromosome integrity. Although the core enzyme includes a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA component (TERC), a number of auxiliary proteins have been identified to regulate telomerase assembly, localization, and enzymatic activity. Here we describe the characterization of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. NVL2 interacts and co-localizes with hTERT in the nucleolus. NLV2 is also found in association with catalytically competent telomerase in cell lysates through an interaction with hTERT. Depletion of endogenous NVL2 by small interfering RNA led to a decrease in hTERT without affecting the steady-state levels of hTERT mRNA, thereby reducing telomerase activity, suggesting that NVL2 is an essential component of the telomerase holoenzyme. We also found that ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding as well as telomerase assembly. Our findings suggest that NVL2, in addition to its role in ribosome biosynthesis, is essential for telomerase biogenesis and provides an alternative approach for inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ. Inst. de Agronomia (Brazil)], e-mail: maristellamartineli@yahoo.com.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC{sub 2}. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  3. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 2C Is a Hexameric AAA+ Protein with a Coordinated ATP Hydrolysis Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Trevor; Cisnetto, Valentina; Bose, Daniel;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. Like other picornaviruses, FMDV has a conserved 2C protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of AAA+ ATPases that has a predicted N...

  4. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata on human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina E. Fingolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.Inflorescências de bananeira são popularmente conhecidas como "umbigos", e esses são usados no Brasil como complementos nutricionais. No entanto, o valor nutricional das inflorescências (flores masculinas e brácteas de bananeira nunca foi estudado. Portanto, o material vegetal de Musa acuminata cultivar "ouro" foi coletado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil e, em seguida, submetido aos procedimentos químicos para determinar a sua composição nutricional. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. A análise da composição da amostra apresentou teor percentual médio de umidade, proteína, lipídeos e cinza de 8,21, 14,50, 4,04 e 14,43, respectivamente. As inflorescências secas mostraram significativo complemento nutritivo baseado no alto conteúdo de potássio (5.008,26 mg / 100 g e de fibra 49,83% (lignina, celulose e hemiceluloses revelando importantes propriedades funcional e nutritiva. Em uma avaliação paralela, o estudo

  5. Phenylphenalenone type compounds from the leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, José C; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Chavez, María Isabel; Politi, Matteo; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2006-11-15

    A series of phenylphenalenone type compounds, known to play a role as phytoalexins in plants of the Musaceae family, have been identified for the first time in the leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis). Among the phenylphenalenone type compounds identified, the structure of a novel compound, (1R)-2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-1-phenylphenalene, has also been described in abaca fibers. Its structure was elucidated by analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR (correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) spectroscopic data.

  6. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast genome and paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C

    1994-03-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as markers to determine the transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in diploid banana crosses. Progenies from two controlled crosses were studied with heterologous cytoplasmic probes. This analysis provided evidence for a strong bias towards maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Musa acuminata. These results suggest the existence of two separate mechanisms of organelle transmission and selection, but no model to explain this can be proposed at the present time. Knowledge of the organelle mode of inheritance constitutes an important point for phylogeny analyses in bananas and may offer a powerful tool to confirm hybrid origins.

  7. La Elegía a las Musas de Solón

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Este trabajo enfrenta el problema de interpretar en La Elegía a las Musas de Solón, tratando de descubrir los códigos de su producción literaria, mas allá de los preceptos que constituyen la imagen habitual del poeta. Asimismo, intenta descubrir los principios formales sobre los que está construída la elegía y, aclarar cuál es su finalidad primordial, para poder determinar su carácter como obra literaria. Centro de Estudios de Lenguas Clásicas. Area Filología Griega

  8. Incidência de fungos em pós-colheita de banana 'Prata anã'(Musa AAB Incidence of mushroons in post harvest of banana (Musa spp. 'Prata Anã' (AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva Moraes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a ocorrência e a freqüência de fungos em banana 'Prata anã' e elucidar o agente causal das podridões em pós-colheita de frutos provenientes do norte de Minas Gerais. Dois métodos de isolamento foram adotados: diluição em placas, a partir da lavagem de frutos verdes, e direto de frutos maduros. Os fungos Colletotrichum musae, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium equisetii, Penicillium sp. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichothecium roseum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria sp., Cladosporium musae e Curvularia lunata foram os mais freqüentemente associados aos frutos. A patogenicidade desses fungos foi testada pela substituição de discos da casca de frutos verdes por discos de micélio. Colletotrichum musae apresentou área média lesionada em torno do ponto de inoculação igual a 5,8 cm², enquanto para os demais fungos testados não passou de 1,50 cm². Os resultados mostraram que C. musae é o agente primário das podridões dos frutos examinados com 100 % de incidência e os demais fungos limitaram-se a necrosar os ferimentos em torno do ponto de inoculação. O modo de infecção latente, causada por C. musae, parece favorecer, primeiramente, a colonização interna dos tecidos e, posteriormente, a ação dos fungos oportunistas, que aceleram as podridões nos frutos e na coroa.The objetive of this work were to determine the occurrence and frequency of fungus in 'Prata anã' banana and to elucidate the causal agent of post harvest rots on fruits from Jaíba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two isolation methods were used: diluition in placs from whashed green fruits and direct of mature fruits. The fungus Colletotrichum musae, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium equisetii, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichothecium roseum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria sp., Cladosporium musae and Curvularia lunata were the more freqüentilly associated to fruits. The fungus pathogenicity were tested by

  9. EFEITOS DA RADIAÇÃO GAMA EM BANANA “NANICA” (MUSA SP., GRUPO AAA IRRADIADA NA FASE PRÉ-CLIMATÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. SILVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho verifi cou os efeitos da radiação gama sobre parâmetros físicos e químicos da banana “nanica”, analisando possíveis alterações do período de conservação e a possibilidade de irradiação comercial visando à exportação. Os resultados demonstraram que as radiações não produziram efeito sobre o pH e acidez total. Porém, as bananas do grupo controle e aquelas que receberam dose de 0,75 kGy, apresentaram maior grau de maturação e as irradiadas com dose 0,30 kGy apresentaram maior fi rmeza. De acordo com os resultados da análise organoléptica, pode-se perceber que as bananas mais maduras, especialmente as do grupo controle, tiveram maior aceitação. As bananas dos tratamentos 0,30 e 0,60 kGy tiveram menores notas por apresentarem menor estádio de maturação. Sabendo-se que a irradiação em dose adequada e em frutos de boa qualidade traz benefícios ao armazenamento e ao processo de exportação, concluímos que a dose mais apropriada para o controle da maturação da banana “nanica” é a de 0,30 kGy.

  10. Avaliação de clones de bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish (Musa acuminata, AAA em Cruz das Almas-BA Evaluation of banana Cavendish clones in Cruz das Almas City, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em Cruz das Almas-BA, em dois ciclos, 69 clones Cavendish coletados em São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia e Santa Catarina, sendo 49 do tipo Nanicão e 20 do tipo Grande Naine. Os clones foram estabelecidos em área experimental da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura utilizando-se um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Foram utilizados a irrigação por microaspersão, o espaçamento de 3,0 m x 2,0 m e um sistema de condução com três plantas/touceira. Os requerimentos agronômicos foram aplicados conforme preconizados para o cultivo. Na avaliação dos clones, foram consideradas as seguintes variáveis: altura da planta em centímetros (AP; número de dias do plantio à colheita (ND; peso do cacho em quilogramas (PC; número de frutos por cacho (NF; e comprimento do fruto em centímetros (CF. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se uma variabilidade média em todas as variáveis avaliadas. Por apresentarem caracteres superiores, foram selecionados cinco clones de Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N.Rossete, G.N. Willians, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e quatro de Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbada Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063.Sixty-nine clones of Cavendish type bananas (49 Nanicão and 20 Grande Naine collected in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia and Santa Catarina were evaluated. The clones were established in an experimental area at the Cassava and Fruit Crops Research Center - EMBRAPA, using micro-aspersion irrigation, in plants spaced at 3.0 m x 2.0 m, and conducted with three plants/bushes. Random blocks were used with five replications and five plants per plot. All cultural requirements for the crop were carried out. For the clone evaluations, the following variables were considered: plant height in centimeters (PH; number of days from planting to yield (ND; weight of bunch in kilograms (WB; number of fruits per bunch (FB and length of fruit in centimeters (LF. The results obtained showed medium variability in all the characteristics evaluated and five clones of Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N.Rossete, G.N. Willians, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 and four of Nanicão (N. IAC Green Vault, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 and N. SC-063 were selected for presenting superior characteristics.

  11. Changes in Homogalacturonans at Different Esterification Degrees during the Development of Banana (Musa spp .AAA) Leaves%香蕉叶片发育过程中不同甲酯化程度果胶的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马娟; 范韦; 李小泉; 陈厚彬; 谢玲; 刘静; 吴茜; 袁梦; 徐春香

    2016-01-01

    采用免疫荧光标记技术,利用5种识别不同甲酯化程度聚半乳糖醛酸(HGs )果胶及香蕉果胶甲酯酶(PM E)的单克隆抗体,对不同株龄香蕉叶片中PM E及不同甲酯化程度的HGs定位、相对含量以及PM E活性的变化进行分析,为探讨HGs和PME在香蕉生长发育及抵抗逆境过程中的功能和生理机制奠定基础。结果显示:(1) PM E主要在组培苗的叶肉和保卫细胞中表达,其表达量及其酶的活性均随着香蕉株龄的增长而呈现下降趋势。(2)叶肉细胞也是各类不同甲酯化程度 HGs的主要分布区域,其含量随着香蕉株龄的增长有不同程度的下降,但不同HGs在叶肉细胞中的含量以及在表皮、保卫细胞及叶脉中的分布模式不尽相同,保卫细胞中 HGs的甲酯化程度较高。研究表明,香蕉的叶肉细胞是PM E及这5种不同甲酯化程度HGs的主要分布场所,且这些 HGs在香蕉发育过程中的含量变化趋势与PM E相似。%For better understanding the functions and mechanism of PMEs and HGs in the growth and de-velopment of banana and in the defense of banana to the stresses ,we traced the spatial and temporal abun-dance and distribution of banana pectin methylesterases (PM Es) and five homogalacturonans (HGs) at dif-ferent methyl-esterification degrees (MDs) in banana leaves at different developmental stages using immu-no-fluorescence labeling techniques .In addition ,enzyme activity of PMEs was also tested .The results in-dicated that :(1) PMEs located mainly in the mesophyll and guard cells in tissue-cultured banana seed-lings .Both the level and activity of PMEs decreased with the development of the plant .(2) HGs at differ-ent MDs also mainly appeared in mesophyll cells in tissue-cultured plants and their contents reduced gradu-ally with the development of plants ,though the speed varied with each other .However ,the distribution of these HGs in the epidermis ,the guard cells and the vein of banana leaves showed differential patterns . The MDs of HGs present in the guard cells was relatively high .These results indicated that PMEs and five tested HGs were mainly present in the mesophyll .During the development of banana leaves ,the levels of these HGs showed similar trend to that of PMEs .

  12. Trapping Effect of Baxi Banana(Musa AAA Cavendish)Pseudostem on Two Banana Weevil Species%巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科明; 许桂莺; 彭正强

    2015-01-01

    This study is to determine the effect of Baxi banana pseudostem as attractant to two banana weevil species , and to provide theoretical guidance for control of banana weevil species. Field traps of pseudostem to banana weevils weredeployed for the analysis,meanwhile,indoor selection response of banana weevil to Baxi banana pseudostem was conducted by using double pitfall olfactometer. Significant trapping effects of Baxi banana pseudostem on two ba⁃nana weevils were found by field trapping and number of the trapped banana weevils in five and ten days reaching 8.3~11.3 and 14.7~18.0 individuals per trap,respectively.Indoor selection response results showed that both the two banana weevils showed significant selection effect to the Baxi banana pseudostem when compared with blank control. Baxi banana pseudostem could be used to control the two banana weevil species.%为明确巴西蕉假茎对香蕉假茎象甲和香蕉球茎象甲的诱捕效果,为利用巴西蕉假茎防治香蕉象甲这一农业防治措施提供理论依据,采用假茎田间诱捕试验及室内选择反应试验,研究了巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果。田间诱捕试验结果表明,巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲具有有效的诱捕作用,其5d和10d的诱捕量分别达8.3~11.3和14.7~18.0头/诱捕器;室内选择反应试验结果表明,与空白对照相比,2种香蕉象甲对巴西蕉假茎均表现出显著的选择趋性。因此,巴西蕉假茎可用于蕉园香蕉象甲的诱捕防治。

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Martins, N.F.; Horberg, H.M.; Almeida, E.R.P.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Togawa, R.; Silva, F.R.; Caetano, A.R.; Miller, R.N.G.; Souza, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and

  14. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  15. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models.

  16. Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adetunji Onasanwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w. anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05 is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration.

  17. Detection of fertility and crossmatch between cultivars of Musa spp to obtain commercial hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet González Díaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of an intensive Program of Genetic improvement in Musa spp. through hybridi-zations, which holds the Research Institute of Tropical Viandas (INIVIT. For this were conducted pollen fertility tests in different cultivars of bananas and plantains and it was studied a set of combinations from preselected male and female parents from National Germplasm Bank of Musa, it is conserved “ex situ” in areas of Institute, with the objective of to determine male and female fertility in some clones and the most efficient combinations to obtain new hybrids. It was obtained as a result that the highest rates of fertility were for bananas cultivars (AA ‘SH-3142’ (95.1 %, ‘SH-3362’ (94.4 %. ‘Calcuta–4’ (99.1 %, ‘Paka’ (96.5 % and ‘Pisang Jary Buaya’ (98.1 %, the latter reported by first time under our conditions as a new male parent and they were successful in obtaining hybrid most combinations made between cooking bananas and synthetic diploid or improved (‘SH- 3362’ and ‘SH-3142’. Triploid cultivar ‘FHIA-25’, to show fewer fertile grains (17.6 and produce seeds in all combinations, reaffirms its status as maternal line

  18. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  19. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  20. Ploidy Variation in Hybrids from Interploid 3x X 2x Crosses in Musa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuji, JO.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids were obtained after in vitro germination of embryos from interploid crosses between triploid 'French' plantain cultivars (Musa spp. AAB group 'Ntanga 2' and 'Bobby Tannap' with diploid banana (Ivlusa acuminata subsp. burmannicoidesj 'Calcutta 4'. Cross-pollinated bunches were harvested at full maturity and ripened with acetylene in a room for 4 days. Seeds were extracted from peeled ripe fruits by squashing. Embryos from the seeds were excised aseptically after 2 days and germinated in vitro. Seedlings were subsequently planted in early evaluation trials after acclimatising in the greenhouse. Chromosome counts were carried out on root tips of mature and maiden suckers to determine ploidy levels using a modified squashing technique. Counts showed that two of the hybrids were aneuploids (trisomies with somatic chromosome number of 2n = 2x + 1 = 23, one hybrid was diploid while the other two were tetraploids. Tetraploids are the most promising hybrids for the genetic improvement of plantains. Diploids are valuable material for further improvement of the plantain genome at this ploidy level. Trisomies provide means for further characterisation of the Musa genome and physical gene mapping in plantain and banana.

  1. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp. in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old and very small in size (less than 1 ha. Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5% whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  2. AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, S.

    2006-12-01

    The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base

  3. Atividade biológica in vitro de própolis e óleos essenciais sobre o fungo Colletotrichum musae isolado de bananeira (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. BARBOSA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:No Brasil existem várias doenças fúngicas que acometem a bananeira. Destas, pode-se citar a antracnose, responsável por grandes prejuízos à cultura, cujo agente causal é o fungo Colletotrichum musae. A principal forma de controle dessa enfermidade é através da aplicação de fungicidas a base de tiabendazol ou tiofanato metílico. Esse manejo, embora eficiente, favorece o desenvolvimento de resistência do patógeno, causa danos ao ambiente e ao produtor, deixando ainda resíduos nos frutos. Esses fatores têm favorecido a busca por substâncias alternativas com capacidade de controlar o fungo e que não sejam nocivas ao ambiente e, principalmente, que sejam seguras ao consumidor final. Dentre as opções, surge o interesse pelo uso de certos óleos essenciais e da própolis, ambos conhecidos por possuírem propriedades fungicidas. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de determinar o potencial fungitóxico "in vitro" da própolis e dos óleos essenciais de palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, de teatree(Melaleuca alternifolia, de cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata, e de eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora, sobre Colletotrichum musae. O desenvolvimento experimental consistiu em adicionar inóculos fúngicos de 5 mm, obtidos a partir de colônias puras, ao meio de cultura BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar acrescido das referidas substâncias em diferentes concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 µL/L. Paralelo aos tratamentos realizou-se teste com o fungicida padrão para comparações das médias. A eficiência das substâncias sobre o fungo foi determinada através das avaliações do crescimento micelial das colônias (média de duas medidas diametralmente opostas. Os valores de crescimento micelial obtidos foram utilizados também para o cálculo do índice de velocidade de crescimento micelial. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 6 + 1, (cinco substâncias em seis concentra

  4. Versatile modes of peptide recognition by the AAA+ adaptor protein SspB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchenko, Igor; Grant, Robert A.; Flynn, Julia M.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A. (MIT)

    2010-07-19

    Energy-dependent proteases often rely on adaptor proteins to modulate substrate recognition. The SspB adaptor binds peptide sequences in the stress-response regulator RseA and in ssrA-tagged proteins and delivers these molecules to the AAA+ ClpXP protease for degradation. The structure of SspB bound to an ssrA peptide is known. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between SspB and its recognition peptide in RseA. Notably, the RseA sequence is positioned in the peptide-binding groove of SspB in a direction opposite to the ssrA peptide, the two peptides share only one common interaction with the adaptor, and the RseA interaction site is substantially larger than the overlapping ssrA site. This marked diversity in SspB recognition of different target proteins indicates that it is capable of highly flexible and dynamic substrate delivery.

  5. Critical clamp loader processing by an essential AAA+ protease in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Robert H; Chien, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Chromosome replication relies on sliding clamps that are loaded by energy-dependent complexes. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-binding clamp loader subunit DnaX exists as both long (τ) and short (γ) forms generated through programmed translational frameshifting, but the need for both forms is unclear. Here, we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, DnaX isoforms are unexpectedly generated through partial proteolysis by the AAA+ protease casein lytic proteinase (Clp) XP. We find that the normally processive ClpXP protease partially degrades DnaX to produce stable fragments upon encountering a glycine-rich region adjacent to a structured domain. Increasing the sequence complexity of this region prevents partial proteolysis and generates a τ-only form of DnaX in vivo that is unable to support viability on its own. Growth is restored when γ is provided in trans, but these strains are more sensitive to DNA damage compared with strains that can generate γ through proteolysis. Our work reveals an unexpected mode of partial processing by the ClpXP protease to generate DnaX isoforms, demonstrates that both τ and γ forms of DnaX are required for Caulobacter viability, and identifies a role for clamp loader diversity in responding to DNA damage. The conservation of distinct DnaX isoforms throughout bacteria despite fundamentally different mechanisms for producing them suggests there may be a conserved need for alternate clamp loader complexes during DNA damaging conditions.

  6. Abo1, a conserved bromodomain AAA-ATPase, maintains global nucleosome occupancy and organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Csenge; Murton, Heather E; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Whale, Alex J; Moore, Karen M; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg; Creamer, Kevin M; Partridge, Janet F; Allshire, Robin C; Kent, Nicholas A; Whitehall, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of the correct level and organisation of nucleosomes is crucial for genome function. Here, we uncover a role for a conserved bromodomain AAA-ATPase, Abo1, in the maintenance of nucleosome architecture in fission yeast. Cells lacking abo1(+) experience both a reduction and mis-positioning of nucleosomes at transcribed sequences in addition to increased intragenic transcription, phenotypes that are hallmarks of defective chromatin re-establishment behind RNA polymerase II. Abo1 is recruited to gene sequences and associates with histone H3 and the histone chaperone FACT. Furthermore, the distribution of Abo1 on chromatin is disturbed by impaired FACT function. The role of Abo1 extends to some promoters and also to silent heterochromatin. Abo1 is recruited to pericentromeric heterochromatin independently of the HP1 ortholog, Swi6, where it enforces proper nucleosome occupancy. Consequently, loss of Abo1 alleviates silencing and causes elevated chromosome mis-segregation. We suggest that Abo1 provides a histone chaperone function that maintains nucleosome architecture genome-wide.

  7. AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE 1 and Helicase FANCM Antagonize Meiotic Crossovers by Distinct Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Girard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic crossovers (COs generate genetic diversity and are critical for the correct completion of meiosis in most species. Their occurrence is tightly constrained but the mechanisms underlying this limitation remain poorly understood. Here we identified the conserved AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE-1 (FIGL1 as a negative regulator of meiotic CO formation. We show that Arabidopsis FIGL1 limits CO formation genome-wide, that FIGL1 controls dynamics of the two conserved recombinases DMC1 and RAD51 and that FIGL1 hinders the interaction between homologous chromosomes, suggesting that FIGL1 counteracts DMC1/RAD51-mediated inter-homologue strand invasion to limit CO formation. Further, depleting both FIGL1 and the previously identified anti-CO helicase FANCM synergistically increases crossover frequency. Additionally, we showed that the effect of mutating FANCM on recombination is much lower in F1 hybrids contrasting from the phenotype of inbred lines, while figl1 mutation equally increases crossovers in both contexts. This shows that the modes of action of FIGL1 and FANCM are differently affected by genomic contexts. We propose that FIGL1 and FANCM represent two successive barriers to CO formation, one limiting strand invasion, the other disassembling D-loops to promote SDSA, which when both lifted, leads to a large increase of crossovers, without impairing meiotic progression.

  8. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  9. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-12-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit.

  10. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchun Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC, to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit.

  11. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE RESISTENCIA DE GENOTIPOS DE PLÁTANO Y BANANO A LA SIGATOKA NEGRA (MYCOSPHAERELLA FIJIENSIS MORELET. EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE OF PLANTAIN AND BANANA GENOTYPES TO BLACK SIGATOKA (MYSCOSPHAERELLA FIJIENSIS MORELET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cuéllar Quintero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar bajo condiciones de invernadero genotipos de plátano y banano frente a poblaciones de Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet de diferente virulencia y origen, se estableció una colección de 125 aislamientos monospóricos obtenidos en 10 departamentos de Colombia. Se seleccionaron 50 aislamientos por área geográfica y genotipo hospedante, para la caracterización morfológica y patogénica del hongo en Dominico Hartón. En las pruebas de patogenicidad y resistencia se realizaron inoculaciones de una suspensión acuosa de 5.000 conidias mL-1, la respuesta de las plántulas a la enfermedad se determinó mediante las variables periodo de incubación (PI, tiempo de evolución de los síntomas (TES, área bajo la curva del desarrollo de la enfermedad (ABCDE y tasa de desarrollo de la enfermedad (r. La inoculación de los 50 aislamientos en plántulas de Dominico Hartón, permitió establecer cinco niveles de virulencia (muy alta, alta, media, baja y muy baja. La virulencia de los aislamientos no se relacionó con su origen geográfico ni con el genotipo del cual se obtuvieron; encontrándose en una misma zona y en un mismo genotipo, aislamientos de diferente virulencia. Los genotipos de plátano y banano mostraron un comportamiento diferencial frente a cinco aislamientos de diferente virulencia y origen, resultados que permitieron establecer tres niveles de reacción de los genotipos frente a los aislamientos (resistente, intermedio y susceptible, destacándose los genotipos Topocho, Maqueño, FHIA 20, FHIA 21 de plátano y los genotipos Sedita y FHIA 23 de banano por presentar un mayor nivel de resistencia, expresada como un progreso lento y menos severo de la enfermedad.A study was conducted to evaluate plantain and banana genotypes with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet isolates of different virulence and geographic origin. The pathogenicity test and morphological characterization of the M. fijiensis populations were

  13. SUSTRATOS FOLIARES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE BACTERIAS QUITINOLÍTICAS Y GLUCANOLÍTICAS EN LA FILOSFERA DE BANANO FOLIAR SUBSTRATES FOR INCREASING CHITINOLYTIC AND GLUCANOLYTIC BACTERIA ON PHYLLOSPHERE OF BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Salazar Peláez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La Sigatoka Negra, causada por el hongo Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, es considerada la enfermedad de mayor importancia económica para los cultivos de musáceas alimenticias. Su control, se fundamenta en la aplicación de fungicidas sintéticos, cuyo modo de acción viene siendo vulnerado por poblaciones del hongo. La presente investigación, ha explorado la posibilidad de desarrollar una estrategia de regulación biológica, basada en el estudio y manipulación de algunos de los factores bióticos y abióticos que interactúan en la filosfera de banano, con el objetivo de incrementar las poblaciones epifitas naturales de bacterias quitinolíticas y glucanolíticas, las cuales pueden afectar negativamente la germinación del patógeno. Con base en una fase previa a este estudio, en la cual se realizó una caracterización químico-microbiológica parcial de la filosfera de plantas de banano y plátano bajo condiciones del Urabá antioqueño (Colombia, se evaluaron 14 sustratos foliares, compuestos por quitina coloidal (QC [4 %], harina de cebada (HC [2,5 %] y urea (U [1 %], solas ó en combinación, los cuales siempre estuvieron acompañados de una solución mineral base y una solución adherente-dispersante. Aquellos sustratos a base de HC y U, produjeron los mayores incrementos en las poblaciones de bacterias líticas epifitas, con recuentos superiores a las 10.000 veces, con respecto a sus poblaciones iniciales sobre hojas de banano del cultivar Gran Enano, y de hasta 8,6 y 15 veces mayores para las bacterias quitinolíticas y glucanolíticas respectivamente, con relación a la población en el tratamiento sin sustratos foliares. Se discute la influencia de la precipitación sobre las poblaciones de dichas bacterias líticas y la necesidad de ajustar una formulación que mejore las posibilidades de control sobre la sigatoka negra.Black Sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, is considered the economically most

  14. Divan Şiirinde Hz. Musa / The Prophet Moses In Divan Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan UZUN

    2016-01-01

    Divan Şiiri, İslam Medeniyetinin şekillendirdiği Müslüman Doğu toplumlarının ortak kültüründen ve çeşitli milletlerle paylaştığı coğrafyanın değerlerinden etkilenerek oluşan, devrin sanat anlayışıyla yoğrulmuş bir birikimdir.  Hz. Musa, Firavun tarafından yeni doğan bütün erkek çocukların öldürüldüğü bir dönemde dünyaya gelmesi, İsrail oğullarına zulmeden ve tanrılık iddiasında bulunan Firavun’un sarayında yetişmesi, gençliğinde yaşadığı olaylar nedeniyle Mısır’ı terketmek zorunda kalması, peygamber oluşu, mücadelesi ve halkına karşı gösterdiği sabır gibi özelliklerinin yanında başta Yahudilik olmak üzere bütün semavi dinlerde en önemli peygamberler arasında yer alması gibi nitelikleriyle İslam Dini ve diğer ilahi dinlerin inanç ve kültür değerlerinde önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Divan şairleri Hz. Musa’yı, Firavun’a karşı duruşu, Tûr Dağı’nda Allah ile tekellümü, Şecer-i Tûr, mucizevi asası, yed-i beyza sahibi oluşu gibi yönleri ve göstermiş olduğu mucizeleriyle şiirlerine konu etmişlerdir. Hz. Musa, Klasik Türk edebiyatı şairleri için tasavvufî duygu, düşünce ve heyecanların ifadesinde ilham kaynağı olmuştur. Bu makalede, Hz. Musa ve onun mucizeleri ile ilgili Divan şiirinde yer alan ifade ve anlatımlar incelenmiştir.

  15. CARACTERIZACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA Y BROMATOLÓGICA DE HAMBURGUESAS BAJAS EN GRASA CON ADICIÓN DE FIBRA DE BANANO VERDE INTEGRO MICROBIOLOGICAL AND BROMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BURGERS WITH ADDITION OF GREEN BANANA FIBER ENTIRETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marcela Ospina Meneses

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del reemplazo de la mitad de la grasa por fibra de banano verde íntegro reconstituido 1:1 y 1:1,38, sobre las características microbiológicas y bromatológicas de hamburguesas de carne de res, comparadas con hamburguesas con 20% de grasa como hamburguesa control, durante 60 días de almacenamiento en congelación. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas (P0,05 ni en el tiempo ni en los niveles de inclusión de fibra. Tanto las hamburguesas control como las con inclusión de fibra permanecieron estables en términos de la calidad microbiológica durante 60 días de almacenamiento en congelación. Por otra parte, el nivel de oxidación no presentó diferencia significativa (P>0,05 entre los diferentes tratamientos, sin presentar oxidación en el tiempo. La fibra de banano verde íntegro puede ser usada satisfactoriamente como un sustituto de la grasa en hamburguesas de res “reducidas o bajas en grasa”.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing half the fat by green banana fiber reconstituted 1:1 and 1:1,38 on microbiological and qualitative characteristics of beef patties compared with patties with 20% fat hamburger control during 60 days of frozen storage. The results show significant differences (P 0.05 or the time or the inclusion levels of fiber. Both hamburger including control as the fiber remained stable in terms of microbiological quality during 60 days of frozen storage. Moreover, the level of oxidation showed no significant difference (P> 0.05 between treatments, without presenting oxidation time. The full green banana fiber can be used successfully as a substitute for fat in beef patties “reduced or low fat.”

  16. Detecting endoleaks after endovascular AAA repair with a minimally invasive, implantable, telemetric pressure sensor: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Fabian; Pfeffer, Joachim-Georg; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas [RWTH Aachen University, Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering, Aachen (Germany); Schlierf, Roland; Schnakenberg, Uwe [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Materials in Electrical Engineering I, Aachen (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas H. [RWTH Aachen University, Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering, Aachen (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    A feasibility study on a completely digital telemetric pressure sensor (TPS) to detect endoleaks was performed in an in vitro model of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). An endovascular-stented AAA silicone model with different types (I-III) and sizes (3-11 French) of endoleaks was created and pulsatile pressure was applied with physiological flow and pressure rates [mean intraaortic pressure (IAP): 95-130 mmHg] and different degrees of thrombosis of the aneurysm sac. Aneurysm sac pressure (ASP) was measured with the TPS and with wired pressure sensors (WPS) as a reference. Statistical analysis included paired t-test, Pearson's correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plots. After opening an endoleak, the mean ASP increased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 15 to almost 95% of the mean IAP depending on endoleak type and size. ASP could be measured accurately with the TPS and the WPS. The telemetric and wired ASP increase showed a high Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) for a non-thrombosed (r = 0.97) and a thrombosed (r = 0.96) aneurysm sac. In an in vitro silicone model, the newly designed telemetric pressure sensor was able to detect the occurrence of an endoleak in a non-invasive way and might be a valuable device for follow-up of endovascular AAA repair. (orig.)

  17. Spectroscopic and molecular docking study on the interaction between salicylic acid and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya H.; Dai, Kang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Yun H.; Wang, Chun T.; Liu, Xue Q.; Liu, Xin Q.

    2017-02-01

    The interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 in rice was studied using spectroscopy and molecular docking. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy demonstrated an interaction between OsAAA1 protein and SA. Spectroscopy showed that this interaction was a dynamic quenching process. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) further revealed that this interaction caused changes in the microenvironment of tyrosine and tryptophan and that the interaction site was closer to the tryptophan residue. The structural model of protein OsAAA1 was determined by homology modeling method, and the molecular docking simulation diagram of OsAAA1 with SA was obtained. These models, in combination with a Ramachandran plot analysis, showed amino acid residues ranging from position 240 to position 420 as the possible site interacting with SA. Among them, Gly389, Lys257 and Glu425 might be three key amino acids that can form hydrogen bonds with SA.

  18. Multiplicación del clon de banano ‘FHIA-18’ (AAAB en Sistema de Inmersión Temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Basail Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Multiplication of banana clone 'FHIA-18' (AAAB in Temporary Immersion System Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Resumen Con el propósito de desarrollar un protocolo para la multiplicación del clon de banano ´FHIA-18´ (AAAB en sistema de inmersión temporal, se definieron como objetivos del trabajo determinar el efecto del tiempo (5, 10 y 15 minutos y la frecuencia de inmersión (3, 6 y 8 horas por día, así como la influencia de diferentes combinaciones de reguladores del crecimiento (2,0; 3,0 y  4,0 mg.L-1 de 6-BAP y 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 y 4,0 mg.L-1 de 6 AIA,  el efecto del volumen de medio de cultivo por planta (20, 30, 40 y 50 ml/explante y la densidad de explantes por frasco de cultivo (30, 50, 70 y 90 explantes/frasco para incrementar el coeficiente de multiplicación. Con el empleo de un tiempo de 10 minutos y una frecuencia de inmersión cada tres horas, se alcanzaron los mejores resultados en cuanto al número de explantes obtenidos. Con este tiempo y frecuencia de inmersión los explantes presentaron el mayor diámetro del pseudotallo. Para cada frasco de 10,0 L se inocularon 70 explantes y la renovación con 2800 ml de medio de cultivo (40 ml/explante con un tiempo de cultivo de 21 días permitió alcanzar la mayor productividad del material en fase de multiplicación. Además al utilizar las sales MS suplementadas con 3,0 mg.L-1 de 6-BAP; 2,0 mg.L-1 de AIA; 10,0 mg.L-1 de ácido ascórbico, se logró disminuir el crecimiento innecesario de los tallos y hojas de los brotes en la fase de multiplicación y por lo tanto un mayor número de explantes. Palabras claves: coeficiente, densidad de explantes, tiempo, frecuencia, volumen de medio de cultivo. Abstract In order to develop a protocol for multiplication of Banana clone 'FHIA-18' (AAAB in temporary immersion systems, the following working objectives were defined: to determine the effect of immersion time (5, 10 and 15

  19. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  20. FORMULASI TABLET SERBUK PISANG RAJA (Musa xparadisiaca AAB SEBAGAI PENUTUP TUKAK LAMBUNG PADA TIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Wahyuningsih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive is a topic of current interest in the design of drug delivery system and treatment of peptic ulcers. This concept is based on the strength of adhesion of a protective material to the mucosa. King Banana (Musa xparadisiaca AAB is often used in the treatment of abdominal pain. It has been suspected having muchoadhesive strength to cover peptic ulcer. The study was armed to formulate king banana tablet which has muchoadhesive ability to protect gastric mucosa become ulcer. The aim of peptic ulcer cover test was to see the ability of king banana tablet to covered ulcer at the groups test that received different treatment of the negative control group (solvent, the banana tablet suspension group, and sucralfate group. The ulcer severity was determined by scoring method. All experimental data were tested by SPSS analytical statistics. The result showed that king banana tablet has similar strength to peptic ulcer cover of sucralfat and not significantly different.

  1. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  2. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana.

  3. Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Mild Steel in Acid Medium Using Musa Acuminata Fruit Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gunavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of unripe fruit peel extract of Musa acuminata (Cultivar variety – Nendran (MNP on corrosion of mild steel in 1 N HCl has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with various concentrations of the extract. The effect of temperature on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in the temperature range of 30°C – 80°C was carried out. The results indicate that MNP extract act as an effective inhibitor in the acid environment and is of mixed type inhibitor having efficiency as high as 96% at 2% inhibitor concentration. The inhibition efficiency of MNP extract increases with the increase of concentration but decreases with the increase in temperature. The inhibitor achieves its inhibition by physical adsorption of nutrients of the peel extract on the surface of the mild steel. The experimental data revealed that the adsorption occurred according to the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherm.

  4. AAA+ proteases and their role in distinct stages along the Vibrio cholerae lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Katharina; Vorkapic, Dina; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Malli, Gerald; Barilich, Benjamin P; Cakar, Fatih; Zingl, Franz G; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae has to adapt to different environmental conditions along its lifecycle by means of transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation. This study provides a first comprehensive analysis regarding the contribution of the cytoplasmic AAA+ proteases Lon, ClpP and HslV to distinct features of V. cholerae behaviour, including biofilm formation, motility, cholera toxin expression and colonization fitness in the mouse model. While absence of HslV did not yield to any altered phenotype compared to wildtype, absence of Lon or ClpP resulted in significantly reduced colonization in vivo. In addition, a Δlon deletion mutant showed altered biofilm formation and increased motility, which could be correlated with higher expression of V. cholerae flagella gene class IV. Concordantly, we could show by immunoblot analysis, that Lon is the main protease responsible for proteolytic control of FliA, which is required for class IV flagella gene transcription, but also downregulates virulence gene expression. FliA becomes highly sensitive to proteolytic degradation in absence of its anti-sigma factor FlgM, a scenario reported to occur during mucosal penetration due to FlgM secretion through the broken flagellum. Our results confirm that the high stability of FliA in the absence of Lon results in less cholera toxin and toxin corgulated pilus production under virulence gene inducing conditions and in the presence of a damaged flagellum. Thus, the data presented herein provide a molecular explanation on how V. cholerae can achieve full expression of virulence genes during early stages of colonization, despite FliA getting liberated from the anti-sigma factor FlgM.

  5. Crystal structure of a novel archaeal AAA+ ATPase SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Hale, Joanna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; (Scripps); (SSR); (SSRL); (JCSG); (UCSD)

    2009-08-28

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND), a large class of P-loop NTPases, belong to AAA+ ATPases. They include AP(apoptotic)-ATPases (e.g., animal apoptosis regulators CED4/Apaf-1, plant disease resistance proteins, and bacterial AfsR-like transcription regulators), NACHT NTPases (e.g. CARD4, NAIP, Het-E-1, TLP1), and several other less well-characterized families. STAND differ from other P-loop NTPases by their unique sequence motifs, which include an hhGRExE (h, hydrophobic; x, any residue) motif at the N-terminal region, a GxP/GxxP motif at the C-terminal region of the NTPase domain, in addition to a C-terminal helical domain and additional domains such as WD40, TPR, LRR or catalytic modules. Despite significant biological interests, structural coverage of STAND proteins is very limited and only two other structures are currently known: the cell death regulators Apaf-1 and CED-4. Here, we report the crystal structure of SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, which was determined using the semi-automated, high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG; http://www.jcsg.org), as part of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences' Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). SSO1545 (NP-342973.1), a representative of the archaeal STANDs, is a member of Pfam PF01637 and encodes a protein of 356 residues with calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of 41.7 kD and 8.2, respectively.

  6. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Edson P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome, many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker

  7. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  8. Characterization of some physicist, mechanics and chemistries properties in the banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Modesto Martínez Hernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of the banana (Musa spp.. For its investigation, they took samples in the Municipal Company of Cultivos Varios, municipality Taguasco, provinces of Sancti-Spíritus. They were carried out rehearsals related to some physical, mechanical and chemical variables as: pH, oBrix, total regular acids, static coefficients of friction and mechanical impact damages deal with the established norms. The objective of the work it related to the evaluation of the physical – mechanical and chemical parameters of the banana (Musa spp. for a good postharvest manage. Inside the main obtained results they stand out: longitude half 20.85 cm; circumference 11.25 cm; the depth of the shell 0.25 cm; the depth of the pulp 2.85 cm. The total soluble solids (SST they oscillated between 13 and 16 oBrix; the total regular acidity oscillates between 0, 2 and 1, 6 meq/100 g malic acid. The pH oscillates between 4.42 and 5.27. The content of humidity of the pulp oscillates between 82 and 86 %; while in the shell this value oscillates between 14 and 18%. The impact rehearsals showed little resistance to impacts to the order of 105,94 (J, that which makes that the fruit is very susceptible to mechanical damages, together with their qualities of little shelf life (6 days postharvest. The results in the analyzed banana have been always using the first two hands of the cluster with a range from 1 to 9 days later in the crop of the fruits.

  9. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MUSA ACUMINATE COLLA AND CAJANUS CAJAN (LINN. LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Tejendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of leaf of Musa acuminate colla and seed of Cajanus cajan (Linn. were taken for the examination of anthelmintic activity on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30 mg/ml of both plant extract were tested and results were expressed in terms of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Albendazole of same concentration as like as plant extracts was taken as reference standard and normal saline solution as control. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Both the extracts show significant anthelmintic activity but among these two Musa acuminate colla showed more anthelmintic activity than Cajanus cajan (Linn.. Future scope involves isolation of active constituents responsible for this action.

  11. Micropropagación y estimativa de producción de mudas de bananos para la Amazonia Occidental Micropropagation and estimates of banana plantlets production for Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue de determinar tasas de multiplicación y estimar la producción in vitro de microplantas de las cultivares del banano Preciosa, Maravilha, Pacovan Ken y Japira, durante seis subcultivos y con diferentes concentraciones de BAP. Después de multiplicadas, las microplantas enraizadas fueron aclimatadas, y la sobrevivencia fue determinada después de 30 días. Las tasas de multiplicación fueron de 2,3 y 2,1 brotes por explante de 'Preciosa' y 'Maravilha', respectivamente, y 2,7 brotes por explante de 'Pacovan Ken' y 'Japira', en 4 mg L-1 de BAP. Las pérdidas por contaminación fueron de 22,4%, y la sobrevivencia por lo menos 96%.The objective of this work was to determine multiplication rates and to estimate the in vitro plantlets production of the banana cultivars Preciosa, Maravilha, Pacovan Ken and Japira, during six subcultures at different BAP concentrations. After the multiplication, the rooted microplants were acclimatized, and the survival was determined after 30 days. Multiplication rates reached 2.3 and 2.1 shoots per explant of 'Preciosa' and 'Maravilha', respectively, and 2.7 shoots per explant for 'Pacovan Ken' and 'Japira', in 4 mg L-1 of BAP. Losses due contamination were 22.4%, and seedlings survival was superior to 96%.

  12. Musa Paradisiaca flower extract improves carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmuga Sundaram.C; Subramanian.S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Musa Paradisiaca, commonly known as plantains have been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. In the absence of an ideal drug to alleviate the primary and secondary complications of diabetes mellitus, search for novel drugs without side effects, preferably from plant origin continues. Recently, we have reported the presence of biologically active phytochemicals as well as the hypoglycemic activity of Musa paradisiaca tepals extract in STZ induced experimental diabetes in rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of tepals, an integrated part of Musa paradisiaca flowers on carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of experimental diabetic rats. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with ethanolic extract of tepals at a concentration of 200mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days. The levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin were estimated. The activities of key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism such as glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in hepatic tissues were assayed. The levels of glycogen in hepatic tissues were also estimated. Results: Oral administration ofMusa paradisiaca tepals extract significantly improved the altered levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin and modulated the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. The glycogen content in hepatic tissues was significantly increased in diabetic rats treated with tepals extract. Conclusions: The results of the present study clearly indicate that the tepals extract plays pivotal role to maintain normoglycemia in diabetes by modulating the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes.

  13. MUsa un modelo de evaluación de entornos virtuales de enseñanza y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Szpiniak, Ariel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los últimos avances en la construcción de MUsa, un modelo de evaluación de Entornos Virtuales de Enseñanza y Aprendizaje (EVEA centrado en la usabilidad. MUsa se compone de cuatro capas que parten de una evaluación general (capa 1 hasta la evaluación más específica y cercana al usuario final (capa 4, de un EVEA. Las cuatro capas persiguen objetivos diferentes. La primera es la encargada de realizar una evaluación del entorno en general, las tres capas restantes se sitúan en un contexto de uso particular, por ejemplo el aula virtual de un curso. Para ello, las capas más cercanas al usuario proponen escenarios de uso que permiten guiar y sistematizar la evaluación. Se presentan en este artículo las ideas centrales en las que se basa Musa. Se describen cada una de las capas que lo conforman y aspectos vinculados a su aplicación. Finalmente, se detallan algunos resultados y líneas de trabajos futuros

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-06

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening.

  15. Study of AAA Algorithm on the pelvic region with the VMAT technical using a dummy anthropomorphic; Estudio del algoritmo AAA en la region pelvica con la tecnica VMAT usando un maniqui antropomorfico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchades Puchades, V.; Serna Berna, A.; Mata Colodro, F.; Ramos Amores, D.; Casal Zamorano, E.

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of real dosimetry in patients in new techniques of irradiation is very important to know the degree of accuracy of the dose calculations provided by the planners and however it is sometimes difficult to achieve. One way to evaluate this dosimetry without resorting to a patient, is the use of anthropomorphic Dummies. One of the algorithms employed is called AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), which is an analytical algorithm of overlap-convolution, which improves the calculation of doses in the heterogeneities that the patient presents in your body (FAT, muscle, bone, lung) in comparison with other ancestor algorithms. (Author)

  16. A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC.

  17. Prime Contract Awards Over $25,000 by Major System, Contractor and State Part 1 (AAA-NAVY-AVG NAVY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    AO-A236 155iiiilulll l I l 1990 ANNUAL Prime Contract Awards Over $25,000 by Major System, Contractor and State Part 1 (AAA-NAVY-AVG NAVY) WHS...io" 1--W< MUCL F- WO uz 1"C w < zw W I Z"<< WOOZF-O I--1--: OWA Z (n (n W OnG."Mu 0 MWOW"OW 0 w MOM 0 MnOCLUCLzwo wzoo"-j 00 Wow Ŕə-0 z O"Q<w< Uzz

  18. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: From understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Matias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10-12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models.

  19. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: from understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Pedro M; Baek, Sung Hee; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Dutta, Anindya; Houry, Walid A; Llorca, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10-12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models.

  20. Functional roles of the pre-sensor I insertion sequence in an AAA+ bacterial enhancer binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Patricia C; Schumacher, Jörg; Amartey, Samuel; Ghosh, Tamaswati; Burgis, Timothy A; Zhang, Xiaodong; Nixon, B Tracy; Buck, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Molecular machines belonging to the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases use NTP hydrolysis to remodel their versatile substrates. The presence of an insertion sequence defines the major phylogenetic pre-sensor I insertion (pre-SIi) AAA+ superclade. In the bacterial sigma(54)-dependent enhancer binding protein phage shock protein F (PspF) the pre-SIi loop adopts different conformations depending on the nucleotide-bound state. Single amino acid substitutions within the dynamic pre-SIi loop of PspF drastically change the ATP hydrolysis parameters, indicating a structural link to the distant hydrolysis site. We used a site-specific protein-DNA proximity assay to measure the contribution of the pre-SIi loop in sigma(54)-dependent transcription and demonstrate that the pre-SIi loop is a major structural feature mediating nucleotide state-dependent differential engagement with Esigma(54). We suggest that much, if not all, of the action of the pre-SIi loop is mediated through the L1 loop and relies on a conserved molecular switch, identified in a crystal structure of one pre-SIi variant and in accordance with the high covariance between some pre-SIi residues and distinct residues outside the pre-SIi sequence.

  1. Avaliação de genótipos de bananeira à Colletotrichum musae em pós-colheita Evaluation of genotypes of banana to Colletotrichum musae in postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Batista Pinho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alguns hibridos tetraploides apresentam resistência à antracnose, porém são reduzidas as informações sobre os níveis de resistência desses genótipos e o comportamento dos mesmos no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e a severidade de antracnose sobre o comportamento de diferentes genótipos de bananeiras resistentes a Sigatoka-Negra em função de diferentes concentrações de conídios de Colletotrichum musae em diferentes épocas de avaliação. Os frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica dos genótipos, Thap Maeo, Caipira, Pacovan Ken, Ambrosia, PV 42-53, PA 42-44, FHIA 01, FHIA 18 e a cultivar Prata-Anã utilizada como testemunha. Buquês contendo três frutos foram atomizados com diferentes concentrações (0; 10²; 10³; 10(4; 10(5 e 10(6 conídios/mL de C. musae. Os frutos foram incubados a 25 ºC. A incidência e severidade da antracnose foi avaliada aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a inoculação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 9x6x4 (genótipos, concentrações de esporos e épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições, contendo quatro buquês de três frutos. Aos doze dias de avaliação, todos os frutos de todos os genótipos estudados apresentaram incidência de C. musae quando inoculados com as diferentes concentrações de inóculo. A cultivar Thap Maeo apresentou a menor severidade (27,5% de antracnose, enquanto os genótipos Ambrosia, PV 42-53, FHIA 18 e FHIA 01 foram as mais suscetíveis à antracnose com 64%, 64%, 61,33% e 58% de severidade, respectivamente.Some tetraploides hybrids present resistance to anthracnose, however the information on the levels of resistance of these genotypes and the behavior in Brazil are reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of injury on the behavior of different banana genotypes resistant to Black Sigatoka for different concentrations of conidia of Colletotrichum

  2. Efeito da temperatura e período de molhamento sobre o desenvolvimento de lesões de Colletotrichum musae em banana Effect of temperature and wet period on the development of Colletotrichum musae lesions in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Rogério Leocádio Soares Pessoa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana é a segunda fruta mais consumida no mundo, porém do campo até o mercado consumidor algo em torno de 40 % é perdido devido entre outras causas as doenças pós-colheita e a mais significativa é a antracnose. Diante da necessidade do conhecimento de fatores ambientais que condicionam estas perdas, o trabalho objetivou avaliar métodos de inoculação (com discos de BDA e estruturas do patógeno e suspensão de conídios com e sem ferimento e a influência da temperatura (10,15,20,25 e 30 ºC e do período de molhamento (0, 12, 24 e 36 h sobre o desenvolvimento de Colletotrichum musae em banana. As frutas foram inoculadas com 17 isolados de C. musae onde todos mostraram-se patogênicos quando inoculados com ferimento independentemente do tipo de inóculo utilizado. No experimento envolvendo temperatura e período de molhamento, utilizou-se três isolados de C. musae, MAG2, SFV1 e FSA, que se comportaram como mais agressivo, intermediário e pouco agressivo, respectivamente. As temperaturas em torno de 20, 25 e 30 ºC e os períodos de molhamento testados favoreceram um maior desenvolvimento de lesões, sendo as maiores lesões observadas em temperaturas ao redor de 25 e 30 ºC, com redução à medida que ocorria uma diminuição da temperatura para todos os isolados testados. A temperatura em torno de 15 ºC proporcionou o menor desenvolvimento da doença.,The banana is the second more consumed fruit in the world, but there is a product loss of about 40% from field to consuming market due to several factors including the postharvest diseases, being the anthracnose most significative among them. Considering the necessity of studying the environmental factors that affect this losses, the objective of this work was to evaluate methods of inoculation (PDA discs with pathogen structures and suspension of conidia with and without wound and the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC and wet period (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours on the

  3. Diagnóstico y caracterización molecular de aislamientos de Mycosphaerella sp. Provenientes de plantaciones de banano y plátano de diferentes regiones de Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea Arango Irene

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, agente causal de la Sigatoka negra, afecta dramáticamente la producción comercial de banano y plátano en la mayoría de las regiones productoras del mundo. En Colombia, la sigatoka negra se observó por primera vez en 1981 en la zona bananera del Urabá y desde entonces se disemino a todas las regiones, Atlantico, Pacifico, Centro y Oriente del país. En el 2000 la enfermedad fue encontrada en el Choco, zona del Pacifico Colombiano cubierta completamente por selva y que presenta cultivos de plátano en pequeñas parcelas al borde del rio Atrato, la única vía de acceso a la región. En este trabajo se realizó una prueba molecular de diagnóstico a 21 cepas de Mycosphaerella spp. Aisladas de diferentes zonas y se estudió la diversidad genética del patógeno en algunas regiones de Colombia utilizando marcadores RAPD’s. En total se obtuvieron 26 bandas polimórficas con los cebadores OPM01, OPM5 Y OPM20. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere que las cepas del Choco provienen de la zona del Urabá antioqueño y que en la zona de Santa Marta se presenta una subpoblación del patógeno diferente de las cepas del resto del país.

  4. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  5. Bleaching of soda pulp of fibres of Musa textilis nee (abaca) with peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; De la Torre, M J; Pérez, I; Ferrer, J L

    2008-03-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of operational variables in the bleaching of soda pulp of Musa textilis nee (abaca) [viz. temperature (55-85 degrees C), bleaching time (30-150 min) and peracetic acid concentration oven dry pulp (0.5-4.5%)] on the kappa number and viscosity of the bleached pulp, as well as on the breaking length, burst index and brightness of paper sheets made from it. For this purpose, we used a central composite factorial design in order to identify the optimum operating conditions. In this way equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the bleaching process were derived. These equations reproduce the dependent variables with errors less than 12% for all, except the viscosity which was predicted with errors less than 18%. Obtaining bleached pulp with the highest possible viscosity (1519 ml/g), and paper sheets with the maximum possible breaking length (6547 m) and burst index (5.00 kN/g), entails using a temperature of 55 degrees C, a peracetic acid concentration of 4.5% and a bleaching time of 150 min. This provides a brightness of 79.90%, which is only 6.53% lower than the maximum possible value (85.48%).

  6. Effect of Musa spp. extract on eggs and larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Neuwirt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are listed as one of the main problems facing the development of goat and sheep production. Haemonchus contortus is the specie that causes greatest negative impact in ranching. Resistance to anti-parasitic drugs and demand for residue-free animal-derived food products has elevated the importance of herbal treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an extract of Musa spp. and assess by in vitro testing, the anthelmintic effect on eggs and larvae in the gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Stool samples from sheep naturally infected were used to obtain eggs and larvae and was then followed by a test of hatchability and a larval migration inhibition test. In vitro tests on the inhibition of larval hatchability at concentrations of 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of larval extracts and inhibition of migration at concentrations of 800 and 1000 mg mL-1 were observed. The results indicate that the use of banana leaf has an anthelmintic effect and that in vivo studies on the applicability of this technology to the field should be made to further understanding and bring more information to what has already been revealed in this study.

  7. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana (Musa acuminata) Preservation Using X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana (Musa Acuminata) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10-14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10-14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure.

  8. Roseomonas musae sp. nov., a new bacterium isolated from a banana phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Duangmal, Kannika; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Muramatsu, Yuki; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-negative, coccobacilli, non-spore forming and non-motile bacterium, designated PN1(T), was isolated from a banana leaf collected in Mattra island, Thailand. This isolate was observed to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0, and to grow with 0-3 % NaCl. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PN1(T) is closely related to members of the genus Roseomonas, exhibiting the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Roseomonas aestuarii JC17(T) (96.5 %). The DNA G + C content of strain PN1(T) was determined to be 69.7 mol %. Based on physiological and biochemical tests, and genotypic differences between strain PN1(T) and the validly named species of the genus Roseomonas, it is proposed that the strain be classified as a new species of Roseomonas for which the name Roseomonas musae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PN1(T) (= BCC 44863(T) = NBRC 107870(T)).

  9. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  10. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  11. Optimization and characterization of purified polysaccharide from Musa sapientum L. as a pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvakanta, Dash; Narsimha, Murthy Padala; Pulak, Deb; Joshabir, Chakraborty; Biswajit, Das

    2014-04-15

    Polysaccharides from Musa sapientum (MSP) were isolated and purified by gel filtration chromatography. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction crystallography (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and NMR techniques were used to characterize the polysaccharide. Elemental analysis of the polysaccharide indicated that the contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen to be 27.31, 5.07 and 0.62 (w/w%) respectively. SEM analysis suggested that the polysaccharide had irregular particle size, mostly seen as aggregates, and fibrous in nature. The samples had peaks at approximately 25°, 32°, 40° and 43° 2θ degrees in the XRD pattern, which indicated both crystalline and amorphous structure. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum includes 1631.38 cm⁻¹ (-COO-), 1377 cm⁻¹ (-COO-) and 3193.93 cm⁻¹ (-OH). Analytical data on MSP indicated that the major neutral sugars were α-D-glucose, β-D-glucose, rhamnose and D-glucuronic acid. The experimental work provides enough evidence to exploit this neutral biopolymer in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Using histopathological changes as a biomarker to trace contamination loading of Musa Creeks (Persian Gulf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Negin; Soleimani, Zahra; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-08-01

    Gill histological changes were used as a biomarker to evaluate the health of yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus (A. latus), collected from different sites in Musa Creeks including: (A) Petrochemical, (B) Jaafari, (C) Ghazaleh, (D) Majidieh, and (E) Zangi creeks. Also Genaveh with relatively clean water was selected as reference. The gills of 60 A. latus were fixed in Bouin's solution for 12 hr, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Five micrometer thick sections were stained in H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff for microscopic examination. Also, the presence of gill histological alterations was assessed by the histopathologic alteration index (HAI). The gill morphological abnormalities include mucus secretion increase, debris, blood plaque, and shortening of filaments. The gill pathological changes included lamellar cells hyperplasia, aneurysm, lamellar fusion, and epithelial lifting. The HAI means were varied from moderate to severe in sites A and B, thus these sites are considered as being of low quality. Some severe pathological alterations were observed in site D, but their distribution was lower than sites A and B. The least HAI means of sites C and E demonstrated their good environmental quality. The results suggest that there is close relation between amounts of pathological alterations and environmental contamination.

  13. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  14. Beneficial effects of banana leaves (Musa x paradisiaca on glucose homeostasis: multiple sites of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia D. Kappel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Musa x paradisiaca L., Musaceae, leaves on glycemia, serum insulin secretion and glycogen content in an in vivo approach was evaluated. In addition, the in vitro effect on disaccharidases activity and albumin glycation was studied. The crude extract and fractions, n-butanol and aqueous residual, reduced glycemia and increased liver glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats, inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. Also, a significant increase in insulin secretion and muscle glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats was observed with oral administration of the n-butanol fraction. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of rutin in crude extract and fractions of M. x paradisiaca leaves as the major compound. These beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for M. x paradisiaca leaves and the presence of rutin as the major compound indicate potential anti-diabetic properties, since previous studies have been reported that rutin can modulate glucose homeostasis.

  15. Greetings: Professor Pei-Ming Ho won the 2011 AAA Award and Prof.Cenke Xu won the 2011 OYRA Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Professor Pei-Ming Ho won the 2011 Achievement in Asia Award (AAA),and Prof.Cenke Xu won the 2011 Outstanding Young Researcher Award (OYRA) of the Overseas Chinese Physics Association (OCPA).The OCPA AAA Award is given annually to Chinese physicists working in Asia in recognition of their outstanding achievements in physics,and the OYRA Award is given annually to a physicist of Chinese ethnicity working in North America,Europe,or other regions outside Asia,to encourage and to recognize the young researcher's contributions in physics.

  16. Identification, validation and use of EST-derived molecular markers from the genomes of mycosphaerella fijiensis and musa spp.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A presente dissertação de mestrado foi realizada dentro do escopo do programa MusaForever. Este programa é uma aliança estratégica estabelecida pela Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa e Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Instituto Internacional de Pesquisa em Planta - Wageningen UR (PRI-WUR), Universidade Católica de Leuven (KUL), Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), e Centro Francês de Investigação para o Desenvolvimento (CIRAD), visando o conhecimento científico e o estabelecimento de ferramentas de bio...

  17. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  18. Alejandro García Reidy, Las musas rameras. Oficio dramático y conciencia profesional en Lope de Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carreño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Alejandro García Reidy, Las musas rameras. Oficio dramático y conciencia profesional en Lope de Vega, Iberoamericana / Vervuert (Colección escena Clásica, 2, Madrid / Frankfurt am Main, 2013, 440 pp. ISBN: 9788484897439.

  19. 16S ribosomal DNA characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Cruz, L; de Souza, E M; Weber, O B; Baldani, J I; Döbereiner, J; Pedrosa, F de O

    2001-05-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria.

  20. Arylsulphatase in the rhizosphere of plantain Musa AAB and its relation with growth, development and pr Arilsulfatasa en la rizosfera de plátano, Musa AAB y relación con crecimiento, desarrollo y produccion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Idupulapati M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arylsulphatase in the rhizosphere of plantain Musa AAB and its relation with growth, development and production. In a plantain crop (Musa AAB of the Central coffee growing zone of Colombia, arylsulphatase activity in a Pachic Melanudand Medial Isotermic soil under three agronomic management systems during 18 months was measured. Measurements were done at 6, 12 and 18 months in four depths, 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm. The highest arylsulphatase activity (60% was found in the first 10 cm, with a decreasing in depth. Statical analysis did not show significant differences among the three plant ages. Arylsulphatase activity was found between 164 µmol g-1 min-1 and 319 µmol g-1 min-1. The lowest activity was found in the rhizosphere of plants with 12 months of age (flowering under chemical management. Arylsulphatase activity showed very significant correlation with Biomass-C and with Mg in soil, number of leaf and the plantain bunch weight.

    Key words: Enzymic activity-arylsulphatase, andisol, Musa ABB

    En la zona central cafetera de Colombia, en un suelo Pachic Melanudands medial isotérmico, se midió la actividad de arilsulfatasa en rizosfera de plátano Musa AAB, en tres sistemas de manejo agronómico (químico o convencional, tradicional y ecológico, cuatro profundidades (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 y 20-30 cm y tres edades de cultivo (6 meses – diferenciación floral, 12 meses – floración, 18 meses - cosecha. La mayor actividad (60% se encontró en los primeros 10 cm., y disminuyó a medida que se profundizó en el perfil del suelo. El análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significativas entre los tres manejos o entre edades de planta. La actividad de arilsulfatasa se encontró entre 164 µ mol g-1 min-1 y 319 µ

  1. Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2006-06-28

    The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2% of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise from p-coumaric acid by pyrolysis of abaca fibers in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which released high amounts of p-coumaric acid (as the methyl derivative). Products from p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) propanoid units, with a predominance of the latter (H:G:S molar ratio of 1.5:1:4.9), were also released after Py-GC/MS of abaca fibers. Sinapyl and coniferyl acetates, which are thought to be lignin monomer precursors, were also found in abaca. The extractives content of the abaca fiber (0.4%) was low, and the most predominant compounds were free sterols (24% of total extract) and fatty acids (24% of total extract). Additionally, significant amounts of steroid ketones (10%), triglycerides (6%), omega-hydroxyfatty acids (6%), monoglycerides (4%), fatty alcohols (4%), and a series of p-hydroxycinnamyl (p-coumaric and ferulic acids) esterified with long chain alcohols and omega-hydroxyfatty acids were also found, together with minor amounts of steroid hydrocarbons, diglycerides, alpha-hydroxyfatty acids, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides.

  2. Effect of Musa sapientum stem extract on animal models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa sapientum, the banana plant, has shown to possess antioxidant activity in previous studies. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD with evidence of increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in MDD patients. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of M. sapientum stem extract (MSSE in experimental models in mice. Materials and Methods: Forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST were carried out in five different groups (n = 6/group of mice. The vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were orally administered distilled water (10 mL/kg, fluoxetine (25 mg/kg, and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MSSE, respectively, 45 min prior to the experiment. Results: On FST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 161.5 ± 6.78 (in seconds, mean ± standard error of mean [SEM], decreased to 149.33 ± 2.70 (25 mg/kg MSSE, 120.17 ± 8.35 (50 mg/kg MSSE, and 45.17 ± 4.11 (100 mg/kg MSSE in the treated groups. On TST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 173.83 ± 12.65 (mean ± SEM, decreased to 163.17 ± 6.91 (25 mg/kg MSSE, 139.0 ± 5.9 (50 mg/kg MSSE, and 124.0 ± 4.42 (100 mg/kg MSSE in the treated groups. The difference in the duration of immobility was statistically significant at middle and higher doses, i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg MSSE (P < 0.05 respectively, when compared with the control group in both the tests. Conclusion: A significant antidepressant-like activity was found in MSSE, which could be a potential natural compound for use in depression.

  3. Effect of Musa sapientum Stem Extract on Animal Models of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aditya J.; Handu, Shailendra S.; Dubey, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari; Shukla, Rimi; Ahmed, Qazi Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Musa sapientum, the banana plant, has shown to possess antioxidant activity in previous studies. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) with evidence of increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in MDD patients. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of M. sapientum stem extract (MSSE) in experimental models in mice. Materials and Methods: Forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out in five different groups (n = 6/group) of mice. The vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were orally administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MSSE, respectively, 45 min prior to the experiment. Results: On FST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 161.5 ± 6.78 (in seconds, mean ± standard error of mean [SEM]), decreased to 149.33 ± 2.70 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 120.17 ± 8.35 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 45.17 ± 4.11 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. On TST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 173.83 ± 12.65 (mean ± SEM), decreased to 163.17 ± 6.91 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 139.0 ± 5.9 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 124.0 ± 4.42 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. The difference in the duration of immobility was statistically significant at middle and higher doses, i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg MSSE (P Forced swim test; TST: Tail suspension test; GSH: Glutathione, MDA: Malondialdehyde; SOD: Superoxide dismutase PMID:27695263

  4. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cárdenas, Carlos I; Miranda-Ham, María L; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Ku-Cauich, José R; Vergauwen, Rudy; Reijnders, Timmy; Van den Ende, Wim; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    The water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) glucose, fructose, and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructans represent another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of 11 accessions (I to XI), including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA) identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfill across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water) provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes, potentially leading to

  5. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ivan eCruz Cardenas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC glucose, fructose and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructan represents another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of eleven accessions (I to XI, including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfil across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes

  6. Wound healing and antioxidant capacity of Musa paradisiaca Linn. peel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Musa paradisiaca has several biological activities within them wound healing, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, among others. However, these properties in peel have been poorly explored. Aims: Evaluate the wound healing activity induced by an incision wound model using methanolic, hexanoic and chloroformic extracts from M. paradisiaca peel. Methods: Dehydrated M. paradisíaca peel was mixed with methanol, hexane, and chloroform. The presence of bioactive substances of the M. paradisiaca peel extracts was carried out by the Trease and Evans methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Acute toxicity was realized according to up and down OECD procedure in BALB/c mice. Wound healing activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses of tissues were made by microscopy using staining methods of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson-trichrome. Results: Treated groups with methanolic and hexanoic extracts of M. paradisiaca peel showed better wound healing activity in comparison with the group treated with chloroformic extract, with an inhibition of DPPH radical bleaching of 89-90%. It may be due to the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols as principal constituents by conferring antioxidant capacity. The extract did not induce any toxicity. Conclusions: The findings showed the wound healing and antioxidant capacity of M. paradisiaca peel extract. It was observed that depending on the extraction solvent; there is a variation in the antioxidant capacity that also affects the effectiveness of the restoration of tissue, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity could play a major role in the process of wound healing.

  7. Galactagogue effects of Musa x paradisiaca flower extract on lactating rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azizah Mahmood; Muhammad Nor Omar; Nurziana Ngah

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups. Methods:Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n=5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean±standard deviation. The rates of pups’ growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period. Results: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively. Conclusions:The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.

  8. Carbohydrate binding properties of banana (Musa acuminata) lectin I. Novel recognition of internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, H; Winter, H C; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Misaki, A; Goldstein, I J

    2001-05-01

    Examination of lectins of banana (Musa acuminata) and the closely related plantain (Musa spp.) by the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition of precipitation, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that they are mannose/glucose binding proteins with a preference for the alpha-anomeric form of these sugars. Both generate precipitin curves with branched chain alpha-mannans (yeast mannans) and alpha-glucans (glycogens, dextrans, and starches), but not with linear alpha-glucans containing only alpha1,4- and alpha1,6-glucosidic bonds (isolichenan and pullulan). The novel observation was made that banana and plantain lectins recognize internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues, which occur in the linear polysaccharides elsinan and nigeran. Concanavalin A and lectins from pea and lentil, also mannose/glucose binding lectins, did not precipitate with any of these linear alpha-glucans. This is, the authors believe, the first report of the recognition of internal alpha1,3-glucosidic bonds by a plant lectin. It is possible that these lectins are present in the pulp of their respective fruit, complexed with starch.

  9. MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.

  10. Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Musa sapientum Fruit Peel on Poloxamer-407 Induced Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C EDENTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of aqueous extracts of the ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa sapientum (Saro, Ominni and Oranta on the lipid profile of normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats were examined. Methods: Aqueous peel extracts of the 3-cultivars of Musa sapientum (100mg/Kg bw were administered to normolipidemic and poloxamer-407 induced hyperlidemic rats (140-180g. Atorvastatin was used as standard drug (70 mg/Kg bw. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma total cholesterol (Tc, triacylglycerides (TAG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c after 21-days in normolipidemic rats and 3-days in hyperlipidemic rats. Results: Normolipidemic rats treated with extract of Saro showed a significant (p0.05 difference when compared to the Atorvastatin and normal control groups. Conclusion: The findings in this study reveals Oranta cultivar of M. sapientum as a better potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied, hence could be useful for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  11. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-08-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154±1.981 and 2.921±0.873mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P=0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P=0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C).

  12. Determination better culture medium in the establishment phase for the in vitro propagation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancasi-Espejo Ruth Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology of the Department of Biological and Natural Sciences of the Amazonian University of Pando, in 2014. The aim of the study was to determine better culture medium in the establishment phase for propagation in vitro banana (Musa paradisiaca L., 20 were selected and characterized mother plants NTRCA (New Technology Research Center Amazonia. A completely random design (CRD with three different culture media was used. The culture media were M1 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and L-cysteine 2 ml /L, M2 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented charcoal 2 g/L, M3 Murashige and Skoog (MS supplement-ed with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and cítrico100 mg/L acid. The variables evaluated were: The survival of the former Plantes, where contamination and oxidation was observed. The results showed that in the first phase of establishment, the best answer for the survival of the former Plantes banana (Musa paradisiaca, was with the culture medium 3, where a lower degree of oxidation (0.26 and pollution for all explants was obtained was 28%.

  13. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  14. Thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-08-22

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31(comet). Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31(comet)-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development.

  15. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2016-09-19

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes.

  16. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p  0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  17. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of sterol rich methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum (banana) in cholesterol fed wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Tyagi, Mool Kumar; Shukla, Kirtikar; Gambhir, Jasvindar K; Shukla, Rimi

    2016-03-01

    Musa sapientum Linn. (English 'Banana' family Musaceae), is a plant with nutritive, as well as medicinal value. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of stem of this plant was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding cholesterol (100 mg/kg/day) suspended in soya oil. Treatment groups received extract at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day in addition to cholesterol orally once daily. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks treatment. Animals were sacrificed and liver stored at -80 °C. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol were estimated in blood. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in blood and liver. Total lipids, HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were investigated in liver. Most effective dose was found to be 20 mg/kg/day. Rise in total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol in animals receiving only cholesterol was 179 %, 417 % and 74 % respectively, while in animals receiving 20 mg/kg dose rise in these parameters was restricted to 40 %, 106 % and 24 %. HDL-cholesterol decreased by 12 % in extract treated group, while it decreased to 36 % in untreated hypercholesterolemic rats. Malonaldialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation decreased while reduced glutathione and enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in blood and liver (p HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were restored to near normal. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy indicated high content of sterols in extract. Study demonstrated that methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum has significant antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects.

  18. Mechanism of action of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein PspA in repression of the AAA family transcription factor PspF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderkin, Sarah; Jones, Susan; Schumacher, Jörg; Studholme, David; Buck, Martin

    2002-06-28

    The PspA protein, a negative regulator of the Escherichia coli phage shock psp operon, is produced when virulence factors are exported through secretins in many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and its homologue in plants, VIPP1, plays a critical role in thylakoid biogenesis, essential for photosynthesis. Activation of transcription by the enhancer-dependent bacterial sigma(54) containing RNA polymerase occurs through ATP hydrolysis-driven protein conformational changes enabled by activator proteins that belong to the large AAA(+) mechanochemical protein family. We show that PspA directly and specifically acts upon and binds to the AAA(+) domain of the PspF transcription activator. Interactions involving PspF and nucleotide are changed by the action of PspA. These changes and the complexes that form between PspF and PspA can explain how PspA exerts its negative effects upon transcription activated by PspF, and are of significance when considering how activities of other AAA(+) proteins might be controlled.

  19. Evaluation of the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) in dose calculation for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction; Avaliacao do Algoritmo Analitico Anisotropico (AAA) no calculo de dose para campos com fluencia nao uniforme considerando correcao de heterogeneidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornatto, P.; Funchal, M.; Bruning, F.; Toledo, H.; Lyra, J.; Fernandes, T.; Toledo, F.; Marciao, C., E-mail: pricila_bornatto@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Erasto Gaertner (LPCC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the calculation of dose distribution AAA (Varian Medical Systems) for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction. Five different phantoms were used with different density materials. These phantoms were scanned in the CT BrightSpeed (©GE Healthcare) upon the array of detectors MAPCHECK2 TM (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and irradiated in a linear accelerator 600 CD (Varian Medical Systems) 6MV and rate dose 400MU/min with isocentric setup. The fluences used were exported from IMRT plans, calculated by ECLIPSE™ planning system (Varian Medical Systems), and a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field to assess the heterogeneity correction for uniform fluence. The measured dose distribution was compared to the calculated by Gamma analysis with approval criteria of 3% / 3 mm and 10% threshold. The evaluation was performed using the software SNCPatient (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and considering absolute dose normalized at maximum. The phantoms best performers were those with low density materials, with an average of 99.2% approval. Already phantoms with plates of higher density material presented various fluences below 95% of the points approved. The average value reached 94.3%. It was observed a dependency between fluency and approved percentage points, whereas for the same fluency, 100% of the points have been approved in all phantoms. The approval criteria for IMRT plans recommended in most centers is 3% / 3mm with at least 95% of points approved, it can be concluded that, under these conditions, the IMRT plans with heterogeneity correction can be performed , however the quality control must be careful because the difficulty of the system to accurately predict the dose distribution in certain situations. (author)

  20. FY05 LDRD Fianl Report Investigation of AAA+ protein machines that participate in DNA replication, recombination, and in response to DNA damage LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-LW-049

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicka, D; de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M S; Barsky, D; Venclovas, C

    2006-12-04

    The AAA+ proteins are remarkable macromolecules that are able to self-assemble into nanoscale machines. These protein machines play critical roles in many cellular processes, including the processes that manage a cell's genetic material, but the mechanism at the molecular level has remained elusive. We applied computational molecular modeling, combined with advanced sequence analysis and available biochemical and genetic data, to structurally characterize eukaryotic AAA+ proteins and the protein machines they form. With these models we have examined intermolecular interactions in three-dimensions (3D), including both interactions between the components of the AAA+ complexes and the interactions of these protein machines with their partners. These computational studies have provided new insights into the molecular structure and the mechanism of action for AAA+ protein machines, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of processes involved in DNA metabolism.

  1. [The normotensive carriers of the MTHFR 677T allele, displaying the increased risk of development of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), occur at the highest frequency among the smoking patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ewa; Waliszewski, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Andrzej L

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) presents itself as a progressive dilation of the abdominal aorta, leading--if untreated--to rupture. It is a common disease of the elderly, with a complex etiology. Smoking, hypertension and several genetic factors are recognized as relevant for the pathogenesis of AAA. We studied association between the polymorphism of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) gene within the fourth exon (677C>T) and the occurrence of hypertension and smoking status in the group of 74 male patients with AAA. In the patients group, the smoking hypertensive persons represented the largest subgroup (43%). We determined the the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in AAA patients and compared it to that in 71 healthy normotensive males. The frequencies of the 677T allele and MTHFR 677C>T genotypes were similar in both groups, but the subgroup of normotensive AAA patients (n=29) displayed significantly increased frequencies of 677T allele (0.4) and of 677CT and TT genotypes (69%), as compared to those in the control group (0.28 and 46%, respectively). This corresponds to the 3.3-fold greater risk of AAA in normotensive subjects with the 677T allele of MTHFR, as compared to the homo-zygotes 677CC (p<0.03; 95% CI=1.2-9.2). The highest frequencies of MTHFR 677T allele (0.43) and 677CT and TT genotypes (73%) were found in the subgroup of normotensive smoking patients (n=22).

  2. Micromicetos del suelo de una plantación de plátano (Musa paradisiaca en Teapa, Tabasco, México Soil microfungi from a banana (Musa paradisiaca plantation in Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Del Olmo-Ruiz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la micobiota presente en el suelo de un cultivo de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L. en el municipio de Teapa en el estado de Tabasco, México. Los objetivos fueron conocer las especies habitantes de este suelo y la dinámica de la comunidad con respecto a la composición de especies a lo largo de un año. Se llevaron a cabo 4 muestreos durante temporadas distintas y los aislamientos se realizaron mediante la técnica de dilución en placa. Se recuperaron 91 colonias, correspondientes a 30 especies diferentes de hongos mitospóricos, de las cuales únicamente Aspergillus flavus Link, Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces y Trichoderma harzianum Rifai fueron especies residentes de ese suelo y el resto, esporádicas. El índice de similitud de Sorensen evidenció una sucesión de especies entre las temporadas de muestreo. Del total de especies determinadas en este estudio, 8 no habían sido encontradas como habitantes de suelos mexicanos. Asimismo, se mostró que el suelo analizado es un hábitat muy rico en micromicetos y que es necesario incrementar los esfuerzos de colecta para tener un mayor conocimiento sobre la diversidad en nuestro país.In this study, we analyzed the soil microfungal community from a banana (Musa paradisiaca L. plantation in Teapa, a municipality of Tabasco State in Mexico. The objectives were to determine the fungal species present and to analyze the community composition throughout an entire year. We performed 4 samplings during different seasons and the fungal isolates were recovered using the dilution plate technique. We isolated 91 strains from 30 different mitosporic species where only Aspergillus flavus Link, Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai were considered as resident species while the remaining species were sporadic. The Sorensen similarity index suggested that species succession had occurred among the sampling seasons. From all the species identified in this survey, 8 had not been found as

  3. Efectos de dos sistemas de producción en el contenido de minerales en el fruto de Musa AAB Simmonds Effects of two production systems in the mineral content in the fruit of Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Barrera-Violeth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción orgánico y/o ecológico tienen como objetivo garantizar la sostenibilidad y la renovación de base natural, mediante la limitación del uso de productos de síntesis química para favorecer el ambiente y la salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta estas características, se estudió el efecto de los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional sobre el contenido de nutrientes minerales del fruto del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds, durante el proceso de maduración. Las determinaciones se realizaron en la Universidad de Córdoba (Montería, Colombia con el fin de establecer las diferencias en el contenido de minerales en los frutos en ambos sistemas y en diferentes estados de maduración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5 y cinco repeticiones. Los factores fueron: sistema de producción y estado de maduración; los cinco niveles del segundo factor correspondieron a los grados de maduración: verde-oscuro (V, verde-claro (VC, amarillo-verde (AV, amarillo (A y muy amarillo (MA. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que entre ambos sistemas de producción y en distintos grados de maduración, se presentan diferencias significativas (P Organic production systems and/or ecological aim to ensure the sustainability and renewal of natural base by limiting chemical synthesis products favoring the environment and human health due to these benefits, we studied the effect of systems organic and conventional production on mineral nutrient content of the fruit of plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds during the ripening process. Measurements were performed at the University of Córdoba (Montería, Colombia in order to differentiate between the two systems, in varying states of maturity. A complete randomized design with 2 x 5 factorial arrangements with five replications was used. The factors were: production system and state of maturity, the five levels of the second factor corresponded to the following

  4. Chromatographic evidence that the AAA-coding isoacceptor of lysine tRNA primes DNA synthesis in murine mammary tumor virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, L.C.

    1981-07-30

    Most of the tRNA encapsulated within the murine mammary tumor virus is tRNA/sup LYS/. The reversed-phase chromatographic pattern of tRNA/sup LYS/ isoacceptors in the viral free tRNA and in the 70 S-associated tRNA that is released at 65/sup 0/ is similar to the pattern in virus-producing cells. However, the more tightly bound 70 S-associated tRNA/sup LYS/ is significantly enriched in the AAA-coding isoacceptor. This isoacceptor, but not the AAG-coding one, primes MuMTV 35 S RNA-directed DNA synthesis in vitro.

  5. Sensor I threonine of the AAA+ ATPase transcriptional activator PspF is involved in coupling nucleotide triphosphate hydrolysis to the restructuring of sigma 54-RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jörg; Joly, Nicolas; Rappas, Mathieu; Bradley, Dominic; Wigneshweraraj, Siva R; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2007-03-30

    Transcriptional initiation invariably involves the transition from a closed RNA polymerase (RNAP) promoter complex to a transcriptional competent open complex. Activators of the bacterial sigma(54)-RNAP are AAA+ proteins that couple ATP hydrolysis to restructure the sigma(54)-RNAP promoter complex. Structures of the sigma(54) activator PspF AAA+ domain (PspF(1-275)) bound to sigma(54) show two loop structures proximal to sigma(54) as follows: the sigma(54) contacting the GAFTGA loop 1 structure and loop 2 that classifies sigma(54) activators as pre-sensor 1 beta-hairpin AAA+ proteins. We report activities for PspF(1-275) mutated in the AAA+ conserved sensor I threonine/asparagine motif (PspF(1-275)(T148A), PspF(1-275)(N149A), and PspF(1-275)(N149S)) within the second region of homology. We show that sensor I asparagine plays a direct role in ATP hydrolysis. However, low hydrolysis rates are sufficient for functional output in vitro. In contrast, PspF(1-275)(T148A) has severe defects at the distinct step of sigma(54) promoter restructuring. This defect is not because of the failure of PspF(1-275)(T148A) to stably engage with the closed sigma(54) promoter, indicating (i) an important role in ATP hydrolysis-associated motions during energy coupling for remodeling and (ii) distinguishing PspF(1-275)(T148A) from PspF(1-275) variants involved in signaling to the GAFTGA loop 1, which fail to stably engage with the promoter. Activities of loop 2 PspF(1-275) variants are similar to those of PspF(1-275)(T148A) suggesting a functional signaling link between Thr(148) and loop 2. In PspF(1-275) this link relies on the conserved nucleotide state-dependent interaction between the Walker B residue Glu(108) and Thr(148). We propose that hydrolysis is relayed via Thr(148) to loop 2 creating motions that provide mechanical force to the GAFTGA loop 1 that contacts sigma(54).

  6. Clinical significance of serum BCAA/AAA value in viral hepatitis%支链氨基酸/芳香氨基酸(BCAA/AAA)值在病毒性肝炎的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋音; 巫善明; 朱文芳

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨BCAA/AAA比值在病毒性肝炎各临床类型中的变化及其相关性,进一步分析其在肝性脑病发生机制中的作用.方法从1999年9月至2001年4月,总结病毒性肝炎患者154例,年龄32~68岁,平均(54.2±21.0)岁.男104例,女50例,男:女为2.1:1.其中急性肝炎22例,慢性肝炎65例,重型肝炎20例,肝硬化47例.按血清病原学检测,甲型11例,乙型106例,丙型1例,戊型8例,重叠感染16例,病原未明12例.肝硬化Child-Pugh分级为A、B及C.BCAA及AAA用液相色谱法测定,BCAA/AAA正常值为3.0~3.8.结果BCAA/AAA比值在急性肝炎基本正常,慢性肝炎轻度低于急性肝炎(P>0.05);慢性肝炎重度显著低于慢性肝炎中度(P<0.001);重型肝炎或肝硬化低于慢性肝炎重度(P<0.05),各组相比,差异有显著性或非常显著性.在Child-Pugh分级中,BCAA/AAA比值C级<B级<A级,各组间相比,差异有非常显著性(P<0.001或P<0.02).在重型肝炎或肝硬化中,发生肝性脑病组的BCAA/AAA比值显著低于未发生肝性脑病组(P<0.001);死亡组的BCAA/AAA比值显著低于存活组(P<0.01或P<0.005).结论BCAA/AAA值的测定,在一定程度上能反映肝脏受损情况.其比值越低,肝脏受损越严重,且容易出现肝性脑病.该值对于患者的预后判断也有一定的参考价值.

  7. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  8. Pesticide residues in heterogeneous plant populations, a model-based approach applied to nematicides in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Philippe; Chabrier, Christian; Malézieux, Eric

    2007-03-21

    Nematicides are widely used to control plant-parasitic nematodes in intensive export banana (Musa spp.) cropping systems. Data show that the concentration of fosthiazate in banana fruits varies from zero to 0.035 g kg-1, under the maximal residue limit (MRL=0.05 mg kg-1). The fosthiazate concentration in fruit is described by a Gaussian envelope curve function of the interval between pesticide application and fruit harvest (preharvest interval). The heterogeneity of phenological stages in a banana population increases over time, and thus the preharvest interval of fruits harvested after a pesticide application varies over time. A phenological model was used to simulate the long-term harvest dynamics of banana at field scale. Simulations show that the mean fosthiazate concentration in fruits varies according to nematicide application program, climate (temperature), and planting date of the banana field. This method is used to assess the percentage of harvested bunches that exceed a residue threshold and to help farmers minimize fosthiazate residues in bananas.

  9. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidiqat Adamson Shodehinde; Ganiyu Oboh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods: Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results: The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions: Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  10. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  11. Pengaruh Kombinasi Pemupukan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Pisang Kepok Kuning (Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana Pada Lahan Kering di Banyumas, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kepok Kuning banana (Musa acuminate × M.balbisiana is a banana which has a good adaptability tothe water shortage conditions. The banana has cultivatedin watershed of Tajum river, Banyumas. The place haspotential to be centre of Yellow Kepok banana productionbut the farmers occasionally applied fertilizer unbalancedwhich effect to productivity and quality of banana. It isnecessary to examine proportion of fertilizers to determinethe effective and effi cient fertilizer composition whichincreased productivity and quality of banana.The experiment was conducted on Gentawangi dryland farm, Jatilawang, Banyumas on January-June 2009. Theexperiment was laid out in randomized block design with12 replications and involving single factor. It consistedof 5 treatments The Banana was planted in pattern 3 m x3 m. Results showed that banana required both of organicfertilizers and inorganic in vegetative stage. The treatmentof Urea 150 g + 100 g + SP36 compost 10 kg/tree/applicationshowed the effi cient compared to other, followed bytreatment of ZA 150 g + SP36 KCl 150 g + 50 g/tree/application. Combination of Urea and ZA without organicfertilizer indicated uneffi cient compared to others

  12. Anti-arthritic effects of Musa paradisiaca sapientum L. and Aloe vera L. in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG DARMAWAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-arthritic effects of Musa paradisiaca sapientum L. and Aloe vera L. on the index responses of arthritic were investigated using adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. M. paradisiaca sapientum and A. vera pulp were blended into juice then the juices were administered orally on 17-30th day. To evaluate anti-arthritic effect of the juice, an arthritic rat model was developed using Complete Freund Adjuvant on 1-16th day. In addition, the research was divided into groups (n=5 including normal control groups, positive control groups, negative control groups, 3 groups were treated by M. paradisiaca juice at 50, 100, 200 mg/kgBW doses and the other groups were treated by A. vera juices at 1, 2 and 4 mg/kgBW doses. The indexes of arthritic were determined on 17th and 31st days then analyzed using ANOVA test and t test (p<0.05. The result showed that the indexes of arthritic rats were evidently decreased by either M. sapientum or A. vera juice. Moreover, indexes of arthritic to be closely restored to the normal levels through M. paradisiaca treatment at 50 mg/kg BW dose. In conclusion, both of juice is found to be effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

  13. Diseño de un sistema de tamizado semicontinuo para el aislamiento de almidón de plátano macho (musa paradisiaca l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Cortes, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    El plátano macho (Musa paradisiaca L.) es un fruto climatérico que se recolecta en un estado de madurez fisiológica. En esta etapa posee un alto contenido de almidón, por lo cual es una importante fuente alterna para el aislamiento del polisacárido. Hasta ahora, los procesos reportados para su aislamiento, son llevados a cabo en lotes, y durante la operación de tamizado, se emplean grandes cantidades de agua para producir la liberación de los gránulos de almidón. El objetivo de este trabajo f...

  14. Aproveitamento de residuo da banana (casca e coroa), cultivar nanição, Musa cavendishu, para uso em panificação

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciencias Agrarias Visando o aproveitamento dos resíduos da banana (casca e coroa), cultivar nanicão, Musa cavendishii L., foi proposta sua utilização como farinha para panificação. O resíduo foi submetido ao processo de branqueamento, secagem em estufa e moagem. A farinha obtida foi analisada quanto as características físico-química e microbiológica, e calculado seu valor calórico. Os pães foram elaborados com as fa...

  15. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera:Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Khoobdel; Maryam Tavassoli; Mehdi Salari; Fateme Firozi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf.Methods:hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-Results: In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region.Conclusions:Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers.

  16. Recombinant expression and activity analysis of the AAA domain of human fidgetin like - 1%人源fidgetin like -1蛋白AAA结构域的重组表达及酶学性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雯韬; 王春光

    2011-01-01

    Fidgetin is a new AAA protein cloned in 2000, because it has an AAA domain at its C - terminus. Together with two microtubule-severing proteins katanin and spastin, fidgetin is classified into subfamily -7 of AAA family, which implies that fidgetin may have ATP - dependent microtubule - severing activity and that the conserved AAA domain is responded for the ATP binding and hydrolysis. In order to understand the activity of its AAA domain,the AAA domain of human fidgetin like - 1 ( HsFIGL -1 - AAA) was expressed in E. Coli with a yield of 5 mg/L after the purification of affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chro-matography. The result of size exclusion chromatography shows that HsFIGL - 1 - AAA is a monomer, which is dramatically different from the behavior of other AAA proteins. The basal ATPase activity of HsFIGL -1 - AAA is as low as 0.0063 s "'. Sequence comparison shows that the conserved Arg in Sensor 2 motif, which was found to be important for ATP binding and hydrolysis in some AAA proteins,is replaced by Thr in HsFIGL - 1. However,the mutantation of this Thr residue into Arg,T609R,does not change the ATPase activity of this protein. These results indicate that HsFIGL - 1 may function in a distinct way. These pave the way for further structural and functional study of this protein.%Fidgetin是2000年发现的一个AAA蛋白家族新成员,同源序列分析表明它与katanin、spastin属于AAA家族的同一亚家族,因此可能也具有ATP依赖的微管切割活性,ATP 的结合和水解应该发生于fidgetin蛋白中保守的AAA结构域.在大肠杆菌中重组表达的人源fidgetin like -1(FIGL -1)蛋白的AAA结构域片段(HsFIGL -1 - AAA),纯化后的最终产率为每升5 mg蛋白.与AAA蛋白通常形成六聚体不同,HsFIGL -1 - AAA在溶液中为单体,且其ATPase活性很低,仅为0.0063 s-1.与其他AAA蛋白的序列比对发现,Sensor2 motif中保守的Arg残基在HsFIGL -1 - AAA结构域中为Thr,但该位点的突变T609R并未

  17. Variabilidade genética de genótipos de bananeira (Musa spp submetidos ao estresse salino Genetic variability of banana (Musa spp genotypes subjected to saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W. F. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial de bananas, sendo Pernambuco o estado que apresenta maior expansão da cultura na região do perímetro irrigado do Vale do São Francisco em cujas áreas, porém, são freqüentes os problemas de salinização do solo o que se pode tornar um fator limitante para a cultura. A utilização de cultivares tolerantes à salinidade apresenta-se como uma alternativa bastante viável; assim, identificar genótipos que se adaptem a solos salinos da Região Nordeste, é de fundamental importância para os programas de melhoramento. Este trabalho teve por finalidade utilizar marcadores moleculares, obtidos por amplificação de DNA via Reação em Cadeia polimerase (PCR com iniciadores (primers de RAPD, para determinar a variabilidade genética entre dez genótipos de banana (Musa spp: Pacovan, Nanicão, Caipira, FHIA18, Calcuttá, SN/2, Borneo, M-53, Microcarpa e Lidi, correlacionando-os com a tolerância ao estresse salino. Foram testados 25 primers. O iniciador D0142A07 gerou o maior número de loci polimórficos, enquanto o D0142B05 originou o menor. Em geral, o polimorfismo gerado com os marcadores de DNA mostrou que, apesar da base genética estreita, no caso das que são formadas pelo mesmo grupo genômico, os genótipos de bananeira apresentam variabilidade genética relativamente alta. As variedades que apresentaram maior tolerância ao estresse salino, como a Pacovan e SN/2, mostraram-se distantes geneticamente, quando comparadas com as mais sensíveis ao sal, como Calcuttá e Lidi.Brazil is the second lagest banana producer. The State of Pernambuco has presented the greatest expansion of banana cultivation in the irrigated perimeters of the São Francisco Valley. In these areas, however, there are frequent problems with high salt content in the soil, which could turn out to be a major limiting factor to its cultivation. The utilization of cultivars tolerant to saline conditions is a rather viable

  18. ARMAZENAMENTO E MATURAÇÃO DE BANANAS DO CULTIVAR PRATA (Musa sp EM SACOS DE POLIETILENO CONTENDO ABSORVENTE DE ETILENO STORAGE AND MATURATION OF BANANA (Musa sp. “PRATA” CULTIVAR IN POLYETHYLENE BAGS CONTAINING ETHYLENE ABSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln F. Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar um meio adequado de conservação de banana “Prata” (Musa sp., para as condições de mercado interno, utilizando polietileno como modificador do meio envolvente e como embalagem permanente do produtor ao consumidor. Para isto, utilizaram-se os seguintes tratamentos: Testemunha, sem embalagem; Plástico perfurado; Plástico perfurado, contendo absorvente; Plástico sem perfuração; Plástico sem perfuração, contendo absorvente. As bananas tratadas, foram acondicionadas em câmara com temperatura constante de 22 ± 1°C e umidade relativa de 90 ± 3%. Uma vez por dia era feita a leitura da cor da casca e a ventilação de câmara. Com auxílio das análises estatísticas dos dados obtidos concluiu-se que: a. Uso de absorvente de etileno dentro da embalagem plástica, sem perfuração, atrasa o início do amadurecimento, mas não impede que os frutos se tornem imprestáveis para o consumo. b. A melhor embalagem encontrada para ser usada do produtor ao consumidor foi a de plástico perfurado sem absorvente de etileno, que dá um ganho de aproximadamente cinco dias de conservação à temperatura de 22° C.

    This experiment had as its objective the study of an adequate way to conserve the banana “Prata” (Musa sp. in order to meet conditions of the national market. Poliethylene packaging from the producer to the consumer. For this, the following treatments were used: no packaging, perforated plastic, imperforated plastic containing an absorvent, imperforated plastic, imperforated plastic containing an absorvent. The treated banana were stored in a container with a constant temperature of 22 ± 1°C and a relative humidity of 90 ± 3%. Once a day a reading was taken of the skin color and the room was ventilated. With the help of statistical analysis of the obtained

  19. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  20. Levels of H-ras codon 61 CAA to AAA mutation: response to 4-ABP-treatment and Pms2-deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Barbara L; Delongchamp, Robert R; Beland, Frederick A; Heflich, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiencies result in increased frequencies of spontaneous mutation and tumor formation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a chemically-induced mutational response would be greater in a mouse with an MMR-deficiency than in the MMR-proficient mouse models commonly used to assay for chemical carcinogenicity. To accomplish this, the induction of H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutation was examined in Pms2 knockout mice (Pms2-/-, C57BL/6 background) and sibling wild-type mice (Pms2+/+). Groups of five or six neonatal male mice were treated with 0.3 micromol 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) or the vehicle control, dimethylsulfoxide. Eight months after treatment, liver DNAs were isolated and analysed for levels of H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutation using allele-specific competitive blocker-PCR. In Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice, 4-ABP treatment caused an increase in mutant fraction (MF) from 1.65x10(-5) to 2.91x10(-5) and from 3.40x10(-5) to 4.70x10(-5), respectively. Pooling data from 4-ABP-treated and control mice, the approximately 2-fold increase in MF observed in Pms2-deficient as compared with Pms2-proficient mice was statistically significant (P=0.0207) and consistent with what has been reported previously in terms of induction of G:C-->T:A mutation in a Pms2-deficient background. Pooling data from both genotypes, the increase in H-ras MF in 4-ABP-treated mice, as compared with control mice, did not reach the 95% confidence level of statistical significance (P=0.0606). The 4-ABP treatment caused a 1.76-fold and 1.38-fold increase in average H-ras MF in Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of induced mutation in Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice were nearly identical (1.26x10(-5) and 1.30x10(-5), respectively). We conclude that Pms2-deficiency does not result in an amplification of the H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutational response induced by 4-ABP.

  1. Geometrical determinations of IMRT photon pencil-beam path in radiotherapy wedges and limit divergence angle with the Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Casesnoves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Static wedge filters (WF are commonly used in radiation therapy, forward and/or inverse planning. We calculated the exact 2D/3D geometrical pathway of the photon-beam through the usual alloy WF, in order to get a better dose related to the beam intensity attenuation factor(s, after the beam has passed through the WF. The objective was to provide general formulation into the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA model coordinates system (depending on collimator/wedge angles that also can be applied to other models. Additionally, second purpose of this study was to develop integral formulation for 3D wedge exponential factor with statistical approximations, with introduction for the limit angle/conformal wedge.Methods: The radiotherapy model used to develop this mathematical task is the classical superposition-convolution algorithm, AAA (developed by Ulmer and Harder. We worked with optimal geometrical approximations to make the computational IMRT calculations quicker/reduce the planning-system time. Analytic geometry/computational-techniques to carry out simulations (for standard wedges are detailed/developed sharply. Integral developments/integral-statistical approximations are explained. Beam-divergence limit Angle for optimal wedge filtration formulas is calculated/sketched, with geometrical approximations. Fundamental trigonometry is used for this purpose.Results: Extent simulation tables for WF of 15º, 30º, 45º, and 60º are shown with errors. As a result, it is possible to determine the best individual treatment dose distribution for each patient. We presented these basic simulations/numerical examples for standard manufacturing WF of straight sloping surface, to check the accuracy/errors of the calculations. Simulations results give low RMS/Relative Error values (formulated for WF of 15º, 30º, 45º, and 60º.Conclusion: We obtained a series of formulas of analytic geometry for WF that can be applied for any particular dose

  2. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles.

  3. Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting Aspergillus section Flavi incidence in Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, A C; Azanza, P V; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting the incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi in dried Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines were examined. The average counts of Aspergillus section Flavi (AFC) in fresh and dried Cavendish bananas from 10 production batches of the Philippine Agro-Industrial Development Cooperative in Davao del Norte, Southern Philippines were 1.2 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(2) cfu/g, respectively. Isolates from both samples were identified to be Aspergillus flavus based on spore type and conidial structure of isolates. An increasing trend in the AFC of Cavendish bananas was observed during dried banana chips processing. Variability in the AFC between production batches was attributed to differences in aerobic and fungal populations and physicochemical characteristics of the fruits, peel damage of the raw materials, concentration of AFC in the air and food-contact surfaces of the production area, and temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the environment during production and storage. Physicochemical characteristics of Cavendish bananas from the receipt of raw materials up to the first day of drying were within the reported range of values allowing growth and toxin production by aflatoxigenic fungi. Air-borne AFC varied depending on the section of the production area examined. The close proximity of the waste disposal area from the production operation to the preparation, drying and storage areas suggests that cross-contamination, probably air-borne or insect-borne was a likely occurrence. The hands of workers were also identified as AFC sources. Results of this study highlight the need for the development of strategies to control aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in Philippine dried Cavendish bananas.

  4. Structures of Chlorophyll Catabolites in Bananas (Musa acuminata) Reveal a Split Path of Chlorophyll Breakdown in a Ripening Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  5. The evaluation of the dose calculation algorithm(AAA)'s accuracy in case of a radiation therapy on inhomogeneous tissues using FFF beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Woo; Chae, Seung Hoon; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Bo Gyoum; Kim, Chan Yong; Park, So Yeon; Yoo, Suk Hyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To verify the accuracy of the Ecilpse's dose calculation algorithm(AAA:Analytic anisotropic algorithm) in case of a radiation treatment on Inhomogeneous tissues using FFF beam comparing dose distribution at TPS with actual distribution. After acquiring CT images for radiation treatment by the location of tumors and sizes using the solid water phantoms, cork and chest tumor phantom made of paraffin, we established the treatment plan for 6MV photon therapy using our radiation treatment planning system for chest SABR, Ecilpse's AAA(Analytic anisotropic algorithm). According to the completed plan, using our TrueBeam STx(Varian medical system, Palo Alto, CA), we irradiated radiation on the chest tumor phantom on which EBT2 films are inserted and evaluated the dose value of the treatment plan and that of the actual phantom on Inhomogeneous tissue. The difference of the dose value between TPS and measurement at the medial target is 1.28-2.7%, and, at the side of target including inhomogeneous tissues, the difference is 2.02%-7.40% at Ant, 4.46%-14.84% at Post, 0.98%-7.12% at Rt, 1.36%-4.08% at Lt, 2.38%-4.98% at Sup, and 0.94%-3.54% at Inf. In this study, we discovered the possibility of dose calculation's errors caused by FFF beam's characteristics and the inhomogeneous tissues when we do SBRT for inhomogeneous tissues. SBRT which is most popular therapy method needs high accuracy because it irradiates high dose radiation in small fraction. So, it is supposed that ideal treatment is possible if we minimize the errors when planning for treatment through more study about organ's characteristics like Inhomogeneous tissues and FFF beam's characteristics.

  6. Whole-exome sequencing identifies homozygous AFG3L2 mutations in a spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome linked to mitochondrial m-AAA proteases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Mark Pierson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report an early onset spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in two brothers of a consanguineous family characterized clinically by lower extremity spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, cerebellar atrophy, and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1847G>A; p.Y616C in AFG3L2, encoding a subunit of an m-AAA protease. m-AAA proteases reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are responsible for removal of damaged or misfolded proteins and proteolytic activation of essential mitochondrial proteins. AFG3L2 forms either a homo-oligomeric isoenzyme or a hetero-oligomeric complex with paraplegin, a homologous protein mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia type 7 (SPG7. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AFG3L2 cause autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28, a disorder whose phenotype is strikingly different from that of our patients. As defined in yeast complementation assays, the AFG3L2(Y616C gene product is a hypomorphic variant that exhibited oligomerization defects in yeast as well as in patient fibroblasts. Specifically, the formation of AFG3L2(Y616C complexes was impaired, both with itself and to a greater extent with paraplegin. This produced an early-onset clinical syndrome that combines the severe phenotypes of SPG7 and SCA28, in additional to other "mitochondrial" features such as oculomotor apraxia, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and myoclonic epilepsy. These findings expand the phenotype associated with AFG3L2 mutations and suggest that AFG3L2-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spastic ataxias.

  7. Whole-exome sequencing identifies homozygous AFG3L2 mutations in a spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome linked to mitochondrial m-AAA proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Tyler Mark; Adams, David; Bonn, Florian; Martinelli, Paola; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Teer, Jamie K; Hansen, Nancy F; Cruz, Pedro; Mullikin For The Nisc Comparative Sequencing Program, James C; Blakesley, Robert W; Golas, Gretchen; Kwan, Justin; Sandler, Anthony; Fuentes Fajardo, Karin; Markello, Thomas; Tifft, Cynthia; Blackstone, Craig; Rugarli, Elena I; Langer, Thomas; Gahl, William A; Toro, Camilo

    2011-10-01

    We report an early onset spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in two brothers of a consanguineous family characterized clinically by lower extremity spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, cerebellar atrophy, and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1847G>A; p.Y616C) in AFG3L2, encoding a subunit of an m-AAA protease. m-AAA proteases reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are responsible for removal of damaged or misfolded proteins and proteolytic activation of essential mitochondrial proteins. AFG3L2 forms either a homo-oligomeric isoenzyme or a hetero-oligomeric complex with paraplegin, a homologous protein mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia type 7 (SPG7). Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AFG3L2 cause autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28), a disorder whose phenotype is strikingly different from that of our patients. As defined in yeast complementation assays, the AFG3L2(Y616C) gene product is a hypomorphic variant that exhibited oligomerization defects in yeast as well as in patient fibroblasts. Specifically, the formation of AFG3L2(Y616C) complexes was impaired, both with itself and to a greater extent with paraplegin. This produced an early-onset clinical syndrome that combines the severe phenotypes of SPG7 and SCA28, in additional to other "mitochondrial" features such as oculomotor apraxia, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and myoclonic epilepsy. These findings expand the phenotype associated with AFG3L2 mutations and suggest that AFG3L2-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spastic ataxias.

  8. MUSA KAZIM BEG’S VIEWS ABOUT PROFESSION OF TEACHING AND HIS IMPORTANCE FOR TURKISH EDUCATION HISTORY MUSA KÂZIM BEY’İN (1858–1919 TÜRK EĞİTİM TARİHİNDEKİ YERİ VE ÖĞRETMENLİK MESLEĞİNE İLİŞKİN GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ŞANAL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Musa Kâzım Beg was born in 1858, graduated from French department of Galatasaray High School in 1887 and taught in Kastamonu High School. In 1899, he came to Ankara and was assigned to French teacher and at the same time he was the second principle of Ankara High School after Pertev Beg. While he was the principle of Ankara High School, he gave lectures of teaching in Ankara Teacher Training College. He gathered his lectures in his monument “Rehber-i Tedris ve Terbiye”. He managed to publish first volume in 1894 and second volume in 1897. This work is mostly about his views about profession of teaching and his basic approaches about the occupation. Musa Kazım Beg in this two volumes work presents the required occupational courses in this term and in addition the work reflects the pedagogical understanding of the term. By these characteristics, the work set light to today’s academicians 1858 yılında doğan Musa Kâzım Bey, 1887 yılında Galatasaray Lisesi’nin Fransızca öğretim yapan bölümünden mezun olmuş, Kastamonu İdadisi’nde öğretmenlik yapmış, daha sonra 1899 yılında Ankara’ya gelerek Ankara İdadisi’ne Pertev Bey’den sonra okulun ikinci müdürü aynı zamanda da Fransızca öğretmeni olarak atanmıştır. Musa Kâzım Bey, Ankara İdadisi’nin müdürlüğünü yaparken Ankara Darülmuallimîni’nde (Öğretmen Okulu meslek dersleri öğretmenliği görevinde de bulunmuştur. İşte Ankara Darülmuallimîni’nde meslek dersleri öğretmeni olarak vermiş olduğu dersleri 1894 (1310 yılında ilk cildini, 1897 (1313 yılında da ikinci cildini yayımladığı “Rehber-i Tedris ve Terbiye” adlı eserinde bir araya getirme başarısını göstermiştir. Bu çalışma; ağırlıklı olarak Musa Kâzım Bey’in 1894 ve 1897 yıllarında kaleme almış olduğu bu iki ciltlik eserindeki öğretmenlik mesleğine ilişkin bakış açısının ne olduğunu ve öğretmenlik mesleğine ilişkin temel g

  9. Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Oliveira Cruz, Viviane; Emediato, Flavia L.; de Camargo Teixeira, Cristiane; Souza, Manoel T.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Claudia F.; Amorim, Edson P.; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Martins, Natalia F.; de Jesus Barbosa Cavalcante, Maria; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios J.; Pignolet, Luc; Abadie, Catherine; Ciampi, Ana Y.; Piffanelli, Pietro; Miller, Robert N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana–Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were developed as a resource for crop improvement. Methodology cDNA libraries were constructed from in vitro-infected leaves from BLSD-resistant M. acuminata ssp. burmaniccoides Calcutta 4 (MAC4) and susceptible M. acuminata cv. Cavendish Grande Naine (MACV). Clones were 5′-end Sanger sequenced, ESTs assembled with TGICL and unigenes annotated using BLAST, Blast2GO and InterProScan. Mreps was used to screen for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), with markers evaluated for polymorphism using 20 diploid (AA) M. acuminata accessions contrasting in resistance to Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases. Principal results A total of 9333 high-quality ESTs were obtained for MAC4 and 3964 for MACV, which assembled into 3995 unigenes. Of these, 2592 displayed homology to genes encoding proteins with known or putative function, and 266 to genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Gene ontology (GO) classification identified 543 GO terms, 2300 unigenes were assigned to EuKaryotic orthologous group categories and 312 mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. A total of 624 SSR loci were identified, with trinucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant in MAC4 (54.1 %) and MACV (57.6 %). Polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions was observed with 75 markers. Alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 8, totalling 289. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.81. Conclusions This EST collection offers a resource for studying functional genes, including

  10. Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert NG

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequence analysis of complex loci such as resistance gene analog clusters allows estimating the degree of sequence conservation and mechanisms of divergence at the intraspecies level. In banana (Musa sp., two diploid wild species Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome contribute to the polyploid genome of many cultivars. The M. balbisiana species is associated with vigour and tolerance to pests and disease and little is known on the genome structure and haplotype diversity within this species. Here, we compare two genomic sequences of 253 and 223 kb corresponding to two haplotypes of the RGA08 resistance gene analog locus in M. balbisiana "Pisang Klutuk Wulung" (PKW. Results Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year

  11. Analysis of non-TIR NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata Colla: Isolation, RFLP marker development, and physical mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Manoel T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many commercial banana varieties lack sources of resistance to pests and diseases, as a consequence of sterility and narrow genetic background. Fertile wild relatives, by contrast, possess greater variability and represent potential sources of disease resistance genes (R-genes. The largest known family of plant R-genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for isolation of candidate genes in banana which may be involved in plant defence. Results A computational strategy was developed for unbiased conserved motif discovery in NBS and LRR domains in R-genes and homologues in monocotyledonous plant species. Degenerate PCR primers targeting conserved motifs were tested on the wild cultivar Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, which is resistant to a number of fungal pathogens and nematodes. One hundred and seventy four resistance gene analogs (RGAs were amplified and assembled into 52 contiguous sequences. Motifs present were typical of the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGA subfamily. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences for 33 RGAs with contiguous open reading frames (ORFs, together with RGAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, grouped most Musa RGAs within monocotyledon-specific clades. RFLP-RGA markers were developed, with 12 displaying distinct polymorphisms in parentals and F1 progeny of a diploid M. acuminata mapping population. Eighty eight BAC clones were identified in M. acuminata Calcutta 4, M. acuminata Grande Naine, and M. balbisiana Pisang Klutuk Wulung BAC libraries when hybridized to two RGA probes. Multiple copy RGAs were common within BAC clones, potentially representing variation reservoirs for evolution of new R-gene specificities. Conclusion This is the first large scale analysis of NBS-LRR RGAs in M. acuminata Calcutta 4. Contig sequences were

  12. Respuesta Glucémica e Insulínica de Pacientes con Diabetes Tipo 2 al consumo de Sopa de Calabaza Criolla (Cucúrbita Pepo L. Enriquecida con Almidón de Banano Glycemic and Insulinic Response of Patients with Type 2 diabetes to the consumption of Pumpkin Soup Creole (Cucúrbita Pepo L. Enriched with Banana Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel E Torres-Zapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el índice glucémico y la respuesta insulínica de una sopa conteniendo almidón nativo de banano. Los efectos benéficos del consumo de almidón resistente sobre el control glucémico han sido reportados previamente, pero estos parámetros no han sido suficientemente estudiados. Las determinaciones se realizaron en 12 sujetos sanos y 12 con diabetes tipo 2 y el índice glucémico de la sopa fue de 31.79. Las áreas bajo las curvas de glucosa e insulina fueron menores en los grupos con la sopa en comparación con el alimento de referencia (PThe aim of this study was to determine the glycemic index value and the insulinic response of a soup containing native banana starch. The beneficial effects of resistant starch in dietary supplementation on glycemic control have been reported previously, but these parameters have not been sufficiently studied. Determinations were carried out in two groups: one of 12 healthy subjects and other with 12 type 2 diabetes. The estimated glycemic index value of the soup was 31.79. The total glucose and insulin areas under the curves were reduced in comparison with the reference food (P <0.01. The enriched soup with native banana starch might help in preventing type 2 diabetes prevalence in health subjects with high risk. Also, this product can be used to decrease complications of people with diabetes.

  13. Study on Chemical Components of Essential Oils from Fresh and Dry Rhizoma Musae by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%鲜、干品芭蕉根挥发油化学成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥培; 许士娜; 吴红梅; 靳凤云

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and compare the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from fresh and dried Rhizoma Musae. Method: Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh and dried Rhizoma Musae which came from the same plant, was analyzed by GC-MS. Result: Thirty-six compounds were characterized,representing 76. 28% of the fresh Rhizoma Musae volatile oil, whereas in the dried Rhizoma Musae oil, only 32 compounds were characterized, representing 81.78 %. Conclusion: Among them, the majority were pentadecanal,squalene and heptenal. Their relative content was 19.60%, 11.46%, 8.69% in fresh Rhizoma Musae oils and 17.37 % , 8.87%, 5.07 % from dried Rhizoma Musae, respectively. The relative contents of other chemical constituents were different.%目的:分析比较新鲜和千燥芭蕉根挥发油的化学成分,为芭蕉根的开发利用提供参考.方法:采用水蒸汽蒸馏法分别提取来自同一植株的干、鲜品芭蕉根的挥发油,通过气相色谱-质谱联用法分析和鉴定化学成分.结果:鲜品芭蕉根挥发油中鉴定出36种成分,占总量的76.28%;而干品芭蕉根挥发油中鉴定出32种成分,占总量的81.78%.结论:两者的共有成分中,含量较高的是十五醛、角鲨烯和正庚醛,其在鲜品芭蕉根中的相对含量分别为19.60%,11.46%,8.69%,而在干品芭蕉根中则为17.37%,8.87%,5.07%.其他化学成分及其含量存在差异.

  14. Identification of intact long-chain p-hydroxycinnamate esters in leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, José C; Rodríguez, Isabel M; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2004-01-01

    The study of acetone-extractable components from the leaf fibers of the non-wood plant abaca (Musa textilis) resulted in the isolation and identification of series of intact hydroxycinnamate esters consisting of ferulic and p-coumaric acids esterified to long-chain fatty alcohols (C20 to C28) and omega-hydroxyfatty acids (C22 to C28). These series of compounds were characterized by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using capillary columns (12 m length) with thin films that allowed the analysis of intact (i.e., without prior saponification) hydroxycinnamate esters. Characterization of intact individual compounds was achieved based on the mass spectra obtained by GC/MS of the underivatized compounds and their methyl and/or trimethylsilyl ether derivatives.

  15. Mercury accumulation in selected tissues of shrimp Penaeus merguiensis from Musa estuary, Persian Gulf: variations related to sex, size, and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Parsa, Yaghoob; Ardashir, Rashid Alijani

    2014-09-01

    The levels of mercury in tissues of Penaeus merguiensis from Musa estuary, northwest of the Persian Gulf, were investigated. This study assessed the relationship between mercury levels in hepatopancrea, gill, and muscle with sex, size, and season. The order of mercury concentrations in tissues of the shrimp P. merguiensis was as follows: hepatopancreas > gill > muscle. There was a positive correlation between mercury concentrations in shrimp species with sex and size of its food items. We expected to see higher mercury levels in tissues of female species because they are larger and can eat larger food items. Also, there was a positive correlation between mercury concentrations in shrimp species with its food source. Therefore, female species feed more on shrimp and plant and are contaminated with high levels of mercury. There was significant difference (p mercury levels between different seasons; higher mercury levels were found in July (summer season).

  16. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazinga, MK.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp. in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augmented significantly at this concentration (with leaves as an exception. Plant height was reduced strongly even at 100 ppm CuSO4, although the copper content in shoots and leaves was very low.

  17. Caracterización de harina y almidón obtenidos a partir de plátano guineo AAAea (Musa sapientum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En el estudio se caracterizaron las propiedades química, térmica, funcional y morfológica de la harina y el almidón de guineo AAAea (Musa sapientum L.). Los resultados mostraron un rendimiento de 33.33% para harina y 3.61% para almidón. El porcentaje de proteína en la harina fue de 5.43% y en almidón de 2.17%. La fibra soluble en harina fue de 19.85% y de grasa en el almidón de 4.11 %. El análisis térmico de la harina mostró que la etapa de descomposición varía desde 141.33 °C hasta 388.30 °C...

  18. Histology of Callogenesis in Diploid Bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Yellow compact calluses were induced from in vitro-grown shoot tips of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata, AA group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang� on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 100 mg/L malt extract, 50 mg/L proline, 50 mg/L cysteine, 100 mg/L glutamine, 1 mg/L biotin, 7 mg/L Dicamba and 2 mg/L TDZ. Green shoot buds were induced after transfer of the yellow compact calluses to the same MS medium but supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L BA and plant regeneration was achieved through organogenesis in callus cultures. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.2% activated charcoal but without plant growth regulators. Histological analysis revealed that calluses originated from small dense cells with well stained cytoplasm and nucleus typical of meristematic cells.

  19. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend.

  20. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31 + G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100 mW·cm- 2 yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2 μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22 ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29 ms.

  1. Pollination Ecology of a Pioneer Species: Musa itinerans (Musaceae) in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China%西双版纳先锋植物野芭蕉的传粉生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱忠; 李德铢; 王红

    2001-01-01

    Pollination ecology of Musa itinerans Cheesman (Musaceae), apioneer species in the tropical rain forest, was explored in Xishuangbanna, South Yunnan, China. This research involved flowering phenology, nectar production, visitation patterns of pollinators and bagging experiments. It was found that (1) flowering of M. itinerans occurred a whole year round with a peak at the early dry season (Nov.) and the daily flowering pattern had two obvious peaks in the early morning and in the late evening, respectively; (2) nectar production occurred at two obvious peaks, during the day and in the night-time (from 8 am to 12 pm, and from 8 pm to 12 am, respectively), which allowed the two different foragers to visit at specific times; and (3) long-tongue fruit bats (Macroglossus sobrinus) and sunbirds (Arachnothera longirostris) were both effective pollinators of Musa itinerans.

  2. Diverse pore loops of the AAA+ ClpX machine mediate unassisted and adaptor-dependent recognition of ssrA-tagged substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andreas; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2008-02-29

    ClpX, an archetypal proteolytic AAA+ unfoldase, must engage the ssrA tags of appropriate substrates prior to ATP-dependent unfolding and translocation of the denatured polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, specificity-transplant and disulfide-crosslinking experiments reveal that the ssrA tag interacts with different loops that form the top, middle, and lower portions of the central channel of the ClpX hexamer. Our results support a two-step binding mechanism, in which the top loop serves as a specificity filter and the remaining loops form a binding site for the peptide tag relatively deep within the pore. Crosslinking experiments suggest a staggered arrangement of pore loops in the hexamer and nucleotide-dependent changes in pore-loop conformations. This mechanism of initial tag binding would allow ATP-dependent conformational changes in one or more pore loops to drive peptide translocation, force unfolding, and mediate threading of the denatured protein through the ClpX pore.

  3. Differential roles of the COOH termini of AAA subunits of PA700 (19 S regulator) in asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Thomas G; Kumar, Brajesh; Thompson, David; Slaughter, Clive A; DeMartino, George N

    2008-11-14

    The 26 S proteasome is an energy-dependent protease that degrades proteins modified with polyubiquitin chains. It is assembled from two multi-protein subcomplexes: a protease (20 S proteasome) and an ATPase regulatory complex (PA700 or 19 S regulatory particle) that contains six different AAA family subunits (Rpt1 to -6). Here we show that binding of PA700 to the 20 S proteasome is mediated by the COOH termini of two (Rpt2 and Rpt5) of the six Rpt subunits that constitute the interaction surface between the subcomplexes. COOH-terminal peptides of either Rpt2 or Rpt5 bind to the 20 S proteasome and activate hydrolysis of short peptide substrates. Simultaneous binding of both COOH-terminal peptides had additive effects on peptide substrate hydrolysis, suggesting that they bind to distinct sites on the proteasome. In contrast, only the Rpt5 peptide activated hydrolysis of protein substrates. Nevertheless, the COOH-terminal peptide of Rpt2 greatly enhanced this effect, suggesting that proteasome activation is a multistate process. Rpt2 and Rpt5 COOH-terminal peptides cross-linked to different but specific subunits of the 20 S proteasome. These results reveal critical roles of COOH termini of Rpt subunits of PA700 in the assembly and activation of eukaryotic 26 S proteasome. Moreover, they support a model in which Rpt subunits bind to dedicated sites on the proteasome and play specific, nonequivalent roles in the asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

  4. [In vitro activity of different fungicides on the growth in Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis Stover and Dickson, Cladosporium musae Morelet and Deightoniella torulosa (Syd.) Ellis, isolated parasites of the banana phyllosphere in the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Daouda; Badou, Odjochoumou Jean; Bomisso, Edson Lezin; Camara, Brahima; Ake, Séverin

    2009-05-01

    In Côte-d'Ivoire, banana leaf surfaces are attacked by Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, Cladosporium musae, and Deigthonielle torulosa. Control is based on fungicides recommanded for Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Fungicides belonging to triazoles and strobilurines types were added, at different concentrations, to the PDA medium, using this PDA medium containing no fungicide as the control. Mycelium disc and spores of Cladosporium musae, Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Deightoniella torulosa were put on the different media. Total inhibition of mycelium growth of every fungus on the PDA amended with propiconazole was observed. The fungicides used show different activities according to their concentration and their mode of action. The application of a fungicide should talke into account the pathogenic fungus involved in the leaf attacked. Against Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, the Ci(50) are different according to the concentrations (0.44 to 1.06 ppm). Correlations ranked from 0.71 to 0.91 are also different according to fungicide used. The Ci(50) of Cladosporium musae (0.10 to 2.44 ppm) and Deightoniella torulosa (0.26 to 0.52 ppm) are different and their correlations are respectively 0.78 to 0.99 and 0.86 to 0.95. An assessment of the sensitivity of parasitic fungi of banana can be made by mycelium growth measurement of fungi isolated from resistance zones.

  5. Effects of Semen astragali complanati on BCAA and AAA levels of blood in exercise-induced fatigue rats%沙苑子对运动性疲劳大鼠血清BCAA、AAA的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑾; 熊正英

    2010-01-01

    分析中药沙苑子对运动性疲劳模型大鼠血清支链氨基酸(branched-chain amino acid,BCAA)及芳香族氨基酸(aromatic amino acid,AAA)的影响,为沙苑子作为运动保健品的开发利用提供实验依据.选用SD(Sprague Dawley,SD)雄性大鼠24只,体重190~230 g,随机分为安静对照组、一般训练组、强化训练组、强化加药组(各6只),进行7周递增负荷跑台运动建立运动性疲劳大鼠模型,于第8周始运动即刻后取材,运用氨基酸自动分析仪测定大鼠血清游离氨基酸含量.结果表明,长时间耐力跑台运动应激使大鼠血清BCAA含量有所下降,AAA尤其是游离色氨酸(free-tryptophan,f-Trp)含量上升,沙苑子可抑制BCAA下降、AAA上升趋势;长时间耐力跑台运动使实验大鼠血清f-Trp/BCAA、AAA/BCAA显著增加,运动过程中血中蛋白质代谢增强,BCAA大量分解供能,AAA相对增多,从而使f-Trp/BCAA、AAA/BCAA增高.沙苑子可以抑制f-Trp/BCAA、AAA/BCAA上升,且对强化训练引起的f-Trp/BCAA、AAA/BCAA升高有显著的降低作用.沙苑子可促进强化训练大鼠AAA的消除,利于脑中AAA与BCAA间的平衡,改善机体对运动疲劳的适应能力,有利于推迟疲劳的发生.

  6. Upregulation of MicroRNA-15a Contributes to Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) by Modulating the Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Si, Jiyuan; Yang, Bin; Yu, Jixiang

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to identify the association between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B, and their roles in regulating the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Material/Methods We searched the miRNA database online (www.mirdb.org) and used a luciferase reporter assay system to study the regulatory relationship between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B. We also conducted real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to study the mRNA and protein expression level of CDKN2B among different patient groups (participants with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and normal controls) or cells treated with scramble control, miR-15a-5p mimics, CDKN2B siRNA, and miR-15a-5p inhibitors. Results We found that CDKN2B was a virtual target of miR-15a-5p with potential binding sites in the 3′UTR of CDKN2B (77–83 bp). We also showed that miR-15a-5p could bind to the CDKN2B 3′UTR, resulting in a significant decrease in luciferase activity compared with the scramble control. Furthermore, we found that the cells isolated from AAA participants showed an over-expression of miR-15a-5p compared to the normal controls, while the CDKN2B mRNA and protein expression level of the AAA group were much lower than the normal control group. Additionally, the expression of CDKN2B mRNA and the protein of the cells transfected with miR-15a-5p mimics and CDKN2B siRNA was downregulated, while the cells showed upregulated expression subsequent to transfection with miR-15a-5p inhibitors compared to the scramble control. Conclusions The data revealed a negative regulatory role of miR-15a-5p in the apoptosis of smooth muscle cells via targeting CDKN2B, and showed that miR-15a-5p could be a novel therapeutic target of AAA. PMID:28214350

  7. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki [Department of Life Systems, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko [Department of Life Systems, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Nagahama, Masami, E-mail: nagahama@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. - Highlights: • ATPase-deficient mutants of NVL2 have decreased pre-rRNA processing. • NVL2 associates with the nuclear exosome through interactions with MTR4 and RRP6. • MPP6 stabilizes MTR4-RRP6 interaction and allows NVL2 to interact with the complex.

  8. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  9. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  10. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of road user. 1 2 3 4 Traffic Safety News Distracted driving fines are up, but ... detailed data regarding when, where, and how much people drive and goes beyond existing federal data. Research ...

  11. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  12. Características del análisis proximal de harinas obtenidas de frutos de plátanos variedades Papocho y Pelipita (Musa ABB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Juan Espitia-Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se hizo un análisis proximal de las harinas crudas sin tratar obtenidas de frutos de las variedades de plátano Papocho y Pelipita (Musa ABB Simmonds no comerciales en diferentes etapas de desarrollo y se analizó su posible uso como materia prima alimenticia. Los resultados comparativos mostraron que los contenidos y porcentajes de fibra cruda en Papocho variaron entre 2.54 y 1.37% y en Pelipita entre 6.45 y 0.88%, la proteína cruda en Papocho entre 6.70 y 3.81% y en Pelipita entre 2.74 y 1.89%, la ceniza en Papocho entre 3.66 y 2.41% y en Pelipita entre 2.43 y 2.10%, y fueron afectados (P < 0.05 por la etapa de desarrollo de la fruta; mientras que la variedad de plátano afectó los contenidos de grasa en Papocho entre 0.64 y 0.48% y en Pelipita entre 0.55 y 0.35% en la harina de ambas variedades. En la variedad Pelipita el contenido de humedad (9.85% fue bajo. y presentó el mayor contenido de carbohidratos (85.86% a 77 días después de la floración.

  13. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  14. Determinación del tipo de planta adecuado para el monitoreo de poblaciones de Fito nematodos en plátano (Musa AAB (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Araya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On two plantations of first harvest of Musa AAB each consisting of separate lots of False Horn Plantain (Semi-Giant and Dwarf nematode populations were determined in plants with one to three days flowering and in their respective succeeding suckers. The objective was to determine if there is a relationship between the nematode population in mother plants and their succeeding suckers. Sixty and twenty plants of each cultivar were evaluated in Pococí (70 masl and Matina (40 masl locations, respectively. Nematodes were extracted by maceration of the roots, pouring the suspension through a series of 0.5/0.150/0.038 mm (N° 30/100/400 mesh sieves nested together with the 0.5 mm on top. Populations levels were expressed per 100 g of roots. The results showed no linear relationship between the nematode populations of the flowering plants and their succeeding sucker. Although the differences were not statistically significant, the densities of R. similis determined in flowering plants tended in most cases to overestimate the populations in the succeeding suckers. Sampling flowering plants at Pococí (70 masl overestimated Helicotylenchus spp. populations in the succession suckers of both cultivars, while those at Matina (40 masl were underestimated. The estimation of Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. populations was also not reliable. To decide on nematicide applications, it is recommended to sample the succeeding suckers of recently flowering plants.

  15. Intellectual property protection through the geographical indication “Chã de Jardim” of the banana leaf handicrafts (musa sp. in the State of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo de França

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a Brazilian Geographical Indication System has been guided by a far wider range of goods, ranging from industrial and agricultural products, services, and even craftwork. Taking into account social, cultural and geographical characteristics, as well as the ethnic constitution of the population of Areia city in the State of Paraiba (Brazil, it is possible to suppose the vast local knowledge that this city’s communities have accumulated over the decades while they seek to incorporate such knowledge in their daily practices. One of the artesanal activities subject to protection of Geographical Indication (IG is the use of banana’s plant (Musa sp. stem as a raw material for some  manufactured products such as handbags, light fixtures, folders for events, cooking utensils etc. The IG records for this type of activity can value the local knowledge regarding the sustainable use of biodiversity and promote the cultural traditions of Areia city, bringing also improvements to the communities involved and consequently increasing the regional development. The identified geographical name to be protected for craftwork is “Chã de Jardim”. It is suggested that “Chã de Jardim” becomes protected by indication of origin whereas the artesanal products of this region feature good reputation. JEL-Code | O33; Q56; R11.

  16. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  17. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Ramu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol. The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (−6.48 kcal/mol and docking energy (−8.2 kcal/mol with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases.

  18. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Venkatesh; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Krishnappa, Pradeepa; Shimoga Rajanna, Santosh Kumar; Deeplanaik, Nagaraja; Chandra Pal, Anup; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-01-01

    Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p) and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA) protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG) exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol). The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc) with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (−6.48 kcal/mol) and docking energy (−8.2 kcal/mol) with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases. PMID:28248219

  19. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Different gamma radiation doses effects of {sup 60} Co on buds of banana plant (Nanicao-AAA) breeded in vitro; Efeito de diferentes doses de radiacao gama do {sup 60} Co em gemas de bananeira (Nanicao-AAA) desenvolvidas in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Dias [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Andrade, Arnobio Goncalves de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Vegetal; Kido, Laureen Michelle Houllou; Franca, Jose Geraldo Eugenio de [Empresa Pernambucasna de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (IPA), Recife, (Brazil); Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Buds from banana cv. Nanicao-AAA (3 mm x 3 mm) were aseptically cultured in a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplement with bezylaminepurine and sucrose, and solidified with agar. Buds placed on sterile Petri dishes were irradiated with increasing gamma rays doses (10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy). The statistical design was completely randomized with 5 doses and 30 replications. After irradiation, buds were transferred to 10 ml of the same medium into test tubes, and allowed to grow in a controlled environment (25 deg C, 16 h illumination ) for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences (Tukey, 0,05) between doses in terms of oxidation: in around 20% for all treatments. On the other hand, a statistically significant decrease in the germination of new buds with increased doses of irradiation was observed. The treatment with 40 Gy reduced in 80% the germination of new buds by the end of the evaluated period (4 weeks), resulting in a mean production of 1,5 buds. Mean production in the control was 7,6 buds. no statistically significant differences were detected between treatments with 10, 20, and 30 Gy, with a mean production of 3 buds, less than half obtained in the control. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Efectos de recubrimientos de almidón de yuca, ácido ascórbico, n-acetil-cisteína en la calidad del plátano (musa paradisiaca)

    OpenAIRE

    Palacín Beltrán, José Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El efecto de recubrimientos funcionales sobre la calidad de frutos de plátano Hartón (Musa paradisiaca) fue evaluado en la etapa de poscosecha. Las soluciones fueron preparadas a partir de almidón de yuca comercial (Maniot esculenta) 50 g/L, como plastificantes se usaron glicerol 30 g/L y polietilen glicol@600® 6 g/L, se adicionaron como antipardeantes, ácido ascórbico (AC) 6 g/L, (correspondiente al tratamiento 1 @ tr 1), N@acetil@cisteína (NAC) 8 g/L (concer...

  2. Presencia de flavonoides y metales pesados en el suelo, aplicando residuos agroindustriales biotransformados de la caña de azúcar “Saccharum officinarum” y el plátano “musa spp.” / Presencia de flavonoides y metales pesados en el suelo, aplicando residuos agroindustriales biotransformados de la caña de azúcar “Saccharum officinarum” y el plátano “musa spp.”

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Londoño, Diana María

    2008-01-01

    Con el propósito de evaluar la presencia de los Flavonoides y metales pesados en el suelo, aplicando los residuos agroindustriales biotransformados de la caña de azúcar “Saccharum officinarum” y el plátano “Musa spp”, se constituyeron 8 tratamientos a base de residuos de Caña de azúcar y Raquis de plátano, en parcelas a las cuales, no se les ha realizado ninguna aplicación de fertilizantes químicos. Las evaluaciones fueron en dos épocas (Seca y Humedad), realizando mediciones de Materia orgán...

  3. Efeito da interação entre carvão ativado e N6-benzilaminopurina na propagação in vitro de bananeira, cv. Grand Naine (AAA Interaction effect between activated charcoal and N6-benzylaminopurine in the in vitro propagation of banana, cultivar Grand Naine (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O carvão ativado possui a propriedade de adsorver os compostos fenólicos liberados pela oxidação dos tecidos lesionados durante o cultivo in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da interação entre o carvão ativado e diferentes concentrações de N6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro da bananeira, cv. Grande Naine (AAA. O meio de cultura utilizado foi o MS, solidificado com 5 g.L-1 de ágar. O cultivo foi mantido em sala de crescimento a 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 30 mmol.m-2s-1. Foram avaliadas a presença e a ausência de carvão ativado (0 e 3 g.L-1 e quatro concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 6 mg.L-1 no meio de cultura. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em um sistema fatorial 2x4. Os explantes foram avaliados a cada 30 dias, por um período de quatro subcultivos. Após cada subcultivo, o comprimento de brotações, a taxa de multiplicação, o vigor, o nível de oxidação das brotações emitidas e o número de raízes formadas foram avaliados. Independentemente das concentrações de BAP, o carvão ativado influenciou significativamente em todas as variáveis analisadas. De maneira geral, a adição de carvão ativado afetou negativamente a taxa de multiplicação, embora tenha melhorado o vigor e o número de raízes e diminuído a oxidação dos explantes. Na ausência de carvão ativado, o BAP proporcionou as maiores taxas de multiplicação das brotações.Active charcoal has the capacity to fix phenolic compounds released by the oxidation of manipulated tissues during in vitro cultivation. The present work objective was to evaluate the interaction effects between active charcoal, combined to different BAP concentrations in the in vitro banana propagation, cv. Grand Nain (AAA. The culture medium used was the MS, solidified with 5 g.L-1 agar. Cultures were kept in a growth room at 25 ± 2ºC with a photoperiod of 16 h at 30 mmol

  4. Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de bananeira, cultivar Pacovan Somaclonal variation event on micropropagated Pacovan banana seedling (Musa spp. AAB group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Christina Carvalho dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A literatura tem relatado a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em plantas derivadas de cultura de tecidos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a influência do número de subcultivos na indução de variantes em bananeira, cultivar Pacovan (Musa spp., grupo AAB. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos e multiplicados in vitro, utilizando-se no estabelecimento o meio de cultura MS com adição de 2,5 mg.L-1 de BAP e nos subcultivos subseqüentes, o meio MS com 4,0 mg.L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações laterais. Foram obtidas gerações com diferentes números de subcultivos (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9, e comparadas com mudas obtidas de rizomas. Observaram-se as plantas obtidas, no total de 426, em condições de campo no Vale do Açu (RN. Para cálculo da porcentagem de variantes somaclonais, avaliaram-se as seguintes características morfológicas: estatura da planta, coloração e forma das folhas e conformação do cacho. Foram consideradas como variantes apenas as plantas cujos perfilhos também mostravam o mesmo tipo de variação. Constatou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal nas mudas provenientes dos tratamentos a partir de cinco subcultivos, atingindo-se o valor de 5,8% de variantes no nono subcultivo. O aumento da porcentagem de variação somaclonal com o do número de subcultivos indica o cuidado que as biofábricas devem ter em relação a esse parâmetro, desenvolvendo protocolos de micropropagação específicos para cada cultivar a ser comercializada.The occurrence of somaclonal variation for plants in developed from tissue culture is well documented in the literature. The present study evaluated the influence of numbers subculture in the induction of variants in Pacovan banana tree (Musa spp., AAB group. Apex stems were introduced and multiplied in vitro using culture media MS, with addition of 2.5 mg.L-1 of BAP. In subsequent subcultures, MS with 4.0 mg.L-1 of BAP was used to induce side buds. Results showed that plants were

  5. Caracterización de harina y almidón obtenidos a partir de plátano guineo AAAea (Musa sapientum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se caracterizaron las propiedades química, térmica, funcional y morfológica de la harina y el almidón de guineo AAAea (Musa sapientum L.. Los resultados mostraron un rendimiento de 33.33% para harina y 3.61% para almidón. El porcentaje de proteína en la harina fue de 5.43% y en almidón de 2.17%. La fibra soluble en harina fue de 19.85% y de grasa en el almidón de 4.11 %. El análisis térmico de la harina mostró que la etapa de descomposición varía desde 141.33 °C hasta 388.30 °C con una pérdida de peso de 55.85%. Para el almidón esta misma condición ocurrió entre los 248 °C y 327 °C con una pérdida de peso de 74.15%. Las temperaturas de gelatinización para harina y almidón fueron de 68 y 66.41 °C, respectivamente, con entalpías de gelatinización 2.38 J/g para harina y 6.06 J/g para almidón. En el análisis de RVA durante el período de enfriamiento, tanto la harina como el almidón presentaron buena viscosidad. La mayor parte de los gránulos de almidón mostraron formas irregulares, aunque algunos tienen forma esférica u oval. Los tamaños varían desde 4.17 µm hasta 42.11 µm.

  6. Tiempo de almacenamiento del cormo y su efecto en el crecimiento y producción de plátano (Musa AAB Dominico Hartón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aristizábal L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento del material de siembra sobre el crecimiento y producción del plátano (Musa AAB, utilizando cormos de plantas sanas libres de tejido necrosado.La mitad de ellos fueron sumergidos durante 60 min en una solución de 15 g de carbofurán y 20 g de manzate en 10 L de agua, después de lo cual tanto los cormos tratados como los no tratados fueron colocados sobre el suelo y cubiertos con hojas frescas de plátano. Cada semana, durante un período de 6 semanas, se tomó la cantidad necesaria de cormos para plantar a una distancia de 3m entre surcos y 2m entre plantas, en un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por repetición. En floración se hicieron registros de altura de planta, diámetro del pseudotallo, número de hojas funcionales presentes y hojas jóvenes manchadas; en cosecha se registró el peso de los racimos y se calculó el peso promedio del dedo en cada uno de ellos. Se encontró que el almacenamiento del cormo reduce el crecimiento de la planta sin afectar la severidad de la Sigatoka del plátano, igualmente reduce de forma severa y significativa el peso del racimo y el tamaño de dedo; no obstante, el tratamiento preventivo del cormo tiene efecto positivo en el crecimiento y producción de la planta, aunque no reduce el daño causado por el envejecimiento del material de propagación.

  7. Efectos de dos sistemas de producción en el contenido de minerales en el fruto de Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Barrera-Violeth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción orgánico y/o ecológico tienen como objetivo garantizar la sostenibilidad y la renovación de base natural, mediante la limitación del uso de productos de síntesis química para favorecer el ambiente y la salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta estas características, se estudió el efecto de los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional sobre el contenido de nutrientes minerales del fruto del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds, durante el proceso de maduración. Las determinaciones se realizaron en la Universidad de Córdoba (Montería, Colombia con el fin de establecer las diferencias en el contenido de minerales en los frutos en ambos sistemas y en diferentes estados de maduración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5 y cinco repeticiones. Los factores fueron: sistema de producción y estado de maduración; los cinco niveles del segundo factor correspondieron a los grados de maduración: verde-oscuro (V, verde-claro (VC, amarillo-verde (AV, amarillo (A y muy amarillo (MA. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que entre ambos sistemas de producción y en distintos grados de maduración, se presentan diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en los contenidos de calcio, magnesio, potasio, sodio, hierro y zinc.

  8. Efectos de dos sistemas de producción en el contenido de minerales en el fruto de Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Hernández Katty Julia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción orgánico y/o ecológico tienen como objetivo garantizar la sostenibilidad y la renovación de base natural, mediante la limitación del uso de productos de síntesis química para favorecer el ambiente y la salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta estas características, se estudió el efecto de los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional sobre el contenido de nutrientes minerales del fruto del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds, durante el proceso de maduración. Las determinaciones se realizaron en la Universidad de Córdoba (Montería, Colombia con el fin de establecer las diferencias en el contenido de minerales en los frutos en ambos sistemas y en diferentes estados de maduración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5 y cinco repeticiones. Los factores fueron: sistema de producción y estado de maduración; los cinco niveles del segundo factor correspondieron a los grados de maduración: verde-oscuro (V, verde-claro (VC, amarillo-verde (AV, amarillo (A y muy amarillo (MA. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que entre ambos sistemas de producción y en distintos grados de maduración, se presentan diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en los contenidos de calcio, magnesio, potasio, sodio, hierro y zinc.

  9. CRESCIMENTO E OXIDAÇÃO DE EXPLANTES DE BANANEIRA-PRATA (Musa AAB IN VITRO: I. CONCENTRAÇÕES DE SAIS DE FERRO, COBRE E ZINCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTINO SERGIO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes concentrações de ferro, cobre e zinco do meio MS (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 no controle da oxidação de explantes iniciais de bananeira-Prata (Musa AAB. Foram utilizadas três concentrações (100, 50 e 0 miM de FeEDTA, duas concentrações (0,1 e 0miM de (CuSO4.5H2O e duas concentrações (30 e 0miM de (ZnSO4.7H2O, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em um fatorial completo 3 x 2 x 2, utilizando-se de 15 repetições. Ápices caulinares foram inoculados em meio MS modificado e, decorridos 28 dias após a inoculação, avaliaram-se a massa de matéria fresca, altura e grau de oxidação. Observou-se que esses micronutrientes são essenciais para o crescimento dos explantes e que a concentração de ferro influencia na oxidação de explantes, sendo que maiores graus de escurecimento foram observados nas concentrações mais elevadas. A redução ou retirada destes elementos do meio MS, isoladamente ou em combinações, não foi suficiente para eliminar a oxidação dos explantes.

  10. Effect of cassava-starch coatings with ascorbic acidic and N-acetylcysteine on the quality of harton plantain (Musa paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coatings was evaluated on the quality ofharton plantain fruits (Musa paradisiaca in the postharvest stage.Solutions for three treatments were prepared from 50 g L-1 cassavastarch (Manihot esculenta with 30 g L-1 glycerol as the plasticizerand 6 g L-1 polyethylene glycol-600®; for anti-browning agents, 6g L-1 ascorbic acid (AA and 8 g L-1 N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC wereadded. The fruits were coated by immersion, stored at 18 ± 4°Cand 85% RH. Physicochemical properties were determined at 32days postharvest. The applied coatings decreased the physiologicalweight loss (%WL and resulted in a higher pulp firmness (PF; nosignificant difference was seen with a confidence level of 95% inthe concentration of total soluble solids (TSS, acidity or maturityindex. The skin color was measured by the CIE L*a*b* method, withan average L value of 70 for the fruits coated with the 6 g L-1 AAand 8 g L-1 NAC mixture, while the control fruits had a value of 57.Also, lower a* coordinate values and browning indices were foundfor the epidermis of the coated fruits. The enzymatic activity of thepolyphenol oxidase decreased with the number of postharvest daysfor all of the treatments, being lower for the fruits with the mixtureof anti-browning agents by 27%, as compared to the control. It wasconcluded that the coating mixture containing the anti-browningagents ascorbic acid, 6 g L-1, and N-acetyl-cysteine, 8 g L-1, showeda better effect as an alternative for storing fruits and prolongingthe shelf-life of harton plantain.

  11. Evaluación de micorrizas nativas en plantas de plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds en fase de vivero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Barrera-Violeth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se evalúo el efecto de la aplicación de tres géneros nativos de micorrizas vesículo arbusculares sobre el crecimiento de plantas de plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds en etapa de vivero. Las cepas se obtuvieron de la colección del Laboratorio de Fitopatología de la Universidad de Córdoba, las cuales fueron aisladas de cultivos de plátano en los municipios de Lorica, Los Córdobas y San Bernardo del Viento. Se utilizó el diseño experimental completamente al azar, con seis tratamientos (T: Glomus sp. (T1, Acaullospora sp. (T2, Scutellospora sp. (T3, una combinación de los géneros Glomus, Acaullospora y Scutellospora (T4, un tratamiento químico de fosfato diamónico, DAP (T5 y un control absoluto (T6, con diez repeticiones por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que con la combinación de géneros de micorrizas (T4 se obtuvo un mayor número de esporas y un porcentaje más alto de infección, seguido de los tratamientos T1, T3 y T2. Además, con esta combinación se encontraron diferencias significativas en diámetro del pseudotallo, relación de área foliar:peso fresco y seco de raíz, en comparación con los demás tratamientos. El área foliar y la longitud de raíz fueron más altos en el tratamiento T5.

  12. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants.

  13. Statistical Analysis of the Effects of Drying Temperature and Pretreatment on the Proximate Composition of Dried Matured Green Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Yusuf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying has been identified as the efficient means of ensuring continuous food supply to the growing population of any country and to enable the farmers produce more high quality marketable products. In this study, the effects of drying temperature and pretreatment on the quality of dried mature green plantain (Musa paradisiaca were studied using an electrically-powered cabinet dryer. The product was dried from an initial moisture content of 62% (w.b to a moisture content of 11.9% (w.b. A factorial experiment in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD involving three levels of temperature (50, 60 and 70 0C; three levels of pretreatment (blanching, boiling and control and three replications were used. The quality analysis of the dried samples at different level of drying temperatures and pre-treatments was carried out for protein, fat, ash and fibre content and the data obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software to determine the level of significance among the treatment factors on the dried samples. The protein, fat and fibre content decreased with increase in temperature but the ash content increased with increase in temperature. In pretreatments, control had the highest protein content of 4.27% at 60 0C, lowest fat content of 2.26% at 70 0 C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.68% and 1.82% respectively at 60 0C. Boiled sample also had the highest fat content of 4.27% at 50 0C, lowest fat content 2.26% at 70 0C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.88% and 1.73% respectively at 60 0C. lastly, blanched sample had the highest fat content of 4.11% at 50 0 C, lowest fat content 2.54% at 70 0C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.83% and 1.45% respectively at 60 0C.

  14. Pretratamiento de residuos de plátano (Musa paradisiaca (L. AAB y arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft para la obtención de azúcares fermentables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Carranza Saavedra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El raquis de plátano Musa paradisiaca L. (AAB y el tallo cilíndrico corto (cepa que posee la arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft son los principales residuos generados durante el manejo poscosecha en la región del Tolima (Colombia. Muestras secas fueron sometidas a hidrólisis térmica a presiones de 0,1034 MPa (100,55 ºC; 0,2068 MPa (121,28 ºC y 0,4137 MPa (144,83 ºC de vapor saturado; a hidrólisis con ácido sulfúrico en concentraciones de 0,25; 0,50 y 1,00 M con calentamiento durante 1 y 2 horas; y por último se sacarificó con empleo de enzimas celulasas (Celluclast® 1.5 L a concentraciones de 7,5; 15,0 y 30,0 FPU/g. Los mejores rendimientos de carbohidratos reductores se obtuvieron al tratar el raquis y la cepa con ácido sulfúrico a concentración de 1,00 M por 1 hora de tiempo residencia. La torta resultante del proceso de filtración se hidrolizó enzimáticamente arrojando altas cantidades de obtención de azúcares fermentables en todo el proceso de 0,7734 g/g a partir del raquis (30 FPU/g y 0,7679 g/g a partir de la cepa (15 FPU/g. Los residuos agrícolas de plátano y arracacha pueden ser utilizados en la generación de azúcares fermentables.

  15. Granules morphology and rheological behavior of green banana (Musa cavendishii and corn (Zea mays starch gels Morfologia dos grânulos e comportamento reológico dos géis de amido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e milho (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was used starch obtained from green banana (Musa cavendishii and commercial corn (Zea mays starch in order to compare the granule morphology and the rheological behavior of these gel-starches. Images of starch granules morphology were obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM. The banana starch granules presented an oval and ellipsoidal shape with irregular diameters. Neverthless, the granules of corn starch showed a poliedric shape, with different sizes. The rheological behavior of gel starch solutions showed a non-newtonian character with a pseudoplastic behavior. Herschel-Bulkley model gave a good description on the rheological behavior of the gel starch. Banana gel-starch solutions showed higher values of shear stress and apparent viscosity when compared with corn gel-starch solutions. A progressive decrease in shear stress and viscosity occurred with the addition of sodium chloride and sucrose.No presente trabalho foi utilizado amido obtido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e amido de milho (Zea mays comercial, com o objetivo de comparar a morfologia dos grânulos e o comportamento reológico dos géis. As imagens da morfologia dos grânulos foram obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os grânulos de amido da banana apresentaram forma oval e elipsoidal com diâmetros irregulares, todavia, os grânulos do amido de milho mostraram forma poliédrica e diferentes tamanhos. As análises reológicas dos géis das soluções de amido mostraram caráter não-newtoniano, pseudoplástico. O modelo de Herschel-Bulkley foi o que melhor representou comportamento reológico dos géis. O gel de amido de banana verde obteve maiores valores de tensão de cisalhamento e viscosidade aparente quando comparada ao gel de amido de milho. Ocorreu um decréscimo progressivo na tensão de cisalhamento e na viscosidade com a adição de cloreto de sódio e sacarose aos géis.

  16. ASPECTOS ETIOLÓGICOS DA OCORRÊNCIA DA SECA DO CACHO DA BANANEIRA PRATA (Musa sp. AAB NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS ETHIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BANANA BUNCH DRYING OCCURRENCE IN Musa sp. AAB Cv. PRATA IN THE GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln F. Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho procurou-se determinar a causa da “seca do cacho” de banana do cultivar Prata (Musa sp. AAB e analisar alguns aspectos de sua ocorrência no Estado de Goiás. A doença afeta drasticamente a produção, e ocorre mais severamente durante o período chuvoso (outubro - abril, podendo, em certas regiões, afetar quase todos os cachos. Mediante os resultados obtidos em isolamentos sob condições axênicas e através da aplicação do postulado de Koch, determinou-se que a causa primária da doença á o fungo Gloeosporium musarum Cooke & Massee, atuando sob condições climáticas predisponentes. Foi sugerido que características clonais, condições climáticas e potencial de inóculo disponível sejam os principais fatores envolvidos na distribuição regional da enfermidade.

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the cause of the drying of the bunch in the “Prata banana” (Musa sp. AAB and to analyze some of the aspects of its occurrence in the State of Goiás. The disease drastically affects production, and occurs more severely during the rainy season (October to April , going so far as to affect almost all of the bunches in certain regions. Based on the results obtained in isolation, under aseptic conditions, and using Koch’s postulate, the primary cause of the disease was determined to be the fungus Gloesporium musarum Cooke & Massee, which acts under predisposing climatic conditions. It was suggested that clonal characteristics, climatic conditions, and the potential of available innoculum were the principal factors involved in the spread of the disease in certain regions.

  17. EFEITO DA EMBALAGEM COM SACOS DE POLIETILENO NO COMPORTAMENTO DO AMIDO NA POLPA DE BANANA DO CULTIVAR PRATA (Musa sp. NO PERÍODO DE CONSERVAÇÃO E MATURAÇÃO EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE PACKING BAGS ON THE STARCH BEHAVIOR IN THE CONSERVATION MATURATION PERIOD OF BANANA PULP CULTIVAR “PRATA” (Musa sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln F. Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste trabalho estudou-se o comportamento do amido da polpa de banana do cultivar “Prata" (Musa sp., sob os seguintes tratamentos: Testemunha, sem embalagem; Plástico perfurado; Plástico perfurado, contendo absorvente; Plástico sem perfuração; Plástico, sem perfuração, contendo absorvente. As bananas tratadas, foram acondicionadas em uma câmara com temperatura constante de 22 ± 1°C e umidade relativa de 90 ± 3%. Uma vez por dia era feita a ventilação da câmara. De dois em dois dias, retiravam-se amostras de cada tratamento e faziam-se as análises. Com auxílio das análises estatísticas dos dados obtidos conclui-se que: a. A embalagem com polietileno atrasa o início da queda do amido, mas não impede a sua transformação. b. a percentagem de amido na polpa, permanece constante até que, em dado momento, que varia com os tratamentos, inicia a sua variação. c. O uso de absorvente de etileno dentro da embalagem plástica, sem perfuração, atrasa mais o início da queda do amido, mas não impede que os frutos se tornem imprestáveis para o consumo.

    In this experiment, the behavior of starch in the pulp of banana Prata (Musa sp., was studied under the following treatments: bananas without packing, perforated plastic, perforated plastic with an absorbent, unperforated plastic, unperforated plastic containing an absorbent. The treated bananas, were shelved at 22 ± 1°C and a relative humidity of 90 ± 3%. Every 2 days, samples of each treatment were collected and analysis were made. With the help of statistical analyses of the data, the following conclusions were reached: a. The packaging with polyethylene delays the starch breakdown, but does not impede its transformation. b. The percentage of starch of the pulp remains constant until a given moment, which varies with each treatment, when its

  18. Analysis of Statistical Quality of Medical Papers in Some AAA Hospital%某三甲医院医学论文统计学质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 马金火

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know the issues of statistical methods in the medical papers issued in some AAA hospital, reduce the paper copying of medical staff and data falsification phenomenon, and improve the statistical thinking and science and research abilities of medical staff. Methods 1322 medical papers issued in some hospital from January 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed, and the statistical methods were summarized, and the existing mistakes were analyzed, and the statisti-cal knowledge awareness of medical staff in some hospital was surveyed after random selection. Results The statistical mis-takes in medical papers in some hospital mainly included the inappropriate selection of research objects, inaccurate selec-tion and application of statistical method, irrational statistical table and statistical index writing, inconsistent data analysis and results and wrong statistical conclusion description, and the questionnaire showed that the mastery degree of statistical knowledge of medical staff was not very ideal, 50%learned the medical statistical courses during the higher education, 57%had no idea of the common statistical analysis method and only 27% could use the Excel and SPSS software by themselves for statistical analysis. Conclusion In order to reduce the mistakes of statistical methods in the medical papers, we need to enhance the medical staff’s guidance study of common statistical knowledge and statistical software, construct the hospital staff scientific research application and paper publication management mechanism, organize the hospital scientific research experts and statistical experts to help the medical staff review the published papers, which will contribute to improving the scientificity, rationality, accuracy and authenticity of medical papers in some hospital.%目的:了解某三甲综合医院已发表医学论文中应用的统计学方法存在的问题,降低医务人员论文抄袭与数据造假现象,提高医院职工的统计思维

  19. Practice of Creating National AAA Safe and Civilized Demonstration Site in North Huaqiang Metro Station%华强北地铁创建国家级AAA安全文明示范工地实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新; 吴晓斌

    2015-01-01

    创建国家级AAA安全文明示范工地,提高地铁工程建设的形象,打造精品工程,增强企业的竞争力,提高安全意识和管理水平,交流先进管理经验,抓好工程整体推进及成本投入控制。采取“压噪音、抑扬尘、绝泥水、靓围挡”的文明施工总要求,减少对周边居民和商铺产生的影响,严格落实质量安全文明生产各项规定并形成长效机制,为把华强北建设成国家AAA级安全文明标准化诚信工地奠定了坚实的基础。%This paper tries to create national AAA safe and civilized demonstration site, improve the image of subway construction, create fine works, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, improve safety awareness and management level, exchange advanced management experience, and grasp the overall progress and cost investment control of project. This paper takes the general requirements of civil construction of "noise reduction, dust suppression, never muddy, good enclosure" to reduce the impact on nearby residents and shops, strictly implements the provisions of safety and civilized production quality and forms long-term mechanism, which has laid a solid foundation for the construction of national AAA safe and civilized demonstration site of north Huaqiang metro station.

  20. Expression of ACO1, ERS1 and ERF1 genes in harvested bananas in relation to heat-induced defense against Colletotrichum musae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangfei; Wang, Aiping; Zhu, Shijiang; Zhang, Lubin

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between heat-induced ethylene signal changes and enhanced disease resistance. Heat enhanced ripening and elevated MaACO1 expression in naturally ripened bananas (NRB), while it delayed ripening and reduced MaACO1expression in the ethephon-treated bananas (ETB). However, in both cases, heat reduced lesion sizes infected by Colletotrichum musae. This indicates that heat-induced disease resistance in bananas was independent of ripening rate. The expression of MaERS1 gene was inhibited by heat treatment in both NRB and ETB, implying that heat as a physical signal could be sensed by banana fruits through the inhibition of ethylene receptor gene expression. The intensity of MaERF1 transcript signals was elevated in heated bananas, suggesting that the enhanced accumulation of MaERF1 transcript following heat treatment could play an important role in activation of the defense system. In ETB, inhibition of JA biosynthesis by application of IBU down-regulated the expression of MaERF and significantly weakened disease resistance, suggesting involvement of endogenous JA in induction of the gene expression, which was reconfirmed by the fact that exposure to exogenous MeJA following the combination of heat plus IBU treatment restored part of the gene expression. On the other hand, in NRB, application of IBU elevated level of MaERF1 expression at 24h and enhanced disease resistance, suggesting that, when banana was not exposed to ethephon, the expression of MaERF1 gene was not JA dependent, which was verified by the fact that MeJA application did not enhance MaERF1 gene expression. In conclusion, heat-induced disease resistance in harvested bananas could involve down-regulation of MaERS1 expression and up-regulation of MaERF1 expression and JA pathway could be involved in heat activation of the defense system in bananas exposed to ethephon.

  1. Efecto de la edad de cosecha en las características poscosecha del plátano Dominico-Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Mejía-Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el departamento de Caldas, Colombia, se realizó la caracterización física, química y fisiológica durante las fases de cosecha y poscosecha del plátano Dominico Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds cultivado en el municipio de Belalcázar. La investigación se hizo con frutos de 14, 16 y 18 semanas después de la floración. Cada 2 días y hasta senescencia se evaluaron los cambios de peso, firmeza, parámetros de color L*a*b*, relación pulpa/cáscara, índice de madurez, pH, humedad, almidones, índice de respiración y tasa de etileno. En este trabajo se utilizó un diseño longitudinal de medidas repetidas, balanceado, con un factor en tres niveles. El factor evaluado fue el tiempo de cosecha y las variables de respuesta fueron los parámetros fisicoquímicos. Los resultados mostraron variación en peso cercanas a 7%, el parámetro de color tinte varió entre -61.46 y 86.74, el croma entre 26.31 y 37.11 y el DE entre 1.4603 y 8.360, el pH varió entre 6.2 y 3.98, una relación pulpa/cáscara entre 2.53 y 4.11, la relación °brix/ acidez entre 11.36 y 26.2, la humedad entre 60.56% y 56%, el almidón entre 51.7% y 67% de MS, la tasa de producción de CO2 entre 3.4 y 8.9 g/kg por hora, el etileno entre 24 y 225 µlt/kg por hora. Los parámetros de maduración mostraron comportamiento climatérico y los días a maduración total fueron de 9, 14 y 21 para los frutos de 18, 16 y 14 semanas desde floración.

  2. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  3. The Use of Alternate Ligno-cellulosic Raw Materials Banana (Musa sapientum Ankara (Calotropis procera and Pineapple (Ananas comosus in Handmade Paper & their Blending with Waste Paper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies were made to established suitability of lingo-cellulosic raw materials namely leaf fibreBanana (Musa Sapientum, bast fibre Ankara (Calotropis Procera, & leaf fibre Pineapple (Ananas Comosus for making pulps for handmade paper industry. This should help in providing a cost effective, good quality cellulosic raw material as an alternate to cost prohibitive traditionally used cotton hosiery waste traditionally used for manufacturing good quality handmade paper & it’s products. This will help in improving the cost economics & competitiveness of the Indian paper industry in the global market besides addressing the problems of environment & global warming. The aim of the research was to study the extraction, morphology, chemical composition and pulping of these fibres and relate these properties to the composite properties obtained with these fibres as reinforcement with short fibres viz. waste paper. For the pulp production to be feasible it is essential to use suitable pulping methods, which maximize the yield of pulp and introduce as low damage as possible to the fibres. The different pulping methods were applied to these fibre to get optimized strength properties papers. The Studies thus carried out provide useful information about the nature of these raw materials, suitable pulping & bleaching process to produce an eco-friendly handmade paper and converted products. The research work provides a good quality cost effective lingo-cellulosic raw material for handmade paper industries with a possibility of replacement of the expensive and traditionally used cotton hosiery waste.The paper thus produced using environmental friendly pulping and bleaching process is characterized for its strength properties like tensile, tear, bursting, folding endurance and other parameters. The effluents generated from pulping and bleaching of above ligno-cellulosic waste materials were characterized for various pollution parameters like Residual Alkali

  4. DILEMAS NA TRADUÇÃO DE MUSE & DRUDGE (“MUSA E MULA”, DE HARRYETTE MULLEN: NEGRITUDE, DISSONÂNCIA E MISCIGENAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Maia Amorim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho discute um projeto de tradução, para o português brasileiro, de um dos poemas da obra Muse & Drudge (“Musa e Mula” da premiada poeta afro-americana Harryette Mullen. Em Muse & Drudge, Mullen entrelaça crítica cultural com humor, lirismo e trocadilhos que desdobram as fronteiras entre identidade cultural e racial, além de redimensionar os limites da oposição entre cultura popular e erudita. Pretende-se discutir em que medida a tradução proposta produz outras relações intertextuais que culminam com efeitos de sentido inesperados. Pretende-se também avaliar de que modo os interstícios desse “inesperado” revela o “encontro” entre as chamadas categorias raciais black e white, dominantes na cultura norte-americana, e a noção de miscigenação e “democracia racial” no Brasil.Abstract: This paper aims to discuss a project of translating part of the work Muse & Drudge, by the award-winning African-American poet Harryette Mullen, into Brazilian Portuguese, with focus on a single poem. In Muse & Drudge Mullen combines cultural critique with humor, lyricism and punning, which has unfolded the frontiers between cultural and racial identity, and has put into question the opposition between popular and high culture. This work analyzes to which extent the proposed translation produces a new set of intertextual relations that might culminate in “unexpected” meanings. It is a goal to understand how the effects of such “unexpected” meanings reveal the “encounter” between the so-called racial “black/white” dichotomy, predominant in the US culture, and the notion of “miscegenation” and “racial democracy” in Brazil.Keywords: Translation; African-American poetry; miscegenation; dilemmas.Lauro Maia Amorim é professor Substituto de Teoria da Tradução da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP.

  5. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L.) on renal and liver growth in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleazu CO; Iroaganachi M; Eleazu KC

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam(Colocasia esculenta(C. esculenta)L.) and unripe plantain(Musa paradisiacae(M. paradisiacae)L.) incorporated feeds on renal and liver growth ofSTZ induced rats.Method:The blood glucose level of all the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose levels in the urine samples of the rats were determined using urine assay strips while the specific gravity of the urine samples of all the rats was determined with a urinometer.The assay of the proximate, phytochemical, mineral composition as well as screening for antioxidant activity of the test feeds was carried out using standard techniques.Results:The administration of the test feeds to the diabetic rats in58.75% and38.13% decreases in their hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, specific gravity as well as renal and kidney growths.Administration of the cocoyam incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group4, resulted in2.71% increase in body weight with a corresponding19.52% increase in growth rate unlike the diabetic rats of group 5, administered unripe plantain feed that had5.12% decrease in weight with a corresponding 29.52% decrease in growth rate but higher than the diabetic control rats that recorded28.69% and 29.46% decreases in body weights with a corresponding248.9% and250.14% decreases in growth rates.Analysis revealed that the test feeds contained low quantities of moisture but significant quantities of crude fibre, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, phosphorous as well as considerable amount of energy.In addition, the cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher quantities of flavonoids, saponin, tannin,Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn,K,P, crude fibre as well as antioxidant activity but lower quantities of alkaloids than the unripe plantain feed.Conclusion:The use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours in the

  6. Evaluation of Tea Tree Oil to Control Postharvest Banana Disease of Colletotrichum musae%茶树油控制香蕉采后炭疽病害的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    静玮; 张鲁斌; 朱德明; 韩志萍

    2011-01-01

    The potential of using TTO (Tea tree oil) instead of synthetic fungicides to control disease of Colletotrichum musae on banana was evaluated.The antifungal activity of TTO against colony growth of Colletotrichum musae in vitro and its efficiency in vivo on the disease incidence were determined.Results showed that TTO with 20~40 μL could significantly inhibit Colletotrichum musae growth in vitro, and the higher of the dosage of TTO, the higher of antifungal activity.TTO treatment significantly reduced the lesion diameter of inoculated banana.In addition,TTO could remain peel color and fruit firmness at ambient temperature for 10 days.Preliminary study suggested that TTO was feasible on fresh-keeping of postharvest banana fruit.%为了探讨植物提取物对香蕉采后病害的防治效果,以香蕉果实为材料,采用菌丝生长速率方法测定不同剂量的茶树油(TTO)对香蕉炭疽病菌的离体抗菌活性,并用TTO熏蒸处理接种炭疽病菌的香蕉果实,测定果实的发病情况.结果显示,20~40μL TTO能够显著抑制离体炭疽病菌的菌丝生长,浓度越高,抑制效果越明显;接种炭疽病菌的果实经TTO处理后,病斑直径显著小于未处理果实.另外,TTO处理的果实在常温贮藏10 d后果实果皮颜色和硬度也显著优于未处理果实.初步研究表明TTO在控制香蕉果实采后腐烂和保鲜上具有应用可行性.

  7. Evaluación del comportamiento físico y químico poscosecha del plátano dominico Hartón (musa aab simmonds) cultivado en el municipio de Belalcázar (Caldas)

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Gutiérrez, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo se realizó con frutos de plátano Dominico Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds) cultivados en el municipio de Belalcázar (Caldas), entre las cotas 900-1.200 m.s.n.m., con precipitación promedia en el rango 1.800-2.000 mm por año. Las temperaturas medias en el municipio se han estimado para las zonas bajas en 24°C; para las más altas en 18°C. Los frutos fueron cosechados a las 14, 15, 16, 17 y 18 semanas desde floración, en invierno y transportados a los laboratorios de la Universidad de ...

  8. Production potentielle de bioéthanol, de biométhane et de pellets à partir des déchets de biomasse lignocellulosique du bananier (Musa spp. au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamdem, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential production of bioethanol, biomethane and wood pellets from lignocellulosic biomass wastes of the banana plant (Musa spp. in Cameroon. Like most African countries who are producers and exporters of banana, Cameroon is facing a major energy deficit. Yet, the country is generating annually about 4,500,000 tons of fresh banana plant lignocellulosic waste biomass matter equivalent to 402,750 tons of dry matter. The dry matter contained about 80,57% organic matter which are not exploited. Under the sustainable development, which is linked to environmental protection, the biotransformation of these residues can potentially produce about 93,800; 92,133; 447,500 tons of bioethanol, biomethane and pellets respectively. The waste transformation could reduce the energy deficit and create jobs opportunities. Productions of this renewable energy or biofuel also constitute a new area which could assure an important source of income for the banana cultivators and the entire country.

  9. Utilización de la metodología MUSA y su aplicación en el estudio para monitorear periódicamente la satisfacción de estudiantes de la Universidad de los Andes (ESAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alberto Amaya Guio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es aplicar el método MUSA a la información obtenida en las encuestas del estudio para monitorear periódicamente la satisfacción de estudiantes (ESAT, para diagnosticar el nivel de satisfacción actual de los estudiantes de pregrado de la Universidad de los Andes (Colombia e identificar la importancia y el desempeño de cada uno de los aspectos evaluados por la institución. Como parte de los resultados, es posible conocer los elementos que los estudiantes consideran más valiosos dentro de su satisfacción, tomando los resultados emitidos por una muestra significativa de encuestados. Finalmente, el estudio presenta las opciones que requieren mayor atención por parte de la Universidad para mejorar dicha satisfacción.

  10. 茶树油熏蒸处理对香蕉采后炭疽病害的影响%Effects of tea tree oil fumigation on banana postharvest disease Colletotrichum musae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    静玮; 苏子鹏; 朱德明; 韩志萍

    2011-01-01

    The effects of natural plants extracts against banana postharvest disease Colletotrichum musae was evaluated.The antifimgal activity of 0~40μL TTO(tea tree oil) and its main components (Terpinenol-4, a-Terpineol, γ-Terpinene and 1,8-Cineole) against colony growth of C.musae in vitro and their effects on disease intensity and defense-related enzymes of banana fruits inoculated with C.musae were determined at 25℃ and 75% relative humidity.Results showed that fumigation of TTO, Terpinenol-4 and a-Terpineol could significantly inhibit C.musae growth in vitro.In addition,the antifungal activity of TTO and its main components could be greatly enhanced with higher levels.Compared with non-treated fruits, 1.25 g/L TTO fumigation reduced lesion diameter of inoculated banana fruits, but less than 0.32 g/L Terpinenol-4 or a-Terpineol.Moreover.1.25 g/L TTO fumigation induced significant increase in peroxidase(POD), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), but decreased polyphenoloxidase(PPO) activity.The preliminary study suggests that TTO fumigation is feasible on fresh-keeping and increasing of disease resistance in postharvest banana fruits,meanwhile, Terpinenol-4 and a-Terpineol are primary antifungal activities of TTO.%为了探讨植物提取物对香蕉采后病害的防治效果,以香蕉果实为材料,采用菌丝生长速率方法测定不同剂量(0~40 μL)的茶树油(TTO)及其主要成分(4-松油烯醇、α-松油醇、γ-松油烯和1,8-桉叶油素)对香蕉炭疽病菌的离体抗菌活性,并用TTO及其主要成分熏蒸处理接种炭疽病菌的香蕉果实,测定果实常温贮藏(25℃,相对湿度75%)的发病情况和TTO处理对接种果实防御酶活性的影响.结果表明,TTO、4-松油烯醇和α-松油醇均能显著抑制离体炭疽病菌的菌丝生长,质量浓度越高,抑制效果越明显:1.25 g/L TTO处理降低了接种炭疽病菌果实的发病程度,0.32 g/L 4-松油烯醇和α-松油醇处理对接种果实病斑直径的

  11. Influencia del Tratamiento Osmótico en el Secado de la Banana “Nanica” (Musa cavendishii, L. en Secador de Lecho Fijo Influence of Osmotic Treatment onthe Drying of "Nanica" Bananas (Musa cavendishii, L. in a Fixed Bed Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C.P. Gaspareto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de azúcar (50 y 70 °Brix y de la temperatura (50 y 70 °C en la deshidratación osmótica de la Banana “Nanica” (Musa cavendishii, L.. Para el secado complementario fue empleado un secador de lecho fijo a 60 °C y velocidad del aire 2.0 m/s. Durante el secado se verificó el comportamiento cinético del proceso, usando datos experimentales de los períodos de velocidad decrecientes, obteniéndose curvas de velocidad de secado versus humedad. Basándose en un modelo difusional fueron calculadas las difusividades efectivas, para 50 °Brix/50 °C, 50 °Brix/70 °C, 70 °Brix/50 °C y 70 °Brix/70 °C resultando 9.12x10-10, 9.46x10-10, 1.01x10-09 y 1.05x10-09 m²/s, respectivamente. De los resultados obtenidos, se observó que la difusividad efectiva no estuvo influenciada por la concentración de azúcar y tampoco por la temperatura. Por lo tanto, la mejor condición de pérdida de humedad y ganancia de azúcar fue de 70 °Brix/50 °C.The influence of sugar concentrations (50 and 70 °Brix and temperature (50 and 70 ºC on the osmotic dehydration of "Nanica" Bananas (Musa cavendishii, L., have been studied. For supplementary drying, a fixed bed drier was used at 60 ºC with an air flow of 2.0 m/s. The kinetic behavior of the process was verified during drying using experimental data on the periods of decreasing velocities to obtain curves of drying speed vs humidity. Effective diffusivities were calculated based on a diffusion model for 50 ºBrix/50 ºC, 50 ºBrix/70 ºC, 70 ºBrix/50 ºC and 70 ºBrix/70 ºC, with respective results of 9.12x10-10, 9.46x10-10, 1.01x10-09 and 1.05x10-09 m²/s. It was observed that the effective diffusivities were neither influenced by the sugar concentration nor by the temperature. The best condition of humidity loss and sugar gain was at 70 ºBrix/50º C.

  12. Caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración de plátano Hartón (musa AAB Simmonds en dos sistemas de producción Physical-chemist and physiologic characterization in the Harton plantain ripening process (Musa AAB Simmonds in organic and conventional production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Barrera V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Análisis de Alimentos de la Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds cultivado en los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional. Para el estudio se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5: dos sistemas de producción y cinco estados de maduración. Los análisis realizados fueron físicos: resistencia, días de maduración; químicos: pH, °Brix, azúcares totales y reductores y almidón; y fisiológicos: tasa de respiración a temperatura ambiente. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que entre los tratamientos (orgánico y convencional durante el proceso de maduración se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables resistencia, °Brix, pH, acidez; por el contrario las variables azúcares reductores, azúcares totales y almidón tuvieron un comportamiento similar. El índice de respiración en plátano orgánico alcanzó el pico climatérico a los 14 días, y el convencional a los 7, indicando que el primero presenta un mejor comportamiento poscosecha facilitando su comercialización.The physical-chemist and physiologic portrayal in the Harton plantain ripening process (Musa AAB Simmonds in the system of organic production and conventional in the Cordoba - Colombia department, was carried out in the food analysis laboratory of the University of Cordoba, in order to establish the differences physical-chemist and physiologic between the system production already mentioned. To reach the objective was used a design completely at random with factorial repair two per five, with two factors that were the production system and the state of ripening. The analysis carried out were physics (resistance, ripening days; chemist (pH, °Brix, total and reduction sugar, starch and physiologic (respiration rate to environmental temperature. The results obtained show that

  13. Comportamento de variedades e híbridos de bananeira (Musa spp., em dois ciclos de produção no sudoeste da Bahia Behavior of banana varieties and hybrids (Musa spp., in two production cycle in the southwest of Bahia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar o comportamento de 13 genótipos (variedades e híbridos de bananeira dos grupos genômicos AAA, AAAA, AAB e AAAB, em dois ciclos de produção, no sudoeste da Bahia, região de Guanambi, mediante o uso de descritores fenotípicos relevantes para a identificação e seleção de indivíduos superiores. Foram avaliadas as variedades Prata-Anã e Pacovan (AAB, Grande Naine e Nanicão (AAA, e os híbridos PA42-44, Preciosa, Japira, Pacovan Ken e ST12-31 (AAAB e Ambrosia, Calipso, Bucaneiro e FHIA-02 (AAAA, selecionadas na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 13 tratamentos, cinco repetições, parcelas constituídas por 20 plantas, seis úteis, e espaçamento de 3,00 m x 2,00 m. Foram considerados os caracteres: altura da planta, perímetro do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita, peso do cacho e de pencas, número de frutos, peso, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto. A 'Grande Naine' e a 'Nanicão' destacaram-se nos caracteres peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos, peso e comprimento do fruto; o híbrido FHIA-02 apresentou o maior diâmetro do fruto nos dois ciclos de produção e a maior precocidade para florescimento e colheita no segundo ciclo; a 'Calipso' foi o mais tardia para colheita; o ST12-31 apresentou a maior altura; a variedade Prata-Anã destacou-se no caráter número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita; os híbridos tipo prata, PA42-44, Pacovan Ken, Preciosa e Japira destacaram-se nos parâmetros relacionados à qualidade dos frutos quando comparados às suas genitoras 'Prata-Anã' e 'Pacovan', respectivamente; houve incremento nos parâmetros que refletem o desenvolvimento vegetativo e a produtividade do primeiro para o segundo ciclo de produção em todos os genótipos avaliados.The objective of this work was to

  14. Caracterización química de macroelementos en suelos cultivados con plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia Chemical characterization of macroelements in soils cultivated with Harton plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds in the department of Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Combatt-Caballero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las recomendaciones de fertilización para el cultivo de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds deben estar basadas en las características químicas y el potencial de producción de los suelos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las características químicas de macro-elementos presentes en suelos utilizados en la producción de plátano en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Las evaluaciones se hicieron en diez fincas por cada uno de cuatro municipios productores de plátano en el Alto Sinú (Valencia y Tierralta y la región costanera (San Bernardo del Viento y Moñitos. Los parámetros determinados en el suelo fueron: pH, materia orgánica (M.O., P, S, Ca, Mg, Na y K, según metodologías químicas propuestas por Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazi (IGAC. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a análisis de varianza y pruebas de comparación de medias (Tukey. En los resultados analíticos se encontró que los suelos presentan reacción moderadamente ácida con pH Fertilizer recommendations for hartón plantain cropping should be done by interpreting the chemical characteristics of soils to be reliable from the technical point of view and principally based in technical adjustments in relation to the nutritional potential of soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of macroelements in soil in 40 farms cultivated with hartón plantain in the department of Córdoba, Colombia. The parameters measured were: pH, organic matter (O.M., P, S, Ca, Mg, Na, K, according to the analytical procedures proposed by Geographic Institute Agustín Codaz (IGAC. Analysis of variance and mean comparison tests (Tukey to the data were performed. The analytical results showed that the soils had a moderately acidic reaction, with pH lower than 6 on the High Sinú zone and slightly alkaline with pH 6.5 in the coastal zone. The organic matter content was less than 2.1%, P between 16.4 and 35.3 mg kg-1 and S deficient with values less than

  15. Levaduras autóctonas con capacidad fermentativa en la producción de etanol a partir de pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Oviedo Zumaqué

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Autoctonous yeasts having fermentation ability in producing ethanol from Musa (AAB Simmonds plantain surplus pulp in the Córdoba department of Colombia Resumen: Se evaluó la capacidad fermentativa de levaduras nativas de la zona costanera del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, para la obtención de etanol a partir de la pulpa de excedentes de plátano Musa (AAB Simmonds, con el objetivo de encontrar cepas eficientes. Los microorganismos utilizados correspondieron a las especies: Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii 14AD, Candida albicans y Candida guillliermondii 13AD (nativas, y una cepa comercial de referencia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73. La fermentación se realizó a diferentes concentraciones de sustrato, siendo la concentración del 40% la mejor; se evaluó la producción de etanol mediante el método colorimétrico del dicromato de potasio utilizando un equipo espectrofotómetro Lambda 11. Se observó que la levadura Candida guilliermondii 14AD nativa fue la más eficiente con una producción promedio de 3,45% v/v de etanol a las 72 horas de fermentación; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con la producción de etanol a partir de la cepa de referencia, la cual produjo 3,59% v/v. Estos resultados sugieren la existencia de levaduras nativas con capacidad para ser utilizadas en la obtención de etanol a partir de material residuo de plátano.Palabras clave: etanol; fermentación; levaduras; método del dicromato de potasio. Abstract: Native yeasts’ (Cordoba, Colombia fermentation ability for producing ethanol from plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds surplus pulp was evaluated; the object was to find efficient yeasts. The microorganisms used here came from the Kloeckera sp, Candida guillliermondii (14AD, Candida albicans and Candida guilllier-mondii 13AD strains (native and Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 (a commercial reference yeast. Fermentation was carried out on different substrate concentrations, the 40

  16. EFEITOS DE ALGUMAS DROGAS SISTÊMICAS NO CONTROLE PREVENTIVO DO MAL DO PANAMÁ (Fusarim oxysporum f. sp. Cubense (Ef. Sn. & H. DA BANANEIRA (Musa sapientum L. EFFECT OF SOME SYSTEMIC DRUGS IN THE PREVENTIVE CONTROL OF THE MAL-DO-PANAMÁ (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (EF. SN. & H. OF THE BANANA TREE (Musa sapientum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu Matias do Nascimento

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de algumas drogas sistêmicas sobre o fungo Fusarium oxysporim f. sp. cubense (Ef. Sn. & H. em tecido de rizoma de bananeira do cultivar Maçã (Musa sapientum L. foi montado um experimento em solo sob cerrado, anteriormente coberto por vegetação natural. Testou-se o efeito do Benlate (benomyl e do Plantvax (oxamyl, ambos nas doses de 0,1, 0,2 e 0,5%, do Mycostatin (nistatina nas doses de 0,02, 0,05 e 0,1% e da combinação Mycostatin + Neantina solúvel (cloreto de metoxi-etil mercúrio 3,7% nas dosagens de 0,02 + 0,15%, 0,05 + 0,3% e 0,1 + 0,5% em banho de imersão dos rizomas Infectados por um período de 10 minutos. Foram usados rizomas com infecção natural pelo patógeno. O delineamento experimental usado foi a casualização completa, com 26 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída de 4 plantas (covas. Os resultados observados em fevereiro de 1974, revelaram a incidência do ‘Mal do Panamá' indiscriminadamente sobre plantas de todos os tratamentos, demonstrando portanto que nenhum deles foi suficientemente eficaz para erradicar o patógeno estabelecido no tecido do rizoma. Sugeriu-se que a falta de absorção, devida à mutilação de raízes, e a precária penetração dos fungicidas do rizoma, tenham sido responsáveis pelos resultados de insucesso no controle da enfermidade. Concluiu-se que, nas condições em que foram conduzidas essas experiências, e com essa metodologia de aplicação do princípio ativo do fungicida e preparo do rizoma, o controle dessa doença não é possível, nem viável. São sugeridas modificações de procedimento em experiências futuras.

    With the objective of studying the effect of some systemic drugs on the fungus, Fusarium oxysporim f. sp. cubense (Ef. Sn. & H. , which attacks the rootstalk

  17. El reinado del Cornificio y el exilio de las Musas. El filósofo educado en las Artes en la Antigüedad arcaica y en la Europa medieval hasta el siglo XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pintado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe y analiza el tránsito de un paradigma educativo (antiguo, clásico y medieval a un nuevo paradigma (el universitario, hacia el siglo XII. Se examina el origen y el desarrollo de un paradigma educativo y de formación que se remonta hasta la Grecia arcaica y que se mantuvo en vigencia en la Europa medieval hasta la creación de las universidades en el siglo XII. La tradición educativa de las artes liberales, conocida también como disciplinae cyclicae, es analizado como heredero directo de la tradición arcaica y pitagórica griega basada en la formación por las Musas. Se examinarán las similitudes y paralelismos entre las Musas y las Artes a la luz de la obra de Marciano Capela, De nuptis Philologiae et Mercuri. Luego se estudiará en modo conciso la figura del Cornificio, recreada por Juan de Salisbury en su Metalogicon, y se meditará sobre la relación de esta figura paradigmática y el contexto social, cultural, histórico, político y religioso que acaba dando lugar al nacimiento de los primeros estatutos universitarios. This paper treats the question of how the archaic and classical education paradigm is replaced by a new one based on institutionalization. It concerns about the origin and development of one education paradigm of schools, and the other paradigm, the institutional one, current and prevailing since the creation of the institution of university emerged about 12th century. The Liberal Arts education, also known as disciplinae cyclicae education, is analyzed according to the archaic and pithagoric greek tradition based on education by Muses. We will find similarities between Muses and Liberal Arts according to Martianus Capella’s work De nuptis Philologiae et Mercuri. Finally, we will observe this problem in John of Salisbury’ work Metalogicon and his central symbolic figure of the Cornificius.

  18. 迎评三甲医院促进手卫生依从性的效果观察%The effect of AAA Hospital Accreditation on hand Hygiene Compliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉红

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨迎评三甲医院促进手卫生依从性的效果。方法选择2012年7---12月本院员工为观察对象,根据手卫生的5个指征,设计了手卫生依从性调查表,采用直接观察的方法,记录医务人员在手卫生干预前后的依从性。结果医务人员的手卫生依从性在迎评三甲医院后有明显提高,各类医务人员的手卫生依从性总体情况由原来的47.5%上升至81.1%,医生、护士、进修实习人员及工勤人员的手卫生依从性分别由38.8%、64%、36.1%、26.5%上升至77.9%、93.3%、71.5%、64.3%;各手卫生指征的依从性:接触患者前、清洁/无菌操作前、接触患者体液后、接触患者后、接触患者物品后的手卫生依从性分别由38.5%、57.9%、73.5%、47.3%、42.2%上升至79.5%、87.6%、94.8%、80.1%、77.5%。各类医务人员及各手卫生指征的手卫生依从性在干预前后差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论通过迎评三甲医院所采取的一系列手卫生干预措施,增强了全院员工的手卫生意识和责任感,使手卫生依从性显著提高。%Objective To explore the effect of preparation for the AAA Hospital to promote hand hygiene compliance .Methods Chose employees from July to De-cember,2012 as observation object,according to hand hygiene five indications,hand hygiene compliance questionnaire design,adopt the method of direct observation,re-cord of medical personnel hand hygiene compliance before and after intervention .Results Medical staff hand hygiene compliance in for evaluation after AAA Hospital ,all kinds of hand hygiene compliance of medical staff overall rose to 81.1%from 47.5%,doctors,nurses,education practice and those logistics personnel hand hygiene com-pliance by 38.8%,64% and 36.1% respectively,26.5%,rose to 77.9%,93.3%,71.5%,64.3%;The compliance of hand hygiene indications:cleaned before

  19. Fungus-Elicited Metabolites from Plants as an Enriched Source for New Leishmanicidal Agents: Antifungal Phenyl-Phenalenone Phytoalexins from the Banana Plant (Musa acuminata) Target Mitochondria of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; Martínez, Silvia; Saugar, José María; Izquierdo, Laura R.; Abad, Teresa; Luis, Javier G.; Piñero, José; Valladares, Basilio; Rivas, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Two antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins isolated from the banana plant (Musa acuminata) elicited with the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, together with a methoxy derivative of one of them and two epoxide precursors of their chemical synthesis, were tested for leishmanicidal activity on Leishmania donovani promastigotes and L. infantum amastigotes. Drugs inhibited proliferation of both forms of the parasite with a 50% lethal concentration range between 10.3 and 68.7 μg/ml. Their lethal mechanism was found linked to the respiratory chain by a systematic approach, including electron microscopy, measurement of the oxygen consumption rate on digitonin-permeabilized promastigotes, and enzymatic assays on a mitochondrial enriched fraction. Whereas the whole set of compounds inhibited the activity of fumarate reductase in the mitochondrial fraction (50% effective concentration [EC50] between 33.3 and 78.8 μg/ml) and on purified enzyme (EC50 = 53.3 to 115 μg/ml), inhibition for succinate dehydrogenase was only observed for the two phytoalexins with the highest leishmanicidal activity: anigorufone and its natural analogue 2-methoxy-9-phenyl-phenalen-1-one (EC50 = 33.5 and 59.6 μg/ml, respectively). These results provided a new structural motif, phenyl-phenalenone, as a new lead for leishmanicidal activity, and support the use of plant extracts enriched in antifungal phytoalexins, synthesized under fungal challenge, as a more rational and effective strategy to screen for new plant leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:15105102

  20. Caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración de plátano Hartón (musa AAB Simmonds en dos sistemas de producción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayón S Daniel Gerardo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Análisis de Alimentos de la Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds cultivado en los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional. Para el estudio se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5: dos sistemas de producción y cinco estados de maduración. Los análisis realizados fueron físicos: resistencia, días de maduración; químicos: pH, °Brix, azúcares totales y reductores y almidón; y fisiológicos: tasa de respiración a temperatura ambiente. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que entre los tratamientos (orgánico y convencional durante el proceso de maduración se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables resistencia, °Brix, pH, acidez; por el contrario las variables azúcares reductores, azúcares totales y almidón tuvieron un comportamiento similar. El índice de respiración en plátano orgánico alcanzó el pico climatérico a los 14 días, y el convencional a los 7, indicando que el primero presenta un mejor comportamiento poscosecha facilitando su comercialización.

  1. Caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración de plátano Hartón (musa AAB Simmonds en dos sistemas de producción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Barrera V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Análisis de Alimentos de la Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica y fisiológica del proceso de maduración del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds cultivado en los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional. Para el estudio se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5: dos sistemas de producción y cinco estados de maduración. Los análisis realizados fueron físicos: resistencia, días de maduración; químicos: pH, °Brix, azúcares totales y reductores y almidón; y fisiológicos: tasa de respiración a temperatura ambiente. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que entre los tratamientos (orgánico y convencional durante el proceso de maduración se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables resistencia, °Brix, pH, acidez; por el contrario las variables azúcares reductores, azúcares totales y almidón tuvieron un comportamiento similar. El índice de respiración en plátano orgánico alcanzó el pico climatérico a los 14 días, y el convencional a los 7, indicando que el primero presenta un mejor comportamiento poscosecha facilitando su comercialización.

  2. Caracterización química de macroelementos en suelos cultivados con plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combatt Caballero Enrique

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las recomendaciones de fertilización para el cultivo de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds deben estar basadas en las características químicas y el potencial de producción de los suelos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las características químicas de macro-elementos presentes en suelos utilizados en la producción de plátano en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Las evaluaciones se hicieron en diez fincas por cada uno de cuatro municipios productores de plãtano en el Alto Sinü (Valencia y Tie- rralta y la región costanera (San Bernardo del Viento y Moñitos. Los parámetros determinados en el suelo fueron: pH, materia orgánica (M.O., P, S, Ca, Mg, Na y K, según metodologías químicas propues- tas por Instituto Geogrãfico Agustin Codazi (IGAC. Los datos obtenidos %ueron sometidos a anãlisis de varianza y pruebas de comparación de medias (Tukey. En los resultados analíticos se encontró que los suelos presentan reacción moderadamente ãcida con pH + / en la zona del Alto Sinü7 a ligeramente alcalina con pH de /.8 en la zona costanera. Los contenidos de 9.;. son + 2.=>7 el P Faria entre =/.G y I8.I mgJQg y el S es deficiente con Falores + =I.8 mgJQg en todas las fincas. Los contenidos de Ca7 Mg y K son altos, pero con tendencia a antagonismos iónicos de Ca con respecto a K por las amplias relaciones catiónicas encontradas.

  3. Caracterización química de macroelementos en suelos cultivados con plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Combatt-Caballero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las recomendaciones de fertilización para el cultivo de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds deben estar basadas en las características químicas y el potencial de producción de los suelos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las características químicas de macro-elementos presentes en suelos utilizados en la producción de plátano en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Las evaluaciones se hicieron en diez fincas por cada uno de cuatro municipios productores de plátano en el Alto Sinú (Valencia y Tierralta y la región costanera (San Bernardo del Viento y Moñitos. Los parámetros determinados en el suelo fueron: pH, materia orgánica (M.O., P, S, Ca, Mg, Na y K, según metodologías químicas propuestas por Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazi (IGAC. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a análisis de varianza y pruebas de comparación de medias (Tukey. En los resultados analíticos se encontró que los suelos presentan reacción moderadamente ácida con pH < 6 en la zona del Alto Sinú, a ligeramente alcalina con pH de 6.5 en la zona costanera. Los contenidos de M.O. son < 2.1%, el P varía entre 16.4 y 35.3 mg/kg y el S es deficiente con valores < 13.5 mg/kg en todas las fincas. Los contenidos de Ca, Mg y K son altos, pero con tendencia a antagonismos iónicos de Ca con respecto a K por las amplias relaciones catiónicas encontradas.

  4. Reducción de poblaciones de Ralstonia solanacearum raza 2 (Smith en plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds con aplicación de extractos de Trichoderma sp. (Alexopoulus y Mims y bacterias antagonistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ceballos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El moko, enfermedad causada por Ralstonia solanacearum raza 2, afecta la producción de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds en Colombia, ocasionando pérdidas hasta de 100%. In vitro, se evaluó el efecto de filtrados crudos de cepas de Trichoderma sp. y dos productos comerciales como posibles reductores de poblaciones de R. solanacearum. Para cada cepa de Trichoderma spp., se empleó filtrado (40% en solución acuosa y para R. solanacearum se utilizó una dilución de 10-4 por caja de petri, en un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones para determinar el número de unidades formadoras de colonia de R. solanacearum. En invernadero, se aplicaron suspensiones de T. harzianum (Agroguard®, T. viride 14PDA3A y Ecoterra® en plantas de plátano Dominico Hartón y 30 días después se inoculó R. solanacearum en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La severidad del ataque de R. solanacearum se evaluó utilizando una escala de síntomas foliares de 0 a 6. In vitro, los extractos crudos de dos cepas y dos productos comerciales de Trichoderma spp. inhibieron el 100% de R. solanacearum. Los tratamientos con T. viride y Ecoterra® mostraron bajos niveles de control de R. solanacearum en plantas (0.63 y 1.88, respectivamente.

  5. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  6. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.

  7. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.

  8. Clinical use of fresh frozen plasma: a retrospective analysis in 3 Class-AAA hospitals%新鲜冰冻血浆临床输注回顾性调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张容; 林嘉; 李忠俊; 彭涛; 李倩; 叶兴德; 肖洁; 邓锷; 李长清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical data of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions in 3 Class-AAA hospitals in order to grasp clinical transfusion. Methods We investigated and analyzed medical records of patients who had received FFP transfusions in Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Xinqiao Hospital, and General Hospital of Chengdu Military Command during January to December 2009. Indexes included total volume of FFP, average volume, situations of using FFP in different departments and the standard coagulation tests in these patients. Results In this investigation, 5 570 FFP transfusions were given to 2 036 patients, with a total volume of 21 062.9 U. Among these patients, 49. 1% of them had received FFP transfusion only once, and 14.5% had received no more than 2 U plasma. There was a significant difference in average doses of each FFP transfusion between surgical departments and non-surgical departments ( P < 0. 05 ). Patients from departments of thoracic surgery, gastroenterology and orthopedics received more FFP than patients in other departments. There were 191 patients (9.4% ) getting FFP transfusions in absence of prothrombin time (PT) records, and 224 patients (11.0% ) without activated partial thromboplasiin time (APTT) records. The median reductions in PT were shorter when the baseline pre-FFP transfusion PT was longer than 50 s. FFP had little effect on APTT. Conclusion Some clinical use of plasma is not adequate. There is a significant difference in FFP doses of transfusions among different departments. FFP transfusion exerts therapeutic effect on the patients with prolonged PT or APTT.%目的 调查分析新鲜冰冻血浆(fresh frozen plasma,FFP)临床资料,了解FFP临床输血情况.方法 查阅2009年1-12月四川省人民医院、成都军区总医院及第三军医大学新桥医院接受FFP输血患者的病历,对输浆总量、人均输浆量、不同科室用浆情况、标准凝血试验检测情况等进行调查分析.结果

  9. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  10. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group) a

  11. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii.

  12. 香蕉茎叶与柱花草混贮饲料的品质%Evaluation of mixing silage of Musa paradisiaca stems and leaves and Stylosnthes guianensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金莎; 黄世章; 钟毅; 梁梦迪; 陈涛; 王学梅

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was excuted to exploit the quality of fermentation of mixed Musa paradisiaca stems and leaves and Stylosnthes guianensis .Four treatment groups were set according to the proportion of S .guianensis ,100% M .paradisiaca stems and leaves,100% S .guianensis ,75% banana stems and leaves with 25% S .guianensis ,50% M .paradisiaca stems and leaves and 50% S .guianensis ,each treatment con-tains 3 replicates.After 5 weeks of fermentation,the sensory evaluation and laboratory test of silage were car-ried out.The results showed,100% M .paradisiaca stems and leaves group got the best quality in sensory evaluation,100% S .guianensis group got 6 in sensory evaluation,the lowest in all groups,mixed silage groups were in the middle of all groups,the quality of mixed silage were evaluated with the growing ratio of ba-nana stems and leaves.The 100% M .paradisiaca stems and leaves group got the lowest pH value,with the rising ratio of S .guianensis ,the value of pH (P ﹤0.01)and the colony count of lactobacillus (P ﹤0.05)were improved.The acetic acid of 100% S .guianensis group was the lowest,no significant differences were ob-served in the lactic acid and butyric acid of all groups(P >0.05),no significant differences in fermentation qual-ity due to the content;75% M .paradisiaca stems and leaves and 25% S .guianensis group improved the con-tent of lactic acid and acetic acid and the colony count of lactobacillus.With the improving ratio of S .guianen-sis ,the content of water and water soluble carbohydrates (WSC)were depressed(P ﹤0.05 ),the content of crude protein and crude fiber were improved significantly(P ﹤0.05).With the sensory evaluation and laboratory tests,mixture of M .paradisiaca stems and leaves and S .guianensis reduced the water content,increased the content of WSC of S .guianensis ,improved the quality of fermentation of mixed silage,and the best quality is 75% M .paradisiaca stems and leaves and 25% S .guianensis .%为分析香蕉(Musa

  13. A new investigation result issued by AAAS and PUE research center%皮尤研究中心与美国科促会公布新的民意调查结果——公众虽爱科学,但对于争议性问题仍与科学家们意见相左

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肯德里克·弗雷泽; 佟望舒

    2010-01-01

    本文是(Skeptical Inquirier)2009年11~12月期的特别报告 (Pew/AAAS Poll:Public Likes Science but Still Disagrees with Scientists on Controversial Issues).该刊主编、美国科促会理事肯德里克·弗雷泽(Kendrick Frizer),分析了皮尤研究中心与美国科促会联合进行的民意调查结果,涉及到公众对科学作用的态度、对科学知识掌握的情况、对科学与社会相关问题如进化与气候变暖的看法,以及影响这些看法的宗教、党派等社会因素.

  14. Efecto de la temperatura en la reacción de oxidación de almidón de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.). Estimación de la energía de activación

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Sánchez-Rivera; L. A. Bello-Pérez

    2008-01-01

    El almidón nativo de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.) fue sometido a cinéticas de oxidación con hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO) al 2 % de cloro activo (p/v) a diferentes temperaturas (30 ºC, 40 ºC y 50 ºC) y dos pH (7.0 y 8.5). Las constantes de velocidad (k) y la energía de activación (Ea) se obtuvieron a partir de la concentración de hipoclorito ClO-, (expresado como cloro consumido) durante la oxidación del almidón. Se utilizaron ecuaciones de primer y segundo grado para determinar el orden de r...

  15. Screening and preliminary application of microbial strains for bio-retting of false stem of Musa nana Lour%香蕉假茎生物脱胶菌株筛选及其应用效果初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡勇; 韦仕岩; 吴圣进; 汪茜

    2011-01-01

    进行香蕉假茎生物脱胶菌株筛选和生物脱胶提取香蕉假茎纤维初步试验研究,为生物脱胶提取香蕉假茎纤维实际应用提供依据.从腐烂香蕉假茎和土壤等样品中分离筛选对香蕉假茎具有脱胶作用菌株,并利用筛选出优良菌株对香蕉假茎进行脱胶,测定假茎失重率、纤维得率和残胶率,对菌株脱胶性能进行综合评价.筛选出FR1和BR2-1菌株对香蕉假茎均表现出很好脱胶效,其最佳脱胶时间均为72 h,脱胶前香蕉假茎含胶率为83.6%,脱胶后分别降至24.7%和20.2%,失重率分别达72.9%和77.8%,纤维得率分别达2.27%和2.01%.筛选获得FR1和BR2-1菌株在香蕉假茎脱胶提取纤维上均有较好应用潜力,表明应用生物脱胶去除香蕉假茎中胶质物质来提取生物纤维完全可行.%[Objective]Preliminary studies on bio-retting of false stem of banana (Musa nana Lout) were carried out using microbial strains in order to provide basis for the practical application of bio-retting technique in extracting fibers from false stem of banana. [Method]Microbial strains for bio-retting were isolated from false stem of rotten banana plants and soil. The strains were screened and superior ones were used in the bio-retting experiment. Their bio-retting performance was assessed comprehensively by determining false stem weight-loss ratio, fiber yield and the rate of residual gum in fiber. [Result]Two strains, viz., FR1 and BR2-1, having good ability for bio-retting false stem of banana, were screened out. The time for bio-retting of stem taken by these strains was found to be 72 h. The rates of gum in false stem, bio-retted by FR1 and BR2-1, decreased rapidly from 83.6 to 24.7 and 20.2% , respectively. The weight-loss ratio of false stem reached 72.9 and 77.8%, and the yields of fiber recorded as 2.27 and 2.01%, after bio-retting of false stem by strains FR1 and BR2-1, respectively. [Conclusion]The screened microbial strains FR1

  16. The Classification of Musa L.Based on mtDNA ccb256 Sequence%芭蕉属植物基于线粒体ccb256序列的分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓长娟; 王静毅; 陈友; 冯慧敏; 徐小雄; 武耀廷

    2011-01-01

    The phylogeny and relationship among 42 accessions were investigated by analyzing DNA sequence obtained from mtDNA cytochrome c biogenesis orf256 (ccb256). The phylogenetic tree was constructed following maximum parsimony (MP) method using MEGA4. The results indicated that Australimusa and Callimusa section grouped together; AA and other species from Eumusa clustered with Rhodochlamys section. BB species from Eumusa section were placed a outgroup which revealed its primitive position in evolution of Musa L. In addition, Ice cream (ABB) and M. Balbisiana formed one group which showed that M. Balbisiana may be male parent providing B genotype for Ice cream. Except for Improved lady finger (AAB), other cultivated accessions and M. Acuminata formed a group. It was inferred that M. Acuminata provided A genotype for these accessions as a paternal plant. M. Acumlnata.ssp.banksii, which was considered to be the original parent of cultivars, grouped with almost all the cultivated accessions. It had a close relationship with cultivars. The results also showed that ccb256 sequence had a moderate evolutional rate, which should assist in gaining a better understanding of the evolution of wild and cultivated bananas and of the relationships between diploid and triploid bananas.%利用PCR和PCR产物直接序列分析技术,获得了芭蕉属42份材料ccb256线粒体DNA片段的序列.采用MEGA4软件构建了芭蕉属植物的MP树.结果表明,Australimusa组和Callimusa组聚到一起,真蕉组的AA、其它种和观赏蕉组聚到一起,无法明显区分.真蕉组的BB单独聚到一起,且位于MP的基部,揭示了其在芭蕉属植物进化中占据着最原始的地位.另外,栽培蕉Ice cream(ABB)与M.balbisiana聚到一起,可能是由M.balbisiana为父本提供B型供体杂交而来,而除Improved lady finger(AAB)外,其它的栽培蕉均与M.acuminata的亚(变)种聚到一起,推测由M.acuminata为父本提供A型供体杂交而来.被认为是所有栽培蕉

  17. Caracterización física, morfológica y evaluación de las curvas de empastamiento de musáceas (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Darío Hoyos-Leyva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron veinte variedades de musáceas de diferente composición genética: AB, BB, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAAA y AAAB, del Banco de Germoplasma existente en la hacienda Las Vegas, de Fedeplátano, Chinchiná (1360 m.s.n.m., 4° 58' N y 75° 20' O, Colombia. La caracterización incluyó propiedades físicas como peso, diámetro, longitud, materia seca y porcentaje de cáscara del fruto y propiedades funcionales como harinas y almidones. El análisis de componentes principales (ACP mostró que las variedades de plátano se diferencian por su mayor tamaño (peso, longitud y diámetro. M. B. Tani, ICAFHIA 110, Saba, y los plátanos del subgrupo Bluggoe tuvieron altos porcentajes de cáscara. Entre los demás clones no se observaron diferencian entre sí. Los plátanos de cocción del subgrupo Plantain presentaron el mayor contenido de materia seca. Bocadillo Chileno e híbridos postre (exceptuando FHIA-1, presentaron mayor contenido de fracción comestible frente a las demás variedades. La temperatura de inicio de gelatinización de las harinas en el RVA varió entre 66.58 °C para la variedad Bocadillo Chileno y 75.21 °C para Mbindi. La viscosidad máxima varió entre 441.57 y 1837.17 cP para las variedades Tafetán Rojo y Dwarf Cavendish, respectivamente. La facilidad de cocción varió entre 2.76 min en Bocadillo Chileno y 7.55 min en Gros Michel Guayabo. La temperatura de inicio de gelatinización de los almidones varió entre 65.58°C para Gros Michel Guayabo y 74.41°C en Tafetán Rojo. La variedad Yangambi Km3 presentó la viscosidad máxima a 483.24 cP e Indio a 1958.44cP. La variedad Mbindi presentó la mayor facilidad de cocción (1.91 min mientras que FHIA-1 presentó el mayor tiempo (9.49 min.

  18. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  19. Definir un proceso adecuado para establecer precios de transferencia del banano, para los exportadores ecuatorianos.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Un gran porcentaje del comercio internacional se desarrolla entre empresas vinculadas, generalmente empresas multinacionales que transfieren mercaderías o servicios entre diversas unidades de negocios por ellas controladas, que tienen sus asientos en diferentes países. Cuando estas unidades de negocios obedecen a una estrategia comercial común se pueden planificar las operaciones a fin de localizar la fuente de la ganancia en las jurisdicciones fiscales de menor presión tributaria...

  20. 不同香蕉品种多聚半乳糖醛酸酶抑制蛋白活性的比较%Comparison of the Activity of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Proteins in Different Banana Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昆昂; 王振中

    2013-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIP), containing rich leucine with repeated region, can inhibit the activity of a variety of fungal Polygalacturonases (PG), and is considered as a kind of important factor in plant resistance against fungal infection. In this study, we used several banana varieties as the research materials to detect their PGIP activities to inhibit PGs produced by race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc4), the severe disease pathogen of banana fusarium wilt. Those banana varieties were concerned as resistant varieties to the pathogen and with different cell genotypes, including Musa AAA, Musa ABB, Musa ABB, Musa AA and Musa AAAB. The results showed that PGIP from Dongguandajiao (Musa ABB) inhibitted PGs of Foc4 with the highest activity among these banana varieties. By comparing the PGIP activities in roots, pseudo-stems and leaves of Dongguandajiao, PGIP from pseudo-stem was found with the highest PGIP activity. The study also found that the PGIP activity could be induced by Foc4 inoculation, and PGIP activity was higher in young seedlings than that in older ones.%植物多聚半乳糖醛酸酶抑制蛋白(PGIP)是一种富含亮氨酸重复区域的蛋白质,能够非竞争性地抑制真菌的多聚半乳糖醛酸酶(PG)的活性.以目前生产上几个主要抗枯萎病的香蕉品种为材料,参照Gross的PGIP活性测定方法,通过测定了Musa AAA、Musa ABB、Musa ABB、Musa AA和Musa AAAB等不同细胞基因型的香蕉品种的PGIP活性,发现东莞大蕉(Musa ABB)的活性最高.通过对东莞大蕉根、假茎、叶不同部位的PGIP活性比较,发现假茎的活性最高.用香蕉枯萎病菌4号生理小种接种诱导东莞大蕉能明显提高PGIP活性,观察还发现东莞大蕉苗期PGIP的活性明显高于后期.

  1. Dimensions of Usability: Cougaar, Aglets and Adaptive Agent Architecture (AAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Gorton, Ian

    2004-06-20

    Research and development organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies in order to implement the next generation of advanced applications. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, agent technologies are perceived as an approach that can provide a competitive advantage in the construction of highly sophisticated software systems in a range of application areas. An important factor in selecting a successful agent architecture is the level of support it provides the developer in respect to developer support, examples of use, integration into current workflow and community support. Without such assistance, the developer must invest more effort into learning instead of applying the technology. Like many other applied research organizations, our staff are not dedicated to a single project and must acquire new skills as required, underlining the importance of being able to quickly become proficient. A project was instigated to evaluate three candidate agent toolkits across the dimensions of support they provide. This paper reports on the outcomes of this evaluation and provides insights into the agent technologies evaluated.

  2. The 40th AAAS Gordon Conference on nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1991-06-27

    I am pleased to speak at the Fortieth Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry. I served as Chairman of the first Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry held June 23--27, 1952, at New Hampton, New Hampshire. In my remarks, during which I shall quote from my journal, I shall describe some of the background leading up to the first Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry and my attendance at the first seven Gordon Conferences during the period 1952 through 1958. I shall also quote my description of my appearance as the featured speaker at the Silver Anniversary of the Gordon Research Conferences on December 27, 1956 held at the Commodore Hotel in New York City. I shall begin with reference to my participation in the predecessor to the Gordon Conferences, the Gibson Island Research Conferences 45 years ago, on Thursday, June 20, 1946, as a speaker. This was 15 years after the start of these conferences in 1931. Neil Gordon played a leading role in these conferences, which were named (in 1948) in his honor -- the Gordon Research Conferences -- soon after they were moved to Colby Junior College, New London, New Hampshire in 1947. W. George Parks became Director in 1947, Alexander Cruickshank became Assistant Director in 1947 and Director in 1968.

  3. Antimicrobial Treatment to Impair Expansion of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, David; Lindeman, Johannes H N; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatment to attenuate expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysm has been suggested, especially with the focus on Chlamydophila. In this systematic literature review only four randomized trials were identified. In two small studies there is an indication of an effect of roxithromycin...

  4. Withaferin A Analogs That Target the AAA+ Chaperone p97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, E. M. Kithsiri; Xu, Ya-ming; Kang, MinJin; Wu, Tongde; Lau, Eric C.; Mesa, Celestina; Mason, Damian J.; Brown, Robert V.; Clair, James J. La; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie; Zhang, Donna D.; Chapman, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mode of action (MOA) of many natural products can be puzzling with mechanistic clues that seem to lack a common thread. One such puzzle lies in the evaluation of the antitumor properties of the natural product withaferin A (WFA). A variety of seemingly unrelated pathways have been identified to explain its activity, suggesting a lack of selectivity. We now show that WFA acts as an inhibitor of the chaperone, p97, both in vitro and in cell models in addition to inhibiting the proteasome in vitro. Through medicinal chemistry, we have refined the activity of WFA toward p97 and away from the proteasome. Subsequent studies indicated that these WFA analogs retained p97 activity and cytostatic activity in cell models, suggesting that the modes of action reported for WFA could be connected by proteostasis modulation. Through this endeavor, we highlight how the parallel integration of medicinal chemistry with chemical biology offers a potent solution to one of natures’ intriguing molecular puzzles. PMID:26006219

  5. 7种龙舌兰属植物提取物对两种炭疽病病菌抑菌活性初探%Antifungal activity of extracts from 7 species of Agave spp.plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Calletotrichum musae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    采用菌丝生长速率法测定了7种龙舌兰属植物提取物对胶孢炭疽病病菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)和香蕉炭疽病病菌(Calletotrichum musae)的抑菌活性.结果表明,在质量浓度10、5 mg/mL下处理72 h,7种龙舌兰属植物提取物对两种炭疽病病菌均有很强的抑茵活性.其中,H.11648、广西76416、有剌番麻和番麻对两种炭疽病病菌抑菌率均为100%,普通剑麻、粤西114和灰叶剑麻对两种炭疽病病菌抑菌率为77.78%~100%.毒力测定表明,有刺番麻对胶孢和香蕉炭瘟病病菌抑茵效果最显著,有效中浓度(EC5o)分别为0.027 7 mg/mL和0.048 2 mg/mL,其次是广西76416,有效中浓度(EC50)分别为0.093 4 mg/mL和0.240 9 mg/mL.

  6. Efecto de la densidad de inoculación en la formación y morfología de los embriones somáticos de plátano (Musa spp. AAAB, cv. híbrido FHIA-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis García-Águila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effect of inoculum density on formation and morphology of plantain somatic embryos (Musa spp. AAAB, cv. Hybrid ‘FHIA-21’ Resumen La embriogénesis somática constituye una interesante propuesta para la propagación masiva de plantas del cultivar híbrido FHIA-21 (Musa AAAB. Sin embargo, se caracteriza por ser un proceso asincrónico, dado por la presencia de embriones somáticos en diferentes etapas de desarrollo ontogénico. La reducción de la asincronía es un aspecto importante para la utilización de este sistema de regeneración en la propagación de plantas. Esta investigación se realizó con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la densidad de inoculación sobre la formación y el desarrollo morfológico homogéneo de los embriones somáticos del cv. FHIA-21. Con este propósito se adicionaron 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 y 2,0 g de masa fresca (gMF de agregados celulares embriogénicos en Erlenmeyers (250 ml, que contenían 30 ml de medio de cultivo líquido. Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 30 días de cultivo con la determinación del número y la longitud de los embriones somáticos (mm. Además de una descripción morfológica e histológica de estos. Los resultados mostraron el efecto regulatorio de la densidad de inoculación en la formación y el desarrollo morfológico de los embriones somáticos. La mayor formación de embriones con un desarrollo morfológico homogéneo se produjo en 1,5 gMF de densidad de inoculación. Esta proporcionó un 86,4% de embriones con una longitud de 0,21 a 4,0 mm, y el estudio de las secciones histológicas mostró evidencias histológicas de la etapa globular. La sincronización durante la formación y el desarrollo de los embriones somáticos del cv. FHIA-21 aumentó la eficiencia del proceso de embriogénesis somática. Palabras clave: histología; morfología; embriogénesis somática; sincronización. Abstract Somatic embryogenesis is an interesting proposal for mass propagation

  7. Host Range and Banana Variety Resistance to Bacterial Soft Rot Pathogens%香蕉细菌性软腐病菌的寄主范围及香蕉品种的抗性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁月; 陈雪凤; 李华平; 梁家杰; 刘琼光

    2013-01-01

    以分离获得的3个香蕉细菌性软腐病菌为接种菌株,采用针刺和注射等接种方法进行了香蕉细菌性软腐病菌寄主范围的鉴定,并对香蕉不同品种的抗性进行了测定.结果表明,在供试的15科22种植物中有21种植物可以被病原菌侵染而发病,表明该病原菌寄主范围广泛.对我国普遍栽种的7个香蕉品种的抗性测定结果表明,不同香蕉品种抗性存在差异,其中皇帝蕉为高抗品种;农科1号、大蕉和巴西蕉为中抗品种;而金粉、广粉和威廉斯B6为中感品种.%Banana soft rot, a serious disease caused by Dickeya sp., was found in Guangdong and Hainan provinces. The host range of banana soft rot pathogens in China and the disease resistance of different banana varieties were not reported. Three isolates of banana soft rot pathogens and 22 species of plants from 15 families were investigated for pathogen-host range by using artificial inoculation methods. The results indicated that three isolates had a wide host range. In addition, seven banana varieties, which widely grew in China, were used to identify the resistance to banana soft rot. The results showed that Musa AA Pisang Mas had a high resistance; Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Brazil, Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Nongke No. 1, and Musa ABB Pisang had a moderate resistance; Musa ABB Pisang Awak cv. Jinfen, Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Williams, Musa ABB Pisang Awak cv. Guangfen were moderately susceptible.

  8. Eficiência hospedeira de oito cultivares de bananeira a fitonematóides Host reaction of eight banana cultivars to plant parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lucí Dinardo-Miranda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Grande Naine, Nanicão Jangada, Nanicão (Grupo AAA, Enxerto, Prata, Prata Zulu, Maçã e Mysore (Grupo AAB foram plantados em campo e avaliados quanto à eficiência hospedeira a nematóides. Todos eles apresentaram elevadas populações de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1, sendo considerados, portanto, hospedeiros favoráveis dessa espécie. Os cultivares do grupo AAA e Mysore foram também hospedeiros favoráveis de Radopholus similis, enquanto os demais do grupo AAB se comportaram como hospedeiros pouco favoráveis. Helicotylenchus dihystera foi detectado em baixas populações, em raízes e no solo da rizosfera de todos os cultivares.The host reaction of eight banana cultivars (Musa spp. to nematodes was assessed in a field experiment. Three cultivars evaluated were members of AAA Group (Grande Naine, Nanicão and Nanicão Jangada and five belonged to AAB Group (Prata, Enxerto, Prata Zulu, Maçã and Mysore. All cultivars were infested by Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, rated as efficient hosts. The AAA Group cultivars and Mysore were also efficient hosts to Radopholus similis, whereas Prata, Enxerto and Maçã were not. Helicotylenchus dihystera was detected at low density populations in soil and root samples of all cultivars.

  9. FITOPATÓGENOS ASOCIADOS A Dieffenbachia oerstedii Y Syngonium podophyllum EN PLANTACIONES DE BANANO EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identifi car patógenos presentes en una sintomatología en plantas de sainillo (Dieffenbachia oerstedii y conde (Syngonium podophyllum en una fi nca bananera en Limón, Costa Rica. De febrero a noviembre del año 2007, se analizó la presencia de agentes patogénicos asociadas a una sintomatología observada en plantas tratadas o no con herbicida, en la fi nca Limofrut C, Matina, Limón. Se tomaron muestras y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos, de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Ahí se determinó la presencia de las bacterias Pseudomonas spp y Erwinia spp asociadas a las muestras de sainillo sintomáticas y una mezcla de bacterias y Xanthomonas spp asociadas a las muestras de conde. Se detectó la presencia de bacterias Pseudomonas fl uorescentes en las muestras de sainillo no sintomáticas.

  10. Implementación de fábrica de papel y derivados empleando residuos de banano como materia prima

    OpenAIRE

    Davalos Funes, Maria Paulina; Zurita Erazo, Sonia Analia

    2009-01-01

    El sector papelero presenta niveles de riesgo. La industria que importa pulpa de papel está a merced de los precios internacionales, pero el mayor problema es a nivel ecológico. El mercado internacional exige que la industria papelera implemente Normas internacionales “ISO 14000” para garantizar una mejor “Gestión Ambiental”. La industria papelera, para su proceso utiliza una gran cantidad de árboles lo que hace evidente que en el corto plazo no podrán producir papel a base de la pulpa, debem...

  11. 小果野芭蕉种子散布和不同时空尺度上种子被捕食格局%SEED DISPERSAL AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL VARIATION OF SEED PREDATION OF MUSA ACUMINATA IN XISHUANGBANNA, SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令曾; 高秀霞; 陈进

    2008-01-01

    以分布在云南西双版纳地区的大型先锋草本植物小果野芭蕉(Musa acuminata)为研究材料,研究其种子初次散布过程和不同时空尺度上种子被捕食格局.小果野芭蕉的成熟果实有75%在夜间被取食和传播,在白天消失的果实则占25%.蝙蝠是其最主要的种子传播者,鸟类在其种子传播过程中也起到一定的作用.人工摆放种子试验结果显示小果野芭蕉种子的主要转移者是小型啮齿类(鼠类)和蚁类:在开放处理下3 d后转移率为86%,排除蚁类(鼠类可进入)处理下种子转移率为69%以及排除鼠类(蚂蚁可进入)处理下种子被转移率为56%.季节、地点和生境均显著影响人工摆放种子被转移强度:雨季显著高于旱季(p<0.001),野芭蕉生境显著高于与其相连的自然森林和荒地(p<0.001),在人为干扰较少的补蚌自然保护区显著低于西双版纳热带植物园和新山,而后两者之间并无显著差异(p>0.05).同时,地点和生境以及季节、地点和生境都有显著的交互作用.与相邻的森林和荒地相比,野芭蕉群落中种子被鼠类捕食的强度最大且受蚁类二次转移的比例最少,森林和荒地中种子被鼠类捕食的强度相对较小且蚁类对种子的二次转移比例较高,从而更好地帮助种子逃避鼠类捕食.因此,依赖于食果动物(主要是蝙蝠,也包括鸟类)的初次散布是小果野芭蕉种子逃避捕食的关键.

  12. 香蕉ARF3基因全长克隆及其对枯萎病菌的响应特性分析%Cloning the Full-length cDNA of ARF3 Gene from Banana (Musa acuminata) and Characterizing Its Response to Banana Fusarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 杜中军; 徐立; 唐志鹏; 李志英

    2013-01-01

    ARF3 gene is one of member of the ARF gene family. The functions of ARF3 gene are considered to involve in cell signal transduction, membrane transportation and vesicle transporting. This study has designed four specific primers according to the core sequence fragment, which was obtained from banana transcriptome. The full cDNA of the ARF3 was cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) by using the approaches of RACE and PCR, the cloned gene was named MuARF3. The gene sequence of 1 427 bp contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 166 bp in length that encodes 338 amino acid residuals. BLAST analysis showed that the full-length nucleotide sequence of the ARF3 has a range from 69% to 74% similarities to the reported ARF3 gene of the other plants as well as from 81% to 93% similarities in amino acid sequence. Through infecting banana roots inoculated with banana Fusarium race 4, the expression level of MuARF3 was dramatically elevated to the highest point at 12 h after inoculation and then gradually declined with time elapse. Therefore, the cloned MuARF3 gene has active response to infection of Fusarium physiological race No.4, which might provide a reference for the further use of the gene.%  ARF3基因属于ARF基因家族的成员,主要功能是参与细胞信号转导、跨膜运输及囊泡转运.本研究根据已获得的基因片段设计4条特异性引物,采用RACE技术克隆获得了香蕉ARF3基因cDNA全长序列,命名为MuARF3.该基因序列全长共1427 bp,开放阅读框长度为1166 bp,共编码338个氨基酸.BLAST结果显示,香蕉ARF3基因全长核苷酸序列与已报道的其它植物ARF3具有69%~74%的相似性,氨基酸序列有81%~93%的相似性.用香蕉枯萎病菌4号生理小种侵染香蕉根系后,分析得出的结果表明,侵染根系后香蕉ARF3基因的表达量在侵染后12 h达到最高,并且随着时间推移逐渐降低.由此说明本研究获得的MuARF3基因对香蕉枯萎病菌4号生理小种侵染具有应急

  13. 大蕉后熟期的褐变相关性及褐变底物鉴定%Correlations between Browning Degree and PPO or POD Activity of Dajiao Banana (Musa paradisiaca ABB cv Dajiao) and Preliminary Identification of Browning Substrates during Postharvest Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永亮; 余铭; 袁根良; 杜冰; 鲁旺旺; 黄守耀; 杨公明

    2012-01-01

    The variation regularity of browning degree (BD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) of Dajiao banana (Musa paradisiaca ABB cv. Dajiao) was observed and compared with other two banana varieties, Fenjiao and Cavendish. Meanwhile, the role of total and free phenol contents in the browning of Dajiao banana was investigated. BD indicated a progressively increasing trend in the three varieties of banana during postharvest ripening, and Fenjiao and Cavendish browned significantly faster than Dajian after the 13^th day of storage, suggesting that Dajiao was more suitable for deep processing. In addition, Dajiao exhibited low PPO and POD activities and low free phenol content but high total phenol content and consequently browned slowly, demonstrating an association between the BD and PPO or POD activities and a negative correlation between the browning rate and free content of The correlation coefficients between BD and PPO POD activities phenol Dajiao. or were 0.8789 and 0.9240, respectively. Thus, there is a close correlation between the browning potential and PPO or POD activities of Dajiao. The main browning substrates in Dajiao were gallic acid and epicatechin as preliminarily identified using UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and HPLC.%以粉蕉和香牙蕉为对照,观察大蕉后熟过程中褐变度、多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶的变化规律,同时考察大蕉总酚和游离酚含量分别在大蕉褐变过程中起的作用。结果表明:三种香蕉在后熟过程中,褐变度均呈逐渐增长趋势,在储藏13d后,粉蕉与香牙蕉的褐变速率明显高于大蕉,说明大蕉更适合于作为深加工的原料。在储藏13d后,大蕉的多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶比活力均比较低,游离酚含量也比较低,但总酚含量较高,最终导致褐变速率较慢,说明大蕉的褐变度同多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶有一定的相关性,大蕉的褐变速率与游离酚的含量呈

  14. Pengaruh Iradiasi Terhadap Enzim Buah Pisang (Musa paradisiaca)

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanti, Aryanti; Winarno, Ermin; Nurhidayati, Nurhidayati; Sinaga, R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of irradition on the activity of pectinesterase, peroxisidase, polyphenol oxidase enzymes and their isoenzymes respectively. Bananas were irradiated at the doses of 0; 0,15; 0,3 and 0,45 kGy.and stored at 22°C and RH 70 - 80%. The results showed that irradition at the dosis of 0,15; 0,3 and 0,45 kGy could reduce pectinesterase activity by 4.52; 16.96 and 18.57% respectively. The activity of peroxidase were reduce by irradiation at the do...

  15. Musas de América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Loyola Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la temática de la mujer artista latinoamericanay caribeña y su presencia en la esfera dela música, principalmente como intérprete vocal o instrumentaly compositora. Se resaltan dos conceptos en elreflejo de la participación artística de la mujer: la representacióncomo modelo de la belleza física, y la de representanteactiva en su función de sujeto actuante al creary reproducir la realidad del entorno, incluida su propiaproblemática social. Se explica cómo las egresadas de lasinstituciones de formación musical, integran las agrupacionesmusicales, incluidas las constituidas totalmentepor personal femenino. La investigación se apoya en unametodología analítica comparativa, histórica y musicológica.Concluye en que América Latina y el Caribe se colocaa la vanguardia de esta evolución; donde la profundizaciónde los procesos socio-políticos consolidan la participaciónde la mujer en las especialidades de la música:interpretación, composición, investigación y enseñanza.

  16. Phenylphenalenone-type Phytoalexins from Unripe Buñgulan Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, T; Kato, N; Hirai, N; Tsuda, M; Fujioka, D; Ohigashi, H

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen phenylphenalenone-type phytoalexins (1-14), including three new compounds, were isolated from the peel of unripe Musa acuminata [AAA] cv. Buñgulan fruit which had been injured and then inoculated with conidia of Colletotrichum musae. These new phytoalexins were identified as (+)-cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)phenalen-1-one (12), 9-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (13) and 9-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (14). The ratios of the relative intensities of the [M](+)/[M-H](+) ions or [M-H2O](+)/[M-H2O-H](+) ions in the EI mass spectra were applied to discriminate between 4- and 9-phenylphenalenones. An antifungal test on the phytoalexins showed that a phenolic hydroxyl group was essential for the activity.

  17. Gibberella musae (Fusarium musae) sp. nov., a recently discovered species from banana is sister to F. verticillioides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, van F.; Waalwijk, C.; Logrieco, A.; Munaut, F.; Moretti, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several strains of Fusarium isolated from banana were identified previously as F. verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg but described as unable to produce fumonisin. Here we report biochemical and morphological evidence, as well as multilocus phylogenetic analyses based on elongation factor (EF-1a), cal

  18. ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY AND RESOURCE USE IN BANANA ( Musa sapientum A ND PLANTAIN ( Musa paradisiaca PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES IN BAYELSA STATE , NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainga Prince Ebiowei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to determine the allocative efficiency and resource use of banana and plantain production enterprises in Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Three - stage sampling technique was used for drawing the samples and getting data. Total sample size was 180 farm households. The data were analyzed by using mean and production function models. Allocative efficiency and resource use results indicates farmers incapabil ity in efficient use and allocation of banana and plantain suckers, family labor and hired labor. In relation to total revenue, the elasticity of the plantain suckers showed that, an increase in it by one unit will lead to an increase in total revenue. Results from the allocative efficiency index, objective of profit maximization and equimarginal principle, indicated that banana suckers were efficiently allocated, while plantain suckers were inefficiently allocated; family and hired labor were inefficiently allocated in both banana and plantain enterprises. While plantain suckers were under - utilized, family and hired labor were both over - utilized in both enterprises, suggesting that farmers were yet to achieve absolute degree of allocative efficiency in thes e resources. However, they could profitably reduce the quantity of family and hired labor and increase plantain suckers that they employ. Thus, allocative efficiency and resource use can be enhanced by the provision of credit/ loan, good rural roads, impro ved varieties of suckers and farming technologies, extension services and subsidized farm inputs and equipment among others by Government, Non - Governmental Organizations (NGOs and institutions alike through genuine political will

  19. AAAS News: Questions of Science Literacy Addressed by Rutherford/AAAS; 1982 Exhibit; Energy and Health to Be Discussed in Berkeley; Short Courses at Pacific Division, Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents the views of F. James Rutherford concerning the status of science education and his role as advisor on science education to the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. (SK)

  20. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  1. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  2. 5个香蕉穿孔线虫种群对香蕉的致病性测定%Determination of Pathogenicity of 5 Populations of Radopholus similis to 3 Banana Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符美英; 吴凤芝; 卜小莉; 王会芳; 陈绵才

    2011-01-01

    Radopholus similis is the most serious pest of banana. The pathogenicity of 5 populations of R. Similis to seedlings of 3 banana cultivars was tested by pot-inoculation in greenhouse. The results showed that all of the 5 populations of R. Similis were highly pathogenic to Musa AAA Giant Cavendish cv. Baxi. RSI population of R. Similis showed weak pathogenicity to Musa ABB Pisang Awak and the other four populations showed no pathogenicity to Musa ABB Pisang Awak. Musa acuminata cv. Mas was not the host of these 5 R. Similis populations. Musa AAA Giant Cavendish cv. Baxi plants parasitized with R. Similis showed a reduced growth with yellowing leaves and browning spot in roots.%香蕉穿孔线虫对香蕉生产是一种毁灭性的危害.为了明确5个香蕉穿孔线虫种群对香蕉的致病性,在温室中采用盆栽接种的方法,分别测定了5个香蕉穿孔线虫花卉种群对巴西蕉、皇帝蕉和粉蕉的寄生性.结果表明,5个香蕉穿孔线虫种群对巴西蕉都有强致病性;RS1种群对粉蕉存在弱致病性,其他4个种群对粉蕉均没有致病性;皇帝蕉不是这5个香蕉穿孔线虫种群的寄主植物.香蕉穿孔线虫寄生巴西蕉后,造成香蕉植株明显矮小、长势弱,严重时地上部叶片出现萎蔫黄化,根部形成褐色病斑甚至坏死变黑腐烂等症状,对巴西蕉危害显著.

  3. An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

  4. Introductory Chemistry Needs A Revolution. ACS and IUPAC and AAAS and ICUC Should Lead It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The standard curriculum for introductory chemistry does not reflect the needs of students, is enforced by custom and untenured teachers who deviate from it endanger prospects for tenure. Hence, revision of the introductory curriculum should involve research into actual needs and interests of students and should reflect what modern workers conceive…

  5. Detectability of motions in AAA with ECG-gated CTA: A quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Greuter, Marcel J.W.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Renema, W. Klaas Jan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated CT enables the visualization of motions caused by the beating of the heart. Although ECG gating is frequently used in cardiac CT imaging, this technique is also very promising for evaluating vessel wall motion of the aortic artery and the motions of (stent grafts inside) abdominal

  6. Detectability of motions in AAA with ECG-gated CTA: a quantitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.; Oostveen, L.J.; Greuter, M.J.; Hoogeveen, Y.L.; Kool, L.J.; Slump, C.H.; Renema, W.K.J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: ECG-gated CT enables the visualization of motions caused by the beating of the heart. Although ECG gating is frequently used in cardiac CT imaging, this technique is also very promising for evaluating vessel wall motion of the aortic artery and the motions of (stent grafts inside) abdominal

  7. Detectability of motions in AAA with ECG-gated CTA : A quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Kool, Leo J. Schultze; Slump, Cornelis H.; Renema, W. Klaas Jan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated CT enables the visualization of motions caused by the beating of the heart. Although ECG gating is frequently used in cardiac CT imaging, this technique is also very promising for evaluating vessel wall motion of the aortic artery and the motions of (stent grafts inside) abdominal

  8. The Hopelessly Compromised: Independent Games as a Movement against Mainstream AAA Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have seen the rise of a loosely defined independent games movement, often promoted as a more authentic type of video game than mainstream big budget video games (Juul 2014). For example, developer Dan Cook claims that “Indie games let me be a fan who is cheering on someone...... of the design and values of mainstream video games. As such, mainstream video games play the role of the morally and aesthetically compromised other, an other from which video games must be saved; an other that independent games are assumed to be rebelling against. In this paper I will analyze independent games...... as a number of specific (and sometimes contradictory) rejections of particular aspects of mainstream video game design. I am examining the game design of selected high-profile independent games, as well as game reviews and developer statement about their games. Here I am presenting general results...

  9. Diagnosis and perioperative management of ruptured AAA mimicking symptomatic groin hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Jan Klein

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA remains the recommended diagnostic tool—for both safe diagnosis of the ruptured aneurysm and precise preoperative planning. Endovascular aortic repair of the RAAA—if feasible—is the treatment of choice. This rare form of RAAA manifestation should call physicians attention—especially in patients with known abdominal aortic aneurysms in their preceding medical history.

  10. Public Policy Analysis. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Elinor

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This publication on Public Policy Analysis includes 11 sections: (1) The Purposes of this Study Guide; (2) Urban Reform Proposals; (3) Evaluating Reform Proposals; (4)…

  11. DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO DE POLLOS DE ENGORDE SUPLEMENTADOS CON BIOMASA DE Saccharomyces cerevisiae DERIVADA DE LA FERMENTACIÓN DE RESIDUOS DE BANANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la inclusión de diferentes ni-veles de biomasa de levaduras, producidos al fermentar hidrolizados de residuos de laindustria bananera, sobre los parámetros zootécnicos de pollos de engorde, evaluandoademás el impacto económico de su uso en las dietas. Se utilizaron 210 pollos de en-gorde de un día de edad, distribuidos completamente al azar en cinco tratamientos,en una relación de seis réplicas por tratamiento y siete pollos por réplica. El periodoexperimental comprendió 42 días; el alimento y el agua se dispensaron a voluntad. Lasdietas experimentales fueron: T1- Control negativo sin levadura, T2- Control positivocon levadura comercial a razón de 1,5 kg ton-1de alimento, T3- Levadura experimentala razón de 0,5 kg ton-1de la dieta, T4-Levadura experimental a razón de 1,0 kg ton-1de la dieta y T5- Levadura experimental a razón de 1,5 kg ton-1de la dieta. Se observómayor consumo de acumulado alimento en el tratamiento 4 (1kg ton-1de levadura conrespecto a los demás tratamientos evaluados. No hubo diferencias significativas (P>0.05en las otras variables evaluadas en el estudio. Se constató beneficio económico con el usodel tratamiento 4 pues se obtuvieron mejores retornos (precio de venta del pollo – costode la alimentación que fueron mayores a los observados en los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 5en 153, 82, 62 y 161 pesos($ ave-1, respectivamente.

  12. Efecto de laminillas protectoras de polietileno sobre la productividad de banano sin desflora de frutos Polyethylene protective lamella effect on banana productivity without fruit deflowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dos experimentos fueron realizados en el Caribe de Costa Rica, tanto en época climática favorable (experimento 1 como adversa (experimento 2. Los tratamientos y el nuevo tipo de laminilla de espuma de polietileno (bajo espesor y celda cerrada fueron: 1 sin laminillas entre manos o entre filas de cada mano (testigo; 2 con laminillas solo entre manos; 3 con laminillas solo entre filas de cada mano; y 4 con laminillas entre manos y entre filas de cada mano. Las variables medidas fueron: peso del racimo (kg, grosor (treintaidosavos de pulgada y largo (cm de pulpa a punta del fruto central de la fila externa de la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano y número de días de la colocación de las laminillas a la cosecha. Adicionalmente se determinaron los factores de rechazo y el número de cajas por racimo (ratio. El peso del racimo (experimento 1: p= 0.9571 y experimento 2: p= 0.5662, el grosor y la longitud de los frutos centrales de la fila externa de la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano (experimento 1: p> 0.2378; experimento 2: p> 0.1137, así como los días de la colocación de las laminillas a la cosecha (experimento 1: p= 0.5169 y experimento 2: p= 0.6916 no difirieron entre tratamientos. Independientemente de los tratamientos se observó una mayor cantidad de frutos rechazados por racimo en la época climática favorable (64.5 a 86.5 frutos con respecto a la adversa (9.6 a 16.4 frutos. La colocación de laminillas no influyó sobre la expresión del rechazo por cicatriz de crecimiento de frutos sin desflora en el campo y no mejoró, en comparación con el testigo, la relación cajas por racimo.Two experiments were conducted in Costa Rica Caribbean, both in favorable climatic period (experiment 1 and unfavorable (experiment 2. Treatments and the new type of polyethylene foam slide (low thickness and closed cell were: 1 without lamellae between hands or between rows of each hand (control; 2 with lamellae just between hands; 3 with lamellae between rows of each hand; and 4 with lamellae between hands and between rows of each hand. Measured variables were: bunch weight (kg, thickness (1/32" and length (cm from pulp to tip from the central fruit of the external row of the second, fourth and sixth hand and number of days since lamellae placement until harvest. Additionally factors of rejection and the number of boxes per bunch (ratio were identified. Bunch weight (experiment 1: p= 0.9571 and experiment 2: p= 0.5662, thickness and length of the central fruit of the outer row of the second, fourth and sixth hand (experiment 1: p> 0.2378, experiment 2: p> 0.1137 as well as days since lamellae placement until harvest (experiment 1: p= 0.5169 and experiment 2: p= 0.6916 did not differ between treatments. Regardless of the treatments, it was a higher number of rejected fruits per cluster during the favorable climatic period (64.5 to 86.5 fruits respect to adverse climatic period (9.6 to 16.4 fruits. Lamellae placing did not influence the expression of rejection by fruit growth scar without deflowering in the field and did not improve, compared with control, boxes per cluster relation.

  13. Caracterización molecular de 15 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana asociados con Cosmopolites y Metamasius en plátano y banano en tres regiones de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron picudos de Cosmopolites y Metamasius en municipios del Valle del Cauca, Caldas y Quindío. Se obtuvieron cultivos monospóricos con diluciones de 10-10 y 10-11. Los aislamientos fueron almacenados a -80°C con glicerol al 10% y el ADN a –20°C. Los marcadores moleculares RAM generaron 82 fragmentos de los cuales 67% fueron polimórficos con una heterocigocidad de 0.24, que indica diversidad media a alta. A un índice de similitud 0.84 se formaron 5 grupos: uno con 11 aislamientos y 4 con un solo aislamiento. En el gran grupo se detectó un duplicado y se encontró diversidad del hongo en los sitios muestreados. No se encontró relación entre aislamientos sobre Cosmopolites y Metamasius o zona geográfica en la formación de grupos genéticos.

  14. Diseño de un plan de negocios para la comercialización de banano deshidratado como alternativa de desarrollo para la cooperativa Cobaoro

    OpenAIRE

    Vega González, Laura Luzmila

    2014-01-01

    This business plan is intended to find an alternative development for members of the association COBAORO , due to which the market study was conducted , the same resulting in that 89.72 % of respondents indicated willingness to buy and consume the product. The product will be named " cobito " which is a short name, easy to pronounce and striking, the introductory price will be 40 cents covers 31 grams , the distribution is made from the plant to the dealers to these may make people hit the st...

  15. Pathogenicity of 6 Populations of Radopholus similis From Ornamentals to 4 Banana Cultivars%香蕉穿孔线虫观赏植物种群对香蕉的致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丹; 谢辉; 裴艳艳; 徐春玲; 韩玉春; 黄春晓; 李云

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为了明确香蕉穿孔线虫(gadopholus similis)观赏植物种群对香蕉(Musa spp.)的致病性.[方法]通过室内盆栽接种测试的方法,研究侵入中国的6个香蕉穿孔线虫观赏植物种群对大蕉、粉蕉、皇帝蕉和巴西蕉的幼苗的致病性.[结果]供试的6个香蕉穿孔线虫观赏植物种群都能明显侵染大蕉、粉蕉和皇帝蕉,并显著抑制大蕉、粉蕉和皇帝蕉的生长;只有2个种群对巴西蕉表现为弱致病,对其生长有一定的抑制.[结论]侵入中国的6个香蕉穿孔线虫观赏植物种群普遍对大蕉、粉蕉和皇帝蕉有明显的致病性,少数种群对巴西蕉有一定的致病作用.%[Objective] The pathogenicity of 6 populations of Radopholus similis from ornamental introduced into China were tested to seedlings of four banana cultivars. [Method] Pot inoculation was used in greenhouse tests. [Result] The six populations of R. similis tested obviously infected the roots of Musa paraolisiaca, Musa ABB Pisang Awak and Musa acuminata cv. Mas and reduced their plant growth. However only two populations of R. similis were weakly infected the roots of Musa AAA Giant Cavendish cv. Baxi. [Conclusion] The results demonstrated the significantly differences in pathogenicity of 6 populations of R. similis from omamantals to seedlings of different Musa spp. The pathogenicity of 6 populations of R. similis was significantly different to the same variety of bananas, and different varieties of bananas showed different susceptibility to the same population of R. similis.

  16. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  17. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Flores Juan Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  18. POTENSI SENYAWA POLIFENOL ANTIOKSIDAN DARI PISANG GOROHO (Musa sapien sp. The Potency of Antioxidant Polyphenol from Goroho Banana (Musa sapien Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Suryanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Goroho banana is food material that has positive content effect on human body. The aims of this research were toanalyze polyphenolic content and to examine antioxidant activity of goroho. Polyphenolic antioxidant of goroho was extracted using methanol, ethanol and acetone for 2 hours at room temperature. Furthermore. extract was analyzed polyphenol content, such as total phenolic, total flavonoidand condensed tannin content. To examine antioxidant activity, free radical DPPH scavenging and total antioxidant (FRAP were used by spectrophotometer analysis. Beside that, the best extract was evaluated its heat stability at 1000C for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 minutes.The highest total phenolic content was in acetone extract 181.87 mg/kg sample, total flavonoid content 4.75 mg/ kg sample in ethanol extract and condensed tannin 54.63 mg/kg sample in aceton extract. Acetone extract of goroho show the highest free radical scavenging activity (94.32% compare to ethanol extract (85.39 % and methanol extract (76.38 %. Although examination of total antioxidant (FRAP on aceton extract of goroho showed the highest content than methanol and ethanol extract. Total antioxidant  from acetone, methanol and ethanol extract were 1.83; 1.74; and1.74 μmol/L. This examination resulted that at 1000C there are alterations in phenolic content, free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant after heating 120 minutes, although this three parameters alteration did not show extremedecreasing after 60 minute heating, because it still possess high activity, more than 80%. This result indicate goroho extract stability on heating depend on heating time. This results concluded that goroho possess to phenolic, flavonoid and tannin, also antioxidant activity. ABSTRAK Pisang goroho merupakan bahan makanan yang memiliki efek positif bagi kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmenganalisis kandungan senyawa polifenol dan menguji aktivitas antioksidan pisang goroho. Ekstraksi senyawa polifenol antioksidan dari pisang goroho menggunakan pelarut metanol, etanol dan aseton selama 2 jam pada suhu kamar.  Selanjutnya  masing-masing  ekstrak  dianalisa  kandungan  senyawa  polifenol  yang  meliputi  total  fenolik, flavonoid dan tannin terkondensasi.Untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan diuji berdasarkan kemampuan menangkal radikal bebas DPPH dan kandungan total antioksidan ekstrak menggunakan spektrofotometer. Selain itu, ekstrak terbaik pisang goroho juga dievaluasi stabilitasnya terhadap panas pada suhu 100oC selama 15, 30, 45, 60 dan 120 menit. Hasil analisis kandungan total fenolik tertinggi terdapat pada ekstrak aseton sebesar 181,87 mg/kg sampel, kandungan total flavonoid sebesar 4,75 mg/kg sampel terdapat pada ekstrak etanol dan kandungan tannin terkondensasi sebesar54,63 mg/kg sampel terdapat pada ekstrak aseton. Ekstrak asetonpisang goroho memiliki aktivitas penangkal radikal bebas tertinggi (94,32% dibandingkan ekstrak etanol(85,39% dan metanol (76,38%. Sedangkan pada penentuan total antioksidan ekstrak aseton buah pisang goroho memiliki total antioksidan tertinggi dibandingkan ekstrak metanol dan etanol. Kandungan total antioksidan dari ekstrak aseton, metanol dan etanol berturut-turut adalah 1,83; 1,74; dan 1,74 mmol/100 g. Hasil pengujian stabilitaspada pemanasan 100oC memperlihatkan perubahan kandungan total fenolik, aktivitas penangkal radikal bebas dan total antioksidan selama 120 menit. Akan tetapi, perubahan ketiga pengujian ini tidak menunjukkan penurunan yang tajam selama 60 menit pemanasanyang masih memperlihatkan aktivitas lebih besar 80%. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa stabilitas ekstrak pisang goroho terhadap panas sangat tergantung pada lamanya pemanasan. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa pisang goroho mengandung senyawa fenolik, flavonoid dan tannin serta memiliki aktivitas antioksidan.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15134-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 c... 55 4e-06 CR940348_18( CR940348 |pid... ) EST1231844 ESTSYN-F Musa acuminata AAA Group cDNA... 46 3.3 1 >( C22923 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete...9 AL939131_20( AL939131 |pid:none) Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) com... 65 4e-09 AM286415_1167( AM286415 |pid:none) Yersin...:none) Azotobacter vinelandii DJ, comp... 59 3e-07 CP001504_982( CP001504 |pid:none) Burkholderia glumae...x... 57 1e-06 AL939106_220( AL939106 |pid:none) Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) co... 57 1e-06 AM167904_839( AM167904 |pid

  20. 海南香蕉根颈象甲产卵选择性研究%Oviposition Preference of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢辉; 王明军; 钟义海; 卢芙萍; 徐雪莲; 陈青

    2011-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), is a kind of important pest on bananas, causing serious damage to many banana gardens in Hainan. In order to clarify the oviposition characteristic of C. Sordidus on the banana in Hainan, and offer the guide for the field controlling technology, the oviposition preference of C. Sordidus adult on the different host plant and leaf sheath, and the oviposition rate with different feeding ways, were studied and analyzed experimentally in the laboratory. The results showed that the oviposition rate of C. Sordidus on Brazil banana (Musa AAA cavendish) and Thailand banana (Musa AAA Croup KlaiHom Thong) was 32.87% and 30.93% separately, which were significantly higher than that on Tai Chiao (Musa AAB Sikl), Plantain (Musa ABA), Huangdi banana (Musa AA Pisang Mas), and Fenjiao (Musa ABB Pisang Awak). The adult preferred to oviposit on the middle leaf sheath, particularly the second leaf sheath, with the highest selectivity coefficient of 45.78%, significantly higher than the others. Moreover, when rotten and fresh banana pesudostem were separately used for oviposition of adult female C. Sordidus, the weekly average oviposition rate was 4 and 2 respectively, indicating that C. Sordidus preferred to oviposite on rotten pesudostem.%为了研究香蕉根颈象甲在海南香蕉上的产卵特性,指导田间防控技术,室内研究了香蕉根颈象甲成虫对寄主植物、叶鞘部位的产卵选择性及不同饲养方式下的产卵率.结果表明,在巴西蕉和泰国蕉上,香蕉根颈象甲的产卵率分别为32.87%和30.93%,均显著高于台蕉、大蕉、皇帝蕉和粉蕉;香蕉根颈甲成虫嗜好在香蕉假茎中部叶鞘产卵,在第2层叶鞘的选择性最高,选择系数为45.78%,显著高于其它几层叶鞘的选择系数;分别提供腐烂和新鲜的香蕉假茎让香蕉根颈象甲产卵,周平均产卵量分别为4粒和2粒,可见,香蕉根颈象甲喜欢在腐烂的假茎上产卵.

  1. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  2. Characterisation of metabolic profile of banana genotypes, aiming at biofortified Musa spp. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cristine Vanz; Amorim, Vanusia Batista de Oliveira; Ramlov, Fernanda; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva; Donato, Marcela; Maraschin, Marcelo; Amorim, Edson Perito

    2014-02-15

    The banana is an important, widely consumed fruit, especially in areas of rampant undernutrition. Twenty-nine samples were analysed, including 9 diploids, 13 triploids and 7 tetraploids, in the Active Germplasm Bank, at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, to evaluate the bioactive compounds. The results of this study reveal the presence of a diversity of bioactive compounds, e.g., catechins; they are phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potential and antitumour activity. In addition, accessions with appreciable amounts of pVACs were identified, especially compared with the main cultivars that are currently marketed. The ATR-FTIR, combined with principal components analysis, identified accessions with distinct metabolic profiles in the fingerprint regions of compounds important for human health. Likewise, starch fraction characterisation allowed discrimination of accessions according to their physical, chemical, and functional properties. The results of this study demonstrate that the banana has functional characteristics endowing it with the potential to promote human health.

  3. Una musa de la modernidad: Laura Méndez de Cuenca (1853-1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mílada Bazant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la trayectoria biográfica, magisterial y literaria de una de las primeras feministas de México, Laura Méndez de Cuenca. Mujer liberal y moderna, madre soltera, quien se atrevió a transgredir las normas sociales católicas de su tiempo y vivió una vida libre, pagando un precio muy alto por esa libertad. Su legado de 2000 páginas es un tratado de educación y un compendio literario de todos los géneros.

  4. Una musa de la modernidad: Laura Méndez de Cuenca (1853-1928)

    OpenAIRE

    Mílada Bazant

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo aborda la trayectoria biográfica, magisterial y literaria de una de las primeras feministas de México, Laura Méndez de Cuenca. Mujer liberal y moderna, madre soltera, quien se atrevió a transgredir las normas sociales católicas de su tiempo y vivió una vida libre, pagando un precio muy alto por esa libertad. Su legado de 2000 páginas es un tratado de educación y un compendio literario de todos los géneros.

  5. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  6. PLÁTANO MACHO (Musa aab, CÁRDENAS, TABASCO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Ramos-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento se realizó en Cárdenas, Tabasco, México en un suelo con textura franca, pH moderadamente ácido, contenido de materia orgánica y nitrógeno total bajo, cultivado con plátano macho, con el objetivo de determinar el control de arvenses con A. pintoi en una plantación de plátano macho. Se utilizó un arreglo factoria l alojado en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con sombreado y tip o de cobertura vegetal asocia da al plátano como factores, con tres repe ticiones (octubre 2008-agosto 2009. Tanto el factor sombreado como el factor cobertura tuvie ron dos niveles de porcentaje: 45 (s= ± 11,1 y 50 (s= ± 13,2% de sombra, para suelos con arvenses y, con A. pintoi, respectivamente. Se utilizaron los índices de Shannon-Wie ver (H´ y similitud de Sörensen (S para determinar la riqueza de especie s. A los once meses después de establecido el experimento los valores de H´ no mostrarondiferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, S= 0,8 entre los dos niveles de sombra. Las especie s arvenses dominantes fueron: T. triangulare, S. podophylum, P. paniculatum y C. diffusa. Entre los tratamie ntos probados, el de suelo con arvenses a nivel de 50% de sombra fue el que presentó (p=0,05 mayor producción MS (375,3 ± 83,3 g/m2. La MS producida por A. pintoi fue mayor (p=0,05 con 45% (s= ± 11,1 de sombra (198 g/m2 que la producida a 50% (s= ± 13,2 sombra (150,4 g/m2. Se encontró que el nivel de efectividad de A. pintoi para controlar arvenses fue de 52,3% (con 45 ± 11,1% de sombra y 70,5% (con 50 ± 13,2% sombra.

  7. Somaclonal variation in tissue culture of banana cv. 'Kluai Num Wa'[Musa (ABB group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of cytokinins, 6-Benzyladenine (BA and/or coconut water (CW and pH of medium were studied for their effects on shoot formation, growth and somaclonal variation of banana tissue culture. Thecultures were carried out on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium for 30 days. The average shoot length (5.82 cm was obtained in liquid medium supplemented with 15% CW. While a high number of shoots at 3.8shoots/explant were obtained in liquid medium supplemented with 5 mg/l BA. For fresh weight, liquid medium supplemented with 5 mg/l BA in combination with 15% CW gave the best results (2.26 g/shoot. Anoptimum pH for promotion shoot length (5.67 cm was 5.6 whereas the lower value (pH 4 promoted a high number of shoot formation (3.89 shoots/explant. The highest fresh weight of 1.33 g/shoot was obtained onmedium adjusted pH to 8. After maintaining the shoots by successive subculturing (3-4 week-intervals on MS medium with 5 mg/l BA several morphological abnormalities were obtained. Among those, chloroticleaves (1.5% were firstly observed in the first subculture and increased to 3% in the second subculture. Moreover, a narrow leaf at 25.76% was also observed in this period. Further subculture, more somaclonalvariation, such as a thin long shoots, nodular shoots and bamboo-like leaf, appeared. Isozyme marker revealed a difference in zymogram patterns among those somaclonal variants.

  8. COBERTURAS VIVAS DE LEGUMINOSAS EN EL PLÁTANO (Musa sp. FHIA 03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Gutiérrez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de disminuir el consumo de agrotóxicos en el manejo del cultivo del plátano posibilita la búsqueda de alternativas viables en la esfera agroecológica, razones por las que en la Estación Experimental de la Universidad de Ciego de Avila, entre 1996 y 1998, se desarrolló un experimento para la determinación del efecto de coberturas vivas de leguminosas en una plantación de plátano FHIA-03, que se estableció en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo (Eutric ferralsol, evaluándose los efectos que coberturas vivas de las leguminosas Centrosema plumieri, Teramnus labialis y Stylosanthes guianensis produjeron en el agroecosistema, usando como unidad experimental parcelas de ocho plantas evaluables del cultivo principal (78 m2, en un diseño en franjas en el transcurso de dos años de establecimiento de la cobertura, obteniéndose una reducción significativa de las especies de malezas características del área y competitivas del cultivo, un comportamiento favorable de los indicadores fenológicos, tendencias positivas en cuanto a elementos que pueden definir la calidad del suelo así como de reducción de algunas de las plagas que ocasionan los mayores daños en el plátano. Por último, se apreció la elevación de los rendimientos del cultivo principal y un efecto económico positivo en el manejo del agroecosistema, especialmente con el uso de Teramnus labialis como cobertura.

  9. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  10. LAS MUSAS DE PRINCIPIO DEL SIGLO XXI: INDICIOS DEL CAMBIO EDUCATIVO MUSEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilyn Rodríguez Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo expone que la audiencia es el punto de partida para identificar la mejor manera de diseñar experiencias sensoriales de entretenimiento o educación, es el objeto de la investigación museal, sus gustos e intereses se constituye en el eje de los estudios y de las campañas de mercado. Todo el quehacer museal se orienta a satisfacer los gustos y necesidades del sujeto visitante para así atraerlo al Museo. Este nuevo enfoque museológico tiene el riesgo de olvidar el objeto en el proceso educativo y centrarse en el sujeto. Se propone la promoción del diálogo sujeto-objeto para que la función educativa del Museo contribuya a la conformación de una sociedad con conciencia histórica-cultural clara. Se concluye que, en las primeras décadas del Siglo XXI los diferentes enfoques de la sociomuselogía, la museografía interactiva, la museología crítica y dialógica, así como los ejes de cambio generados por las innovaciones tecnológicas, las dinámicas de consumo y las comunidades de aprendizaje, apuntan a que la audiencia es el centro de atención, y no el objeto y la forma de ser expuesto como lo fue en el Siglo XX.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  12. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Miskam, Muhamad Azman [Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450–650 °C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00–3.00 s. The particle size was set at 224-400 µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  13. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L. for Adsorption Procion Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-05-01

    cellulose. The morphology of cellulose more homogenous than kepok banana peel powder. It was observed that the optimum adsorption of Procion dye by cellulose was on the initial concentration of 30 mg/L, pH solution of 5 and contact time within 30 minutes. The obtained result that cellulose has removal percentage to adsorp Procion dye more higher than kepok banana peel powder. The adsorption equilibrium showed the Langmuir isotherm was described well for adsorption process (R2 = 0.991 than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.922.

  14. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sye Chee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic com- pounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. Material and methods. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, total oxidation value (TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and free fatty acid (FFA content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. Results. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Conclusions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the ap- plication of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  15. A duplex PCR assay for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II strains in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Cellier

    Full Text Available Banana wilt outbreaks that are attributable to Moko disease-causing strains of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs remain a social and economic burden for both multinational corporations and subsistence farmers. All known Moko strains belong to the phylotype II lineage, which has been previously recognized for its broad genetic basis. Moko strains are paraphyletic and are distributed among seven related but distinct phylogenetic clusters (sequevars that are potentially major threats to Musaceae, Solanaceae, and ornamental crops in many countries. Although clustered within the Moko IIB-4 sequevar, strains of the epidemiologically variant IIB-4NPB do not cause wilt on Cavendish or plantain bananas; instead, they establish a latent infection in the vascular tissues of plantains and demonstrate an expanded host range and high aggressiveness toward Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Although most molecular diagnostic methods focus on strains that wilt Solanaceae (particularly potato, no relevant protocol has been described that universally detects strains of the Musaceae-infecting Rs phylotype II. Thus, a duplex PCR assay targeting Moko and IIB-4NPB variant strains was developed, and its performance was assessed using an extensive collection of 111 strains representing the known diversity of Rs Moko-related strains and IIB-4NPB variant strains along with certain related strains and families. The proposed diagnostic protocol demonstrated both high accuracy (inclusivity and exclusivity and high repeatability, detected targets on either pure culture or spiked plant extracts. Although they did not belong to the Moko clusters described at the time of the study, recently discovered banana-infecting strains from Brazil were also detected. According to our comprehensive evaluation, this duplex PCR assay appears suitable for both research and diagnostic laboratories and provides reliable detection of phylotype II Rs strains that infect Musaceae.

  16. Salomé, a musa do fim-do-século

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Cardoso Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  This article on Mallarmé’s poem “Salomé” analyses the character as a fin de siècle topusbecause she destroys males with her cold eroticism. In this sense, Salomé is seen more as a symbol, as a representation of a period, rather than as an historical or mythical figure

  17. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd; Miskam, Muhamad Azman

    2015-04-01

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer.(STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450-650°C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00-3.00s. The particle size was set at 224-400µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  18. Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides strain:Calcutta 4 Transcriptome or Gene expression [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available epoints (3, 6 and 9 days after inoculation) during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola-infected and non...ed timepoints (3, 6 and 9 days after inoculation) during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola-infected a

  19. STABILITAS ANTOSIANIN JANTUNG PISANG KEPOK (Musa paradisiaca L TERHADAP CAHAYA SEBAGAI PEWARNA AGAR-AGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ninan Lestario

    2015-02-01

    jantung pisang kepok yang disinari dengan intensitas 780-2.214 lux selama 10 jam masih disukai panelis, sedangkan yang disinari dengan intensitas 10.340 sudah tidak disukai panelis. Kata kunci: Antosianin, jantung pisang, agar-agar, intensitas cahaya, laju degradasi warna

  20. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  1. Characterization of Radopholus similis resistance in Musa Spp. with emphasis on phytochemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam

    2011-01-01

    The burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949 is considered as the most damaging nematode species in commercial banana plantations. Nematicides have been intensively used to control plant-parasitic nematodes. However, many effective nematicides have been withdrawn from the market due to their adverse effects on the environment, non-target organisms and the accumulation of toxic residues in the food chain. The use of resistant cultivars is an efficient and economical alt...

  2. Notes on Musa rubra Kurz (Musaceae and reduction of M. laterita Cheesman as conspecific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Joe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Notes on taxonomic identity and history of M. rubra is provided and lectotype is designated here. Detailed description, photographs and illustration are provided for easy identification. M. laterita is treated as conspecific to M. rubra.

  3. Pesan Al Quran dalam Kerjasama Musa dengan Syu'ayb tentang Pengelolaan Bisnis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimin Mesra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prophet Moses and Prophet Syu'ayb companion ultimately led them to work together. This case reveals a number of values that should be developed and applied in life related to business management. This story reveals a relation between employees and owners of capitla, recruitment patterns, appreciation of performance, proffesionalism, and some related matters. The cooperation between them can be considered as a symbolic learning delivered by the Quran, especially in business development. This story also shows that a partnership should be based on a clear contract that shows such related materials, working period, the amount of wages, security, and others related to their right and obligation.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2080

  4. DETERMINATION OF THE ISOSTERIC HEAT TO PLANTAIN PULP (musa paradisiaca BY SORPTION ISOTHERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR CIRO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las isotermas de sorción para ser usadas en la simulación y diseño de procesos de secado y almacenamiento de alimentos deben ser representadas por modelos válidos dentro de las condiciones encontradas en la práctica industrial. Usando el modelo de Chung-Pfost y ajustado por desorción el calor isostérico neto y totalpara pulpa de plátano fueron determinados. El calor neto isotérico neto decreció con el contenido de humedad del producto variando desde 1670 kJ/kg (5%.d.b a 215 kJ/kg (26%.d.b donde esta variación fue representada por el modelo potencial y polinomial.

  5. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  6. Avances de la fruticultura en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Villegas Monter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las estadísticas oficiales informaron que en 2008 se cultivaron 264 944 ha con valor de la producción de $ 14 741 millones de pesos, en 20 frutales de clima templado; mientras que, en 35 tropicales y subtropicales fue de 1 822748 ha con valor de $ 43 463 millones de pesos. De los 55 frutales, sólo naranjo (Citrus sinensis, mango (Mangifera indica, Aguacate (Persea americana, limón mexicano (C. aurantifolia, banano (Musa acuminata, lima persa (C. latifolia y manzano (Malus domestica se cultivan más de 50 000 ha, lo que explica porque es limitada la oferta de frutas en las grandes ciudades (Distrito Federal, Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, Veracruz, entre otras. Considerando que el 79,27% de la superficie plantada con frutales tropicales y subtropicales es de temporal, las densidades de plantación son bajas, la propagación de plantas no se hace en viveros certificados (sólo cítricos, los rendimientos son bajos en comparación con otros países productores. Por otra parte, debido a la falta de técnicos capacitados, en los últimos 28 años la demanda de fruta se ha solucionado incrementando la superficie plantada, pero los rendimientos han disminuido. La presencia de nuevas enfermedades; Huanglongbing, Meleira, Sunblotch, plantean nuevos retos y también posibilidades si utilizamos los avances tecnológicos. La fruticultura es una alternativa viable pero deben utilizar altas densidades, árboles de porte bajo, plantas de origen genético conocido y calidad fitosanitaria probada que permitan tener mayores rendimientos y con ello competitividad.

  7. A contig-based strategy for the genome-wide discovery of microRNAs without complete genome resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhi Wen

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of many cellular processes and exist in a wide range of eukaryotes. High-throughput sequencing is a mainstream method of miRNA identification through which it is possible to obtain the complete small RNA profile of an organism. Currently, most approaches to miRNA identification rely on a reference genome for the prediction of hairpin structures. However, many species of economic and phylogenetic importance are non-model organisms without complete genome sequences, and this limits miRNA discovery. Here, to overcome this limitation, we have developed a contig-based miRNA identification strategy. We applied this method to a triploid species of edible banana (GCTCV-119, Musa spp. AAA group and identified 180 pre-miRNAs and 314 mature miRNAs, which is three times more than those were predicted by the available dataset-based methods (represented by EST+GSS. Based on the recently published miRNA data set of Musa acuminate, the recall rate and precision of our strategy are estimated to be 70.6% and 92.2%, respectively, significantly better than those of EST+GSS-based strategy (10.2% and 50.0%, respectively. Our novel, efficient and cost-effective strategy facilitates the study of the functional and evolutionary role of miRNAs, as well as miRNA-based molecular breeding, in non-model species of economic or evolutionary interest.

  8. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia Some forms of organic carbon in soil with different uses in the Department of Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P Fractions of soil organic matter (SOM labile and humified, can be affected by use and management practices, but the impact of these changes has not been evaluated in soils of tropical environments. The present study investigated the contents and some forms of soil organic carbon (SOC in five warm tropical climate zones of the Department of Magdalena (Colombia, and the effect of the cropping practices on these forms of organic carbon in cultivated soils, associated with Coffee (Coffea arabica, Banana (Musa sp., African palm (Elaeis guineensis, Aloe (Aloe vera compared to natural forest soils. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were not found between zones as much use soil as. Low average values of SOM in the study areas and higher contents of total carbon in forest soils than in cultivated soils were reported. Forest soils had an average carbon accumulation total of 42.4 mg/ha at 20 cm, compared to 33.8 mg/ha in the cultivated soils, this equates to an average loss of 23% total C by the effect of crop management in these soils, compared to C humified (C extracted with sodium pyrophosphate, values are observed very low in cultivated soils and almost zero in forest soils, but forest soils had a higher number of stable forms of C (Cnox. In the soil cultivated

  9. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, R O; Hauer, Anna Karlsson; Behrens, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted...

  10. Plan de Mejoramiento Para la Empresa AAA PH SAS Asistencia y Administración A Propiedad Horizontal

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana Tamayo, Johan Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    La oportunidad del mercado se define como la necesidad de abarcar el mercado de la administración de propiedad horizontal y la venta de copropiedades. Mercado que se encuentra en crecimiento en Bogotá. Enfocándonos en los estratos 5 y 6 de las localidades de Usaquén, Suba y Chapinero. En la actualidad son muy pocas las empresas especializadas en la administración de propiedad horizontal. Existen muchas empresas que intentan abarcar este mercado, pero no hay estrategias de fondo que permitan l...

  11. Revolution rather than rotation of AAA+ hexameric phi29 nanomotor for viral dsDNA packaging without coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Chad; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Huaming; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-08-15

    It has long been believed that the DNA-packaging motor of dsDNA viruses utilizes a rotation mechanism. Here we report a revolution rather than rotation mechanism for the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor. The phi29 motor contains six copies of the ATPase (Schwartz et al., this issue); ATP binding to one ATPase subunit stimulates the ATPase to adopt a conformation with a high affinity for dsDNA. ATP hydrolysis induces a new conformation with a lower affinity, thus transferring the dsDNA to an adjacent subunit by a power stroke. DNA revolves unidirectionally along the hexameric channel wall of the ATPase, but neither the dsDNA nor the ATPase itself rotates along its own axis. One ATP is hydrolyzed in each transitional step, and six ATPs are consumed for one helical turn of 360°. Transition of the same dsDNA chain along the channel wall, but at a location 60° different from the last contact, urges dsDNA to move forward 1.75 base pairs each step (10.5bp per turn/6ATP=1.75bp per ATP). Each connector subunit tilts with a left-handed orientation at a 30° angle in relation to its vertical axis that runs anti-parallel to the right-handed dsDNA helix, facilitating the one-way traffic of dsDNA. The connector channel has been shown to cause four steps of transition due to four positively charged lysine rings that make direct contact with the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone. Translocation of dsDNA into the procapsid by revolution avoids the difficulties during rotation that are associated with DNA supercoiling. Since the revolution mechanism can apply to any stoichiometry, this motor mechanism might reconcile the stoichiometry discrepancy in many phage systems where the ATPase has been found as a tetramer, hexamer, or nonamer.

  12. Extending AAA operational model for profile-based access control in ethernet-based Neutral Access Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matias, J.; Jacob, E.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.; Gommans, L.; Macías López, E.M.; Bogliolo, A.; Perry, M.; Ran, M

    2010-01-01

    Neutral Access Networks (NAN) have appeared as a new model to overcome some restrictions and lack of flexibility that are present currently in broadband access networks. NAN brings new business opportunities by opening this market to new stakeholders. Although the NAN model is accepted, there are so

  13. The hetero-hexameric nature of a chloroplast AAA+ FtsH protease contributes to its thermodynamic stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Moldavski

    Full Text Available FtsH is an evolutionary conserved membrane-bound metalloprotease complex. While in most prokaryotes FtsH is encoded by a single gene, multiple FtsH genes are found in eukaryotes. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Arabidopsis chloroplast FtsH is a hetero-hexamer. This raises the question why photosynthetic organisms require a heteromeric complex, whereas in most bacteria a homomeric one is sufficient. To gain structural information of the possible complexes, the Arabidopsis FtsH2 (type B and FtsH5 (type A were modeled. An in silico study with mixed models of FtsH2/5 suggests that heteromeric hexamer structure with ratio of 4:2 is more likely to exists. Specifically, calculation of the buried surface area at the interfaces between neighboring subunits revealed that a hetero-complex should be thermodynamically more stable than a homo-hexamer, due to the presence of additional hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. To biochemically assess this model, we generated Arabidopsis transgenic plants, expressing epitope-tagged FtsH2 and immuno-purified the protein. Mass-spectrometry analysis showed that FtsH2 is associated with FtsH1, FtsH5 and FtsH8. Interestingly, we found that 'type B' subunits (FtsH2 and FtsH8 were 2-3 fold more abundant than 'type A' (FtsH1 and FtsH5. The biochemical data corroborate the in silico model and suggest that the thylakoid FtsH hexamer is composed of two 'type A' and four 'type B' subunits.

  14. Research on Application of RADIUS in AAA%RADIUS协议在AAA系统中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军号; 陆奎

    2009-01-01

    RADIUS协议在宽带网络认证授权计费解决方案AAA认证系统中得到了广泛应用.介绍了RADIUS协议的结构特点、报文内容、AAA系统架构和802.1x标准,讨论了RADIUS认证的工作流程,研究了RADIUS协议的认证机制以及在Linux环境下RADIUS服务器的配置方法,建立了RADIUS认证服务器的功能模型,分析了RADIUS协议所采取的安全措施以及存在的安全隐患,并对其安全性的进一步完善提出了建议.

  15. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, R O; Hauer, Anna Karlsson; Behrens, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are...

  16. Androgen Receptor (AR) Promotes Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Development via Modulating Inflammatory IL1α and TGFβ1 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Luo, Jie; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Wang, Ronghao; Pang, Haiyan; Chang, Eugene; Yan, Chen; Sparks, Janet; Lee, Soo Ok; Cho, Joshua; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    Gender difference is a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurism formation yet the reason for male predominance remains unclear. Androgen and the androgen receptor influence the male gender difference, indicating that androgen receptor signaling may affect abdominal aortic aneurism development. Using angiotensin II induced abdominal aortic aneurism in apolipoprotein E null mouse models (82.4% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence), we found that mice lacking androgen receptor failed to develop ...

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Accumulative Roll-Bonded AA1050A/AA5005 Laminated Metal Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kümmel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminated metal composites (LMCs with alternating layers of commercial pure aluminum AA1050A and aluminum alloy AA5005 were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB. In order to vary the layer thickness and the number of layer interfaces, different numbers of ARB cycles (4, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 were performed. The microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized in detail. Up to 8 ARB cycles, the ultrafine-grained (UFG microstructure of the layers in the LMC evolves almost equally to those in AA1050A and AA5005 mono-material sheets. However, the grain size in the composites tends to have smaller values. Nevertheless, the local mechanical properties of the individual layers in the LMCs are very similar to those of the mono-material sheets, and the macroscopic static mechanical properties of the LMCs can be calculated as the mean value of the mono-material sheets applying a linear rule of mixture. In contrast, for more than 12 ARB cycles, a homogenous microstructure was obtained where the individual layers within the composite cannot be visually separated any longer; thus, the hardness is at one constant and a high level across the whole sheet thickness. This results also in a significant higher strength in tensile testing. It was revealed that, with decreasing layer thickness, the layer interfaces become more and more dominating.

  18. Expression of Disease Resistance Related Genes in Banana Seedling Induced by Bacillus subtilis Strain TR21%枯草芽孢杆菌TR21对香蕉抗病相关基因表达的诱导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻国辉; 周林; 程萍; 黎永坚; 杨紫红

    2012-01-01

    广谱抗真菌枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis菌株TR21在温室和大田对香蕉枯萎病具有较好的防效,其机制已证明与诱导香蕉产生系统抗性有关。本文以巴西蕉(Musa AAA Cavendish subgroup cv.Brazil)为材料,利用半定量RT-PCR法,以香蕉25S rRNA基因为内标,研究灌根接种菌株TR21后对香蕉根系4种抗病相关基因表达的影响。结果表明,PAL、POD、PR-3和PR-1基因在接种后表达水平均表现上调趋势,但PAL和POD基因的表达增幅明显高于PR-3和PR-1基因。PAL和POD基因在接种后12 h表达量最高,与TR21在香蕉根部的定殖规律表现出一致性。系统诱导抗性是枯草芽孢杆菌TR21防治香蕉枯萎病的机制之一。%Bacillus subtilis strain TR21 with broad-range antifungal activity has shown potential to control banana Fusarium wilt in greenhouse and fields.The mechanism through which strain TR21 confer resistance to the disease has previously been demonstrated to involve induced resistance.In this study,with Musa 25S rRNA gene as an internal control,the effect of strain TR21 on expression of four defense-related genes in roots of Musa AAA Cavendish subgroup cv.Brazil was investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method.Results showed that the expression of PAL,POD,PR-3 and PR-1 was up-regulated after being inoculated with strain TR21,but PAL and POD had higher increase amplitude.The expression of PAL and POD reached the maximum in roots at 12 h after inoculation,which was in accordance with colonization of strain TR21 in roots of the plant.It suggested that induced systemic resistance was one of antagonistic mechanisms of the strain TR21 against banana Fusarium wilt.

  19. Estudio comparativo de dos biofertilizantes líquidos en condiciones in vitro e invernadero en plantas de banano y su efecto en el desarrollo de la sigatoka negra (mycosphaerella fijiensis morelet)

    OpenAIRE

    Quito Avida, Diego Fernando; Jimenez, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Se estudiaron cuatro biofertilizantes líquidos provenientes de dos haciendas orgánicas situadas en la provincia de El Guayas. La fase in vitro del experimento constó de evaluaciones de los biofertilizantes en medios nutritivos sólidos y líquidos con procesos de esterilización al frío y al calor, sobre los cuales se realizaron siembras conidiales y miceliales de Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Además, los biofertilizantes fueron liofilizados y evaluados en estado sólido.La fase in vivo del experimen...

  20. Conflicto del banano entre los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea: El papel de la OMC y las negociaciones para dar fi n a la disputa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Gracias al triunfo internacional del sistema de libre comercio, y con miras hacia la globalización, los países del mundo se ven obligados a buscar la asociación en bloques comerciales para poder competir con éxito. Aunque unos se caracterizan por una mayor apertura que otros, los bloques son cada vez más importantes. La Unión Europea es conocida como el grupo económico más avanzado, aunque existen otros con diverso éxito como el Foro Económico AsiaPacífico (APEC). Los países...

  1. Avaliação de cultivares de bananeira (Musa sp na região de Selvíria-MS Evaluation of banana (Musa sp cultivars in Selvíria-MS region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicléia Aparecida da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o ciclo e a produção de sete cultivares de bananeira na região de Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi do tipo blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (Nanica; Mysore; Marmelo; Ouro-da-Mata; Ourinho; São Tomé e Prata e quatro repetições, num total de 28 parcelas. Os resultados obtidos permitiram as seguintes conclusões: A cultivar Mysore mostrou maior período do plantio ao florescimento, e as cultivares Nanica e São Tomé, menores. As cultivares Ouro-da-Mata e Ourinho apresentaram menor ciclo do plantio à colheita, enquanto as cultivares Mysore e Prata apresentaram ciclos maiores e iguais. As cultivares Marmelo e Nanica produziram cachos e pencas maiores, e as cultivares Ouro-da-Mata e Ourinho produziram cachos e pencas menores. A cultivar Mysore apresentou cacho com maior número de pencas, e a cultivar São Tomé, menor número. A cultivar Ourinho obteve maior número de frutos por penca, e a cultivar Marmelo, menor número. A cultivar Marmelo destacou-se com maior comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos da segunda penca. As melhores cultivares para esta região são Nanica e Marmelo, pois apresentaram bom desenvolvimento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and the production of seven banana cultivars in the region of Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The experiment was conducted in random blocks, under seven different treatments (Nanica; Mysore; Marmelo; Ouro-da-Mata; Ourinho; São Tomé e Prata with four repetitions, in a total of 28 plots. The results led to the following conclusions: the period which goes from the planting to the flowering was longer for the Mysore cultivar and shorter for the Nanica and São Tomé cultivars. The development from the planting to the harvesting was shorter for the Ouro-da-Mata and Ourinho cultivars and equally longer for the Mysore and Prata cultivars. The Marmelo end Nanica cultivars produced bigger racemes and bunches while the Ouro-da-Mata and Ourinho cultivars produced smaller ones. The Mysore cultivar produced racemes with more bunches and the São Tomé cultivar produced racemes with fewer bunches. The longer and thicker fruits of the second bunch were found in the Marmelo cultivar. The best cultivars for this region are: Nanica and Marmelo as their development was better than the others.

  2. Características pós-colheita de frutos de genótipos de bananeira (Musa spp. Post-harvest fruit characteristics of different banana (Musa spp. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Conceição Cerqueira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das características pós-colheita de novos híbridos de bananeira é uma importante informação que auxilia o melhorista em sua tomada de decisão. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar genótipos de bananeira com relação às características de pós-colheita e resistência ao desprendimento do fruto. Foram utilizados frutos da segunda penca de 16 híbridos (Calipso, Bucaneiro, Ambrosia, YB42-21, PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129, PV42-142, PV42-143, ST12-31, ST42-08, PV03-44, FHIA-03 e SH 3640 e quatro cultivares (Pacovan, Prata Comum, Nam e Figue Pomme Naine, que foram avaliadas quanto ao peso, comprimento, circunferência, relação polpa/casca, resistência ao desprendimento, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT e tempo de amadurecimento. Empregou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições para todas as características, exceto para a firmeza do fruto em que se utilizaram dez repetições. A unidade experimental foi constituída de um único fruto. Os dados foram submetidos à analise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo Teste Scott & Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. A cultivar Nam apresentou a menor acidez titulável e a maior relação SST/ATT, enquanto a maior firmeza do fruto foi apresentada pelos híbridos PV42-81 e PV42-53. Os frutos mais pesados foram do híbrido SH 3640, e os mais compridos foram dos híbridos Bucaneiro e PV42-81. Os híbridos PV42-85 e ST42-08 apresentaram maior resistência ao desprendimento, não diferindo da 'Pacovan'. No entanto, superaram a 'Prata Comum', que obteve a menor resistência. Os genótipos 'Nam', PV42-143 e PV42-129 apresentaram maior tempo de maturação após a colheita quando comparados, principalmente, à 'Prata Comum'. A 'Nam' deve ser considerada como uma nova alternativa na produção de banana. O SH3640, híbrido da Prata Anã, pode ser recomendado como nova cultivar. Os híbridos da Prata São Tomé (ST42-08 e Pacovan (PV42-85, PV42-81, PV42-68, PV42-53, PV42-129 e PV42-143 podem substituir as cultivares Prata Comum e Pacovan nos sitemas produção.The knowledge of the post-harvest characteristics of new banana hybrids is an important information that helps the breeder in making his decision. This work has the objective to evaluate banana genotypes in relation to their post-harvest characteristics and resistance to fruit drop. Fruits of the second hand of 16 hybrids (Calipso, Bucaneiro, Ambrosia, YB42-21, PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129, PV42-142, PV42-143, ST12-31, ST42-08, PV03-44, FHIA-03 and SH 3640 and four cultivars (Pacovan, Prata Comum, Nam and Figue Pomme Naine were evaluated according to their weight, length, circumference, pulp/peel ratio, resistance to fruit drop, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, TSS/TTA ratio and maturation period. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with five replications, except fruit firmness with ten replications, each unit was constituted by one fruit. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Scott & Knott test at 5% of probability. The cultivar Nam had the lowest TTA and the highest TSS/TTA ratio, while the highest fruit firmness was observed in PV42-81 and PV42-53. The SH 3640 produced the heaviest fruits, and Bucaneiro and PV42-81 produced the longest ones. PV42-85 and ST42-08 showed high resistance to fruit drop, with no statistical difference from 'Pacovan'. 'Prata Comum' showed the lowest resistance. The genotypes ' Nam', PV42-143 and PV42-129 showed longer shelf life when compared to 'Prata Comum'. 'Nam' genotype can be considered as alternative in banana production. SH3640 the Prata dwarf hybrid, might be considered as a new cultivar. Hybrids from Prata São Tomé (ST42-08 and from Pacovan (PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129 e PV42-143 can replace Prata Comum and Pacovan in the banana production system.

  3. Evaluación biológica del manejo de picudos y nematodos fitopatógenos en plátano (Musa AAB Biological evaluation of the management of borers and phytopathogenic nematodes of plantain (Musa AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina González Cardona

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la granja Montelindo, municipio de Palestina (Caldas a 5° 05' N y 75° 40' O, a 1010 m.s.n.m., 23.5 °C, precipitación anual de 2100 mm y humedad relativa de 76%, con el fin de generar información sobre el manejo de picudos y nematodos fitoparásitos del plátano. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos por bloque, tres repeticiones y 24 plantas por repetición. Para el manejo de los picudos se hicieron aplicaciones de Carbofurán, Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae en trampas tipo columna. Para el control de nematodos se hicieron aplicaciones en el suelo de Carbofurán y dos cepas comerciales de Paecilomyces lilacinus. Se evaluaron el número de adultos de picudos en trampas, la infección de estos por los hongos empleados y la población de nematodos en suelo y raíces. Se encontró que las trampas tratadas con Carbofurán fueron significativamente más efectivas para la captura de insectos. En laboratorio se estableció que M. anisopliae tuvo una mejor capacidad para infectar adultos del insecto en el campo. La población de nematodos fue menor en suelo y raíces de las plantas tratadas con Carbofurán. Paecilomyces lilacinus no fue efectivo para reducir las poblaciones de nematodos. Los géneros de nematodos predominantes fueron Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne y Helicotylenchus.This work was carried out at the ‘Montelindo’ farm, municipality of Palestina (Department of Caldas, Colombia, located at 5° 05' N and 75° 40' W, at 1010 m.a.s.l., 23.5 °C, with 2100 mm of annual rainfall, and relative humidity of 76%, in order to generate information on the management of borers and parasitic nematodes of the plantain. A completely randomised block experimental design was used, with four treatments per block, three replicates and 24 plants per replicate. For the management of borers, applications of Carbofuran, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were made into column type traps. To control nematodes soil applications of Carbofuran and two commercial strains of Paecilomyces linacinus were made. The number of adult borers in the traps, the infection of these by the fungi used, and the population of nematodes in both soil and roots were evaluated. It was found that the traps treated with Carbofuran were significantly more effective for insect capture. In the lab, it was established that M. anisopliae had better capacity to infect adult insects in the field. P. lilacinus was ineffective at reducing nematode populations. The nematode population was lower in soil and roots of plants treated with Carbofuran. The predominant genera of nematodes were Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne and Helicotylenchus.

  4. Processamento térmico de purê de banana (Musa cavendishii, Lamb. em embalagens flexíveis esterilizáveis Thermal processing of banana puree (Musa cavendishii, Lamb. in retortale pouches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Duarte CARVALHO FILHO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer as condições de processo térmico de purê de banana, variedade "nanica", em bolsas esterilizáveis porção individual (130 x 170mm. Os frutos foram selecionados, aquecidos a 98°C/5min. para inativação enzimática, separadas as sementes e fibras num despolpador com malha de 0,08cm de diâmetro e depois o purê foi embalado nas bolsas sob um vácuo de 25mmHg, resultando em média 2,7ml de ar residual por bolsa. Em seguida as bolsas foram processadas sem agitação e em posição horizontal numa autoclave horizontal, a 115°C/158KPa, com imersão total de água quente. O tempo de manutenção do processo foi de 7,5min. Inicialmente foi utilizado o Clostridium butyricum como microrganismo alvo do processo, entretanto, observou-se que esta bactéria apresentara uma resistência térmica em purê de banana (pH 4,6 um pouco menor que o valor estimado para o Clostridium botulinum, D115=0,183min. e D115=0,236min respectivamente, sendo assim, o C. botulinum foi escolhido como microrganismo alvo da esterilização do produto. O valor de F121,1°C aplicado foi de 0,64min. para causar 12 reduções decimais, calculado segundo PFLUG (1985 para um pH de 4,6, e verificado pelo método geral. Este valor somente foi considerado para a fase de aquecimento, deixando a letalidade do resfriamento (0,34min., que foi realizada com água à temperatura ambiente, como segurança de processo. Nos testes de penetração de calor foram encontrados os valores médio de fh=6,8min; jh=0,48; fc=17,4min. e jc=1,3 demonstrando assim, que o produto é altamente condutivo. Nenhuma alteração no produto nem nas embalagens foi notada após a aplicação do ensaio de esterilidade comercial em 36 bolsas processadas contendo purê de banana, confirmando assim, a eficácia do tratamento térmico aplicado.The aim of this work was to establish thermal processing conditions for banana puree in retor pouches (130 x 170mm. The fruits were selected, blanched in boiling water for 5min., finished (0,033 inch mesh and vacuum-packaged in 25mmHg with 2,7ml residual air/pouch. After the pouches were processed without agitation in horizontal position at 115°C/158 Kpa over-pressure in water total immersion. The holding process time was 7,5min. Initially Clostridium butyricum was used as target organism for the thermal process, however the banana puree is situated in pH limit area of (4,6 for low acid foods, favouring the Clostridium botulinum growth. Its heat resistance was estimated through of the equation 1 (PFLUG, 1985 and compared with C. butyricum. Though the D115°C values for C. butyricum and C. botulinum were similar (0,183 min and 0,236 min, respectively, C. botulinum higher compared to C. butyricum. The F121,1°C applied was 0,64 min to obtain 12 decimal reductions calculated by PFLUG (1985 and verified by the general method. This value was only considerated for the heating phase. The value of F121,1°C = 0,27 min (29,5% determinated for cooling phase, was used as safety factor. Average values of the heating rate rate parameter fh and the lag factor were: fh=6,8min. and jh=0,48. For the cooling phase the average values were: fc=17,4min. and jc=1,3. After 15 days/37°C incubation, no abnormal conditions were noted in the 36 processed pouches. This is an indicative that the process was satisfactory from the microbiological standpoint.

  5. EFEITO DO ESPAÇAMENTO E DESBASTE NA PRODUÇÃO DA BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR “MAÇÔ (Musa sp EFFECT OF THE SPACING AND THINNING IN BANANA (Musa sp. "MAÇÃ" CULTIVAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln F. Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo encontrar um espaçamento mais adequado, para conduzir os bananais do cultivar “maçã”, nas condições edáficas do Estado de Goiás. A experiência foi conduzida em solos sob cerrado, no município de Goiânia. Os seis tratamentos utilizados consistiram nas combinações de 3 (três espaçamentos com dois sistemas de condução, i.e. com e sem desbaste. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos demonstrou não haver interação desbaste x espaçamento. Com base nos resultados e observações feitas durante a fase experimental, tiraram-se as seguintes conclusões: a com o aumento da densidade de touceiras por unidade de área, há um aumento tanto do piso como do número de frutos produzidos; b O uso do desbaste não altera a produtividade, nas condições do presente experimento; c com a redução da área por touceira de 36 m² para 9 m², há um aumento na produtividade, sem prejudicar o tamanho dos frutos.

    The purpose of the present work was to determine a more adequate spacing for growing bananas (Maçã in natural conditions of the state of Goiás. The experiment was carried out in “cerrado” soils in Goiânia county. The six treatments used consisted of the combination of three (3 spacings, with and without pruning. The statistical analysis of the obtained data demonstrated that there was no interaction between pruning and spacing. The results obtained and the observations made during the spacing. The results obtained and the observations made during the experimental phase led to the following conclusions: 1. with the increase in density of the groups of shoots per unit of area, there is an increase in weight as well as an increase in the amount of fruit produced. 2. within the norms of this experiment, the use of pruning doesn’t alter productivity. 3. with the reduction of area from 36 to 9 m², for each group of’ shoots, there is an increase in productivity, without diminishing the size of the fruits.

  6. Impregnation Solution Influence on the Pulp Color of Plantains (Musa paradisiaca / Influencia de Soluciones de Impregnación en el Color de la Pulpa de Plátano (Musa paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Rodríguez Misael

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of antioxidant (sodium metabisulphiteNa2S2O5 and ascorbic acid C6H8O6 and acidulant (citric acidC6H8O7 solutions on the color of vacuum impregnated greenplantain pulp (GPP, stored (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days; 4,20 and 30 ºC and vacuum packed (VP or packed withoutvacuuming (WV, was evaluated. The color was determined bythe CIE-L*a*b* coordinates, where the lightness (L* was themost important parameter for browning control (L*critical=70.Component concentrations in the impregnation solutions wereestablished to achieve levels of sodium benzoate (1,000 mg,EDTA (75 mg and sulphites (500, 1,000 y 1,500 mg, per kgof fresh GPP; and ascorbic acid (60, 90 and 120 mg and citricacid (100, 150 and 250 mg, per 100 g of fresh GPP. Significant differences were seen (PL*critical for 15 days were: sodium metabisulphite (500 mg/kg of GPP, WV and 0 mg/kg of GPP, VP, ascorbic acid (90 mg/100 g of GPP, WV and 60 mg/100 g of GPP, VP, citric acid (100 mg/100 g of GPP, VP and for the mixture of ascorbic acid (90 mg: citric acid (100 mg/100 g of GPP, VP. / Resumen. Se evaluó la influencia de soluciones antioxidantes (metabisulfito de sodio Na2S2O5 y ácido ascórbico C6H8O6 y acidulantes (ácido cítrico C6H8O7 sobre el color de la pulpa de plátano verde (PPV impregnadas al vacío, almacenadas (0, 3,6, 9, 12 y 15 días; 4, 20 y 30 ºC y empacadas con vacío (CV y sin vacío (SV. El color se determinó mediante las coordenadas CIE-L*a*b*, siendo la luminosidad (L* el parámetro de mayor importancia para el control del pardeamiento (L*crítico=70. Las concentraciones de los componentes en las soluciones de impregnación se fijaron para obtener en la PPV impregnado niveles de benzoato de sodio (1000 mg, EDTA (75 mg y sulfitos (500, 1.000 y 1.500 mg, por kg de PPV fresco; y de ácido ascórbico (60, 90 y 120 mg y ácido cítrico (100, 150 y 250 mg, por 100 g de PPV fresco. Se presentaron diferencias significativas (PL*crítico fueron: metabisulfito de sodio (500 mg/kg PPV, SV y 0 mg/kg,CV, ácido ascórbico (90 mg/100 g PPV, SV y 60 mg/100 g PPV, CV, ácido cítrico (100 mg/100 g PPV, CV y para la mezcla ácido ascórbico (90 mg: ácido cítrico (100 mg/100 g PPV, a condiciones de empacado CV.

  7. Callus Induction and Somatic Embryogenesis from Inflorescences of Musa paradisiaca ABB Linn.%大蕉(Musa paradisiaca ABB Linn.)花序愈伤组织的诱导及其体细胞胚发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 黄霞; 李筱菊; 黄学林

    2005-01-01

    大蕉未成熟雄花接种到胚性愈伤组织诱导培养基中,4~5个月后可诱导出胚性愈伤组织,并可在继代培养基上增殖.胚性愈伤组织转移到体细胞胚诱导培养基中可诱导出体细胞胚.体细胞胚在成熟培养基上培养2个月后转移到含有0.2mg·L-1 6-BA的分化培养基上可以萌发,进而形成再生植株.组织学切片证明所诱导的愈伤组织是胚性组织,其所产生的体胚具有典型的单子叶植物体细胞胚的组织结构.