WorldWideScience

Sample records for bananas

  1. Better bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of bananas and plantains. These fruit and food crops have a large economic and nutritional value for tropical regions. The vulnerability of bananas to disease epidemics urgently requires breeding for resistance to black Sigatoka (leaf spot disease). The joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated a programme and developed a biotechnological strategy for genetic improvement of bananas and plantains

  2. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  3. Bananas go paraelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  4. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  5. Bananas and plantains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The film shows the germplasm diversity within the Genus Musa and the evolution of cultivated forms of bananas and plantains. Cultivation history and geographical distribution are depicted; features of plant morphology and the floral biology are demonstrated. Economic and nutritional impact and importance of bananas and plantains for developing countries are briefly discussed. The second part of the film surveys problems in the propagation and genetic improvement of bananas and plantains: fruits of these vegetatively propagated plants are usually seedless which complicate the application of conventional plant breeding methods. In-vitro techniques are shown to be useful for plant propagation and germplasm conservation. Cross breeding with some semi-sterile clones of bananas has not led so far to lines which are resistant to the most harmful diseases, e.g. panama disease, black sigatoka. The Joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated an in-vitro mutation breeding programme to improve disease resistance in bananas

  6. Degradation of Methyldopa by Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminori Mohri; Yoshihiro Uesawa

    2010-01-01

    Methyldopa, an antihypertensive, is a very close analogue of DOPA. Drug interaction accompanied by degradation in a banana juice mixture was reported for DOPA. However, the effect of banana on methyldopa has not been reported. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of banana juice on methyldopa. The drug and supernatant of banana pulp were mixed, and the mixture was observed for changes in color, drug concentration, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra at 30 °C. The originally clear...

  7. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  8. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  9. The radurisation of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early studies on the radurisation of bananas indicated that this commodity did not benefit substantially from the treatment. This work, which was carried out at Pelindaba, indicated a low threshold dose for radiation damage and little shelf-life extension at this dose. In a second study carried out at Tzaneen more promising results were obtained. The reason for the differences seemed to be due to the time between harvesting and treatment which was much shorter in the Tzaneen study. Consequently it was decided to undertake a third and much larger trial in which the bananas would be treated in Tzaneen and then dispatched to Pretoria for storage and evaluation by a joint Nucor/Banana Board team. Parameters investigated included colour, firmness (by penatrometer testing) and sensory qualities. The bananas were stored for various periods at 15o C, ripened by exposure to ethylene gas under commerical conditons and then stored at ambient temperature for the remainder of the experiment. Bananas we re irradiated at various doses between 0,3 kGy and 1,5kGy and were compared with control batches which were stored under the same conditions

  10. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  11. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  12. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats. PMID:4033739

  13. Banana Lectin: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senjam Sunil Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a group of proteins of non-immune origin that recognize and bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. Banana is the common name for both herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. They are indeed a promising source for many medicinal applications. Banana lectins have the potential for inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, suppressing cancer cell proliferation and stimulating macrophage activities. Nevertheless, compared to other plant lectins, there is relatively little information in the literature on banana lectins, particularly with respect to their structure and biological functions. Herein we focus our review on the structure, functions and exploitable properties of banana lectins.

  14. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  15. Banana Dehydration Utilizing Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize biochemical degradation hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to investigate quality characteristics of bananas dried ...

  16. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance

    OpenAIRE

    IyyakuttyRavi

    2013-01-01

    Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with ‘B’ genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on ‘A’ genome. In particular, bananas with ‘ABB’ genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite f...

  17. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, Iyyakkutty; Uma, Subbaraya; Vaganan, Muthu Mayil; Mustaffa, Mohamed M.

    2013-01-01

    Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with “B” genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on “A” genome. In particular, bananas with “ABB” genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite f...

  18. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  19. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  20. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  1. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  2. Welfare Gains from Liberalized Banana Trade and a New International Banana Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, H.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union import policy for bananas grants preferential trade access for ACP bananas and discriminates against bananas from other sources. It is shown that such trade discrimination cannot be defended by development-related motives. As a form of aid transfer to banana-exporting ACP countries, the EU import regime is highly inefficient. The effective value of financial transfers is low, while there are large associated welfare costs to domestic consumers and to non-preferred export co...

  3. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  4. In vivo fertilization of banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taliane Leila Soares; Everton Hilo de Souza; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa; Sebastião de Oliveira E Silva; Janay Almeida dos Santos Serejo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA) 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup), the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup) some ...

  5. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  6. Bananas, a source of compounds with health properties

    OpenAIRE

    Parfait, Berthe; Aurore, Guylène

    2009-01-01

    Banana has an important place in human nutrition all over the world. It is interesting to analyse banana health preservation potentialities. The medicinal properties of banana are part of the folk medicine of all tropical countries. Bananas are used in special diets where ease of digestibility, low fat, minerals and vitamins are required. These special diets are used for babies, the elderly and patients with stomach problems, gout, and arthritis. Anti-ulcerogenic properties of banana are repo...

  7. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  8. Economic Analysis of Tissue-cultured Banana and Sucker-propagated Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Alagumani, T.

    2005-01-01

    An economic analysis of tissue-cultured banana (TCB) and sucker-propagated banana (SPB) has been presented through studying their costs and returns. The factors influencing the costs of their production have been identified and resource-use efficiency has been studied. The risks in cultivation of tissue-cultured banana have been highlighted. The study has been conducted in the Theni district of Tamil Nadu using personal interview method. Probit model has been employed to find out the factor i...

  9. The Banana Industry, the Agricultural Sector and The Dominican Economy: Impacts of the Banana War

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Emaline; Pemberton, Carlisle; De Sormeaux, Afiya

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the banana dispute between the European Union (EU) and Latin American banana producers and the US on the supply of bananas from Dominica. It also looks at the future of the banana industry in light of the resolution of the dispute and the possibilities of the Fairtrade market. This examination is done through the analysis of the trends in supply, exports, prices and the contribution of the industry to the economy since the 1980s. The impact was further assess...

  10. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  11. Banana cultivars, cultivation practices, and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, I S; Mavromatis, A

    2009-02-01

    The physicochemical (pH, texture, Vitamin C, ash, fat, minerals) and sensory properties of banana were correlated with the genotype and growing conditions. Minerals in particular were shown to discriminate banana cultivars of different geographical origin quite accurately. Another issue relates to the beneficial properties of bananas both in terms of the high dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds, the latter being abundant in the peel. Therefore, banana can be further exploited for extracting several important components such as starch, and antioxidant compounds which can find industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, the various storage methodologies were presented with an emphasis on Modified Atmosphere Packaging which appears to be one of the most promising of technologies. PMID:18989831

  12. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  13. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    OpenAIRE

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS; FABRÍCIA QUEIROZ MENDES; MARIANA CRIVELARI DA CUNHA; MARIANA TEIXEIRA PIGOZZI; ANDRÉ MUNDSTOCK XAVIER DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L.) stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v) and a control (without coating). Propolis extracts were applied as 1) a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2) a wild type hydroalcoholic ...

  14. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  15. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  16. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  17. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  18. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  19. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  20. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  1. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

  2. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  3. Phenolic constituents in irradiated banana fruit tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Hom Tong'' banana fruits grown in Thailand irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 Krad and stored at 170C were used for analyses. The total phenolic compounds observed in irradiated fruits were higher than non-irradiated ones after harvested and 7 days of storage. The total phenolic components in the pulp of banana fruits were decreased during ripening when stored from 7-35 days. However, the phenolic constituents become increased again after 21 days of storage at the doses of 20 and 40 Krad due to the infected fruits by the fungus during the fruits approached to over ripe

  4. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    OpenAIRE

    Renny Futeri; Pharmayeni Pharmayeni

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel ) . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibil...

  5. A possible scenario for the evolution of Banana streak virus in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Muller, Emmanuelle

    2014-06-24

    Outbreaks of Banana streak virus (BSV) have been recorded worldwide where Musa spp. is grown during the last 20 years with no convincing evidence of epidemics. Epidemics were previously reported in Uganda where BSV is currently endemic. BSV is a plant pararetrovirus of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus it causes chlorosis leaf streak disease. The information currently available on banana streak disease makes it possible to identify a complex of distinct BSV species each causing the same disease. BSV exists in two states: one as an episomal form, infecting plant cells; the other as viral DNA integrated within the B genome of banana (endogenous BSV-eBSV) forming a viral genome for de novo viral particles. Both forms can be infectious in banana plants. The BSV phylogeny is polyphyletic with BSV distributed in two clades. Clade 1 clusters BSV species that occur worldwide and may have an eBSV counterpart, whereas Clade 3 only comprises BSV species from Uganda. Clearly, two distinct origins explain such BSV diversity. However, the epidemiology/outbreaks of BSV remains unclear and the role of eBSV needs to be clarified. In this review, the biodiversity of BSV is explained and discussed in the light of field and molecular epidemiology data. A scheme is proposed for the co-evolution of BSV and banana based on old or recent infection hypotheses related to African domestication sites and banana dissemination to explain the disease context. PMID:24457073

  6. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  7. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  8. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Castro

    Full Text Available Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7, organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  9. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  10. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds of...

  11. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  12. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  13. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-...

  14. Third-Year Banana Cultivar Trial in South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Fonsah, Esendugue Greg; Krewer, Gerard; Rieger, Mark; Wallace, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Although the State of Georgia produces many fruits such as, apples, blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, grapes and peaches, bananas have never been considered an economic crop. This is probably because of marginal weather condition for bananas and massive imports from Central and South America. This study, which is in its third year, continually evaluates 32 banana cultivars and determines their suitability for production, marketing, and distribution in Georgia.

  15. Generalized ripple-banana transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the transport of banana particles in a rippled magnetic field over the entire energy range. It is shown that all familiar regimes of ripple transport - ripple-plateau, banana-drift and stochastic - can be described in a unified manner. The general expression obtained for the rippled fluxes of banana particles describes, apart from the already familiar regimes, also the as yet unstudied energy region between the drift and stochastic regimes. A generalized ripple-banana thermal conductivity coefficient, chisub(i)sup(RB), is calculated. (author)

  16. Dairy-Banana Integration and Organic Fertilizer Use in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamano

    2008-01-01

    An intensive dairy and crop farming system found in the East African highlands provides manure and urine, taken from stalls of improved dairy cattle, for crops such as banana. By using panel data of 894 rural households in 2003 and 2005 in Uganda, we find that the number of improved cattle per ha increases the organic fertilizer application on banana plots by 218 kilograms per ha. We also find that banana farmers applied more organic fertilizer on less fertile soils. Regarding banana yield, w...

  17. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied. PMID:24834817

  18. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  19. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  20. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  1. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  2. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  3. Genome Sequence of Banana Streak MY Virus from the Pacific Ocean Island of Tonga

    OpenAIRE

    Stainton, Daisy; Halafihi, Mana’ia; Collings, David A.; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Banana streak disease is caused by a variety of banana-infecting badnaviruses. A genome of the episomal form of a banana streak MY virus was recovered from an infected banana plant sampled on Vava’u Island, Tonga, and shares >98% pairwise identity with the six other genomes available in public databases.

  4. Fructan distribution in banana cultivars and effect of ripening and processing on Nendran banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, R; Antony, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Many plants store fructan as reserve carbohydrate. Fructans naturally present in almost all plant foods, are also used as functional ingredients by the food industry to modify the texture and taste due to their properties as gelling agents, fat substitutes, soluble dietary fibers and low calorie sweeteners. Seven banana cultivars were analysed for fructans and Nendran banana was selected for the next set of experiments as it had the highest fructan content (1433.3 mg/100 g) among the cultivars studied. Low temperature ripening (16 °C) of Nendran banana resulted in higher fructan accumulation of these carbohydrates in cold conditions. Pectinase pre-treatment significantly increased yield of total fructans from 1.4/100 g to 6.5 g/100 g i.e., 370 %. Fructan composition was affected by processing, namely steaming and puree preparation in Nendran. The fructan composition data documented in this study will enable including banana, naturally high in fructans in the diet and will facilitate storage and processing for nutritional formulation for higher fructan consumption. PMID:26604400

  5. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  6. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lassois, L.; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, L; Ewané, CA.; Lepoivre, P

    2012-01-01

    Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest fac...

  7. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZOU, Dongmei; PAN, Yongbo; Xu, Zhi; LUO, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world's third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana, but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision, publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards, it is fo...

  8. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper Johansen; Malte Sohlbach; Barry Sullivan; Samantha Stringer; David Peasley; Stuart Phinn

    2014-01-01

    The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus) reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the...

  9. Production of doubled haploids in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of doubled haploids in banana was achieved through anther culture of diploid banana Musa balbisiana var. Bichikala (BB). Calli were induced by culturing anthers onto MS or N6 based medium. MS medium comprised Morel vitamin and supplemented either with 2.5 1mg-12,4-D and 1.0 1mg-1kinetin (MS1) or with 1.0 1mg-1BA, 0.4 IAA 1mg-1and 500 1mg-1caesin hydrolysate (MS2) while N6 medium contained basic salts and added with 1.0 1mg-1BA, 0.4 IAA 1mg-1and 500 1mg-1caesin hydrolysate. Some of these calli produced embryoids within a span of 8-10 weeks upon transfer to MS medium fortified with 0.5 1mg-1BA and 0.4 1mg-1IAA. These calli/embryoids subsequently developed into shoots when sub-cultured on the same medium but with reduced concentration of IAA (0.1 mg-l). No plants were produced from calli originated from 2,4- D and kinetin supplemented MS medium (MS1). Roots were produced in MS medium devoid of growth regulators. A total of 39 plants were regenerated from anther-derived calli/embryoids. Six of these plants were tested for ploidy level and all of them showed diploid number of chromosome. Regenerated plants were acclimatized and transferred to the field for further study. (author)

  10. Tissue culture regeneration and radiation induced mutagenesis in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced mutagenesis is an important tool for banana genetic improvement. At BARC, protocols for shoo-tip multiplication of commercial banana varieties have been developed and transferred to user agencies for commercial production. Excellent embryogenic cell suspensions were established in banana cvs. Rasthali and Rajeli, and were maintained at low temperatures for long-term storage. Normal plantlets were successfully regenerated from these cell suspensions. The cell suspensions and shoot-tip cultures were gamma-irradiated for mutagenesis. The mutagenized populations were field screened and a few interesting mutants have been isolated. The existence of genetic variation was confirmed using DNA markers. Further evaluation of these mutants is in progress. (author)

  11. The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

  12. Nematode resistance in bananas : screening results on some new Mycosphaerella resistant banana hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Quénéhervé, Patrick; Salmon, F.; Topart, Patrick; Horry, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Banana hybrids with resistance to Yellow Sigatoka and Black Leaf Streak disease were evaluated for resistance to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis and to the lesion nematode Pratylenchus coVeae in a growth chamber at 24-28. Plants produced by tissue culture were acclimatised for 6 weeks prior to inoculation. Forty-five days after inoculation with nematodes, the root systems were processed and nematode numbers assessed. Two cultivars of Grande Naine (Musa AAA, Cavendish subgroup, ITC12...

  13. Solar energy profit on banana drying; Autilizacao da energia solar na secagem de bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowray, H.G.; Buckle, K.A.; Hamey, P.; Pavenayotin, P.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes a system for banana and other fruits drying using solar energy. This system, with capacity of 500 kg of fruit per time, use a plane solar collector device with 50 m deg 2 of area. The aspects of the cost of the solar unit and the performance of the system, when compared to the other drying devices was also shown 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. In vitro propagation and mutation induction in the banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The banana is the second most important fruit crop in India, both in areas (3.22 x 105 ha) and production (57.83 x 105 t). It accounts for 11% of the total area under fruit crops and over 18% of the total fruit production. Because of its high productivity and maximum returns, there is considerable scope for the expansion of banana cultivation. The banana is propagated vegetatively by suckers. A limited number of suckers (5-10) are produced from a plant in 1 year and therefore there is a shortage of planting material, which limits its multiplication. Micropropagation through tissue culture techniques would accelerate banana cultivation by improving its multiplication rate, productivity and quality. 4 refs

  15. In vitro selection for resistance to Fusarium wilt in Banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusarium wilt or Panama disease, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), is one of the most serious diseases of banana in tropical and subtropical countries. Although there are banana cultivars resistant to the disease, transfer of the resistance trait to susceptible cultivars by traditional cross-breeding is difficult. In vitro selections of banana mutants tolerant to race 1 of FOC were carried out with fusaric acid and culture filtrate on multiple bud clumps. Regenerated plants showed tolerance to the disease in the greenhouse, and some of the plants also showed resistance in the field. Although the level of tolerance observed was not sufficiently high, in vitro selection by toxic substances extracted from pathogenic fungi resulted in an improvement of plant tolerance to the pathogen. Other selection factors for in vitro selection were reviewed, and a protocol for obtaining disease tolerant plants of banana is suggested. (author)

  16. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  17. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-01-01

    Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish) collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. ...

  18. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  19. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Kagy; Maurice Wong; Henri Vandenbroucke; Christophe Jenny; Cécile Dubois; Anthony Ollivier; Céline Cardi; Pierre Mournet; Valérie Tuia; Nicolas Roux; Jaroslav Doležel; Xavier Perrier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banks...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED; MAK CHAI; ROFINA YASMIN OTHMAN

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea) to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis) and highland banana (ssp. truncata) were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping a...

  1. IN VITRO SHOOT TIP CULTURE OF BANANA CULTIVAR MEITEI HEI

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERT LALRINSANGA; H. VANLALDIKI; W. I. MEITEI

    2013-01-01

    Micropopagation is preferred over the conventional method of propagation in banana owing to its fastermultiplication rate, uniformity in planting materials, production of disease-free planting materials, higherbunch weight, more fingers and hands and less variability in fruit size and shape. The apical meristem orshoot-tip culture is very efficient for rapid clonal micropopagation. Though abundant information on themicropropagation of banana is available for cultivars in India and abroad, the...

  2. Elucidating the resistance response of irradiated banana cv. Lakatan to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-resistant banana variety Lakatan through gamma-irradiation had been successfully done as part of integrated management strategies against the disease. Ten irradiated Lakatan lines exhibited resistance to BBTV. Resistance of these lines was evaluated based on symptomatology and host-virus relationship. Insect colony development on Lakatan banana irradiated lines was monitored by artificially inoculating viruliferous banana aphids, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and counting the resulting number of aphids per plant at weekly intervals. Resistance to virus multiplication of Lakatan irradiated lines was characterized by quantifying the virus titer through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that not all lines were suitable as hosts in establishing aphid population. The reaction of the mutant lines to the vector and the pathogen varied to some extent. Disease incidence in some cases was correlated with aphid preference. Disease incidence was significantly higher (50%) on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower (50%) in those that were not colonized. Some mutant lines with very low aphid colony count, however showed high BBTV incidence. Variability in the results could be affected by other factors such as the developmental stage of the plant and prevailing environmental conditions during the conduct of the experiment. Virus titer was also reduced on these mutant lines, thus reduced virus multiplication. Non-irradiated (control) Lakatan banana had comparably high population of aphids, high disease incidence, and high virus titer

  3. In vitro digestibility of nutrients in bananas and in vivo digestibility, effectiveness of nitrogen use in pig’s diets based on green and ripe bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Cong, Oanh; Tran, Hiep; Le Huu, Hieu; Bindelle, Jérôme; Thewis, André; Vu Dinh, Ton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the nutritional value, in vitro digestibility and in vivo digestibility in growing pigs offered diets containing 15% green and ripe bananas in meal form. Results showed that dry matter content (DM,%) in banana fruit (at green, semi-ripe, ripe stages), banana flower and stem were 13.77, 12.59, 14.10, 7.53 and 7.83% respectively; Gross energy of bananas are from 3734 to 4115 kcal/kg DM; CP and NDF content of green banana were higher than that of semi-ripe and r...

  4. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets. PMID:27052947

  5. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as ΔG, ΔS and ΔH were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L-1, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g-1 at 25 ± 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of ΔH and ΔS obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-1 and 1.37 J.mol''-1, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol-1 when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  6. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found that briquettes produced with compaction pressure over 7 MPa passed both impact resistance and compressive strength tests. The density-pressure relationship and strength-pressure relationship over studied range were also developed and validated.

  7. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  8. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  9. The influence of gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of various doses of gamma radiation on shelf-life extension of Hom Tong banana stored at 170C, 200C, and 230C was described. Irradiated banana stored at 200C and 230C did not show any retardation in ripening. Doses from 20-40 Krad appeared to delay ripening of the banana stored at 170C for 3-5 days. No significant difference in weight losses between irradiated and non-irradiated banana was detected during storage

  10. Assessing benefits and costs of commercial banana production in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, R.; Rola, Agnes C.

    2003-01-01

    The Philippine banana industry is currently one of the top agricultural export earners. The increasing demand worldwide has resulted in greater expansion of area planted to banana, including those in environmentally critical places. Current high chemical input technologies used in banana production have been documented to have significant environmental and public health costs. In this paper, we assess the social costs and private benefits of banana production by commercial growers. We used pr...

  11. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  12. 77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...), bananas would have to be harvested at a hard green stage. Harvesting bananas at a hard green stage (i.e... certify that bananas were harvested at the hard green stage. Under paragraph (h)(2), the NPPO of the... ADDRESSES above for instructions for accessing Regulations.gov ). The United States is a minor producer...

  13. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  14. Study of Banana Dehydration Using Sequential Infrared Radiation and Freeze-Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drying and quality characteristics of banana slices processed with a sequential infrared radiation and freeze-drying (SIRFD) method were investigated. To study the drying characteristics of bananas during the infrared (IR) and hot air predehydration, Cavendish bananas slices with 5 mm thickness...

  15. Subpopulation level variation of banana streak viruses in India and common evolution of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Vignesh Kumar, P; Geetanjali, A Swapna; Pun, Khem Bahadur; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10(-3) to 1.59 × 10(-2) and 2.65 × 10(-3) to 5.49 × 10(-3), respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV-SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event. PMID:25672291

  16. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  17. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  18. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  19. Radiation mutation induction in 'China Tianbao' banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of irradiation experiments using 'China Tianbao' banana (Musa cv., AAA group) using in vitro culture methods. Explants of 3.0 to 6.0 mm long intact shoot tips, and shoot tips dissected longitudinally, were irradiated with 60Co. Differences in the radiation dose-survival response of the explants were observed among the different culture groups. The LD50 dosages for intact shoot-tips and longitudinally dissected shoot-tips were 42.5 Gy and 38.69 Gy respectively. A regression equation of probability unit (Y) of death percentage of longitudinally dissected shoot-tips to dose logarithm (X) was established as Y 4.1703X -1.6029. In the irradiated materials which resumed growth after 45 days, statistical analyses suggested that there was no significant correlation between the rate of proliferation of treated materials and radiation dose, or between the proliferation rate and the technique used to prepare the materials (intact vs. longitudinally dissected). Experimental procedures were improved to decrease microbial contamination. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Physiological Studies on the Marketability of Williams Banana Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Tourky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of postharvest treatments with hot water (HW, gibberellic acid (GA3, salicylic acid (SA and potassium permanganate (KMnO4 on enhancing or delaying the ripening quality aspect of mature Williams banana fruits were investigated. Untreated and treated fruit had a normal ripening process and similar good freshness at the ripening time (45 days at ambient temperature. This clearly that the used these materials were relatively in delaying ripening and as, can be arrange the appearance of banana fruits in the market with good quality. Such, color development, peeling condition, loss of firmness, increase of pulp/peel ratio, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH, total sugar and total starch were used as a good criterion of assessment the banana fruit ripening.

  1. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  2. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  3. Wild Banana Seed Phytobezoar Rectal Impaction Causing Intestinal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Feng Yih; Heng, Sophia Si Ling; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Adila, Irene Nur Ibrahim; Tan, Yew Eng; Chong, Hock Chin

    2016-08-01

    Wild banana (Musa acuminata subsp. microcarpa) seed phytobezoar rectal impaction in adult is a rare entity. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with dementia who presented with lower abdominal pain, per-rectal bleeding and overflow faecal incontinence. Our investigation discovered a large wild banana seed phytobezoar impacted in the rectum causing intestinal obstruction, stercoral ulcer and faecal overflow incontinence. In this article, we discuss the patient's clinical findings, imaging and management. The culprit plant was identified and depicted. This may be the first report of its kind. Public consumption of these wild bananas should be curtailed. It is hoped that this report would increase the awareness of such condition and its identification. PMID:27574355

  4. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a 60Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  5. Thermochemical characterization of banana leaves as a potential energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of semi-dried banana leaves are similar to the other biomass. • The semi-dried leaves present high release of energy under inert and oxidant atmosphere. • The energy released on pyrolysis and combustion can be used to dry the wet banana leaves. • The thermochemical conversion processes can reduce the waste volume significantly. • The banana leaves have potential to use as biomass through combustion and pyrolysis process. - Abstract: Wet and semi-dried banana leaves were characterized through elemental and proximate analyses, lignocellulosic fraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high heating value analysis to assess their use as biomass in generating energy through combustion; they were also assessed to determine the potential of obtaining value-added products through pyrolysis. The wet banana leaves had high moisture content of 74.7%. The semi-dried samples exhibited 8.3% moisture, 78.8% volatile solids, 43.5% carbon and a higher heating value of 19.8 MJ/kg. The nitrogen and sulfur contents in the banana leaves were very low. The semi-dried and wet leaves had hemicellulose and lignin contents close to other biomass fuels, and the semi-dried leaves had the lowest cellulose content, of 26.7%. The wet and semi-dried samples showed the same thermal events in oxidizing and inert atmospheres, but with distinctly different mass loss and energy release intensities. The chemical characteristics and the thermal behavior demonstrated by the semi-dried samples indicate their potential for use as biomass, with results similar to other agro-industrial wastes currently used

  6. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environm...

  7. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  8. QUALIDADE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DE AGUARDENTES DE POLPA DE BANANA E BANANA INTEGRAL SUBMETIDAS À HIDRÓLISE ENZIMÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Borges de Lima da SILVA; José Benício Paes CHAVES; Viviane Gomes LELIS; Letícia Mendonça ALVARENGA; Zuim, Diana Regazzi; Silva, Paulo Henrique Alves da

    2009-01-01

    A banana é a fruta de maior consumo anual per capita no Brasil, atingindo todas as camadas da população. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a hidrólise enzimática e comparar a qualidade físico-química e sensorial de aguardentes elaboradas com a polpa de banana e com a polpa e casca de banana (banana integral) Musa cavendishi, variedade prata. Foram realizadas análises de sólidos solúveis, açúcares redutores, amido e celulose para amostras de polpa de bana...

  9. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  10. Characterization of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Shiomi, S; Nakatsuka, A; Kubo, Y; Nakamura, R; Inaba, A

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  11. Resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakorlal, J; Perera, C O; Smith, B; Englberger, L; Lorens, A

    2010-04-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is a type of starch that is resistant to starch hydrolyzing enzymes in the stomach and thus behaves more like dietary fibre. RS has been shown to have beneficial effects in disease prevention including modulation of glycaemic index diabetes, cholesterol lowering capability and weight management, which are critically important for many people in the Federated States of Micronesia. Green bananas are known to contain substantial concentrations of RS and are a common part of the Micronesian diet. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the RS content in banana cultivars from Pohnpei, Micronesia: Daiwang, Inahsio, Karat, Utin Kerenis and Utin Ruk, for which no such information was available. Utin Kerenis, Inahsio and Utin Ruk were found to contain the highest amounts of RS. The fate of RS after incorporation into a food product (i.e., pancakes) was also studied and a significant reduction in the RS content was found for each cultivar after cooking. Microscopy of the banana samples indicated that the overall morphology of the cultivars was similar. In conclusion, green banana, including these varieties, should be promoted in Micronesia and other places for their rich RS content and related health benefits including diabetes control. Further research is needed to more clearly determine the effects of cooking and food processing on RS. PMID:20968236

  12. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  13. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  14. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  15. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  16. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species ...

  17. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  18. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species o

  19. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on Hom Tong banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research on the use of gamma irradiation to retard the ripening and extend the shelf life of bananas. The major concerns were the effects that irradiation would have on the nutritional content, the organoleptic properties and the pigment of the fruit

  1. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the major banana growing districts further north. The mapping approach developed was based on very high spatial resolution airborne orthophotos. Object-based image analysis was used to: (1 detect banana plants using edge and line detection approaches; (2 produce accurate and realistic outlines around classified banana plants; and (3 evaluate the mapping results. The mapping approach was developed based on 10 image tiles of 1 km × 1 km and was applied to orthophotos (3600 image tiles from September 2011 covering the entire Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland. Based on field inspections of the classified maps, a user’s mapping accuracy of 88% (n = 146 was achieved. The results will facilitate the detection of banana plants and increase the inspection rate of Banana Bunchy Top Virus in the future.

  2. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  3. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Kagy

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome, more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC, with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to

  4. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  5. Evaluation of Banana Hypersensitivity Among a Group of Atopic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia H.; El-Shennawy, Dina; Nasser, Manar W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the frequency of banana sensitization and allergy among a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to parental/self reports. Methods This is a case-control study included 2 groups of allergic children with and without history of banana allergy, each included 40 patients. They were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) using commercial banana allergen extract and prick-prick test (PPT) using raw banana, in addition to measuring the serum banana-specific IgE. Oral banana c...

  6. Ex-Ante Adoption of New Cooking Banana (Matooke) Hybrids in Uganda Based on Farmers' Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth, Akankwasa; Gerald, Ortmann; Edilegnaw, Wale; Wilberforce, Tushemereirwe

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the research efforts to introduce the newly developed, improved banana ’Matooke’ hybrids to the farming communities in Uganda, to date no attempt has been made to document the likelihood of farmer adoption of these hybrid bananas in Uganda. The paper has analyzed farmers’ perceptions regarding the newly developed improved Matooke hybrid banana attributes in Uganda to ex ante understand farmers’ likelihood of adoption of these varieties. Descriptive statistics and data reducti...

  7. Drivers of soil fertility in smallholder banana systems in the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    Delstanche, Séverine

    2011-01-01

    Banana is a crop of major importance in the African Great Lakes Region, because of the food and cash it provides to about 85% of the population. Despite the management efforts of smallholder farmers, on-farm banana yields are low. Low yields are mainly attributed to poor soil fertility and limited input use, drought or irregular rainfall, pests and diseases and inappropriate management practices. Relying on observations on banana plants, crop management, pests and soils in various agro-ecoreg...

  8. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Kenji Oi; Elias Basile Tambourgi; Deovaldo de Moraes Jr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the m...

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Li; Shiyu Fu; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucian A. Lucia

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

  10. Nutritional potential of green banana flour obtained by drying in spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Vieira Bezerra; Antonio Manoel da Cruz Rodrigues; Edna Regina Amante; Luiza Helena Meller da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical composition of peeled and unpeeled green banana Cavendish (AAA) flour obtained by drying in spouted bed, aiming at adding nutritional value to food products. The bananas were sliced and crushed to obtain a paste and fed to the spouted bed dryer (12 cm height and T = 80 ºC) in order to obtain flour. The flours obtained were subjected to analysis of moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrates, total starch, resistant starch, fiber. The green banana flours, mainly unp...

  11. Total soluble solids from banana : evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Santos, Júlio C.; Izário Filho, Hélcio J.; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2009-01-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The ...

  12. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how consumers feel about GM banana biosafety risks and the potential challenges for marketing the product. The study analyzes socio-demographic characteristics, awareness and attitudes of banana-consuming ...

  13. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic. PMID:22101927

  14. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  15. Effect of banana on cold stress test & peak expiratory flow rate in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, C; Bairy, K L; Rao, N M; Udupa, E G

    1999-07-01

    The effect of banana on cold stress induced hypertension, peak expiratory flow rate and plasma ACE activity in healthy human volunteers was tested. Systolic blood pressure (P banana treatment compared to controls subjected to cold stress. There was no significant changes in heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate but only significant decrease in plasma ACE activity after banana treatment. Banana decreased the rise of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers subjected to cold stress test without much effect on heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:10709336

  16. Recreating the Banana Grower: The Role of Private Certification Systems in the Windward Islands Banana Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haakon Aasprong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Private standards and certification schemes in agrifood networks tend to be de-scribed as neoliberal, suggesting that they share a common understanding of that which they seek to govern and the tools to be used. Although such certification systems do have many features in common, this article argues that much is to be learned by contrasting certification systems with regard to their ideational ground-ings. Through a historically grounded discussion of the adoption and implementa-tion of two certification systems – GLOBALGAP and Fairtrade – in the Wind-ward Islands banana industry, it is argued that there are important differences with regard to how the systems envision shared key concepts such as accountability, adaptability, professionalism and not least sustainability. These differences permeate the standards as well as their enforcement structures, demonstrating a flexibility in certification as governmental technology which is often overlooked. Moreover, the article explores how the certification systems’ governmental rationalities articulate with local understandings of the role of farmers and agriculture in the Windward Islands, arguing that the tension existing between the visions embedded in the systems mirrors a tension within these islands societies. This tension preceded the adoption of the certification systems and continues to influence their implementation today.

  17. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  18. Identification of Potential for Banana in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. MANTEL; ZHANG XUELEI; ZHANG GANLIN

    2003-01-01

    Land use alternatives are sought to boost agricultural income and productivity in Hainan Island, China.Regional differences exist in crop limitations, such as typhoon risk, low temperatures, poor soil fertility, and drought. In this study a crop zonation was made for a range of crops, among which is banana, as a way to: 1)establish areas for potential expansion for banana, and 2) identify limitations and options for crop and land management. A spatial soil and terrain database of Hainan Island (1:250 000) was linked to the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The qualitative models were verified by comparing suitability maps with actual land use. The results may support policy formulation on issues such as alternatives to current land use, assessment of best management practices, and the need for fertilizer programmes.

  19. 从a hand of bananas 说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞洛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 英语怎么说“一串香蕉”?我们可以说a bunch of bananas,也可以说a handof bananas.但是,后者更趋形象生动.名词hand在此起双重作用,它既表示“串”(bunch),相当汉语“量词”,又含有一种巧妙的比喻,bananas为本体,而hand则成了喻体.类似a hand of bananas的表达在英语中不为鲜见.如hand这样起双重作用的名词可作以下分类.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis and highland banana (ssp. truncata were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping and no distinguishing pattern was observed. The morphological characters found variable within these populations were related to developmental changes and mutations. The results ob tained in this study were not revolutionary. However, the survey of a large number of characters treated with multivariate techniques further sharpened the existing groupings of the Musa acuminata subspecies.

  1. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    OpenAIRE

    Nityananda Chakraborty; Balen Nandi

    2015-01-01

    Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be du...

  2. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  3. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M. [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  4. Banana Trials: A Potential Niche and Ethnic Market in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Fonsah, Esendugue Greg; Krewer, Gerard; Wallace, Richard; Mullinix, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Annual cropping production (ACP) is a technique used worldwide to target favorable market conditions. This technique has allowed commercial banana production outside the traditional production belt such as South Africa, Thailand, Israel, and China. In 2003 an evaluation of thirty-three cultivars was initiated near Savannah, Georgia to determine their suitability for ornamental, nursery, and ACP for niche/ethnic markets under Georgia weather conditions. In South Georgia and other temperate reg...

  5. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species of Mycosphaerella cause disease in humans and other vertebrates. An international project was initiated to sequence the genomes of M. graminicola and M. fijiensis, two of the most economically impor...

  6. Interaction of Spatially Localized LHW with Banana Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krlín, Ladislav; Fuchs, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Papřok, Richard; Seidl, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 166-168. ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2014 - 26th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/26./. Prague, 16.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anomalous acceleration * stochasticity * lower hybrid waves * banana particles * tokamaks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/krlin.pdf

  7. IN VITRO SHOOT TIP CULTURE OF BANANA CULTIVAR MEITEI HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT LALRINSANGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropopagation is preferred over the conventional method of propagation in banana owing to its fastermultiplication rate, uniformity in planting materials, production of disease-free planting materials, higherbunch weight, more fingers and hands and less variability in fruit size and shape. The apical meristem orshoot-tip culture is very efficient for rapid clonal micropopagation. Though abundant information on themicropropagation of banana is available for cultivars in India and abroad, there is only little or no informationon micropropagation of Meitei Hei, a popular local variety of Manipur. Thus, study was undertaken during2009-10 in the Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, CAU, Imphal on the in vitroshoot tip culture of Meiteti Hei banana to analyze its micropropagation potential. Results revealed that thehighest multiple shoot induction was found in MS+5mg1-1BAP at 2.17 shoots while MS+1 mg1-1NAA+0.2mg1-1BAP gave the longest regenerated shoots after 45 days of incubation. Highest number of roots wasfound in MS+2 mg1-1NAA. 98-100% survival was found in all the ex-vitro hardening media of sand,soil:FYM (2:1 and soil:vermicompost (2:1.

  8. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  9. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  10. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anuchita Moongngarm; Wanassanun Tiboonbun; Mai Sanpong; Pimpila Sriwong; Laongdao Phiewtong; Rattanapon Prakitrum; Nattipon Huychan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS) content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity ...

  11. Physicochemical Properties and Nutritional Compositions of Foamed Banana Powders (Pisang Awak, Musa sapientum L.) Dehydrated by Various Drying Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Phisut NAKNAEN; Phantipha CHAROENTHAIKIJ; Paramaporn KERDSUP

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and nutritional compositions of foamed banana powders, as affected by various drying methods. The foaming process of banana puree was undertaken by using whey protein concentrate (5 %) as a foaming agent. After that, the banana foam was dehydrated by various drying methods, including hot air drying, vacuum drying, and freeze drying. Unfoamed banana puree dried by hot air drying was used as the control treatment. All...

  12. Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address

  13. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  14. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  15. Physicochemical Properties and Nutritional Compositions of Foamed Banana Powders (Pisang Awak, Musa sapientum L. Dehydrated by Various Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisut NAKNAEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and nutritional compositions of foamed banana powders, as affected by various drying methods. The foaming process of banana puree was undertaken by using whey protein concentrate (5 % as a foaming agent. After that, the banana foam was dehydrated by various drying methods, including hot air drying, vacuum drying, and freeze drying. Unfoamed banana puree dried by hot air drying was used as the control treatment. All the foamed banana powders exhibited higher L* and b* and lower a* values than that of the unfoamed one. Lower solubility and hygroscopicity were observed in the unfoamed banana powder, compared to all the foamed banana powders. All the foamed banana powders contained higher total phenolic contents (TPC, β-carotene, thiamine, and riboflavin, as well as ascorbic acid, compared with the unfoamed banana powder. Among the foamed banana powders, the freeze dried powder had the lowest bulk and compaction density, while the solubility and hygroscopicity were the highest. The highest nutrition components, mentioned above, and antioxidant activities were found in the foamed banana powders dehydrated by freeze drying, followed by vacuum drying and hot air drying, respectively. Therefore, the banana powder made by the foaming process and consequently subjected to freeze drying was of a higher quality, in terms of nutritional compositions as well as antioxidant capacities.

  16. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl

  17. Study of Banana Dehydration using Sequential Infrared Radiation Heating and Freeze-Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drying and quality characteristics of banana slices processed with a sequential infrared radiation and freeze drying (SIRFD) method were investigated. Cavendish banana slices with 5 mm thickness were predehydrated using IR heating at each one of three radiation intensities, 3000, 4000, and 5000...

  18. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  19. Insect non-preference and reduced virus multiplication on irradiated banana cv lakatan resistant to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiated ''Lakatan'' bananas have demonstrated resistance against Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Resistance to mutant lines to BBTV were characterized and evaluated based on host- insect vector relationship, symptomology, and virus multiplication. Resistance to the insect vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa, was elucidated by artificially inoculating individual lines with 20 viculiferous aphids. Insect preference was determined by counting the number of aphids per plant at a weekly interval. Reaction of the different irradiated lines to the disease was observed through symptomatic expression while resistance to virus multiplication was determined by knowing the titer of BBTV on the different mutant lines through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that there were differences an aphid preference based on mean aphid colony count on irradiated lines. Disease incidence was significantly higher on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower on those that were not colonized. For example, line 6-30-2 was observed to be most preferred having a mean colony count of 63.9 and disease incidence of 66.67% while line 9-28-2 was not preferred having a mean colony count of 26.3 and disease incidence of 11.11%. Non-irradiated banana cv Lakatan was observed to have a mean aphid colony count of 41.3 and disease incidence of 33.33%. Virus titer was also higher on irradiated lines with high aphid colony count and disease incidence. ELISA absorbance at 405 nm of lines 6-30-2 and 9-28-2 ranged from 0.138-0.712 and 0.126-0.423, respectively while that of non-irradiated banana cv Lakatan as negative and positive controls gave an absorbance of 0.145 and 0.680, respectively. Based on the results of the study, non-preference of the aphid vector to colonize and reproduce in irradiated plants contributed to lower BBTD infection and lower titer of the virus in tested materials. (author)

  20. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  1. Effects of acidic conditions on the growth of banana plantlets. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Malaysia, the banana, known locally as Pisang, is the major short term crop and is ranked as the third most important fruit crop for export. However, current production shows that demand is still greater than market supply. One of the major constraints in banana production is soil acidity, which affects the growth and yield. One way of overcoming this problem is biotechnological manipulations, i.e. by screening in vitro and selecting plants that are tolerant to acidity. Tissue culturing of bananas has been established and widely reported. A description is given of in vitro studies of two commercially grown bananas, Pisang Montel (Cavendish type) and Pisang Intan, with the objectives of selecting plants that are adaptable to a low pH and of understanding the biochemical mechanisms associated with acidity. P. Intan, a popular dessert banana, is reported to be severely affected by soil acidity. 6 refs

  2. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  3. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. PMID:21029318

  4. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  5. Relationship between banana plant cultivation and stream macroinvertebrate communities Relação entre cultivo de banana e a comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Kleine; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Juliano José Corbi

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: The present study describes the influence of banana plant cultivation on macroinvertebrate communities of streams located in the southeastern region of São Paulo state in the Atlantic Forest (four located in areas of banana cultivation and four in preserved areas); METHODS: Sampling was performed during October and November of 2005. The fauna was collected with Surber sampler and a D-aquatic net (both with mesh of 0.25 mm) in rapids and backwaters. Simultaneously, an environmental chara...

  6. Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; S. Baharuddin

    2012-01-01

    A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

  7. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  8. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityananda Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be due to increased sytheses of the enzymes. In an in vitro culture, the fungus exhibited some peroxidase but no polyphenoloxidase activity.

  9. An Electrostatic Lens to Reduce Parallax in Banana Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Esch, P; Medjoubi, K; Esch, Patrick Van; Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Medjoubi, Kadda

    2005-01-01

    Cylindrical "banana" gas detectors are often used in fixed-target experiments, because they are free of parallax effects in the equatorial plane. However, there is a growing demand to increase the height of these detectors in order to be more efficient or to cover more solid angle, and hence a parallax effect starts to limit the resolution in that direction. In this paper we propose a hardware correction for this problem which reduces the parallax error thanks to an applied potential on the front window that makes the electrostatic field lines radially pointing to the interaction point at the entrance window. A detailed analytical analysis of the solution is also presented.

  10. Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in...

  11. Involvement of a banana MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from banana fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the banana plant. In preharvest banana fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout banana fruit development. In postharvest banana ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest banana ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene. PMID:18820933

  12. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides. PMID:23055273

  13. The banana E2 gene family: Genomic identification, characterization, expression profiling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Jue, Dengwei; Zhao, Qiufang; Chen, Hongliang; Xie, Jianghui; Jia, Liqiang

    2016-04-01

    The E2 is at the center of a cascade of Ub1 transfers, and it links activation of the Ub1 by E1 to its eventual E3-catalyzed attachment to substrate. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known about analysis of E2 genes in banana. In this study, 74 E2 genes of banana were identified and phylogenetically clustered into thirteen subgroups. The predicted banana E2 genes were distributed across all 11 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the E2 domain, gene structure and motif compositions were analyzed. The expression of all of the banana E2 genes was analyzed in the root, stem, leaf, flower organs, five stages of fruit development and under abiotic stresses. All of the banana E2 genes, with the exception of few genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the organs and fruit developments, which indicated that the E2 genes might involve in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the banana. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that 45 E2s under drought and 33 E2s under salt were induced. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the banana E2 gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family. PMID:26940488

  14. Morphological, Serological and Molecular Analyses of Anthracnose-Causing Agent on Banana Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Colletotrichum, C. musae and C. gloeosporoides, occur as infecting species of banana. The study focused on examining the etiology of anthracnose on banana fruits sold on the domestic market. An isolate was obtained from a deseased banana fruit on PDA medium, forming a white colony with intensive and uniformed growth. It was not possible to identify the isolated fungus based on its morphological characteristics. Positive serological reaction in an ELISA test with monoclonal antibodies for C. acutatum indicated an antigen site for the used monoclonal antibodies. Positive reaction when C. gloeosporioides-specific primers were applied indicated a similarity in the ITS sequence ofthe fungus and the examined isolate from banana fruit. Although there are no available data in literature that C. gloeosporioides-specific CgInt primer can be used for amplification of the phylogenetically related C. musae, our results do not exclude that the isolate could be C. musae. The host plant, symptoms observed and colony characteristics of the fungus isolated from the banana fruit mostly correspond to C. musae. Based on morphological, antigenand gentic characteristics, the isolate from banana was determined as Colletotrichum sp., while species identification of the anthracnose-causing agent on banana requires additional analysis.

  15. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm. PMID:26805624

  16. Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-01-01

    In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

  17. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO2 and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO2 peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author)

  18. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  19. The Banana Pulp Polyphenol Oxidase is a Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemh Saeid Nematpour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The best extraction result for the polyphenol oxidase (PPO from the Musa cavendishii pulp was obtained using a phosphate buffer (0.02 M, pH 7 containing PVP (2%, triton X-100 (1% and ascorbic acid (0.01%. Two active PPO isozymes were obtained applying a procedure involving dialysis, stepwise precipitation, DEAE and Sephadex column chromatography. The most active isozyme cresolase and catecholase activities in the presence of 4-[(4-Methylphenylazo]-phenol and caffeic acid showed an 11.67 and 13.3 fold recovery, respectively, after isolation. It exhibited a single band PAGE and had a MW of 58.2 kD and pI of 5.28 with the kinetic parameters of (Km = 18.6 μM and Vmax = 2.8 μM min-1 for caffeic acid and (Km = 0.94 mM and Vmax = 14.8 μM min-1 for dopamine. The presence of dopamine in banana pulp and peel was established and the results were discussed in terms of the identity and physiological role of the banana PPO in a collective and conclusive manner.

  20. The susceptibility of bananas to crown rot disease is influenced by geographical and seasonal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ewane, Cécile Annie; Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Brostaux, Yves; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Crown rot of banana fruits is caused by a complex of fungal pathogens, the most common of which is Colletotrichum musae, and is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Susceptibility of banana fruits to crown rot is influenced by many pre-harvest factors. The aim of this study was to improve on the methodology for the evaluation of fruit susceptibility and to verify whether cultivation areas in Cameroon as well as seasonal variations have an influence on the susceptibility to cro...

  1. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  2. K40 y Cs137 in bananas exported from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using low level gamma spectroscopy, the specific activity of K40 and Cs137 in banana samples is quantified during the period 1996-1998. The bananas were supplied by the export companies that operate in Costa Rica. The calculated derived intervention level (DIL) for Cs137 was 4000 times greater than the specific activity measured in the fruit due to worldwide nuclear events. This result permits its free commercialization. Banana is an excellent source of potassium, since it was determined that each kg of the fruit has 3.8 g of this element. (Author)

  3. Spatial distribution of banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a Cavendish banana plantation, Penang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUSTIN N. OKOLLE; MASHHOR MANSOR; ABU HASSAN AHMAD

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution of immatures of the banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) and their parasitisms from three major parasitoids were studied in a Cavendish banana plantation from April 2004 to December 2004. Infestation levels and parasitism ofE. thrax life stages were recorded from bunched plants (BP), flowering plants (FP), preflowered plants (PF),broad leaf followers (BLF) and narrow leaf followers (NLF), as well as on well managed and poorly managed plants. Mean numbers of the immatures and numbers parasitized from the nine blocks in the plantation were fitted to four dispersion indices. Significant numbers of E. thrax immatures and those parasitized by Ooencyrtus erionotae, Cotesia erionotae and Brachymeria albotibialis were recorded from BLF and PF; no eggs were found on BP and FP. Although infestation was higher on well managed plants, only larval parasitism was significandy different. Three of the four indices indicated that eggs and larvae were random while all the indices showed pupae to be clumped. Parasitized eggs and pupae were clumped (4/4 indices) while 3/4 indices revealed a random pattern for parasitized larvae.

  4. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  5. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD50 in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the removal of

  6. Regeneration and multiplication capacity of local banana (Musa spp.) cultivars using callus and shoot tip cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional clonal propagation of banana cultivars using suckers is very slow and limited. In Malaysia, areas for banana plantation are increasing and there is an urgent demand for a quick source of planting materials. In addition, there is interest in improving and developing local banana cultivars for commercial production. In vitro culture techniques can provide an effective method for rapid micropropagation of new banana plants. Plantlet regeneration of P. Intan was achieved via callus tissues derived from the cell suspension cultures. The planting materials for P. Nangka and P. Tanduk were difficult to obtain because of poor sucker formation. However, this study showed that the multiplication rate of plantlets of these cultivars is high and potentially useful in producing high and uniform planting materials

  7. Feeding of banana (Musa spp.) plantation wastes for fast pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd

    2013-05-01

    Using the pyrolysis process, agricultural residue such as banana waste can be converted into bio-char, bio-oil, and gases. The fast pyrolysis process of banana wastes on the available 150g/h rig requires particle size reduction. The particle size of less than 150μm constitutes 50% and particles in the 150-250μm ranges make up 28% of the distribution of particle size of banana leaves. The particle size of less than 150μm makes up 52% and particles in the 150-250μm ranges constitute 28% of the distribution of particle size for banana pseudo-stem. A new gravity chute feeder is also designed for this fast pyrolysis system. A series of feeding tests were conducted using this new feeder. The advantages and limitations will be presented. A comparison with the previously designed feeder will be discussed.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation treatment on some fungi causing storage diseases of banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana is one of the most popular fruits in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. in recent years, the quality of egyptian banana markedly declined. A major factor contributing to this decline is the development of fruit rot, which is the most widely occurring disease either in the field or in storage. Different fungi attack banana fruits causing considerable losses. Most of the fungi responsible for post harvest rots of banana are usually carried from the field, on the surface of the fruit itself or in injured and rotting fruits causing severe rats during storage. These rots make the fruits difficult to handle and undesirable to the consumers. Botryodiplodia theobromae is known to be the most important pathogen responsible for the infection in storage

  9. DEM simulation of particle flow on a single deck banana screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chusheng; Wang Hong; Zhao Yuemin; Zhao Lala; Dong Hailin

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical study of particle flow on a banana screen deck using the discrete element method (DEM) was presented in this paper.The motion characteristics and penetrating mechanisms of particles on the screen deck were studied.Effects of geometric parameters of screen deck on banana screening process were also investigated.The results show that when the values of inclination of discharge and increment of screen deck inclination are 10° and 5° respectively,the banana screening process get a good screening performance in the simulation.The relationship between screen deck length and screening efficiency was further confirmed.The conclusion that the screening efficiency will not significantly increase when the deck lengthL ≥430 mm (L/B ≥3.5) was obtained,which can provide theoretical basis for the optimization of banana screen.

  10. Focused ion beam analysis of banana peel and its application for arsenate ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB) analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples. (author)

  11. In vitro mutation induction for resistance to Fusarium wilt in the banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, which is one of the world's principal banana production regions, almost all production is consumed within the country. Consumers show high preference for the cultivar Maca (AAB group). However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to produce bananas of this type because of their high susceptibility to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Sexual breeding, which consists of recombination and selection, is limited in the banana because of polyploidy and sterility. Spontaneous somatic mutations are an important source of new cultirvars, and mutation breeding might be particularly important to generate genetic variation. Because of this, the mutation breeding approach has been used in Brazil. The objective of this research was to induce gamma ray mutations for resistance or to increase the level of tolerance to Fusarium wilt in the banana cultivar Maca on the basis of screening under field conditions. 4 refs

  12. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  13. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  14. Molecular cytogenetic mapping as a tool to characterize genetic diversity and induced mutants in banana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Hřibová, Eva; Šimková, Hana; Doleželová, Marie

    2006, Pp.27-Pp.28. [First Research Co-ordination Meeting of FAO /IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project. Vienna (AT), 11.07.2006-15.07.2006] Keywords : banana * molecular cytogenetics * FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    SilkeSachse; MarcoSchubert

    2014-01-01

    Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I). In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the...

  16. The banana code—natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Marco; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly's olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I). In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the...

  17. Market access and agricultural production : the case of banana production in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bagamba, F.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the development of the banana sub-sector in central and southwesternUganda. The study analyses smallholder household response to production constraints (crop pests and diseases, soil constraints) and development of product markets and off-farm employment opportunities. The study was carried out in centr...

  18. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  19. Effects of organic amendments on plant-parasitic nematode populations, root damage, and banana plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tabarant, P.; Villenave, Cécile; Risède, J.M.; J. Roger-Estrade; Dorel, M

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes are major pests for crops, including banana. Environmentally friendly methods for managing plant-parasitic nematodes have to be developed, such as organic material application. Our study focuses on the impacts of several organic amendments on banana plants, considering mainly their effect on soil nitrogen supply and soil microbial biomass, and the consequences on plant-parasitic nematode impacts on the plants. A microcosm experiment for 13 weeks was conducted to evaluate four organi...

  20. Commelina diffusa Population Dynamics in Banana and Ruderal Habitats under Mechanical and Herbicide Management Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy-Ann P. Isaac; Richard A. I. Brathwaite; Ayub Khan

    2012-01-01

    Commelina diffusa is a colonising species of banana orchard habitats in St. Vincent in the Windward Islands of the Caribbean. In the present study, the population dynamics of C. diffusa were investigated in response to mechanical weed management with either a rotary string trimmer or glufosinate in ruderal and banana habitats. The study focused on density and size distribution of the weed over time and their response to two weed management strategies. The population dynamics of C. diffusa dif...

  1. Banana Cultivar Mapping and Constraints Identification With Farmers in Southwest Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southwest Kenya is one of the major banana growing ares of Kenya and contributes about 40% of the country's production. Banana is an important crop in Kenya providing the small-scale resource poor farmers with food and the much-needed income. In southwest Kenya, Banana is a priority crop that is grown in a wide range of farms from backyard gardens to medium farms. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRP) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) were conducted between January, 1996 and December 1997. The overall objective was to identify major constraints in specific areas, rank them with farmers and determine suitable interventions. The RRA and PRA revealed that farmers grow banana as a pure stand, intercropped with crops like maize, beans and groundnuts, in addition along the contour lines for soil conservation purpose. Diverse banana cultivars are grown in the region, of which some are localised while others are widespread. The major cultivars grown include 'Ekeganda', Kisukari', 'Ng'ombe' and 'Pisang Awak'. Pisang Awak was found prevalent in drier areas of Kendu Bay (LM3) and very cold areas of Bomet (LH1). Ekeganda is the most popular cooking type while Kisukari is a dessert type and is the second most popular banana cultivar in the region. Some of the constraints cut across the AEZs and include a complex of pests and diseases, poor orchard management, soil exhaustion because of land pressure, lack of superior cultivars and socioeconomic factors such as poor infrastructure. Panama disease, nematodes and banana weevil are prevalent at the medium and lower AEZs while moles are menace in the upper midlands and highland areas. To address some of the major constraints, on-farm banana cultivar evaluation trials were initiated in four AEZs namely LM3-4, LH1, UM1 and LM2, respectively. Monitoring and evaluation of these cultivars by both researchers, extension and farmers is on-going

  2. Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Martínez, Eduardo; Ruepert, Clemens; Savage, Candida; Gilek, Michael; Pinnock, Margareth; Solis, Efrain

    2006-08-15

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufos

  3. Impact of tissue culture banana technology in Kenya: A difference-in-difference estimation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kikulwe, Enoch M.; Nassul S. Kabunga; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Most micro-level studies on the impact of agricultural technologies build on cross-section data, which can lead to unreliable impact estimates. Here, we use panel data covering two time periods to estimate the impact of tissue culture (TC) banana technology in the Kenyan small farm sector. TC banana is an interesting case, because previous impact studies showed mixed results. We combine propensity score matching with a difference-in-difference estimator to control for selection bias and accou...

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF THREE FRUIT-ROT FUNGI OF BANANA BY 28S RIBOSOMAL DNA SEQUENCING

    OpenAIRE

    Supriya Sarkar*, S Girisham and SM Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present investigation was to identify three fruit-rot fungi-Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend) and Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br.) Petch isolated from banana fruits [Rasthali (Silk AAB) and Cavendish (AAA) varieties]. Out of different fungal genera isolated, the above fungi were responsible for maximum loss of banana fruits as they spread rapidly into the fruit pulp and deteriorated the fruits. The amplification studies of fragment of D2 region ...

  5. Storage stability of banana chips in polypropylene based nanocomposite packaging films

    OpenAIRE

    Manikantan, M. R.; Sharma, Rajiv; Kasturi, R.; Varadharaju, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposite films of 15 different compositions of nanoclay, compatibilizer and thickness were developed and used for packaging and storage of banana chips. The effect of nanocomposite films on the quality characteristics viz. moisture content (MC), water activity (WA), total color difference(TCD), breaking force (BF), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value(PV), total plate count (TPC) and overall acceptability score of banana chips under ambient condit...

  6. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Lemchi, J.; Onyeka, U.; Tenkouano, A.

    2001-01-01

    Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome) were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet) on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration...

  7. Enhanced production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bijay Kumar SETHI; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was implemented in solid-state (SSF) and liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF) for biosynthesis of pectinase. Amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues, finger millet waste, broken rice, banana peels (BP), apple pomace (AP) and orange peels, banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.; Family: Musaceae) was most suita...

  8. Induced resistance to Fusarium wilt of banana by exogenous applications of indoleacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Falcón, Marino; Borges, Andrés A.; Borges-Pérez, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana (Panama disease), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, is a soliborne systemic disease which occludes host vascular system. We report here two experiments on resistance induction with banana plants (cv. Dwarf Cavendish) carried out in glass greehouse with different indoleacetic acid treatments, which are capable of inducing resistance to Panama disease. The results obtained in these experiments suggest that the exogenous application of indoleacetic acid to banan...

  9. Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens as Biofertilizer in Secondary Hardening of Tissue Cultured Banana Var. Poovan

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ramesh; V. Ramassamy

    2015-01-01

    The present study brings out the effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens in secondary hardening of tissue cultured banana var.Poovan. Two concentrations (1% & 2%) of liquid medium grown Pseudomonas fluorescens (3×109 cells/ml) were used in borewell water and the growth performance of the banana plantlets was assessed. Seven different growth parameters were studiedviz. shoot weight, height and girth, leaf length, leaf width, no. of leaves and chlorophyll content. Best results were obtained in1%Pseu...

  10. A new strategy for using banana as an ingredient in the brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Teixeira, J.A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2008-01-01

    Beer is a traditionally fermented beverage made from malted grains of barley, hops, yeast, and water, while banana is an important food crop cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical areas and is one of the major fruits in Brazil. Besides, the banana is also very favorable to food industry (e.g. fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids, presence of minerals, and providing low acidity. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate a new st...

  11. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales): Insight into Plastid Monocotyledon Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Martin; Franc-Christophe Baurens; Céline Cardi; Jean-Marc Aury; Angélique D'Hont

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Banana (genus Musa) is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-)specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads e...

  12. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB), “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB) and “Thap Maeo” (AAB) varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics ...

  13. Women with metabolic syndrome improve antrophometric and biochemical parameters with green banana flour consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tavares da Silva; Carolina Araujo dos Santos; Yassana Marvila Girondoli; Luiza Mello de Azeredo; Luis Fernando de Sousa Moraes; Josiane Keila Viana Gomes Schitini; Mario Flävio C. de Lima; Raquel Cristina Lopes Assis Coelho; Josefina Bressan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumption of green banana flour (GBF) may promote health benefits, such as, decreased appetite, weight loss, glycemic control, intestinal function and lipid profile improvement, aging delay, cancer and heart disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green banana flour consumption on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in overweight women. Methods: The glycemic index of flour in the study was determined. The effects of consumption of 20 g of g...

  14. Effect of banana on blood pressure of hypertensive individuals: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand; Arpana Sharma; Meraj Ahmed; Parimala Paran Jyothi; Mercy Rani

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension or high blood pressure is a critical condition which can strain the heart, injure blood vessels, leads to augment the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, and if untreated may cause death. Several herbal approaches have been made to treat hypertensive individuals. Banana is a well known tropical fruit with little known anti hypertensive properties. The objective of this research was to investigate changes in blood pressure after consuming banana among the ...

  15. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata) genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Hřibová Eva; Neumann Pavel; Matsumoto Takashi; Roux Nicolas; Macas Jiří; Doležel Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research...

  16. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. PMID:25591881

  17. A 4-month-old baby boy presenting with anaphylaxis to a banana: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Food allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children and recent studies suggest increased prevalence of both food allergy and anaphylaxis. Among foods, fruits are rarely implicated as the cause of anaphylaxis. Furthermore, anaphylaxis to fruit in the first months of life is rare. Although banana allergy has been well described in adults, there are only two case reports of anaphylaxis to banana in children. Case presentation A 4-month-old Hispanic baby boy with a histo...

  18. Bio-Chemical Contents and Micro-Propagation Efficiency in Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Ikram- ul-Haq; Muhammad Umar Dahot

    2007-01-01

    The rate of banana micro-propagation depends on the balanced bio-chemical contents within the cultured explants, which are maintained by specific hormone/s in the medium. A normal mode of organogenesis and than shoot induction, are the hormonal derived steps for in vitro banana micro-propagation. To know about what a situation exist, under specific hormonal conditions, an experiment was designed. The meristematic stem tips were cultured for organogenesis on a number of media supplemented with...

  19. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo) Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Alamelumangai. M; Dhanalakshmi, J; M. Mathumitha; R. Saranya Renganayaki; P. Muthukumaran; N.Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) (E.C number 1.14.18.1) was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca) and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate t...

  20. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Juhua Liu; Jing Zhang; Wei Hu; Hongxia Miao; Jianbin Zhang; Caihong Jia; Zhuo Wang; Biyu Xu; Zhiqiang Jin

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 ex...

  1. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small dif...

  2. Banana Republic公司重塑自我

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路易斯·李; 肖前

    2004-01-01

    对马卡·汉森来说,去年的假日销售旺季是考验她能否成为时装趋势预言家的一场初试。51岁的汉森于去年6月被任命为Banana Republic公司的总裁,当时她认定美利奴羊毛弹性针织衫市场上最叫卖的颜色是蓝色。事实证明,她错了。汉森说:“苔绿色才是最畅销的,而我们的货却准备不足。”

  3. Improvement of bananas (Musa cvs.) through in vitro anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural products play a great role in the Colombian economy, and the banana is one of the most important. Since 1981, one of the more serious problems effecting production of this crop is the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis sp. difformis, that causes black sigatoka disease. Most of the recent efforts to control this disease have been directed towards the identification of clones tolerant or resistant to this disease. One alternative approach is the use of anther culture to obtain resistant haploid plants. Diploid clones (Musa - AA) have been used as a model in this study. The results presented here identify the most appropriate stage of anther development for callus induction and proliferation, and treatments that reduce tissue browning. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched banana biofibre resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, banana fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the banana fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic banana fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich banana residues and fibres; major user's of banana fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of banana biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement. PMID:26001493

  5. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Minardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 = 100 gr of phosphate rock, B2 = 200 gr phosphate rock, and B3 = 300 gr of phosphate rock. The third factor is application method, which is consisted of M1 = directly applied into the soil. M2 = incubated before applied into the soil. The observation of soil includes: soil pH, soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, total-N, total-P, available-P and the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Result shows that available-P in the Alfisols is very low. The interaction amongs the treatment significantly affect the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Banana corm extract and phosphate rock applied directly into the soil increase soil pH.

  6. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  7. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  8. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  9. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  10. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  11. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  12. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min. PMID:19082923

  13. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed. PMID:27041291

  14. Agronomical and molecular factors influencing bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA, cv ‘Grande-Naine’) susceptibility to crown rot disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lassois, Ludivine

    2009-01-01

    Crown rot affects export bananas in all producing countries and is considered to be one of the main export banana post-harvest disease. Variations are observed in the expression of crown rot symptoms. An original approach of the disease is proposed and consists on presenting the fruit quality potential at harvest as a key factor in crown rot development. This potential develops during growth of bananas in the field and depends on a physiological and a parasitical component. The...

  15. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Bressan; Shizu Watanabe; April M. Greenwell

    2013-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpu...

  16. An economic assessment of banana genetic improvement and innovation in the Lake Victoria Region of Uganda and Tanzania:

    OpenAIRE

    Smale, Melinda; Tushemereirwe, Wilbeforce K.

    2007-01-01

    "This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic transformation to achieve pest and disease resistance of the cooking banana is a promising strategy for smallholder farmers in this region. Biotic constraints are severe and not easily addressed th...

  17. Yield Effects of Tissue Culture Bananas in Kenya: Accounting for Selection Bias and the Role of Complementary Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Kabunga, Nassul S.; Dubois, Thomas; Qaim, Matin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze yield effects of tissue culture (TC) banana technology in the Kenyan small farm sector, using recent survey data and an endogenous switching regression approach. TC banana plantlets, which are free from pests and diseases, have been introduced in East Africa since the late-1990s. While field experiments show significant yield advantages over traditional banana suckers, a rigorous assessment of impacts in farmers’ fields is still outstanding. A comparison of mean yield levels betwee...

  18. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ogbonna Emerole; K. Charles Osondu; O. Chidozie Anyiro; O. Alexan Orji

    2013-01-01

    This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert) banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists) and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April) and rain season (May-October)...

  19. Origins and domestication of cultivated banana inferred from chloroplast and nuclear genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Feng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1 and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome. Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome and M. schizocarpa (S-genome, respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly

  20. A clone of irradiated banana cultivar 'Williams' with high yield potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to improve banana in the Sudan started effectively with three IAEA mutation breeding projects. The most common banana cultivar is 'Dwarf Cavendish', which covers almost 95% of the area under banana production. This cultivar is considered as the most adapted banana cultivar to different climatic conditions, but it is prone to 'choke throat' and has low yield potential. Banana cv. 'Williams' was irradiated at the IAEA/FAO laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria. Based on preliminary evaluation of the material, 5 mutants (i.e. W193-3, W188-3, W205-4, W206-1 and W224-4) were selected as single plants and propagated by tissue culture. Multi-location testing was carried out for these mutants with cvs. 'Dwarf Cavendish' and 'Williams as standard cultivars in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications and 25 plants per replication. Spacing was 2 x 2 m (2500 plant per ha) and one sucker was retained. The bunch weight and cumulative yield of clone 193-3 were significantly higher than all banana genotypes. The high yield of clone W193-3 in the plant crop was due to the significantly higher number of hands per bunch and larger fingers. The plant height at shooting and pseudostem girth were significantly higher in clone W193-3. The stability parameters for bunch weight of the different clones showed that clone W193-3 was stable with high yield in all environments. Clone W193-3 was released as a new banana cultivar for farmers under the names 'Albeely'. (author)

  1. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  2. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  3. Production of transgenic banana plants conferring tolerance to salt stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of bananas is limited in areas that have soils with excess sodium. In this study, a transformation system in banana Grand Nain cultivar was established using the apical meristem explant and plasmid pAB6 containing the herbicide-resistant gene (bar) as a selectable marker and gus reporter gene. The micro projectile bombardment transformation system using 650 psi was successfully used for introducing the studied genes in banana explants. The expression of the introduced genes was detected using leaf painting and GUS histochemical tests, respectively. The present results showed that among the selection stage, 36.5% of the bombarded explants survived on the BI3 medium supplemented with 3 mg/L bialaphos, while, 26.6% of the tested explants showed a positive reaction in the GUS assay. To detect the presence of bar and gus genes the PCR was successfully used. These results encourage the idea of possibility of banana crop improvement using in vitro technique through micro projectile bombardment. Therefore, the plasmid pNM1 that carries the bar and P5CS (delta 1 l-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase for proline accumulation) genes was introduced in banana Grand Nain cultivar to produce transgenic plants expressing the salt tolerance gene. Results showed that the majority of herbicide-resistant banana plaptlets were successfully acclimatized. In studying the effects of different salt concentrations on the produced transgenic banana plants, results showed lower decrease in the percentage of survived plants, pseudostem diameter and leaf area with an increase of salt concentrations in case of transgenic plants compared with the controls. (author)

  4. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  5. Efeitos do Banana streak virus no desenvolvimento de cultivares de bananeira Effects of banana streak virus on the development of banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos da infecção pelo BSV no crescimento de cinco cultivares de bananeira. Mudas micropropagadas das cultivares SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo e Pioneira foram inoculadas com BSV pela cochonilha Planacoccus citri Risso. Como controles utilizaram-se mudas não inoculadas e inoculadas com cochonilhas não virulíferas. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas, a área foliar e as massas da matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Os primeiros sintomas do BSV foram detectados 15 dias após a inoculação em todas as plantas inoculadas com o vírus. Houve diferenças estatísticas significativas nas variáveis analisadas, concluindo-se que o vírus afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas de todas as cultivares avaliadas.On this study, the BSV effects on five banana cultivars were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Micropropagated plants of cultivars SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo and Pioneira were inoculated with BSV using mealybug Planacoccus citri Risso as a vector. Controls plants were inoculated with non-viruliferous mealybugs or not inoculated. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and root and shoot dry mass were evaluated. Disease symptoms were first visible 15 days after plant inoculation with virus. Statistical differences were detected for the host growth variables evaluated. It was concluded that BSV affected significantly the growth of all studied cultivars.

  6. Análise do comércio de bananas em Lavras: Minas Gerais Analysis of banana trade in Lavras: Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A participação de Lavras na oferta de banana no mercado local é muito pequena, considerando-se que o Brasil é o segundo país maior produtor com 6,6 milhões de toneladas e Minas Gerais é o quarto entre os Estados produtores dessa fruta. Visando a quantificar a participação de Lavras e região na oferta de banana no mercado local, realizou-se esse trabalho em duas etapas: 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. A aplicação mensal de questionários nos principais estabelecimentos comerciais de hortifruti e feiras - livre de Lavras, permitiu conhecer o volume comercializado, procedência e perdas das principais cultivares de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que em 2002/2003 foram comercializados 945,24 t e em 2004/2005 foi de 1.001,98 t. Desse volume, 6,56% em 2002/2003 e 14,62% em 2004/2005 tiveram como origem Lavras. O consumo per capita anual manteve-se em torno de 11,8 kg nos dois períodos pesquisados. As bananas tipo 'Prata', foram as mais comercializadas nas duas etapas, 54,7% no primeiro período e 58,7% no segundo, sendo que 7,91% e 18,35% , respectivamente, tiveram como origem Lavras. O volume de banana 'Marmelo' e do tipo 'Nanicão', foram de 1,91% e 28,4%, respectivamente, sendo que 84,0% da 'Marmelo' e 3,43% da tipo 'Nanicão' na segunda etapa foram procedentes de Lavras. A banana 'Maçã' teve uma redução de 125,30 t para 107,47 t, correspondendo a 13,26%, sendo que a oferta dessa cultivar, originada de Lavras, manteve-se em 13,8%. As bananas 'Maçã' e 'Marmelo' apresentaram as menores perdas, 3,56% e 4,78% e as dos tipos 'Prata'e 'Nanicão'as maiores perdas, 9,39% e 10, 75%, respectivamente.The participation of Lavras in the banana production offered to the local commerce is still very low considering that Brazil is the second banana producer of the world, with a production around 6.6 ton/year and per-capita consumption of 24.4 kg/year. Minas Gerais ranks in the fifth place among the most important Brazilian state producers. This

  7. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  8. Avaliação econômica da elaboração de banana-passa proveniente de cultivo orgânico e convencional Economic evaluation of dried banana production of the organic and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Bittencourt; Marlene R. Queiroz; Silvia A. Nebra

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foi realizada a avaliação econômica da produção de banana-passa de uma agroindústria localizada no município de Guaraqueçaba - PR. Foi avaliado o processamento da banana-passa convencional e da banana orgânica produzida na região, comparando-se os indicadores de viabilidade econômica. A banana-passa orgânica é exportada para a Europa e a banana-passa convencional é comercializada na região de Curitiba - PR. Ambos os processamentos apresentaram viabilidade econômica positiva, a...

  9. Predicting the Benefits of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C.; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N.; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J.; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response. PMID:22879960

  10. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films

  11. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  12. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. PMID:24361571

  13. Effect of banana on blood pressure of hypertensive individuals: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension or high blood pressure is a critical condition which can strain the heart, injure blood vessels, leads to augment the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, and if untreated may cause death. Several herbal approaches have been made to treat hypertensive individuals. Banana is a well known tropical fruit with little known anti hypertensive properties. The objective of this research was to investigate changes in blood pressure after consuming banana among the hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct this research. Data was collected by questionnaire and personal interviewing. Two ripened bananas (Musa acuminata were provided to each subject for 20 days. Blood pressures of the participants were taken before and after the experimentation. Results Most of the subjects were in the age group >60 years followed by 30-40 years and 51-60 years. 57.1% of the respondents were female. Noticeable changes observed in the pre and post experimentation results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after banana consumption. Conclusion Results of this research strongly supports that banana contains phytochemicals, thus its intake significantly reduces blood pressure among hypertensive individuals. However, more clinical studies in human are still required that may provide evidence of efficacy.

  14. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  15. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  16. Effect of Banana Fibers on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Compressed Earth Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the built environment in developing countries is a major challenge in the 21st century. The use of local materials in construction of buildings is one of the potential ways to support sustainable development in both urban and rural areas. Building with Compressed Earthen Blocks (CEBs is becoming more popular due to their low cost and relative abundance of materials. The proposed Green-Compressed Earth Block (GCEB consists of ordinary CEB ingredients plus Banana fibers, which will be the focus of this study. Banana fibers are widely available worldwide as agricultural waste from Banana cultivation. Banana fibers are environmentally friendly and present important attributes, such as low density, light weight, low cost, high tensile strength, as well as being water and fire resistant. This kind of waste has a greater chance of being utilized for different application in construction and building materials. This focused on the use of banana fiber and its effect on the compressive and flexural strength in CEB. The deflection at the mid-span of the blocks studied was calculated using the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT. The results of this study will highlight general trends in the strength properties of different soil mixes for CEBs. These efforts are necessary to ensure that GCEB technology becomes more widely accepted in the world of building materials and is considered a reliable option for providing low-cost housing.

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae. PMID:24854442

  18. Genetic resources in Musa bananas and improvement of their disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cultivated bananas belong to the genus Musa and it is the wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana which contributed to the origin of the sorts used as food. Most of these are triploids and possess a high degree of sterility. The sources of variation that are of importance for genetic improvement of the bananas are (1) hereditary differences between the cultivated clones; (2) difference between species and sub-species; (3) differences between the primitive cultivars derived from Musa acuminata, and (4) mutations that can be artiificially induced. The bananas are attacked by many diseases. Their vulnerability to certain diseases is highly significant in view of the extreme genetic uniformity of the commercial crops and the absence of resistant genes. In the past the wild species and the diploids used as food served as sources of resistance. However, efforts to induce resistance in the cultivated triploid bananas have not been successful. The use of mutagenic agents is proposed as a possible way of improving genetic variability in banana cultivation. (author)

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in percolation fluxes in a tropical Andosol influenced by banana cropping patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Lacas, J.-G.; Sansoulet, J.

    2007-03-01

    SummarySpatial variability in percolation fluxes was studied in field plots cropped with banana plants, which induce very heterogeneous rainfall partitioning at the soil surface, with high subsequent infiltration in Andosols. Percolation fluxes were measured for just over a year at 1-7 day intervals in eight wick (WL) and gravity lysimeters (GL) that had been buried in the soil at a depth of 60 cm. The results revealed that WL captured unsaturated fluxes while GL only functioned after ponding occurred. The percolation flux measurements were highly biased with both systems, i.e. overpercolation with WL and underpercolation with GL. Percolation fluxes seemed, however, to be mainly unsaturated in the soil types studied. High percolation flux variability was noted on a plot scale, which could be explained by the vegetation structure: total percolation flux (WL) was 2.1-fold higher under banana plants; saturated percolation flux (GL) was 7-fold higher under banana plants and almost absent between banana plants. Eighty-eight per cent of the total variance in percolation flux could be explained by the rainfall intensity under the banana canopy, calculated while taking the rainfall partitioning by the vegetation and the initial water status into account. The number of lysimeters required for assessing percolation flux in a field plot can be reduced by taking the spatial patterns of the flux boundary conditions into account.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on banana 'nanica' (Musa sp., group AAA) irradiated in pre climacteric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work verified the effect of gamma radiation on physical and chemical parameters of banana 'nanica', analyzing possible alterations on the period of conservation and the possibility of commercial irradiation aiming the exportation. The results had demonstrated that the radiations had not produced effect on pH and total acidity. However, the bananas of the 'control group' and those that had received 0,75 kGy, had presented greater maturation degree and, radiated with 0,30 kGy, had presented greater firmness. In accordance with the results of the organoleptic analysis, can be perceived that the bananas most mature, especially of the 'control group', had had greater acceptance. The bananas of treatments 0,30 and 0,60 kGy had had minors notes for presenting minor maturation stadium. Knowing that the irradiation in adequate dose and fruits of good quality brings benefits to the storage and the process of exportation, we conclude that the dose most appropriate for the control of the maturation of the 'nanica' banana is 0,30 kGy. (author)

  1. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  2. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  3. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  4. ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR BANANA CROP VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DE MANEJOS NUTRICIONAIS NA CULTURA DE BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Seiko Tsutsui Esperancini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper fertilizing management, in order to optimize fruit quality and yield, is a relevant stage on the production process to the rural entrepreneur profitability. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of five nutrient management practices for banana crop, Cavendish cultivars, in the Médio Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The effective operational cost (EOC and total operational cost (TOC structures and three profitability indicators were used. Significant differences were observed among the management systems, and the system that resulted in major economic advantage to the producer provided an average profit rate 25.6% higher than other treatments, with total net revenue about 29.5% higher than other management types. The unitary cost was lower for the most profitable nutrient management practice, although the yield was 9.5% lower than the management system that presented the highest yield levels.

    KEY-WORDS: Musa sp.; banana crop; fertilization; production cost; profitability.

    O manejo adequado da adubação, visando à otimização da produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, é uma etapa representativa do processo produtivo para rentabilidade do empreendedor rural. Neste contexto, objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica de cinco tipos de manejo nutricional de bananeiras de cultivares do subgrupo Cavendish, na região do Médio Paranapanema (SP, em 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas estruturas do custo operacional efetivo (COE e custo operacional total (COT e três indicadores de rentabilidade. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre os manejos, sendo que o sistema de manejo que resultou em maior vantagem econômica para o produtor proporcionou índice médio de lucratividade 25,6% superior aos demais

  5. Banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S I Torgova; T A Geivandova; O Francescangeli; A Strigazzi

    2003-08-01

    3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a new type of liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with asymmetrical five-membered heterocycle as a central unit. They have a bent shape and are very convenient model-compounds for studying the dependence of the LC properties on the molecular design. We have also synthesized and investigated ‘banana-shaped’ 1,2,4-oxadiazoles using the ester groups as the linkage units. The new compounds exhibit spontaneous polarization in the smectic phase, even if there is no chiral group in the molecules. Preliminary experimental data suggest the presence of spontaneous polarization in the nematic phase as well. In order to study the structural properties of the LC phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on powder samples have been carried out. Based on the XRD data, a model of the structural arrangement of the bent molecules in the smectic phase is provided, which accounts for the macroscopic spontaneous polarization as well as the ferroelectric switching behavior.

  6. Improvement of banana through biotechnology and mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols were standardized for in vitro propagation of several elite and diverse banana accessions using shoot tip explants. Tissue culture raised plants were field planted at multiple locations. Studies were undertaken for the induction of mutations using multiple shoot cultures of six selected cultivars, Shreemanti (AAA), Basrai (AAA), Lal Kela (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Karibale Monthan (ABB) and a wild diploid (BB). These shoot cultures were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays (0-100 Gy) and subcultured thrice (up to M1V3) to separate shimeras, followed by induction of rooting (M1V4). In general, the rate of multiplication had a negative association with the dose of gamma rays. Enhanced multiplication of shoots was noticed at lower doses. The proliferation of shoots was arrested beyond 50 Gy and a dose of 70 Gy was completely lethal for all the genotypes studied. The rooted plantlets were hardened in the green house and in the early stages of field growth, a few cholorophyll and morphological variants have been noticed. Preliminary studies have been made with DNA samples of different varieties and variants for DNA quality and restriction digestion. Studies are underway to characterize these using PCR based methods. (author)

  7. [Analysis of thiabendazole in citrus fruits and bananas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romminger, K; Hoppe, H

    1976-01-01

    With regard to routine analyses in market control, the authors recommend two methods (according to the expected amounts of active principle) for the determination of thiabendazole residues on citrus fruits and bananas. The ultraviolet spectrophotometric method is preferable in determining thiabendazole contents of more than 1 p.p.m., if the cleaning operations described are respected. For the detection of thiabendazole and for the determination of amounts of less than 1 p.p.m. (the tolerance limit being 0.2 p.p.m. for pomes, berries, stone fruits, kernel fruits and also for potatoes) the thin-layer chromatographic method seems likewise to be suited (also in considering that it is semi-quantitative by nature); especially since the spectrophotometric method yields values by 0.2 p.p.m. too high (due to the measurement of residual absorption of vegetable constituents). The authors are of opinion that such an error must be considered to be too high for contents lower than 1 p.p.m. PMID:950991

  8. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297

  9. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. PMID:25476008

  10. Problems in Deep Processing of Banana in China%我国香蕉深加工问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解明明; 柯佑鹏

    2013-01-01

    Only deep processing the banana is the main approach to develop banana industry. This paper states the nutritive value and economic value of banana, reviews the progress of deep processing the banana, indicates the major problems about deep processing the banana, and put forward the development countermeasures.%发展香蕉深加工是发展香蕉产业的重要途径.本文阐述香蕉的营养价值和经济价值,综述香蕉深加工研究进展,指出香蕉深加工中存在的问题,并提出发展对策.

  11. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA. Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we found this cultivator cum entrepreneur diversified his land productivity. The monthly income generated from selling banana fruits, suckers and rubber seedlings were 30.2 %, 39.9% and 29.9% of his total farm income, respectively. The cultivator provide a novel insight in managing banana farm by introducing new techniques of planting, fertilization regime and diversification of income in his banana farm intercropped with rubber seedlings.

  12. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  13. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  14. Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.

  15. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  16. Gamma irradiated variants of banana cultivar Giant Cavendish (AAA) and their characterization using RAPD markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bananas and plantains are one of the most important fruit crops and a staple food for millions in the tropical and subtropical countries. Owing to the constraints of vegetative propagation, sterility and triploid nature of most of the cultivars, mutation breeding and biotechnological methods are useful tools for developing cultivars resistant to diseases and pests. Herein, multiple shoot cultures of banana Giant Cavendish (Musa spp. AAA group) were gamma-irradiated (5, 10 and 30 Gy). Field evaluation of these exhibited variation for several agronomic traits including dwarf stature and early flowering. The selections are now being studied for stability. Molecular analysis using RAPD markers indicated polymorphism and some of the dwarf selections were analyzed using dwarf-specific SCAR marker confirming their dwarf behavior. The results suggest that the gamma irradiation is useful for the isolation of agronomic variants in Cavendish bananas (author)

  17. Pemanfaatan Kulit Pisang Hasil Fermentasi Rhyzopus oligosporus dalam Ransum Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ayam Pedaging (UTILIZING OF FERMENTED BANANA PEELS BY RHYZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS IN RATION ON GROWTH OF BROILER)

    OpenAIRE

    Theresia Nur Indah Koni; Jublina Bale-Therik; Pieter Rihi Kale

    2013-01-01

    An experiment has  conducted to investigate the effect level of fermented banana peels by Rhyzopusoligosporus   in  ration to growth of broiler. The experiment was designed use Completely RandomizedDesign with four treatments: as a control ration (0%  fermented banana peel); 5% fermented banana peel;10%  fermented banana peel; 15% fermented banana peel, with four replicates. There were six ayampedagings a weeks with average   weight  112.30 ± 2.74 g in each replicate. The result there was a 1...

  18. Multivariate Modelling of the Canary Islands Banana Output. The Role of Farmer Income Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González-Concepción

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest importer of bananas and the only major managed market in the international banana trade. Spain is the main banana producer within the European Union (EU, followed by France and Portugal. In all these countries the fruit is grown in overseas islands situated in tropical or sub-tropical areas and bananas are a pillar of the economic, social and environmental balance of these regions. Spanish production comes from the Canary Islands, an insular environment located in the Atlantic Ocean more than 1000 km south of the Iberian Peninsula and near the northwest coast of Africa. In the context of high production costs and strong competition from Latin American imports, the compensatory aid that local farmers have been receiving from the EU since 1993 has helped the archipelago to maintain its agricultural position while constituting a main support from an economic, social and landscaping standpoint. This research analyses the Canary Islands banana output evolution through the use of certain multivariate dynamic models that consider the influence of past production costs, past farmer income and future expectations, including a sensitivity analysis. We consider annual data time series on production, perceived prices and production costs for the period 1938-2002. Model predictions are contrasted using data for the period 2003-2006, thus spanning a wide period of time that includes key points such as the 1993 reform and the introduction of the 2006 reform. The empirical work highlights, as do all EU norms, the importance of maintaining adequate farmer income expectations to assure subsistence banana production.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  20. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS DA FARINHA DE BANANA (Musa sp.) OBTIDA POR MEIO DE SECAGEM NATURAL

    OpenAIRE

    João Miguel de Moraes Neto; Luiza Eugênia da M. Rocha Cirne; Juarez Paz Pedroza; Mozaniel Gomes da Silva

    1998-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivando-se obter farinha de baixo custo e seu possível aproveitamento como alimento adicional para as crianças das creches e escolas da zona rural, banana verde e madura foram submetidas a secagem natural, durante 18 horas. As bananas maduras sofreram secagem adicional em estufa a 60ºC, durante 24 horas; posteriormente, avaliou-se a composição química da farinha por meio das análises de cinzas, carboidratos totais, açúcares redutores e proteínas. A análise estatística revelou que, ...

  1. Farinha de banana verde como ingrediente funcional em produtos alimentícios

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa dos Anjos Silva; José Lucena Barbosa Junior; Maria Ivone Martins Jacintho Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO: Nos últimos anos, a banana verde tem despertado interesse do mercado consumidor, pois, além do aspecto nutricional, destaca-se a presença de compostos funcionais, em especial o amido resistente. Contudo, sua adstringência limita seu consumo e sua comercialização em forma de farinhas é a principal forma de consumo e utilização, como ingrediente funcional. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os potenciais usos da farinha de banana verde (FBV) na elaboração de produtos alimentíci...

  2. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  3. What do global p-modes tell us about banana cells?

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    We have calculated the effects of giant convection cells also know as sectoral rolls or banana cells, on p-mode splitting coefficients. We use the technique of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory formulated by Lavely & Ritzwoller in order to estimate the frequency shifts. A possible way of detecting giant cells is to look for even splitting coefficients of 'nearly degenerate' modes in the observational data since these modes have the largest shifts. We find that banana cells having an azimuthal wave number of 16 and maximum vertical velocity of 180 m/s cannot be ruled out from GONG data for even splitting coefficients.

  4. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L. for Adsorption Procion Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-05-01

    cellulose. The morphology of cellulose more homogenous than kepok banana peel powder. It was observed that the optimum adsorption of Procion dye by cellulose was on the initial concentration of 30 mg/L, pH solution of 5 and contact time within 30 minutes. The obtained result that cellulose has removal percentage to adsorp Procion dye more higher than kepok banana peel powder. The adsorption equilibrium showed the Langmuir isotherm was described well for adsorption process (R2 = 0.991 than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.922.

  5. 百通推出全新Banana Peel投影仪电缆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,创新的百通Banana Peel投影仪电缆5788AV和6788AV隆重推出。其采用复合电缆,专门设计用于支持室内音频/视频(A/V)的高性能安装。产品灵活且采用百通Banana Peel构造的专利技术,可在当今高科技楼宇逐房多媒体系统安装施工中为安装者带采方便。

  6. Biosolids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alberto Saes; Aline Reneé Coscione; Ronaldo Severiano Berton; Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Biosolids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of biosolids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (pH, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micronutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Z...

  7. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast genome and paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C

    1994-03-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as markers to determine the transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in diploid banana crosses. Progenies from two controlled crosses were studied with heterologous cytoplasmic probes. This analysis provided evidence for a strong bias towards maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Musa acuminata. These results suggest the existence of two separate mechanisms of organelle transmission and selection, but no model to explain this can be proposed at the present time. Knowledge of the organelle mode of inheritance constitutes an important point for phylogeny analyses in bananas and may offer a powerful tool to confirm hybrid origins. PMID:7923414

  8. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hřibová Eva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement. Results In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4' genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones. Conclusion A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence

  9. Differential chitinase activity in banana cultivars as a response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC). Chitinase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author)

  10. Differential response of banana cultivars to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection for Chitinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Chitanase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs

  11. Study of mutation breeding of banana, 'Kluai Khai'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is composed of three parts; (1) mutation induction through tissue culture, (2) study on rooting media, (3) experiment on colchicine treatment. Shoot tips isolated from suckers of a local banana cultivar, Kluai Khai were divided into four parts and propagated on MS medium supplemented with 15% coconut water and 5 mg/l BA. Subcultures were made every month until 200 plantlets were obtained. Shoots were irradiated with 0, 10, 20 or 30 Gy of gamma rays and cultured on either pH 5.6 of pH 6.1 medium. No proliferation was observed on pH 6.1 medium for all doses of gamma rays. On pH 5.6 medium, only the control and 10 Gy-treated explants proliferated. These were transferred to the field. However, only non-treated control plants survived. 'Kluai Khai' plantlets were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 Gy and cut longitudinally into two pieces. All were cultured on MS media supplemented with 15% coconut water, 2 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l NAA. Three media were tested for rooting: MS medium without growth regulators, MS medium with 1 mg/l NAA and MS medium with 1 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BA. All media were adjusted to pH 5.8. Observations were made after 4 weeks. The best rooting was achieved on MS medium without growth regulators. To examine the effect of induced polyploidization, in vitro plantlets of 'Kluai Khai' were treated with 0, 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm of colchine in MS medium for 24, 48, or 72 hours. The frequency of explant survival rate and adventitious bud initiation decreased with increasing concentrations of colchicine. Ploidy was determined by measurement of stomatal cells and chromosome counts. Plyploidy was not induced. 8 refs, 2 figs, 18 tabs

  12. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  13. Consumo de massas, biodiversidade e fitomelhoramento da banana de exportação 1920 a 1980 Mass markets, biodiversity and breeding improvements of export bananas 1920-1980

    OpenAIRE

    John Soluri

    2008-01-01

    A exportação de banana, na América, foi constituída sob uma base genética extremamente limitada: ao longo de setenta anos, uma só variedade de banana, a Gros Michel, foi praticamente a única a ser vendida nos mercados norte-americanos. Esta variedade produzia grandes cachos, resistentes ao transporte, e dotados de um sabor e de uma casca que os consumidores norte-americanos identificavam como pertencentes a uma banana de qualidade. Entretanto, a Gros Michel também se mostrou muito suscetível ...

  14. Trapping Effect of Baxi Banana(Musa AAA Cavendish)Pseudostem on Two Banana Weevil Species%巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科明; 许桂莺; 彭正强

    2015-01-01

    This study is to determine the effect of Baxi banana pseudostem as attractant to two banana weevil species , and to provide theoretical guidance for control of banana weevil species. Field traps of pseudostem to banana weevils weredeployed for the analysis,meanwhile,indoor selection response of banana weevil to Baxi banana pseudostem was conducted by using double pitfall olfactometer. Significant trapping effects of Baxi banana pseudostem on two ba⁃nana weevils were found by field trapping and number of the trapped banana weevils in five and ten days reaching 8.3~11.3 and 14.7~18.0 individuals per trap,respectively.Indoor selection response results showed that both the two banana weevils showed significant selection effect to the Baxi banana pseudostem when compared with blank control. Baxi banana pseudostem could be used to control the two banana weevil species.%为明确巴西蕉假茎对香蕉假茎象甲和香蕉球茎象甲的诱捕效果,为利用巴西蕉假茎防治香蕉象甲这一农业防治措施提供理论依据,采用假茎田间诱捕试验及室内选择反应试验,研究了巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果。田间诱捕试验结果表明,巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲具有有效的诱捕作用,其5d和10d的诱捕量分别达8.3~11.3和14.7~18.0头/诱捕器;室内选择反应试验结果表明,与空白对照相比,2种香蕉象甲对巴西蕉假茎均表现出显著的选择趋性。因此,巴西蕉假茎可用于蕉园香蕉象甲的诱捕防治。

  15. Market access and agricultural production : the case of banana production in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the d

  16. Genomics of banana and plantain (Musa spp.), major staple crops in the tropics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roux, N.; Baurens, F.C.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Hřibová, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, P.; Town, C.; Sasaki, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Aert, R.; Remy, S.; Souza, M.; Lagoda, P.

    New York : Springer, 2008 - (Moore, P.; Ming, R.), s. 83-111 ISBN 978-0-387-71218-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Banana and plantain * genomics * BAC libraries Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  18. Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Shiomi, Shinjiro; Nakatsuka, Akira; Kubo, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Reinosuke; Inaba, Akitsugu

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  19. Genetic diversity and recombination analysis in the coat protein gene of Banana bract mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R

    2014-06-01

    Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, is the causal agent of the bract mosaic disease (BBrMD) that causes serious yield losses in banana and plantain in India and the Philippines. In this study, global genetic diversity and molecular evolution of BBrMV based on the capsid protein (CP) gene were investigated. Multiple alignments of CP gene of 49 BBrMV isolates showed nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity of 79-100 and 80-100 %, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that except two Indians isolates (TN14 and TN16), all isolates clustered together. Eleven recombination events were detected using Recombination Detection Program. Codon-based maximum-likelihood methods revealed that most of the codons in the CP gene were under negative or neutral selection except for codons 28, 43, and 92 which were under positive selection. Gene flow between BBrMV populations of banana and cardamom was relatively frequent but not between two different populations of banana infecting isolates identified in this study. This is the first report on genetic diversity, and evolution of BBrMV isolates based on recombination and phylogenetic analysis in India. PMID:24691817

  20. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  1. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  2. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A

    2013-10-01

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. PMID:23910294

  3. Genome Sequence of the Banana Pathogen Dickeya zeae Strain MS1, Which Causes Bacterial Soft Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing-Xin; Lin, Bi-Run; Shen, Hui-Fang; Pu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We report a draft genome sequence of Dickeya zeae strain MS1, which is the causative agent of banana soft rot in China, and we show several of its specific properties compared with those of other D. zeae strains. Genome sequencing provides a tool for understanding the genomic determination of the pathogenicity and phylogeny placement of this pathogen.

  4. The Potential Of High-Resolution BAC-FISH In Banana Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capdeville, De G.; Souza, M.T.; Szinay, D.; Eugenio Cardamone Diniz, L.; Wijnker, T.G.; Swennen, R.; Kema, G.H.J.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The genetic complexity in the genus Musa has been subject of study in many breeding programs worldwide. Parthenocarpy, female sterility, polyploidy in different cultivars and limited amount of genetic and genomic information make the production of new banana cultivars difficult and time con

  5. Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

  6. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Pfennig, S.; Brink, van den P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple planta

  7. Senescent spotting of banana peel is inhibited by modified atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa cavendishii [Musa acuminata] AA Group cv. Sucrier) were placed in trays and held at 29-30 degreesC. Covering the trays with 'Sun wrap' polyvinyl chloride film prevented the early senescent peel spotting, typical for this cultivar. Carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations within

  8. The Banana Tree at the Gate: A History of Marginal Peoples and Global Markets in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Review of The Banana Tree at the Gate: A History of Marginal Peoples and Global Markets in Borneo. Michael R. Dove. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011. Xix, 332 pp. Illus. Bibliography, indexes. ISBN 978‐0‐300‐15321‐7 (hardcover). $55.00.

  9. Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUYU SURYASARI POERBA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poerba YS, Ahmad F (2010 Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 11: 118-123. This study was done to assess the molecular diversity of 36 accessions (18 cultivars of the plantain and cooking bananas (Musa acuminata x M. balbisiana, AAB, ABB subgroups based on Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR markers and to determine genetic relationships in the bananas. RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting of these banana varieties was carried out by five primers of RAPDs and two primers of ISSRs. RAPD primers produced 63 amplified fragments varying from 250 to 2500 bp in size. 96.82% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. ISSR primers produced 26 amplified fragments varying from 350 bp to 2000 bp in size. The results showed that 92.86% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. The range of genetic distance of 18 cultivars was from 0.06-0.67.

  10. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts. PMID:19089653

  11. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.

  12. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  13. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  14. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560...

  15. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  16. Water quality under intensive banana production and extensive pastureland in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arya, D.R.; Geissen, V.; Ponce-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Becker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intensive banana production with high mineral-fertilizer application and of extensive pastures were compared regarding water quality in a lowland region of SE Mexico. We monitored NO, NO, and PO43– concentrations in groundwater (80 m depth), subsurface water (5 m depth), and surface w

  17. Nutritional potential of green banana flour obtained by drying in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vieira Bezerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition of peeled and unpeeled green banana Cavendish (AAA flour obtained by drying in spouted bed, aiming at adding nutritional value to food products. The bananas were sliced and crushed to obtain a paste and fed to the spouted bed dryer (12 cm height and T = 80 ºC in order to obtain flour. The flours obtained were subjected to analysis of moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrates, total starch, resistant starch, fiber. The green banana flours, mainly unpeeled, are good sources of fiber and resistant starch with an average of 21.91g/100g and 68.02g/100g respectively. The protein content was found in an average of 4.76g/100g, being classified as a low biological value protein with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. The results showed that unpeeled green banana flour obtained by spouted bed drying can be a valuable tool to add nutritional value to products in order to increase their non-digestible fraction.

  18. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how cons

  19. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  20. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  1. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research efforts were initiated in 2003 to identify and introduce banana (Musa spp.) cultivars suitable for production in Georgia. In spring and summer 2012, seven of the cultivars (Veinte Cohol, Novaria, Cacambou, Chinese Cavendish, Raja Puri, Blue Torres Island, and African Red) grown in the field...

  2. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas. PMID:26632017

  3. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  4. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  5. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... (77 FR 22510-22514, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0028) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations to allow the... Federal Register (77 FR 31829- 31830, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0028) a notice \\2\\ of availability of an... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD61 Importation of Fresh Bananas From the...

  6. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  7. Women with metabolic syndrome improve antrophometric and biochemical parameters with green banana flour consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of green banana flour (GBF may promote health benefits, such as, decreased appetite, weight loss, glycemic control, intestinal function and lipid profile improvement, aging delay, cancer and heart disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green banana flour consumption on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in overweight women. Methods: The glycemic index of flour in the study was determined. The effects of consumption of 20 g of green banana flour/day on weight, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, body composition, hemoglobin, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, liver function and energy intake were evaluated in 25 overweight women for 45 days. Results: The glycemic index of the flour under study was classified as low. Reduction (p < 0.05 in systolic blood pressure, hip circumference and fasting glucose levels were found in women who had metabolic syndrome criteria. Conclusions: Consumption of green banana flour (20 g/day for 45 days did not promote weight loss or changes in body composition in overweight women. It was noted, however, decreased hip circumference. Significant health parameter improvements were also noted in individuals with metabolic syndrome, which showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose.

  8. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  9. Detecting ploidy level instability of banana embryogenic cell suspension cultures by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roux, N.; Strosse, H.; Toloza, A.; Panis, B.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    Enfield : Science Publishers, Inc, 2004 - (Jain, M.; Swennen, R.), s. 251-261 ISBN 1-57808-340-0 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Bananas and plantain * micropropagation * genetic instability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. DNA polymorphisms in banana and sugar cane varieties revealed by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane is the fourth most important cash crop of Pakistan and is grown on 1 million hectares of land, with a total production of 37 million tonnes. It does not flower under existing environmental conditions. Sugar cane is vegetatively propagated and the national breeding programmes is restricted to the adaptation and multiplication of exotic varieties. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish polymorphisms among various local sugar cane varieties. DNA from the varieties L-118, L-116, BL-4, BF-162, Col-44, Col-54, Triton and Puri was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ten nucleotide primers. The amplification profiles of all the sugar cane varieties were compared and the polymorphisms detected. DNA was isolated from the embryogenic calli of sugar cane subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (0, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 krad) and salt stresses (NaCl: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and was amplified with random primers to detect the polymorphisms introduced by stress. The banana is another important vegetatively propagated crop in Pakistan. DNA isolation from micropropagated banana was optimized and RAPD analysis performed on several clones of the banana variety Williams. The level of genetic variability revealed from calli and vegetatively propagated sugar cane and banana by RAPD analysis is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  12. Performance of five cooking banana accessions at the National Germplasm Repository under limestone soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of cooking bananas from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami were used for evaluation under local edaphic and environmental conditions. The number of pseudostems per mat, height at fruiting, and cycling time were determined during the first fruiting cycle, and bunch number and b...

  13. Impact of barrier crops on arthropod pests immigrating into orchards of sapodilla and banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared the abundance and damage of several pests in orchards of sapodilla, banana, and papaya that were either surrounded by a border of tall sorghum or without such a border. Almost all pests were present in equal numbers in orchards, despite the presence or absence of a barrier crop of sorghu...

  14. Evaluation of Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC11 for Biocontrol of Crown Rot and Anthracnose of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC11, and 250 'g/ml each of thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil reduced crown rot of banana caused by a Fusarium sp. by 0-88% and 73-88%, respectively, in laboratory experiments. ESC11 alone did not significantly reduce rot, mold, or anthracnose in most field trials. TBZ an...

  15. Yeast leavened banana-bread: formulation, processing, color and texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana powder (BP) was added to Hard Red Spring Wheat flour (HRSW) intended for yeast-leavened bread formulation. Five different formulations containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% BP were prepared with varying amounts of base flour, while vital gluten was maintained at 25% in all blends. Based on the...

  16. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  17. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L−1 of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox–oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  18. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  19. Optimization of extraction parameters on the antioxidant properties of banana waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Yee Toh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18–33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extrac- tion parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel. Materials and methods. Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA, Pisang Berangan (PB, and Pisang Mas (PM were investigated. The best extrac- tion parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0–100% v/v, extraction time (1–5 hr, and extraction temperature (25–60°C for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB assays at optimum extrac- tion conditions. Results. Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best

  20. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  1. Development of bunchy top virus resistant banana cv lakatan in vitro culture and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunchy to virus (BTV) is the most destructive virus disease of banana in the Philippines. Incorporation of resistance to this virus disease by conventional hybridization is not possible due to male and female sterility of most commercial banana cultivars. In vitro culture coupled with radiation technology can be used to develop BTV resistance in banana cv. Lakatan. The sensitivity of banana shot tip explants to gamma irradiation was determined by subjecting the shoot tips to varying doses (5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy) of irradiation. The LD sub 50 for banana shoot tips determined by 50% reduction in growth and shoot proliferation, was observed to around 20-25 Gy. Bulk irradiation of shoot tip explants was conducted using 20-25 Gy. Irradiated cultures were multiplied for 3-5 cycles and plants regenerated were potted out and screened for BTV resistance. A total of 3,447 irradiated plants regenerated from the radiosensitivity experiment (1,847 plants) and bulk irradiation of 20/25 Gy (1,600 plants) were screened for BTV resistance in the greenhouse using artificial BTV inoculation using the aphid vector Pentalonia nigronervosa. One hundred eighteen plants or 3.4% (118/3,447) of the artificially irradiated plants showed seedling resistance after 4-7 months of evaluation. These plants were planted in the field and were subjected to natural BTV infection. To date, 85 (out of the 118) putative seedling resistant plants continuously expressed BTV resistance in the field after more than 10 months of evaluation. The absence of BTV infection in 39 putative resistant plants was confirmed by ELISA test. Suckers from selected putative resistance plants will be collected, propagated and evaluated for the second cycle stability of BTV resistance and detailed characterization of important horticultural traits

  2. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sye Chee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic com- pounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. Material and methods. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, total oxidation value (TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and free fatty acid (FFA content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. Results. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Conclusions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the ap- plication of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  3. 香蕉采收技术现状及机械化生产对策%Current Situation of Banana Harvest Techniques and Countermeasures for Banana Harvest Mechanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮哲; 朱立学; 马稚昱

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the current situations of production mechanization and nondestructive harvest technology of bananas both at home and abroad, and comparing the application of several domestic modes for banana harvest, this thesis explores the harvest mode that is suitable for banana industry in China and then proposes some countermeasures for the harvest and post-harvest commercialization of bananas.%通过分析国内外当前香蕉生产机械化程度与无损采收技术,对比国内几种采收技术模式的应用情况,讨论适合中国香蕉产业发展的采收模式,并就香蕉采收与采后商品化处理提出了对策。

  4. Report for the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Bangor) on a visit to Sri Lanka to assess the market impact of a potential increase in production of banana resulting from high density intercropping of banana with rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Ann

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this report is to assess the potential market impact of an increase in banana production arising from widespread adoption of a system of high density bananarubber intercropping in Sri Lanka.

  5. Biosorption potential of moss (Funaria Hygrometrica), banana (Musa Acuminata), mustard (Brassica Juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts of sunflower, moss, banana and Indian mustard plants were investigated for the uptake of uranium using EDXRF and tracer studies. Out of these, only banana and mustard exhibited 100% uptake of the radionuclide. After further fractionation, only water fraction of banana pith extract showed maximum U uptake. High content of the polysaccharides and protein found in the active fraction may be responsible for U uptake. FTIR spectrometry of the active fraction indicated the presence of organic molecules bearing hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups. Present study suggests that banana pith waste could be potentially utilised for the remediation of uranium from the contaminated sites by exploring the active molecules responsible for the radionuclide uptake. (author)

  6. Effects of high CO2 treatment on green-ripening and peel senescence in banana and plantain fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mu-bo; TANG Lu-ping; ZHANG Xue-lian; BAI Mei; PANG Xue-qun; ZHANG Zhao-qi

    2015-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa, AAA group, cv. Brazil) peel fails to ful y degreen but the pulp ripens normal y at temperatures above 24°C. This abnormal ripening, known as green-ripening, does not occur in plantains (Musa, ABB group, cv. Dajiao). Based on the fact that un-completely yel owing was also observed for bananas in poorly ventilated atmospheres, in the present study, the effect of high CO2 with regular O2 (21%) on banana ripening was investigated along with that on plantains at 20°C. The results showed that high CO2 conferred different effects on the color changing of bananas and plantains. After 6 d ripening in 20%CO2, plantains ful y yel owed, while bananas retained high chlorophyl content and stayed green. In contrast to the differentiated color changing patterns, the patterns of the softening, starch degradation and soluble sugar accumulation in the pulp of 20%CO2 treated bananas and plantains displayed similarly as the patterns in the fruits ripening in regular air, indicating that the pulp ripening was not inhibited by 20%CO2, and the abnormal ripening of bananas in 20%CO2 can be considered as green ripening. Similar expression levels of chlorophyl degradation related genes, SGR, NYC and PaO, were detected in the peel of the control and treated fruits, indicating that the repressed degreening in 20%CO2 treated bananas was not due to the down-regulation of the chlorophyl degradation related genes. Compared to the effect on plantains, 20%CO2 WUHDWmHQW GHOD\\HG WKH GHFOLQH LQ WKH FKORURSK\\O ÀRUHVFHQFH Fv/Fm) values and in the mRNA levels of a gene coding smal subunit of Rubisco (SSU), and postponed the disruption of the ultrastructure of chloroplast in the peel tissue of bananas, indicating that the senescence of the green cel s in the exocarp layer was delayed by 20%CO2, to more extent in bananas than in plantains. High CO2 reduced the ethylene production and the expression of the related biosynthesis gene, ACS, but elevated the respiration rates in both

  7. Protocol to evaluate phyto-pharmaceutics products (PPP) deposition on banana crop from different types of ground based sprayers

    OpenAIRE

    Cotteux, E.; Bonicelli, B.; Douzals, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Banana crop is dramatically exposed to Sigatoga disease. Until now, the control was operated thru aerial application but national and European legislations banned aerial spraying on crops (Directive 2009/128/CE), arguing of human health and environment safety (PAN, 2004). The Optiban project was launched in 2008 to meet the requirement of the Food and Agriculture Ministry and the Groups of banana growers of Guadeloupe and Martinique (UGPBAN). It aims at improving a ground based system to repl...

  8. Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania: the potential role of herbaceous legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Baijukya, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use changes; Herbaceous legumes; Adoptability; N 2 -fixation; Residual effect; Legume management; Exploration of options, Nutrient depleted soils.The banana-based farming system inBukoba District,Tanzania, has been in existence for over 300 years. At present, banana productivity in homegardens is declining largely due to the decline in soil fertility, which in many years was counteracted by the availability of manure. The grazing land is being converted to crop fields and other...

  9. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    OpenAIRE

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; B.M.R. Bandara

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does n...

  10. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) in Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ERNIWATI; ROSICHON UBAIDILLAH

    2011-01-01

    Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011) Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles) erionotae, Brachymeria l...

  11. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Alwi; Juferi Idris; Mohibah Musa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SSs), and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbi...

  12. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Nimusiima; Martina Köberl; John Baptist Tumuhairwe; Jerome Kubiriba; Charles Staver; Gabriele Berg

    2015-01-01

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect,...

  13. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W.; Eyun, Seong-il; Noriega, Daniel D.; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a ...

  14. Distribution record of Ensete glaucum (Roxb. Cheesm.(Musaceae in Tripura, Northeast India: a rare wild primitive banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Majumdar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensete glaucum recently recorded in Tripura during floristic investigations, which is an additional banana species for the flora. We observed very limited population in the wild and recorded necessary information on its distribution, habitat association and pollen structure. Present information will be useful for future population assessment, regeneration and other ecological studies to manage its wild stock and to protect this primitive banana from regional extinction.

  15. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  16. Novel UV cured polymers for coating and recycling cellulosics, application to a unique paper / veneer from the waste banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work involving UV curing and cure-grafting processes on material from the waste banana tree has been performed. Water compatible oligomers of unique structure and processing novel properties have been used in this treatment. The material from the waste banana tree has been obtained by a peeling process and can be treated either as a type of paper or as a modified timber veneer leading to two general lines of potential commercial products. The peeled product is coated with formulations containing the novel oligomers and UV cured. The advantages of using these unique water compatible oligomers in all general UV curing systems are discussed. The effect of including nanoparticle fillers in these coating formulations is considered. The effect of the presence of lignin in the banana ply paper on the curing process is examined by comparing the banana ply paper curing data with analogous results from a pure cellulose Whatman 41 paper. Two UV lamps have been used in these studies, a Fusion F-300 and a Con-Trol-Cure LED, the latter shown to be safer from body exposure considerations because it operates in a 385-405 nm wavelength band. A mechanism for the curing and cure-grafting process on banana ply paper/veneer has been proposed. The commercial potential of this process is discussed especially the economic advantages of using the banana ply paper/veneer which is not chemically pulped. (Author)

  17. PRELIMINARY SCREENING RESISTANCE OF Musa GERMPLASMS FOR BANANA BUNCHY TOP DISEASE IN PURWODADI BOTANIC GARDEN, PASURUAN, EAST JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD caused by Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV is one of the most serious banana diseases, constraint and devastate to the local and regional banana production. Some of banana cultivars were more readily infected by the virus, but considering no cultivars is resistant. The incidences of BBTD and the type and severity symptoms in natural conditions without any artificial inoculation were recorded. The observations results on 2009 showed that 12.14% of the total accessions indicated positively infected BBTD. The BBTD incidences were increased rapidly about twofolds per year, 28.57% in October 2011 and 54.29% in October 2011. The spread and development of BBTD is optimum at humid, high rainfall intensity and temperatures, high soil fertility and also low light intensity or shaded. The latest monitoring on February 2012 (62.14% comprises of 64 accessions were positively infected and 39 accessions were symptomless. Those symptomless accessions were initially indicated as tolerant banana cultivars to BBTD e.g. Pisang Kepok (BBB, Pisang Sobo (BBB, Pisang Bandung (ABB, Pisang Nangka (AAB, Pisang Candi (AAB and  Pisang Raja Marto (AAB. These preliminary results are in agreement with several previous studies indicated that genotypes with one or two B genomes tend to be more tolerant to BBTD. However several cultivars which known tend to BBTD tolerant are indicated susceptible to Blood Disease. Some cultivars also showing complication symptoms both BBTD and Blood Disease.

  18. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, bio-control agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern recognition receptor ...

  19. Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ramith Ramu; Prithvi S Shirahatti; Nanjunda Swamy S; Farhan Zameer; Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya; Nagendra Prasad M N

    2016-01-01

    Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2...

  20. Quality Differences of Laos and Guangxi Bananas%老挝与广西香蕉品质差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 刘志强; 方昭; 张学娟; 王金乔; 迟志广; 李宝深

    2015-01-01

    研究老挝琅勃拉邦与广西在同一施肥条件香蕉在果指特征、品质指标以及果皮、果肉中氮、磷、钾元素含量的差异,结果发现:外观性状与内在品质无显著性差异,老挝香蕉瓤皮比高于广西香蕉,且果皮色泽比广西香蕉好;老挝香蕉与广西香蕉果皮中氮、磷、钾元素含量存在显著性差异,果肉中只有氮含量存在显著性差异,果肉中磷、钾含量吾显著性差异。本研究结果为香蕉的施肥调控管理以及市场定位提供了一定的参考价值。%The differences were determined in shape feature, quality and macronutrients of peel and pulp between Laos and Guangxi bananas under the same fertilization condition. The data can provide references for banana fertilization management and marketing. The results showed that there were no significant differences in shape feature and fruit quality, but Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in the ratio of peel and pulp, and better in peel luster. The content of macronutrients in banana peel showed significant difference, Laos banana was much higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen and potassium, but less in phosphorus. While in banana pulp Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen, but no differences in potassium and phosphorus. Therefore it was feasible to plant bananas in Laos, and gave some advices on overseas banana plantation investment.

  1. De Novo characterization of the banana root transcriptome and analysis of gene expression under Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zhuo; Zhang JianBin; Jia CaiHong; Liu JuHua; Li YanQiang; Yin XiaoMin; Xu BiYu; Jin ZhiQiang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are among the most important crops in the world due to their nutritional and export value. However, banana production has been devastated by fungal infestations caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), which cannot be effectively prevented or controlled. Since there is very little known about the molecular mechanism of Foc infections; therefore, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional changes induced by Foc in banana roots. R...

  2. Ensaio de proficiência para análise de ditiocarbamatos em polpa de banana Proficiency assay of the dithiocarbamates in banana pulp analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Pinto Bastos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A proficiency assay of the determination of dithiocarbamate pesticide residues in banana was carried out. Fourteen laboratories participated in this study. Homogeneity and stability testing were performed by INCQS on the samples sent to the laboratories. Analytical results supplied by the pesticide residues laboratory of the VWA/KvW, Amsterdam, Holland, were used to define the designated value for the thiram concentration in the study samples. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the participating laboratories had satisfactory results. Efforts are needed to improve the precision of the analytical results and to decrease the number of false negative results observed.

  3. Banana research in the FAO/IAEA agriculture and biotechnology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary activity of the Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory on banana has been to develop and transfer mutation techniques using nuclear and related biotechnology, provide training and mutagen treatment services and technical advice to the Member States. The complex genetic nature and lack of seed formation do not allow conventional breeding of Musa varieties. The FAO/IAEA laboratory has developed in vitro techniques to induce mutations, minimize chimerisms, and rapid propagation of banana. The most commonly used method of propagation is rapid proliferation of axillary and adventitious buds from meristem tip culture. Somatic embryogenesis has been induced in clones with different genomic constitution; however, the low germination rate of somatic embryos is still a major constraint. Investigations have been carried out on enzymes associated with resistance to Fusarium oxisporum f. sp. cubense. Molecular methods based on DNA oligonucleotide and DNA amplification fingerprinting are being developed for genomic characterization of species, cultivars and mutant clones. (author)

  4. MANUFACTURE OF BANANA FLAVORED LIQUEURS FABRICATION DES LIQUEURS A SAVEUR DE BANANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTIANA GARNAI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the obtention of banana flavored liqueurs aromatized with different natural ingredients. For this, different maceration types were compared: maceration of fruit in alcohol (group A, maceration of fruit in sugar (group B and maceration of fruits in alcohol - sugar mixture (group C. In this work, we also studied the influence of: the variation of the concentration of sugar used for liqueurs (10 % sugar - common liqueurs - and 40 % sugar – fine liqueurs, the variation of the maceration time (7 days and 42 days and of the addition of different natural ingredients on the liquour flavor. All the liquors were evaluated by a sensory analysis. Performing this study we were able to put in evidence some herbs that can give harmony to the taste of the liquor and can highlight the banana flavor.

  5. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900 exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  6. Carotenoid and vitamin content of Karat and other Micronesian banana cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Schierle, Joseph; Aalbersberg, William; Hofmann, Peter; Humphries, Julia; Huang, Alvin; Lorens, Adelino; Levendusky, Amy; Daniells, Jeff; Marks, Geoffrey C; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2006-01-01

    We previously found high carotenoid levels in Karat and other Micronesian bananas, indicating potential importance for alleviating vitamin A deficiency and other nutritionally related health problems in the Federated States of Micronesia. Past work focused on carotenoid and mineral analyses, whereas here we investigated 16 cultivars (most not previously analysed) for a broader micronutrient profile, including seven vitamins. Karat carotenoid levels were higher than in previous analyses, confirming Karat as exceptionally carotenoid-rich. We identified an additional 10 carotenoid-rich cultivars, expanding the range having potential for alleviating vitamin A deficiency. A striking finding is the high riboflavin level in Karat, including high levels of uncharacterized flavonoids. Niacin and alpha-tocopherol are at levels that may contribute importantly to dietary intake within normal patterns of consumption. These data present a more complete basis for promoting the nutritional benefits of these banana cultivars where they are consumed in the Pacific, and potential benefits for promoting elsewhere. PMID:17135031

  7. The Influence of the Negative Radial Electric Field on the Orbit of Banana Particles in Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuwen; Zhang Xiaoding; Zhang Tao; Yao Ruohe

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the patterns of influence of the negative radial electric field on the drift displacement and trajectory of charged particles, for it is essential for further investigation into the transitional mechanism of L-H Mode. In the light of superposition between the poloidal velocity of charged particles and theE ×B drift caused by the negative radial electric field, the paper offers a theoretical analysis and value simulations. Under the action of different radial electric fields, results have been obtained in regard to changes in the velocity of charged particles (mainly ions), patterns of changes in drift displacement, regional change of banana particles, and features of transition and change between trajectories of transiting particles and banana particles.

  8. A photo-driven dual-frequency addressable optical device of banana-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Prasad, S., E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Lakshmi Madhuri, P.; Hiremath, Uma S.; Yelamaggad, C. V. [Centre for Soft Matter Research, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560 013 (India)

    2014-03-17

    We propose a photonic switch employing a blend of host banana-shaped liquid crystalline molecules and guest photoisomerizable calamitic molecules. The material exhibits a change in the sign of the dielectric anisotropy switching from positive to negative, at a certain crossover frequency of the probing field. The consequent change in electric torque can be used to alter the orientation of the molecules between surface-determined and field-driven optical states resulting in a large change in the optical transmission characteristics. Here, we demonstrate the realization of this feature by an unpolarized UV beam, the first of its kind for banana-shaped molecules. The underlying principle of photoisomerization eliminates the need for a second driving frequency. The device also acts as a reversible conductance switch with an order of magnitude increase of conductivity brought about by light. Possible usage of this for optically driven display devices and image storage applications is suggested.

  9. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  10. Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Csilla; David, Leontin; Chiş, Vasile; Pînzaru, Simona Cintă

    2014-02-15

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78 mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit. PMID:24128550

  11. Transaction Costs and Smallholder Farmers’ Participation in Banana Markets in the Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jagwe, John; Ouma, Emily; Machethe, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of the discrete decision of a household on whether to participate in banana markets using the FIML bivariate probit method. The continuous decision on how much to sell or buy is analyzed by establishing the supply and demand functions while accounting for the selectivity bias. Results indicate that buying and selling decisions are not statistically independent and the random disturbances in the buying and selling decisions are affected in opposi...

  12. Effects of four organic amendments on banana parasitic nematodes and soil nematode communities

    OpenAIRE

    Tabarant, P.; Villenave, Cécile; Risede, J. M.; J. Roger-Estrade; Thuries, L.; Dorel, M

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are injurious crop pests that have been managed mainly by chemical nematicides. However, safe and alternative methods such as those based on organic materials need to be developed. Our study has evaluated (i) the effects of four organic amendments with different biochemical compositions that are abundantly produced in the study area (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) on soil nematode communities and (ii) some of the suppression mechanisms of banana parasitic nematodes,...

  13. Agronomic Efficiency of Biosolid as Source of Nitrogen to Banana Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) or biosolid has been studied as source of nutrient for several different plant species. It also contributes to soil fertility recycling organic matter and plant nutrients. This followup work examines a three-year (2001–2004) field experiment designed to evaluate the response of banana plants (Cavendish subgroup) to the application of biosolid as source of nitrogen. The treatments consisted of control (mineral PK, no N), three rates of sludge, and two rates of mineral NPK fe...

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the ripening and levels of bioactive amines in bananas cv. Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green Prata bananas at the full three-quarter stage were exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 0.0 (control), 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and stored at 16±1 °C and 85% relative humidity. Samples were collected periodically and analyzed for peel color, pulp-to-peel ratio and levels of starch, soluble sugars and bioactive amines. Degradation of starch and formation of fructose and glucose followed first- and zero-order kinetics, respectively. Higher irradiation doses caused increased inhibitory effect on starch degradation and glucose formation. However, doses of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy caused browning of the peel, making the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 1.0 kGy was the most promising dose: it did not affect peel color, the pulp-to-peel ratio or the levels of the amines spermidine, serotonin and putrescine. However, it slowed down starch degradation and the formation and accumulation of fructose and glucose, delaying the ripening of the fruit for 7 days. - Highlights: ► Gamma radiation affected biochemical and quality attributes of banana. ► Degradation of starch correlated negatively with gamma radiation dose. ► Banana irradiation at 1.0 kGy delayed ripening with minimal biochemical changes. ► Serotonin degraded at a faster rate during ripening of irradiated banana compared to control. ► Spermidine levels increased on the first 7 days of storage in irradiated samples

  15. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a 60Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  16. MANUFACTURE OF BANANA FLAVORED LIQUEURS FABRICATION DES LIQUEURS A SAVEUR DE BANANES

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA CRISTIANA GARNAI; CAMELIA VIZIREANU; FELICIA DIMA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the obtention of banana flavored liqueurs aromatized with different natural ingredients. For this, different maceration types were compared: maceration of fruit in alcohol (group A), maceration of fruit in sugar (group B) and maceration of fruits in alcohol - sugar mixture (group C). In this work, we also studied the influence of: the variation of the concentration of sugar used for liqueurs (10 % sugar - common liqueurs - and 40 % sugar – fine liqueurs), t...

  17. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haoran Yuan; Lifang Deng; Yujie Qi; Noriyuki Kobayashi; Jiahuan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900...

  18. The EU-Caribbean Trade Relationship Post-Lisbon: The Case of Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Constant Laforce

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a legal perspective, the Lisbon Treaty changes over the European Union’s (EU common agricultural policy (CAP and their impact on developing countries. The study focuses particularly on the Caribbean region of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group, which signed an Economic Partnership Agreement with the EU in 2008, and will use bananas as the exemplar commodity. The Lisbon Treaty which entered into force in December 2009 has brought important institutional changes within the EU and altered the distribution of responsibility over European policies. The European Parliament (EP now exercises legislative functions ‘jointly’ with the Council over fields falling outside EU trade policy but which often have trade-related impacts. This is the case of the CAP which is now a shared rather than an exclusive competence policy area. The EU is an important market for developing countries’ export of agricultural food products. However, there is a risk that the EP positions, pressured by consumer opinion, could influence the negotiating process leading to the reinforcement of the EU’s protectionist agriculture policy. This subject is of high importance given the end of the so-called ‘banana war’ in 2009 against the EU banana import regime, allowing better access for Latin American countries’ bananas to the EU market. This article argues that ACP countries will not be affected by the EU internal changes post-Lisbon. They have managed to legally maintain special trade arrangements with the EU under the Economic Partnership Agreements, which provide them with favourable trading conditions, particularly for agricultural food products.

  19. Modelling change in color and firmness of baby banana (musa acuminata aa) in modified atmosphere packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Espinosa, Diego; Algecira Enciso, Néstor

    2012-01-01

    To determine the change in the ripening stage and quality through associated variables such as firmness and peel color is a useful tool for predicting the behavior and involvement of the product stored at different changing conditions. The change in O2 and CO2 concentration, pulp firmness and peel color were measured in a test of modified atmosphere packaging for baby banana to develop a mathematical model to represent the change in firmness and color as a function of temperature, mixture of ...

  20. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    OpenAIRE

    M.E.S Cruz; K.R.F. Schwan-Estrada; E. Clemente; A.T. Itako; J.R. Stangarlin; M.J.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v) for 3 ...

  1. Banana as adjunct in beer production : applicability and performance of fermentative parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Bento, Camila V.; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidi...

  2. Investigation of The Dyeability Behavior of Banana Fibers With Natural Dye Extract Obtained From Turmeric Plants

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT, Seyda; MERDAN, Nigar; DAYIOĞLU, Habip; KOÇAK, Dilara

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fibers produced from the banana plants provided from Antalya region were treated with a variety of mordants, and then the fibers were dyed with the natural dye extracted from turmeric plant (Curcuma longa) via ultrasonic and conventional method. Finally, the dye uptake and fastness properties of samples were investigated. The recent studies have demonstrated that the synthetic dyes can be non-biodegradable, allergenic, cytotoxic and partially carcinogenic. Recently demand f...

  3. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water. PMID:19700165

  4. Probiotic properties, sensory qualities, and storage stability of probiotic banana yogurts

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; ÇETİN, Bülent; Turgut, Tamer; Gürses, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The quality properties of probiotic yogurt samples made with banana marmalade (BM), which can be a probiotic product, were examined. Yogurt samples were produced from cow milk inoculated with yogurt cultures and probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and an equal mixture of the 2 strains), and then 15% BM was added to each yogurt sample. Acidity, pH, bacteria counts, and sensory analysis of the yogurt samples were investigated on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 du...

  5. DIFFERENTIATION OF SUBSISTENCE FARMING PATTERNS AMONG THE HAYA BANANA GROWERS IN NORTHWESTERN TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MARUO, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    The Haya, densely settled in the western Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania, have developed a unique banana-based farming system over centuries. The land use is characterized by intensively cared home garden called kibanja, and open grassland, lweya where cattle grazed. Cattle manure has much contributed to the farming in kibanja. Household survey revealed current farming patterns that have differentiated since the independence of Tanganyika in 1961. Lweya has become important also as major bitt...

  6. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 29, June 2000, pp. 179-180 Short Communication Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea:Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity Christina M. Saldanha* & C T Achuthankutty Aquaculture... (8.5 times the initial weight in 4 weeks). The results indicate that this species is suitable for cultivation in high saline waters. Biology of any aquatic organism is profoundly influenced by several abiotic factors and its distribution in any...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF THREE FRUIT-ROT FUNGI OF BANANA BY 28S RIBOSOMAL DNA SEQUENCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Sarkar*, S Girisham and SM Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present investigation was to identify three fruit-rot fungi-Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid, Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend and Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br. Petch isolated from banana fruits [Rasthali (Silk AAB and Cavendish (AAA varieties]. Out of different fungal genera isolated, the above fungi were responsible for maximum loss of banana fruits as they spread rapidly into the fruit pulp and deteriorated the fruits. The amplification studies of fragment of D2 region of LSU (Large subunit 28S rDNA gene of three fungi understudy was carried out using PCR technique. Based on the nucleotide homology and phylogenetic analysis, the fungus M. phaseolina was identified as M. phaseolina strain R-4242 sp. (Genbank accession number: FJ415068.1, F. oxysporum as Fusarium sp.QJC-1403 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene sp. (Genbank accession number: EU193176.1 and N. oryzae as N. oryzae NRRL: 54030 sp. (Genbank accession number: GQ328855.1. Nucleic acid sequencing provides more objective separation of genera and species than that provided by the conventional techniques. This technique can best be used for the identification of organisms that could not be identified satisfactorily by their microscopic morphological features. Genetic characterization of plant pathogens prevalent in an area is necessary for efficient management and increased crop productivity. The data presented may help researchers to understand the host-pathogen interactions indetail in banana, to design effective strategies for deployment of resistant genes in banana (Musa paradisiaca L. growing regions in the country and worldwide.

  8. Novel String Banana Template Method of Track Reconstruction for high Multiplicity Events with Significant Multiple Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kulinich, P.

    2005-01-01

    Novel String Banana Template Method (SBTM) for track reconstruction in high multiplicity events in non-uniform magnetic field spectrometer with emphasis on the lowest momenta tracks with significant Multiple Scattering (MS) is described. Two steps model of track with additional parameter/s which takes into account MS for this particular track is introduced. SBTM is time efficient and demonstrates better resolutions than another method equivalent to the Least Squares method (LSM).

  9. The Potential Of High-Resolution BAC-FISH In Banana Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Capdeville, De, G.; de Souza, M T; Szinay, D.; Eugenio Cardamone Diniz, L.; Wijnker, T.G.; Swennen, R.; Kema, G.H.J.; Jong, de, T.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The genetic complexity in the genus Musa has been subject of study in many breeding programs worldwide. Parthenocarpy, female sterility, polyploidy in different cultivars and limited amount of genetic and genomic information make the production of new banana cultivars difficult and time consuming. In addition, it is known that part of the cultivars and related wild species in the genus contain numerous chromosomal rearrangements. In order to produce new cultivars more effectively bre...

  10. Quality and storability of chicken nuggets formulated with green banana and soybean hulls flours

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vinay; Biswas, Ashim Kumar; Sahoo, Jhari; Chatli, Manish Kumar; S. Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the effect of green banana (GBF) and soybean hulls flours (SHF) on the physicochemical characteristics, colour, texture and storage stability of chicken meat nuggets. The addition of GBF and SHF in the nugget formulations was effective in sustaining desired cooking yield and emulsion stability besides nutritional benefits. Protein and fat contents were decreased (p > 0.05), but fibers and ash contents was increased (p  0.05%) than control and tre...

  11. Impact of Tissue Culture Banana Technology on Farm Household Income and Food Security in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nassul S. Kabunga; Dubois, Thomas; Qaim, Matin

    2011-01-01

    While tissue culture (TC) technology for vegetative plant propagation is gradually gaining in importance in Africa, rigorous ex post assessments of welfare effects for smallholder farm households is lacking. Using recent survey data and accounting for self-selection in technology adoption, we analyze the impacts of TC banana technology on household income and food security in Kenya. To assess food security outcomes, we employ the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) – a tool that ha...

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  13. Tinctorial behavior of curaua and banana fibers and dyeing wastewater treatment by porous alumina membranes

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Fernando R; Galvão, Felipe M. F.; Silva, Tábhita L. T. da; Silva, Késia Karina O. S.; Nascimento, José H. O.; Souto, A. Pedro; Zille, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical and dyeing properties using reactive dyes of curaua and banana fibers were studied by means of color strength (K/S), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. SEM analysis of alkali-treated fibers showed an increase in roughness due to surface lignin and hemicellulose defibrillation. DSC analysis showed for all the samples an endothermic and an exothermic peak at 70–80 and 340–360 ̊...

  14. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  15. Wastes of banana ‘s lignocellulosic biomass: a sustainable and renewable source of biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Kamdem, Irenée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We highlight in this poster, the results of biogas production and biochemical analysis based on the anaerobic digestion of each type of the lignocellulosic waste from a banana cultivar (Williams Cavendish: triploid Musa AAA group). These wastes are usually abandoned in the plantation after the fruits have been harvested. There is great interest in obtaining energy from this generally neglected biomaterial, particularly in the contexts of global warming and sustainable development.

  16. Modelling the Crop Variety Demand of Semi-subsistence Households: Bananas in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Edmeades, Svetlana; Phaneuf, Daniel J.; Smale, Melinda; Renkow, Mitch

    2008-01-01

    We propose an approach to model the derived demand for crop varieties among semi-subsistence farmers in a developing economy, and apply it to smallholder banana producers in Uganda. We model variety planting decisions as being composed of an extensive margin decision to grow a subset of locally available varieties (variety choice); and an intensive margin decision about the scale or extent of variety cultivation per farm (variety demand). We estimate variety demand equations using a more comp...

  17. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Roderick

    Full Text Available A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI values for a banana (Musa spp. field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  18. Paracoccus burnerae (HOMOPTERA; PLANOCOCCIDAE AS A VECTOR OF Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muturi S M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Banana streak virus ( BSV is a causative agent of the banana streak disease (BSD which causes considerable damage to banana production in tropical countries. The virus is vectored by several mealy bug species. However, the competence of the oleander mealy bug ( Paracoccus burnerae , in the transmission of BSV is unknown. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA technique was used to select both diseased and healthy plantlets fo r transmission experiments. RCA was conducted on viruliferous instars of P . burnerae and virus - inoculated plantlet DNA samples. The results revealed that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV . However, during hot conditions (24 - 30ºC, the insect was unable to acq uire and transmit BSV . Under cool conditions (9 - 20ºC, a minimum of 6 h of feeding time was necessary for P . burnerae instars to become viruliferous. These results indicate that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV and transmission efficiency depends on the ambi ent temperature and the feeding time.

  19. Mutation induction in Philippine bananas c.v. 'Lakatan' thru gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana is the most important crop grown in the Philippines. Among the cultivars grown, 'Lakatan' is the most popular and commands a higher price in the local market. Despite high production, losses due to over ripening, bruising and short shelf life is one of the major constraints in a successful banana industry. The use of chemicals for delayed ripening however, remains an issue of concern due to economic and organic products advocacy. Thus, development and generation of new improved 'Lakatan' cultivar through gamma ray irradiation was carried out. Mutation was induced in 'Lakatan', a popular Philippine cultivar using gamma ray irradiation. Radio sensitivity was established at 50Gy. Morphological, cytological and molecular analysis done showed significant variations between the irradiated samples and the non-irradiated plants. In terms of morphological parameters, gamma ray irradiation affected leaf traits resulting to increased leaf width, leaf length, and number of leaves. Stem girth on the other hand was significantly reduced. Cytological observations showed that gamma irradiation increased the epidermal width, leaf thickness and size of stomates but reduced the number of stomates. For post harvest attributes, gamma irradiation prolonged the shelf life of banana fruits from 11 days to 14 days. Molecular analysis showed that some markers (RAPD and AFLP) were able to detect unique bands in samples irradiated with 50Gy while the SSR markers did not detect any band difference between the irradiated samples and the control. (author)

  20. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes. PMID:17185740

  1. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kenji Oi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the mass and relative humidity of the dried product. Three levels were used in selected variables, which corresponded to the completion of 27 experiments. In experiments in which they obtained the lowest values of relative humidity, the amounts of mass were also the lowest, while in experiments where they met the higher amounts of the levels of relative humidity ranged from the highest. Considering the industrial application, whose purpose is the low humidity and increased production of the product, test 22 was the most appropriate, and found 11% moisture and 4.33 g in mass.

  2. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  3. DNA damage in female workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations at Limon, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide use in Costa Rica is very high and all year round. A high percentage of what is sprayed remains in the environment and in the living organisms around. This situation brings contamination and health problems to people in contact with them. The onset of adverse effects may be in the short or long term, and symptoms vary widely, from headaches to cancer. Much research in the area has been devoted to acute or chronic effects, and not until recently to the genotoxic effect of pesticides. This study evaluated the genotoxic effect of pesticide used in banana packing activities, using the comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) as the biological marker in lymphocytes. This was a cases-control double blind study of 30 exposed women from 15 banana farms and 28 women not occupationally exposed to pesticides from the same geographic area. Results show damage to single straded DNA after working from 5 to 15 years (R2=0.12). In Costa Rica we do not have an historical record of the kind of pesticides used in banana farms, the period of time and for how long were they used. This prevented further analysis concerning dose, frequency of exposure and use of new or old kind of pesticides in the farms in relation to DNA damage. The comet assay is of value in the genetic monitoring of pesticide exposed populations. (Author)

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  5. Neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity with effects of finite banana width for finite aspect ratio tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaing, K. C.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity has been developed to model transport phenomena, especially, toroidal plasma rotation for tokamaks with broken symmetry. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the results of the numerical codes in the large aspect ratio limit. The theory has since been extended to include effects of finite aspect ratio and finite plasma β. Here, β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the magnetic field pressure. However, there are cases where the radial wavelength of the self-consistent perturbed magnetic field strength B on the perturbed magnetic surface is comparable to the width of the trapped particles, i.e., bananas. To accommodate those cases, the theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity is further extended here to include the effects of the finite banana width. The extended theory is developed using the orbit averaged drift kinetic equation in the low collisionality regimes. The results of the theory can now be used to model plasma transport, including toroidal plasma rotation, in real finite aspect ratio, and finite plasma β tokamaks with the radial wavelength of the perturbed symmetry breaking magnetic field strength comparable to or longer than the banana width.

  6. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd; Miskam, Muhamad Azman

    2015-04-01

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer.(STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450-650°C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00-3.00s. The particle size was set at 224-400µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  7. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Miskam, Muhamad Azman [Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450–650 °C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00–3.00 s. The particle size was set at 224-400 µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  8. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  9. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  10. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. PMID:23161558

  11. Mechanical, Spectroscopic and Micro-structural Characterization of Banana Particulate Reinforced PVC Composite as Piping Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dan-asabe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana particulate reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC composite was developed with considerabley low cost materials having an overall light-weight and good mechanical properties for potential application as piping material. The specimen composite material was produced with the banana (stem particulate as reinforcement using compression molding. Results showed that density and elastic Modulus of the composite decreases and increases respectively with increasing weight fraction of the particulate reinforcement. The tensile strength increased to a maximum of 42 MPa and then decreased steadily. The composition with optimum mechanical property (42 MPa was determined at 8, 62 and 30 % formulation of banana stem particulates (reinforcement, PVC (matrix and Kankara clay (filler respectively with corresponding percentage water absorption of 0.79 %, Young’s Modulus of 1.3 GPa, flexural strength of 92 MPa and density of 1.24 g/cm3. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis of the constituents showed identical bands within the range 4000–1000 cm-1 with renown research work. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM result showed fairly uniform distribution of constituents’ phases. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF confirms the X-ray diffraction (XRD result of the presence of minerals of kaolinite, quartz, rutile and illite in the kaolin clay. Comparison with conventional piping materials showed the composite offered a price savings per meter length of 84 % and 25 % when compared with carbon steel and PVC material.

  12. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. PMID:20435371

  13. Amadurecimento de bananas 'maçã' submetidas ao 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP Ripening of 'apple' banana submitted to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do 1-MCP, em diferentes tempos de aplicação, sobre amadurecimento e atributos de qualidade da banana 'Maçã'. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado (DIC, em esquema fatorial 3x5, ou seja, avaliaram-se as bananas em três diferentes graus de coloração da casca (grau 2: 100% verdes; grau 4: mais amarelas que verdes; grau 7: completamente amarelas, com pontuações marrons e cinco tempos de aplicação de 50 hL.L-1 de 1-MCP (0-controle; 6; 9; 12 e 24 horas. O experimento foi conduzido com três repetições constituídas por três buquês, com quatro frutos cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey, e regressão polinomial, quando conveniente. O 1-MCP foi aplicado nos frutos no grau 2 de coloração da casca, na concentração de 50hL.L-1, a 25±1ºC. Os frutos, após aplicação, foram armazenados a 25±1ºC e 80±5% UR e avaliados, quanto ao teor de sólidos solúveis (SS e açúcares solúveis totais (AST, pH e cor da casca, nos graus 2; 4 e 7 de coloração e também a taxa respiratória, que foi acompanhada diariamente. A aplicação de 50nL.L-1 de 1-MCP atrasou o início do amadurecimento de bananas 'Maçã', conforme as primeiras mudanças visíveis na coloração da casca de verde para amarela, em aproximadamente 9 dias. Observou-se também retardo na ascensão e diminuição da taxa respiratória, de aproximadamente 50%, no ponto máximo do climatério, nos frutos submetidos ao 1-MCP, durante o amadurecimento. O 1-MCP a 50hL.L-1, em qualquer tempo de aplicação, retardou o amadurecimento de bananas 'Maçã' sem afetar os atributos de qualidade valor b* (cor da casca, os teores de sólidos solúveis, açúcares solúveis totais e pH.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of 1-MCP, at different of application times, under ripening and quality attributes of 'Apple' banana. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized

  14. Postharvest quality of ozonized "nanicão" cv. bananas Qualidade pós-colheita de banana cv. "nanicão" ozonizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes Rodrigues de Alencar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to analyze the physic-chemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of the banana, after being either dry or wet treatment with ozone. For dry processing, the fruits were directly fumigated with ozone for 30 min. The wet treatment included the ozonization of water for 20 min followed by immersion of the fruit in the ozonized water for 10 min. In both treatments, the utilized gas concentration and flow were 0.36 mg L-1 and 1.5 L min-1, respectively. The quality of the fruits was evaluated at the beginning of storage and after 3; 6; 9 and 12 days. The variables analyzed were: fresh mater loss, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, pulp/peel ratio, color index of the peel, rot severity, microbiological analysis (total fungi and yeast count and sensorial analysis. In general, the fruits immersed in the ozonized water presented better quality, in reference to both the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, as well as have good sensory acceptance among those tested. It could therefore be concluded that treatment with ozonized water is a new alternative for the postharvest handling of bananas.Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial da banana ozonizada por via seca e por via úmida. Para o tratamento por via seca, os frutos foram fumigados diretamente com ozônio por 30 minutos. Para o tratamento da banana por via úmida, efetuou-se a ozonização da água por 20 min, e em seguida imersão dos frutos na água ozonizada por 10 min. Em ambos os tratamentos a concentração do gás e a vazão utilizadas foram 0,36 mg L-1 e 1,5 L min-1, respectivamente. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada no início do armazenamento e aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Analisaram-se as variáveis: perda de massa fresca (PMF, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, pH, relação polpa/casca, índice de cor da casca, severidade de podridões, análise microbiol

  15. Effects of electron beam irradiation combined with hot water immersion treatment for shelf life extension of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of minimal processing treatments, both individually or in combinations, was carried out in order to extend the shelf life and to improve the quality of bananas. Pre climacteric bananas at light full three-quarter grade, were either treated with hot water immersion for 1-30 min at 45-55 degree C, or irradiated with electron beams (2.0 MeV, Van de Graaff accelerator), to a dose of 0.1-1.5 kGy. All fruit was stored at 21 ± 1 degree C and relative humidity of 85-95 %. There was no significant delay in ripening of fruit treated with hot water immersion at the above temperatures. Some damage to fruit particularly peel scalding at ends occurred at the higher temperatures (>50 degree C). The 50 degree C, 5 minutes immersion was selected for further study. Irradiation to 0.1-0.3 kGy delayed the ripening (up to 3 days) without affecting fruit quality. Doses greater than 0.4 kGy resulted in extensive discoloration and fruit splitting. No significant differences could be detected organoleptically between bananas irradiated at 0.15 kGy and the control. Results of the physico-chemical attributes of the bananas were reported for fruits at colour stage 5 and after 10 and 15 days of storage. The combination treatment of hot water immersion and irradiation at the above settings further extended the shelf life of the banana fruits

  16. Potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of some constituents of coffee and banana residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, M K D; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, M M C

    2013-05-01

    Banana (stalk, leaf, rhizome, rachis and stem) and coffee (leaf and husks) residues are promising feedstock for fuel and chemical production. In this work we show the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate analysis to replace reference methods in the characterization of some constituents of coffee and banana residues. The evaluated parameters were Klason lignin (KL), acid soluble lignin (ASL), total lignin (TL), extractives, moisture, ash and acid insoluble residue (AIR) contents of 104 banana residues (B) and 102 coffee (C) residues from Brazil. PLS models were built for banana (B), coffee (C) and pooled samples (B+C). The precision of NIR methodology was better (p0.80. The range error ratios varied from 4.5 to 16.0. Based on the results of external validation, the statistical tests and figures of merit, NIR spectroscopy proved to be useful for chemical prediction of banana and coffee residues and can be used as a faster and more economical alternative to the standard methodologies. PMID:23601973

  17. ECONOMIC ANALISYS OF A COFFEE-BANANA SYSTEM OF A FAMILY-BASED AGRICULTURE AT THE ATLANTIC FOREST ZONE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ponciano Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems can reduce the risks of investing in just one crop. However, there are uncertainties like other agricultural and forestry activities. Therefore, there is the need for economic studies under conditions of economic risk of agroforestry systems. This work reports an analysis of the main components of costs and revenues of an agroforestry system with coffee and banana, as well as an analysis of its economic performance through indicators: net present value, equivalent period benefit (or cost, family labor revenue and a sensitivity analysis of net present value. The main cost components in the system are the human labor and mineral and organic fertilizers applied in coffee, and the costs for the production of coffee outweigh the costs of banana production. The monthly income from the production of bananas balances the costs of coffee production, generating a positive cash flow in the studied period. Financial indicators showed positive values, demonstrating the economic viability of the system with coffee and banana. The agroforestry system is economically feasible, even with variations of ± 20% in production costs and selling prices of their products. Variables that showed greater sensitivity on the net present value were the selling price of coffee and bananas, and the cost of coffee production.

  18. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen sulfide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Li, Li; Du, Ruixue; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana fruit under chilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5mM) of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24h, were initially stored at 7°C for 14d and 20°C for another 6d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the activity of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge. PMID:27132850

  19. Effect of spatial heterogeneities of water fluxes and application pattern on cadusafos fate on banana-cultivated andosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, C; Cattan, P; Louchart, X; Voltz, M

    2008-12-24

    In tropical humid environments under intensive banana production, pesticide transfer in waters can be of particular concern due to heavy rainfall, steep slopes, and soils with high infiltration capacities. The transfer in percolation and runoff waters of the nematicide cadusafos was investigated during a three month field experiment. The spatial heterogeneity of the banana plantation was taken into account by measuring percolation fluxes both under the banana plants and in the interrows with a specially designed lysimeter device installed at 60 cm depth. At the field scale, 0.34% of the pesticide applied was transferred in percolation, 0.13% in runoff. Forty-nine percent of cadusafos losses occurred by percolation under the banana plants, 23% by interrow percolation, and 28% by runoff. Losses were highest during the three weeks following cadusafos application, and this is also when dissipation in the soil was highest (calculated half-life in the soil: 7d). After this period, losses of cadusafos were low, both in soil and waters. Under the banana plant, saturated fluxes carried most of the pesticide, despite total percolation fluxes being at least five-times higher than saturated ones. Although overall pesticide transfer in water was low (0.5% of applied), it was not negligible due to the frequency of pesticide application in these areas. PMID:19053376

  20. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. PMID:24716518

  1. A workflow for peptide-based proteomics in a poorly sequenced plant: A case study on the plasma membrane proteome of banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertommen, A.; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Cordewener, J. H. G.;

    2011-01-01

    membrane proteomics. However, their application in non-model plants demands special precautions to prevent false positive identification of proteins.In the current paper, a workflow for membrane proteomics in banana, a poorly sequenced plant, is proposed. The main steps of this workflow are (i......, integral plasma membrane proteins from banana leaves were successfully identified....

  2. Evaluate collective action strategy to enhance market access for VAF's farmers in Nanggung subdistrict, West Java: A case study on banana marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Iwan (ed.)

    2007-01-01

    This presentation talks about the progress report on marketing strategy and how the banana study that ICRAF completed can be applied to vegetable agroforesty study. The presentation covers the progress on this marketing practice, the survey results from the banana study, the marketing strategy, the evaluation of the benefit from collective marketing, and future planning and recommendations.

  3. Atraso do amadurecimento de banana 'Maçã' pelo 1-MCP, aplicado previamente à refrigeração Ripening delay of 'Apple' banana submitted to 1-MCP, prevoiously applied to refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Costa Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes períodos de exposição da banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 e 24 horas sobre sua vida pós-colheita e qualidade. Após exposição ao 1-MCP, os frutos verde-maturos foram armazenados por 30 dias em câmaras com temperatura de 13ºC ± 0,5 e umidade relativa de 95%. Em seguida, as bananas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 20ºC ± 1, até amarelecimento completo da casca. A exposição de banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 9 horas, retardou em 7 dias o seu amadurecimento, em comparação a frutos não expostos ao 1-MCP, após 30 dias de armazenamento refrigerado (13ºC, sem prejuízos à sua aparência e composição química. A exposição de banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 3 e 6 horas, não estendeu sua vida pós-colheita, tampouco alterou sua composição química. Embora a exposição de banana 'Maçã' a 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 12 e 24 horas, tenha retardado o seu amadurecimento, promoveu alterações indesejáveis na casca do fruto. Logo, a aplicação de 50 ppb de 1-MCP, por 9 horas, antes da refrigeração, constitui-se numa alternativa viável para prolongar o período de comercialização da banana.The aim of this work was to evaluate 'Apple' banana different periods exposure effect to 50 ppb of 1-MCP (0, 3, 6, 9 and 24 hours on its postharvest life and quality. Mature-green fruits were stored for 30 days in chambers at 13ºC + 0,5 and relative humidity 95%, after exposure to 1-MCP. Then, the bananas were stored at 20ºC + 1 until peel complete yellowing. 'Apple' banana to 50 ppb of 1-MCP exposure during 9 hours delayed in seven days the fruit ripening, comparing to fruit control, after 30 days of cool storage (13ºC, without changing its appearance and chemical composition. The exposure of 'Apple' banana to 50 ppb of 1-MCP for 3 and 6 hours did not extend its postharvest life; neither changed its chemical composition. Although the exposure of

  4. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Tripathi, Leena; Rusike, Joseph; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA). GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Objective To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Data Sources The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA. Analysis We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana. Results On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production. Conclusion The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries. PMID:26414379

  5. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Herbert Ainembabazi

    Full Text Available Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA. GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease.To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease.The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA.We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana.On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production.The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries.

  6. Casca de banana: uma possível fonte de infecção no tratamento de fissuras mamilares Banana peel: a possible source of infection in the treatment of nipple fissures

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Reis Novak; João Aprígio Guerra de Almeida; Rosana de Souza e Silva

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a microbiota da casca de banana prata, comercializada na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, tentando correlacioná-la com a possibilidade de que seja uma fonte de infecção para a mulher que a utiliza como terapia para fissuras mamilares. MÉTODOS: foram estudados, em 20 amostras de casca de banana, os seguintes microrganismos: mesófilos, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolíticos, proteolíticos, bolor...

  7. Efeito do 1-metilciclopropeno sobre a emissão dos ésteres voláteis de bananas ao longo do amadurecimento Efferct of 1-MCP on esters volatiles eission of bananas along the ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraquizio Braga do Nascimento Junior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh green bananas (Musa sp., subgroup Prata were treated with a dose of only 90 ηg g-1 of 1-MCP for 13 hours and the evolution of the volatile compounds along the ripeness was studied. A method to quantify the emission of esters was developed by cryogenic headspace and gas chromatography. Esters of acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate were found as major compounds. The application of the 1-MCP for 13 hours delayed the appearance of the coloration 8 of the peel for 3 days and decreased quantitatively in about 46% the total production of esters in the banana until the 15° day of harvested.

  8. Avaliação da qualidade de banana passa elaborada a partir de seis cultivares Evaluation of the quality of dried bananas prepared from six varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2005-01-01

    Banana passa foi produzida a partir dos cultivares marmelo, ouro, maçã, nanica, prata e YB 42-03 por secagem em estufa com circulação forçada de ar, após imersão em solução antioxidante à base de ácido cítrico e ascórbico. Foram utilizados frutos maduros de cinco cultivares facilmente encontrados no comércio local e um cultivar em implantação resistente a Sigatoka Negra (YB 42-03). A imersão em solução antioxidante não alterou a composição físico-química dos frutos nem a sua curva de secagem....

  9. Casca de banana: uma possível fonte de infecção no tratamento de fissuras mamilares

    OpenAIRE

    Novak Franz Reis; Almeida João Aprígio Guerra de; Silva Rosana de Souza e

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a microbiota da casca de banana prata, comercializada na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, tentando correlacioná-la com a possibilidade de que seja uma fonte de infecção para a mulher que a utiliza como terapia para fissuras mamilares. MÉTODOS: foram estudados, em 20 amostras de casca de banana, os seguintes microrganismos: mesófilos, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolíticos, proteolíticos, bolor...

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of botryodiplodia theobromae and on rot development in banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosensitivity of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. increased with the increase in doses of gamma radiation. Young cultures (7 days old) were less sensitive to radiation than old ones (48 days); lethal doses being 800 and 600 Krad respectively. Rot development was greatly reduced when inoculated banana fruits were exposed to 300 Krad. Disease development was checked for 10 days in inoculated fruits exposed to 400 Krad. The combined treatment of 200 p.p.m. T B Z and 100 or 200 Krad gamma radiation was more effective in reducing disease incidence than either treatments alone. No deleterious effects occurred in banana fruits that were irradiated with the low doses of gamma radiation

  11. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSchubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I. In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the active odor components, use these compounds as stimuli and measure odor-induced Ca2+ signals in input and output neurons of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL, the first olfactory neuropil. We demonstrate that mixture interactions of a natural blend are very rare and occur only at the AL output level resulting in a surprisingly linear blend representation. However, the information regarding single components is strongly modulated by the olfactory circuitry within the AL leading to a higher similarity between the representation of individual components and the banana blend. This observed modulation might tune the olfactory system in a way to distinctively categorize odor components and improve the detection of suitable food sources. Functional GC-I thus enables analysis of virtually any unknown natural odorant blend and its components in their relative occurring concentrations and allows characterization of neuronal responses of complete neural assemblies. This technique can be seen as a valuable complementary method to classical GC/electrophysiology techniques, and will be a highly useful tool in future investigations of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical interactions.

  12. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mollot

    Full Text Available Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI to identify 1 the DNA sequences of their prey, 2 the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops, and 3 the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP and a cover cropped plot (CCP in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  13. Bananas, pesticides and health in southwestern Ecuador: A scalar narrative approach to targeting public health responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Public health responses to agricultural pesticide exposure are often informed by ethnographic or other qualitative studies of pesticide risk perception. In addition to highlighting the importance of structural determinants of exposure, such studies can identify the specific scales at which pesticide-exposed individuals locate responsibility for their health issues, with implications for study and intervention design. In this study, an ethnographic approach was employed to map scalar features within explanatory narratives of pesticides and health in Ecuador's banana-producing El Oro province. Unstructured observation, 14 key informant interviews and 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out during 8 months of fieldwork in 2011-2013. Analysis of interview data was informed by human geographic literature on the social construction of scale. Individual-focused narratives of some participants highlighted characteristics such as carelessness and ignorance, leading to suggestions for educational interventions. More structural explanations invoked farm-scale processes, such as uncontrolled aerial fumigations on plantations owned by elites. Organization into cooperatives helped to protect small-scale farmers from 'deadly' banana markets, which in turn were linked to the Ecuadorian nation-state and actors in the banana-consuming world. These scalar elements interacted in complex ways that appear linked to social class, as more well-off individuals frequently attributed the health problems of other (poorer) people to individual behaviours, while providing more structural explanations of their own difficulties. Such individualizing narratives may help to stabilize inequitable social structures. Research implications of this study include the possibility of using scale-focused qualitative research to generate theory and candidate levels for multi-level models. Equity implications include a need for public health researchers planning interventions to engage with

  14. The Use Combined Adsorbant to Extend the Storing Period of Cavendish Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryatmi Retno Dumadi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Post harvest damage of horticulture commodity in Indonesia has reached 30 to 40%. This research is aimed at extending the storing period of cavendish banana in order to extend the market range, while still enabling to maintain the quality of fresh preserved banana as required by consumers. One of the ways to do so is by using combines adsorbant as to control the air of the fruit surrounding.The type of adsorbant used is as follows : 1,2 and 3% of KMn04 ; 0,5, 1 and 1,5% of iron powder, and 3% of active carbon. The experiment was conducted in completed randomized design, by 10 factors of combined and concentrate adsorbant, and by 6 factors of storing time. The parameters being analyzed includes texture intensity, starch rate, total acid rate, total glucose rate, water rate and reduced glucose rate.The statistics test results of 10 treatments of combines adsorbant KMn04, iron powder, active carbon which were(1%, 0,5%, 3%, (1%, 1%, 3%, (1%, 1,5%,3%, (2%, 0,5%, 3%, (2%, 1%, 3%, (2%, 1.5%, 3% (3%, 0,5%, 3%, (3%, 1%, 3% ( 3%, 1,5%, 3%, suggested that the combined adsorbant (2%, 1,5%, 3% at 15°C storing temperature is the best. This treatment is the best because it has the highest substances rate up to 72.36% db; relatively small texture change, total acid rate, total glucose rate, water rate and the lowest reduced glucose rate of 3.531% db which is more likely to extend the storing period of cavendish banana for approximately six weeks.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome of banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales: insight into plastid monocotyledon evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Banana (genus Musa is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads extracted from whole-genome-shotgun sequence data. The Musa chloroplast genome is a circular molecule of 169,972 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC, 88,338 bp and a Small Single Copy region (SSC, 10,768 bp separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs, 35,433 bp. Two forms of the chloroplast genome relative to the orientation of SSC versus LSC were found. The Musa chloroplast genome shows an extreme IR expansion at the IR/SSC boundary relative to the most common structures found in angiosperms. This expansion consists of the integration of three additional complete genes (rps15, ndhH and ycf1 and part of the ndhA gene. No such expansion has been observed in monocots so far. Simple Sequence Repeats were identified in the Musa chloroplast genome and a new set of Musa chloroplastic markers was designed. CONCLUSION: The complete sequence of M. acuminata ssp malaccensis chloroplast we reported here is the first one for the Zingiberales order. As such it provides new insight in the evolution of the chloroplast of monocotyledons. In particular, it reinforces that IR/SSC expansion has occurred independently several times within monocotyledons. The discovery of new polymorphic markers within Musa chloroplast opens new perspectives to better understand the origin of cultivated triploid bananas.

  16. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  17. Consumo de massas, biodiversidade e fitomelhoramento da banana de exportação 1920 a 1980 Mass markets, biodiversity and breeding improvements of export bananas 1920-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Soluri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A exportação de banana, na América, foi constituída sob uma base genética extremamente limitada: ao longo de setenta anos, uma só variedade de banana, a Gros Michel, foi praticamente a única a ser vendida nos mercados norte-americanos. Esta variedade produzia grandes cachos, resistentes ao transporte, e dotados de um sabor e de uma casca que os consumidores norte-americanos identificavam como pertencentes a uma banana de qualidade. Entretanto, a Gros Michel também se mostrou muito suscetível a um grande número de patógenos fúngicos, incluindo o Mal do Panamá e a Sigatoka. A dinâmica histórica ocasionada, durante a primeira metade do século XX, pela propagação desse fungo, acelerou o aumentou dos índices de desmatamento, desestabilizou os sistemas de vida rural, aumentou os riscos à saúde dos trabalhadores do campo, e limitou os rendimentos das principais companhias de comércio de banana. Tais epidemias impeliram o governo britânico e a United Fruit Company a estabelecerem programas de fitomelhoramento, durante a década de 1920, tendo como meta o desenvolvimento de uma banana para exportação, que fosse resistente ao Mal do Panamá. Contudo, a criação de um híbrido que fosse capaz tanto de prosperar nas zonas tropicais, quanto de encontrar aceitação no mercado norte-americano, se mostrou uma tarefa de difícil realização. A história dos programas de melhoramento revela uma das principais contradições da agricultura do século XX: os mesmos processos de produção massificada, que tendem a reduzir a diversidade biológica a nível local e regional, permaneciam dependentes do acesso a de um banco genético "global", para manter níveis lucrativos de produção.The export banana industry in Latin America and the Caribbean developed on a very narrow genetic base: a single variety, the Gros Michel, was the only banana variety mass marketed in the United States for at least seventy years. The Gros Michel variety

  18. Ion-Banana-Orbit-Width Effect on Bootstrap Current for Small Magnetic Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and direct theoretical method has been proposed to investigate the so-called ion-banana-orbit-width (IBW) effect on the bootstrap current in the region of magnetic islands generated by the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The result shows that, when the IBW approaches the island width, the (ion) bootstrap current can be partly restored inside the island while the pressure profile is flattened. This can lead to the reduction of the bootstrap current drive on the NTM. The strength of the IBW effect on the NTM is related to the safety factor and the inverse aspect ratio on the rational surface

  19. Soft Rot of Rhizopus oryzae as a Postharvest Pathogen of Banana Fruit in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Ryu, Jae-San; Chi, Tran Thi Phuong; Shen, Shun-Shan; Choi, Okhee

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot on banana fruit caused by Rhizopus oryzae was identified for the first time in Korea. Colonies were white to light brown and formed numerous sporangiospores. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 30℃. Sporangia were globose and 30~200 µm. Sporangiophores were usually straight, 8~20 µm, and rhizoids usually in groups of 3~5. Columella were globose to sub-globose and 90~110 µm. Sporangiospores were sub-globose or oval and 4~10 µm. Based on its mycological characteristics, molecul...

  20. Improved method for calculating neoclassical transport coefficients in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M., E-mail: taguchi.masayoshi@nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    The conventional neoclassical moment method in the banana regime is improved by increasing the accuracy of approximation to the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This improved method is formulated for a multiple ion plasma in general tokamak equilibria. The explicit computation in a model magnetic field shows that the neoclassical transport coefficients can be accurately calculated in the full range of aspect ratio by the improved method. The some neoclassical transport coefficients for the intermediate aspect ratio are found to appreciably deviate from those obtained by the conventional moment method. The differences between the transport coefficients with these two methods are up to about 20%.

  1. Long-Term Data from Fields Recovering after Sugarcane, Banana, and Pasture Cultivation in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Myster, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    I report here on an ongoing permanent plot study in areas recovering from agriculture in Ecuador. These plots were set up in 1995 at Maquipucuna Reserve where the forest is tropical lower montane. The study consists of replicate fields in three past crop types (Sugarcane, Banana, and Pasture) for a total of six fields. Each field was first divided into 25 continuous 2 m × 5 m subplots which together form a 10 m × 25 m plot with the longest side bordering the adjacent forest. Then starting in ...

  2. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L.) for Adsorption Procion Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Fahma Riyanti; Riski Dita Asmara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to extract a cellulose from kepok banana peel (Musa parasidiaca L.) and application to removal Procion dye. The extracted cellulose was prepared by dewaxing process to releasing of lignin, bleaching and hemicellulose removal. The cellulose identified by FTIR and SEM-EDS. The efficiency of the cellulose to adsorp Procion dye was evaluated by variation in the initial concentration of dye (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L), solution pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 a...

  3. The Chitinase Activity in Banana Seedling that Induce by Trichoderma spp as Resistance Responce to Fusarium Oxyporum f.sp.cubense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Nurbailis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the chitinase activities of banana seedling that induced by Trichoderma spp. The experiment consisted of two parts: 1. Testing chitinase activity in banana seedlings induced by Trichodernia spp., Using a factorial in a completely randomized design with two factors: a. types of inducers (biomass, liquid culture and filtrate, b. Isolates of Trichoderma spp. (T. Koningii-S6sh, T. Viride-T1sk, T.harzianum-P4sh and control. with 4 replications. Parameters measured were, the specific activity of the chitinase enzyme were detected in stems, leaves and roots of banana seedlings. 2. Testing of several types of inducers of Trichoderma spp. in inducing resistance in banana seedlings to Foc, together with the study design 1. Parameters measured were: incubation period, the percentage of symptomatic leaves and percentage discoloration of vessels. Result showed that 1. Liquid culture of induser  T. Viride -T1sk and T. koningii-S6sh and biomass of T. koningii-s6sh and T. harzianum-P4sh were effective in increasing  the specific activity of chitinase enzyme on banana seedling. The increase the amount specific activity of chitinase enzyme on banana seedling tissues by liquid culture of T. viride- T1sk 346% and 131,32% by T. koningii could be  suppress fusarium wilt desease on banana seedling. 

  4. Natural product of wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong: biopesticide to control the vector of banana blood disease bacterium in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N; Dharma, A; Efdi, M; Yuhendra; Eliesti, F

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the most important food crops in Indonesia. Its production is greater than any other agricultural commodity. With the population of 230 million in 2010, banana was consumed up to three million tons in this country. However, Banana Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB), one of the most devastating banana pathogens in the world, which is only found in Indonesia, threatens not only the growth of this plant but also the lives and the livelihoods for most of the Indonesian society. BDB is caused by a lethal bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype-4, which infects a wide range of bananas, from bananas used for consumption to wild bananas. In West Sumatera, the disease killed 1.40% of bananas in 1998, and then increased dramatically to 37.9% in 2003. The total banana production dropped to 62% in this province. The search for controlling the vector has led to the pre-investigation of Wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong C.K. Lim which has a stink bug odour similar to a methidathion insecticide. The plant was collected around the conservation area of Lembah Anal in West Sumatra. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of natural insecticides compound contained in E. slahmong against D. melanogaster. This study tested the effect of E. slahmong on the mortality, anti-feedant and repellent levels against Drosophila melanogaster, the vector of BDB. The essential oil of E. slahmong was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaves. We found that the extract of E. slahmong significantly affected the mortality of D. melanogaster of 30-40% and also acted as an antifeedant (with success rate of 73-93%) and repellent (with success rate of 99-99.6%). The long- term objective of this study is to develop green biopesticide to control BDB in Indonesia, based on an environmentally friendly pest management. PMID:25151825

  5. De Novo characterization of the banana root transcriptome and analysis of gene expression under Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. are among the most important crops in the world due to their nutritional and export value. However, banana production has been devastated by fungal infestations caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc, which cannot be effectively prevented or controlled. Since there is very little known about the molecular mechanism of Foc infections; therefore, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional changes induced by Foc in banana roots. Results We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from banana roots infected with Foc Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR 4 at days 0, 2, 4, and 6. We generated over 26 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library using deep sequencing and assembled 25,158 distinct gene sequences by de novo assembly and gap-filling. The average distinct gene sequence length was 1,439 base pairs. A total of 21,622 (85.94% unique sequences were annotated and 11,611 were assigned to specific metabolic pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. We used digital gene expression (DGE profiling to investigate the transcriptional changes in the banana root upon Foc TR4 infection. The expression of genes in the Phenylalanine metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism pathways was affected by Foc TR4 infection. Conclusion The combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the banana root transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes during the response of banana genes to Foc TR4 infection. The assembled banana transcriptome provides an important resource for future investigations about the banana crop as well as the diseases that plague this valuable staple food.

  6. Agronomic Efficiency of Biosolid as Source of Nitrogen to Banana Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS or biosolid has been studied as source of nutrient for several different plant species. It also contributes to soil fertility recycling organic matter and plant nutrients. This followup work examines a three-year (2001–2004 field experiment designed to evaluate the response of banana plants (Cavendish subgroup to the application of biosolid as source of nitrogen. The treatments consisted of control (mineral PK, no N, three rates of sludge, and two rates of mineral NPK fertilizer. Plant and soil N concentration, fruit yield, plant height, stem diameter, and foliar endurance index were measured. Fruit yield with mineral fertilization or sludge applications did not differ statistically (P>0.05. Application of biosolid resulted in statistically significant higher agronomic efficiency (P<0.05 in comparison to mineral fertilizers. The concentration of soil mineral nitrogen increased using mineral fertilizer or sludge until 0.80 m after three years of application. The effect of the source of N was smaller than the effect of the rate. Biosolid can be used as source of N for banana growers.

  7. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  8. Rheological properties of emulsions stabilized by green banana (Musa cavendishii pulp fitted by power law model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the rheological behaviour of emulsions (mayonnaises stabilized by green banana pulp using the response surface methodology was studied. In addition, the emulsions stability was investigated. Five formulations were developed, according to design for constrained surfaces and mixtures, with the proportion, respectively: water/soy oil/green banana pulp: F1 (0.10/0.20/0.70, F2 (0.20/0.20/0.60, F3 (0.10/0.25/0.65, F4 (0.20/0.25/0.55 and F5 (0.15/0.225/0.625 .Emulsions rheological properties were performed with a rotational Haake Rheostress 600 rheometer and a cone and plate geometry sensor (60-mm diameter, 2º cone angle, using a gap distance of 1mm. The emulsions showed pseudoplastic behaviour and were adequately described by the Power Law model. The rheological responses were influenced by the difference in green banana pulp proportions and also by the temperatures (10 and 25ºC. The formulations with high pulp content (F1 and F3 presented higher shear stress and apparent viscosity. Response surface methodology, described by the quadratic model,showed that the consistency coefficient (K increased with the interaction between green banana pulp and soy oil concentration and the water fraction contributed to the flow behaviour index increase for all emulsions samples. Analysis of variance showed that the second-order model had not significant lack-of-fit and a significant F-value, indicating that quadratic model fitted well into the experimental data. The emulsions that presented better stability were the formulations F4 (0.20/0.25/0.55 and F5 (0.15/0.225/0.625.No presente trabalho, foi estudado o comportamento reológico de emulsões adicionadas de polpa de banana verde utilizando a metodologia de superfície de resposta e também foram investigadas a estabilidade das emulsões. Foram desenvolvidas cinco formulações, de acordo com o delineamento para superfícies limitadas e misturas, com as proporções respectivamente: água/óleo de

  9. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects. PMID:22122826

  10. Improvement of banana (Musa cvs.) through in vitro culture techniques and induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly multiplying shoot tip cultures were established from meristem explants of banana (Musa cvs.). Banana cultivars were successfully propagated on modified Murashige and Skoog medium with 4.5 mg/l BAP. Roots were induced on plantlets cultured on 1/2 strength MS medium containing 0.20 mg/l IBA. Plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to soil for further evaluation. Proembryogenic calli were initiated from basal leaf sheaths and rhizome tissue cultured on SH medium with 6.63 mg/l dicamba. Protoplasts were isolated form rhizome tissue using an enzyme solution containing 3% cellulase R-10, 1% macerozyme R-10 and 1% pectinase. Efforts are in progress to regenerate plants via somatic embryogenesis and from isolated protoplasts. A mutation induction experiment was carried out by irradiating vegetative shoot apices at 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy using a 60Co source. Radiosensitivity was assessed by determining the subsequent rate of shoot differentiation. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on ripening, storage and biochemical parameters of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) popularly known as kadali (S) belongs to the family Musaceae is an economically important plant due to its nutritive fruit used as staple food all over the world. Several techniques have been employed to delay fruit ripening and softening by storing preclimacteric bananas in modified or controlled atmospheres. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended the usage up to 1.0 kGy of gamma irradiation for delaying the ripening in fruits. Irradiation significantly improved shelf life by inhibiting the fungal growth in strawberries. Hence, present work was undertaken to scrutinize the impact of gamma irradiation on the ripening, storage and the biochemical attributes of Musa paradisiaca L. variety kadali. Present work revealed that irradiation at 0.2 kGy and 0.3 kGy retained their organoleptic properties till 16th day of storage against under normal conditions. Nutritional parameters such as ascorbic acid content, soluble sugar and protein contents were significantly higher in irradiated fruits. Hence, lower dose of gamma irradiation could be successfully used in extending the shelf life and nutritional quality and delay the process of ripening in Musa paradisiaca L.

  12. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  13. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, M; Gerhard, O

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a Box/Peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such Box/Peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well-known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models it has been claimed in the past that Box/Peanut bulges are supported by "bananas", or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent Made-to-Measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45...

  14. Technological use of green banana and birdseed flour in preparing cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Raquel Sotiles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cookies made up of flour containing unripe banana and birdseed were developed and characterized by centesimal composition, microbiological quality, color by CIE L*, a* and b* system and sensory acceptance. Two formulations of cookies (F1 and F2 with different amounts of mixed flour (@ 6.0 and 8.0 g 100 g-1, respectively were designed. All formulations exhibited attractive nutritional properties, mainly due to the levels of protein (F1: 11.6 and F2: 10.7 g 100 g-1 and dietary fiber (F1: 22.6 and F2: 31.03 g 100 g-1. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 in color parameters between the upper surfaces of F1 and F2, and between the undersides of cookies. Both compositions showed high acceptability in color, texture, odor and taste, with a predominance of scores of the category 8 (like very much and no statistical difference (p < 0.05 in the perception of these attributes by the tasters between formulations. The results of the purchase intention test suggest a good commercial prospect for the cookies developed. Our findings represent a new proposal for the use of flour with unripe banana and birdseed in the development of a food product with high added value.

  15. Influence of salinity on the development of the banana colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldênia Mendes Mascena de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of salt stress on the growth of banana seedling colonized with mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on a substrate from a Quartzipsamment. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using a completely randomized design in split plots; the plots had 5 levels of salinity in irrigation water (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4 5 dS m-1 and the subplots of four collection periods (40, 60, 80 and 100 days after transplanting, with 4 repetitions, totaling 80 experimental units. The seedlings of banana cv. "Prata" was produced by micropropagation and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal and acclimatization for 40 days. Evaluations were made of leaf gas exchange, shoot dry mass, nutrient content, mycorrhizal root colonization and spore density. Increased levels of salinity caused reduction in dry matter production and photosynthetic rate, which may be associated with osmotic effects of salts in the soil, the increase in sodium and reduced the levels of N in leaves. Salinity reduced root mycorrhizal colonization, but did not influence the density of AMF spores under the conditions of this study.

  16. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  17. Simulação computacional aplicada ao desenvolvimento de embalagens para bananas Computational simulation for the development of packages for bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Funes Abrahão

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe um método de projeto de embalagem para produtos hortícolas, buscando uma otimização integrada dos aspectos geométricos, estruturais e térmicos, ligados à facilitação do resfriamento e armazenamento refrigerado. Para o dimensionamento e otimização estrutural, foi utilizado o Método dos Elementos Finitos implementado pelo programa ANSYS, obtendo-se oito modelos virtuais de embalagens, com 10% e 14% de área efetiva de aberturas e geometria quadrada, retangular e circular. Para o desenvolvimento dos experimentos, que avaliaram a relação da área de aberturas com o tempo de sete-oitavos de resfriamento, foram construídos protótipos de tábuas de madeira (Pinnus elliotti de reflorestamento. Nas embalagens, foram acondicionados aproximadamente 13 kg de banana variedade Nanica (Musa cavendishii, cultivar nanica, resfriada num túnel de ar forçado (vazão de ar de 0,32 m³ s-1, temperatura de 8,0±1,2ºC e umidade relativa de 84,5±2,6%. O tempo de resfriamento também foi comparado com aquele obtido quando a mesma quantidade de frutas foi resfriada em embalagens de papelão (2,5% de área efetiva de abertura e madeira (18% de área efetiva de abertura. Os resultados demonstraram que, entre os protótipos propostos, não houve diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento dos frutos acondicionados nas embalagens desenvolvidas, sendo o tempo médio de resfriamento de 40,71±2,81 min. Na comparação com as embalagens de papelão e madeira, houve diferenças significativas, sendo que as embalagens comerciais tiveram tempos de resfriamento de 1,25 e 2 vezes maiores. Concluiu-se que a simulação estrutural computacional, aliada a algoritmos de otimização, além de procedimentos experimentais ligados à cadeia do frio, são recursos promissores no auxílio de projetos para embalagens de transporte de produtos hortícolas.This study proposes a methodology for designing boxes for agricultural products based on

  18. A promoter from sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus drives transgene expression in banana and other monocot and dicot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P M; Sagi, L; Remans, T; Dietzgen, R G; Bernard, M J; Graham, M W; Manners, J M

    1999-04-01

    A 1369 bp DNA fragment (Sc) was isolated from a full-length clone of sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) and was shown to have promoter activity in transient expression assays using monocot (banana, maize, millet and sorghum) and dicot plant species (tobacco, sunflower, canola and Nicotiana benthamiana). This promoter was also tested for stable expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. These experiments showed that this promoter could drive high-level expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in most plant cells. The expression level was comparable to the maize ubiquitin promoter in standardised transient assays in maize. In transgenic banana plants the expression levels were variable for different transgenic lines but was generally comparable with the activities of both the maize ubiquitin promoter and the enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The Sc promoter appears to express in a near-constitutive manner in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. The promoter from sugarcane bacilliform virus represents a useful tool for the high-level expression of foreign genes in both monocot and dicot transgenic plants that could be used similarly to the CaMV 35S or maize polyubiquitin promoter. PMID:10380808

  19. [The effect of ethylene biosynthesis regulators on metabolic processes in the banana fruits in various physiological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguyen Tien; Ruzhitskiĭ, A O; Protsenko, M A; Korableva, N P

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ethylene-evolving preparations-2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (2-CEPA), the new generation binary preparation ethacide, and the specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminooxyacetic acid (AOA)--on the ethylene evolution by banana (Musa sp.) fruits at various ripening stages and the content of protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase (PIPG), associated with prevention of fruit tissue softening, were studied. It was demonstrated that the ripening stage was of significant importance for the results of treatment with the mentioned preparations. Their effects were most pronounced in the fruits of medium ripeness. 2-CEPA and ethacide increased the ethylene evolution in banana fruits on the average by 25-30%. AOA treatment decreased the ethylene evolution in these fruits by 30%. The PIPG content in fruit pulp was insignificant; 2-CEPA almost did not change its content in banana skin, while ethacide and AOA somewhat decreased it. Consequently, the regulators of ethylene biosynthesis have a potential for optimizing the state of banana fruits during storage and sale. PMID:19235517

  20. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins involved in ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taotao; Yun, Ze; Zhang, Dandan; Yang, Chengwei; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism involved in ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit, a gel-based proteomic study followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS was carried out. Banana fruit were treated with 500 ppm ethylene for 12 h and then stored at 6°C. During cold storage, the chilling tolerance was assessed and the proteins from the peel were extracted for proteomic analysis. It was observed that ethylene pretreatment significantly induced the chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit, manifesting as increases in maximal chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and decreased electrolyte leakage. Sixty-four proteins spots with significant differences in abundance were identified, most of which were induced by ethylene pretreatment during cold storage. The up-regulated proteins induced by ethylene pretreatment were mainly related to energy metabolism, stress response and defense, methionine salvage cycle and protein metabolism. These proteins were involved in ATP synthesis, ROS scavenging, protective compounds synthesis, protein refolding and degradation, and polyamine biosynthesis. It is suggested that these up-regulated proteins might play a role in the ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit. PMID:26528309

  1. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  2. Necessity of mycorrhizal re-inoculation in the transplantation of banana in areas with precedent of inoculated canavalia with AMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Enrique Simó González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From being the banana, a mycotrophic crop and previous results on the potential of green manure inoculated as a way to mycorrhizal economic crops, this work was developed in order to assess whether a precedent Canavalia ensiformis cultivation, inoculated with efficient strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation, it is necessary the banana inoculation, ‘FHIA-18’ (AAAB cultivar in the transplant field. Four treatments were evaluated: a control without application of fertilizers and other organic-mineral fertilizers (100% FOM, both without canavalia and two other treatments that are used above canavalia inoculated AMF and half also received organic-mineral fertilizer applications: (50% FOM, one of which, the banana was reinoculated in the transplant field and the other one not. The experimental design used, was randomized blocks, with four replications. The experiment ended after three productive cycles (mother plant, stems 1 and 2. Canavalia inoculated treatments and 50 % of FOM, guaranteed high yields and satisfactory nutritional content similar to that received 100 % of FOM and significantly higher than those obtained with the control treatment. This together with the values of colonization percentages and pores at both high and inoculated treatments were no significant differences between them, indicated not only the effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation but rather green manure inoculation was successful to inoculate bananas and re-inoculation of the same was not needed on the transplant.

  3. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  4. A Triple Helix Strategy for Promoting SME Development: The Case of a Dried Banana Community Enterprise in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwawutto, Sauwapa; Smitinont, Thitapha; Charoenanong, Numtip; Yokakul, Nattaka; Chatratana, Sonchai; Zawdie, Girma

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the university-industry-government relationship as a mechanism for enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The case of a community enterprise producing dried banana products in the north of Thailand is used to demonstrate the significance of the Triple Helix model for business…

  5. Molecular characterization of banana bunchy top virus isolate from Sri Lanka and its genetic relationship with other isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W A R T; Shankarappa, K S; Rangaswamy, K T; Maruthi, M N; Rajapakse, R G A S; Ghosh, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of six DNA components; DNA-R, DNA-U3, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C for Sri Lanka isolate. Comparisons of sequence data of DNA components followed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouped Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate in the Pacific Indian Oceans (PIO) group. Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate of BBTV is classified a new member of PIO group based on analysis of six components of the virus. PMID:27366766

  6. Effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), populations and crop damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop sanitat

  7. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  8. ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY AND RESOURCE USE IN BANANA ( Musa sapientum A ND PLANTAIN ( Musa paradisiaca PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES IN BAYELSA STATE , NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainga Prince Ebiowei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to determine the allocative efficiency and resource use of banana and plantain production enterprises in Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Three - stage sampling technique was used for drawing the samples and getting data. Total sample size was 180 farm households. The data were analyzed by using mean and production function models. Allocative efficiency and resource use results indicates farmers incapabil ity in efficient use and allocation of banana and plantain suckers, family labor and hired labor. In relation to total revenue, the elasticity of the plantain suckers showed that, an increase in it by one unit will lead to an increase in total revenue. Results from the allocative efficiency index, objective of profit maximization and equimarginal principle, indicated that banana suckers were efficiently allocated, while plantain suckers were inefficiently allocated; family and hired labor were inefficiently allocated in both banana and plantain enterprises. While plantain suckers were under - utilized, family and hired labor were both over - utilized in both enterprises, suggesting that farmers were yet to achieve absolute degree of allocative efficiency in thes e resources. However, they could profitably reduce the quantity of family and hired labor and increase plantain suckers that they employ. Thus, allocative efficiency and resource use can be enhanced by the provision of credit/ loan, good rural roads, impro ved varieties of suckers and farming technologies, extension services and subsidized farm inputs and equipment among others by Government, Non - Governmental Organizations (NGOs and institutions alike through genuine political will

  9. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bressan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta, heliconia (Heliconia spp., red ginger (Alpinia purpurata, and banana (Musa sp.. Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  10. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

  11. Anthelminthic efficacy of banana crop residues on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Flávia Aparecida; Oliveira, Lincoln Nunes; da Silva, Rayana Brito; Nery, Patrícia Silva; Virgínio, Gercino Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to anthelminthics is common due to intensive and incorrect use. In searching for alternatives, extracts of banana plant were evaluated for egg hatching inhibition and fecal egg count reduction of sheep nematodes. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, pseudostem, and heart of the banana plant cv. Prata anã were tested at concentrations of 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg ml(-1) in egg hatching inhibition tests. For in vivo analysis, aqueous extracts were evaluated at dosages calculated according to the 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity testing in mice. Efficacy was evaluated at two time periods following oral administration. For the banana extracts at 2.5 mg ml(-1), egg hatching was significantly fewer than the negative control, with an LC(50) and LC(90) of 0.19 and 0.84 mg ml(-1), respectively. In vivo analysis for weeks 1 and 2 following a single treatment with aqueous leaf extract showed 33.1% and 32.5% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively. Further research on higher dosages with more frequent administration is needed to evaluate the potential for utilizing banana plant residues in gastrointestinal nematode control. PMID:22322388

  12. Mechanical properties of banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites: Effect of woven fabric and random orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper is presents the fabrications of kenaf/banana fiber hybrid composites. • Effect of weaving pattern and random orientation on mechanical properties was studied. • Role of interfacial adhesion due to chemical modifications were analyzed with the aid of SEM. • Hybridization of kenaf and banana fibers in plain woven composites exhibits maximum mechanical strength. - Abstract: The present work deals with the effect of weaving patterns and random orientatation on the mechanical properties of banana, kenaf and banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites. Composites were prepared using the hand lay-up method with two different weaving patterns, namely, plain and twill type. Of the two weaving patterns, the plain type showed improved tensile properties compared to the twill type in all the fabricated composites. Furthermore, the maximum increase in mechanical strength was observed in the plain woven hybrid composites rather than in randomly oriented composites. This indicates minimum stress development at the interface of composites due to the distribution of load transfer along the fiber direction. Moreover, alkali (NaOH) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treatments appear to provide an additional improvement in mechanical strength through enhanced interfacial bonding. Morphological studies of fractured mechanical testing samples were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the de-bonding of fiber/matrix adhesion

  13. Genotype-by-Environment Interaction and Testing Environments for Plantain and Banana (Musa spp. L. Breeding in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With reduced budgets allocated for international agricultural research, site rationalisation had become an important issue to consider when carrying out multilocational testing of promising selections. The aim of this paper was to determine the importance of the genotype-by-environment interaction in multilocational trials of plantains and bananas (Musa spp. L. in selected sites of West Africa comprising the humid forest and the forest-savanna transition zones. A sample of plantain-banana hybrids, plantain landraces, exotic banana cultivars and diploid parental banana accessions were evaluated in three locations : Mbalmayo and Onne (humid forest and Ibadan (forest-savanna transition. The experimental results of our research suggested that multilocational testing is more profitable than single site evaluation over several years in the Musa breeding station. Furthermore, based on correlated responses across environments for yield potential, we suggest that one of the selection sites in the humid forest (i. e., Mbalmayo be dropped since selections in one site (Onne may be well adapted to the other location in the same agroecozone. Conversely, the relatively poor performance of most genotypes in dry environments (e. g. Ibadan reinforces the importance of early testing across a wide range of environments. In this way selections with broad or specific adaptation may be identified for further release to targeted farmers.

  14. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interation with ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADS-box genes (MaMADS1-6), potential components of the developmental control of ripening have been cloned from Grand Nain banana cultivar. Similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is very low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns...

  15. Effects of Banana Plantation Pesticides on the Immune Response of Lepidopteran Larvae and Their Parasitoid Natural Enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Smilanich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on the insect immune response has progressed dramatically within the last two decades, showing that immunity is one of the most effective defenses against foreign invaders. As such, it is important to understand the causes of variation in this response. Here, we investigate the effects of pesticides used in Costa Rican banana plantations on the immune response of the lepidopteran larva, Caligo memnon (Brassolinae. In addition, we performed a parasitism survey of the banana plantations and surrounding forests to provide a broader assessment of pesticide effects on parasitoid populations. All caterpillars for the immune assay were collected from two banana plantations and brought to La Selva Biology Station for immune challenge. Individuals were fed leaves from the plantations (pesticide or leaves from La Selva (pesticide-free, then immune challenged with injected sephadex beads. We found that individuals feeding on pesticide leaves had significantly lower bead melanization compared to individuals feeding on pesticide-free leaves. Nonetheless, the parasitism survey showed that caterpillars from the banana plantations had lower parasitism rates compared to caterpillars from the La Selva forest. This study adds to the growing body of evidence documenting negative effects of pesticides on the insect immune response and on adult parasitoids, and underscores the need for more research at the intersection between ecological entomology and immunology.

  16. Biochemical Characterization of Compatible Plant Virus Interaction: A Case Study with Bunchy Top Virus-Banana Host-Pathosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infection can result in the alteration of physiological, biochemical and metabolic processes within plants leading to symptom development. Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV is one of the most destructive viral diseases in Tropical Asia, Pacific Indian Oceania (PIO regions and Africa leading to 100% yield loss in banana and plantains. Though molecular characterization and their diversity were studied in depth in recent years, information on physiological and biochemical changes during banana-BBTV interaction is still not convincingly explained. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted to find out the quantifiable changes in physiological and biochemical parameters such as proteins, pigment and carbohydrate content, phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POX, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in leaves of banana cultivars Grand Nain (AAA and Virupakshi (AAB. The amount of carbohydrate contents, phenolic compounds, PPO, POX, APX, GPX, CAT were significantly higher in BBTV infected leaves of both the cultivars over the healthy, whereas total protein content, pigments and SOD activity showed an opposite trend. Overall the results suggest that BBTV infection induces significant changes in enzyme levels leading to irreversible symptom development. Further studies would lead to identification of biochemical markers for studying plant-virus compatible and incompatible interactions.

  17. The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

  18. Creation of a BAC resource to study the structure and evolution of the banana (Musa balbisiana) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafář, Jan; Noa-Carrazana, J. C.; Vrána, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Alkhimova, Olena; Lheureux, F.; Šimková, Hana; Caruana, M. L.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Piffanelli, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2004), 1182ů1191. E-ISSN 1480-3321 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038201 Grant ostatní: research contract IAEA(FR) 12230/RBF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : bacterial artificial chromosome library * banana * BAC-FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  19. Efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA sobre a qualidade do suco de banana Effect of enzymatic clarifier complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA on the quality of banana juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Helena Cardoso

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi observado o efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA, adicionados na proporção de 0,03% v/p sobre purê de banana (Musa cavendishii, em condições amenas de hidrólise (40ºC, 15 minutos visando determinar a qualidade, aqui representada pelos indicadores: rendimento; viscosidade; Brix; pH; composição centesimal; contagens de bolores e leveduras e de mesófilos, e propriedades sensoriais de cor, aroma, sabor e corpo dos sucos de banana clarificados. O suco clarificado com Clarex apresentou-se significativamente (p The effect of the clarifier enzymatic complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA, used in the proportion 0.03% v/w in industrialized banana (Musa cavendishii pulp, at the conditions of gentle hydrolysis 40 degree Celsius, 15 minutes, was observed to determine the quality here represented by indicators such as yield, viscosity, Brix, pH, centesimal composition, counts of moulds and yeasts and of mesophilics, and sensorial properties of color, aroma, flavor and body by both clarified banana juices. The juice clarified by Clarex was significantly (p < 0.01 more yellow, less grey, less opaque and less viscous than that obtained with CEC1-CTAA. There was no significant difference between the means of aroma of fresh banana and flavor in these juices. Furthermore, the values obtained for flavor for both juices were judged good (6.72 and 6.05 for the juices clarified with Clarex and CEC1- CTAA, respectively, because they were up the middle of the scale (from 0 to 10.

  20. Silicon Isotope Fractionation by Banana Under Continuous Nutrient and Silica Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfergelt, S.; Cardinal, D.; Henriet, C.; Delvaux, B.; André, L.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon is absorbed by plants as aqueous H4SiO4 with other essential nutrients, and precipitates in aerial parts of the plant as phytolith, a biogenic opal. Phytoliths are restored to the soil by decomposition of organic debris from plant material. The role of higher plants in the biogeochemical cycle of silicon is therefore major although it is still poorly studied. Biomineralization processes are known to fractionate the three stable silicon isotopes with a preferential uptake of light isotopes. Therefore, following some preliminary results from Douthitt (1982), and studies presented in recent conferences (Ziegler et al., 2002; Ding et al., 2003), we suspect that phytolith production by plants could also fractionate the silicon isotopes. Inversely, intensity of phytolith-related isotopic fractionations might contribute to a better understanding of the soil-plant silicon cycle. Our study focused on banana, a silicon accumulating plant (>1% Si, dry weight).Musa acuminata cv Grande Naine has been grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions (light, temperature, humidity, nutrients) during six weeks. The nutrient supply was kept constant: three batches of five plants were grown with a continuous nutrient solution flow of 5, 50 and 100 ppm SiO2 respectively. Si isotopic compositions were measured in the source solution, and in silica extracted from the various parts of banana (roots, pseudostems, midribs and petioles, leaves), using a Nu Plasma multicollector mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) operating in dry plasma mode. The results are expressed as δ 29Si relatively to the NBS28 standard, with an average precision of ± 0.03‰ . Silicon contents and morphological studies of phytoliths were also achieved. Banana δ 29Si varied between -0.18 and -0.76‰ with a source solution at -0.02‰ . Values of δ 29Si were less fractionated, relatively to the nutrient solution, in roots, where no phytoliths have been observed until now, than in upper parts of banana where

  1. 两岸香蕉标准对比分析%Comparison and Analysis of Standards for Bananas across the Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静

    2011-01-01

    Standards for bananas across the taiwan straits were compared and analyzed in the paper.from three aspects: the quantity of standards, quality grade standard and pesticide residue standards for bananas. Itis in order to provide technical reference for establishing common standards for banana across the Taiwanstraits.%文章对两岸香蕉的标准数量、质量等级标准、农药残留限量标准进行了比较分析,旨在为订立两岸香蕉的共通标准提供技术参考.

  2. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Carval

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  3. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  5. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other

  6. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraza, Douglas, E-mail: dbarraza@una.ac.cr [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica); Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Jansen, Kees [Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Wendel de Joode, Berna van; Wesseling, Catharina [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2011-07-15

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by

  7. 香蕉叶与香蕉全株营养成分和单宁含量的比较分析%The comparative analysis of the nutrients and tannins content of the banana leaves and the banana whole plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中英; 王春芳; 曹兵海

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨香蕉叶与香蕉全株的饲料价值,试验以香蕉叶与香蕉全株为研究对象,对其常规营养成分和单宁含量进行了化学分析。结果表明,香蕉叶中的DM、CP、EE、NDF、ADF、ADL、Ash、P、总能、总酚、非单宁酚、总单宁和缩合单宁含量均显著地高于香蕉全株(P<0.05)。因此,香蕉叶的饲料价值优于香蕉全株,但酚类和单宁类抗营养物质的含量也高于香蕉全株。%To explore the feed value of the banana leaves and the banana whole plant, this experiment selected the banana leaves and the banana whole plant as the research object and tested its nutrients and tannins content. The results showed that the content of the DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ash, P, GE total phenols, non-tannins phenols, tannins and condensed tannins of the banana leaves were significantly higher than the banana whole plant(P<0.05). The feed value of the banana leaves was bet-ter than the banana whole plant, but the phenols and tannin content of the banana leaves was also higher than the banana whole plant.

  8. Energia alternativa de biomassa: bioetanol a partir da casca e da polpa de banana Alternative energy from biomass: bioethanol from banana pulp and peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozair Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A conversão de biomassas agroindustriais em bioetanol com consequente valorização de rejeitos e resíduos, tem sido objeto de estudos de várias pesquisas realizadas no Brasil e no mundo. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a potencialidade do uso da polpa e da casca da banana (Musa cavendishii , tanto in natura como previamente hidrolisada por ácido e enzimas, como substrato da fermentação alcoólica. Os rendimentos médios em bioetanol (em base úmida de biomassa obtidos com a polpa (0,48 ± 0,05 g g-1 e com a casca (0,34 ± 0,11 g g-1, ambos in natura, possibilitaram a eficiência do processo de conversão, da ordem de 95% do rendimento teórico. A produtividade máxima alcançada em bioetanol foi de 3,0 ± 0,7 g L-1 h-1 com o uso da polpa e de 1,32 ± 0,03 g L-1 h-1 com a casca. Nas condições operacionais avaliadas o pretratamento dos resíduos com ácido sulfúrico não é recomendado para a produção de bioetanol.The conversion of agroindustrial biomasses in bioethanol with consequent enrichment of wastes has been the object of various research projects conducted in Brazil and around the world. This study evaluated the potential of the Musa cavendishii banana pulp and peels using in natural state and also waste previously hydrolyzed by acid and enzimes, as substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The mean bioethanol yields (on wet biomass base, obtained with the pulp (0.48 ± 0.05 g g-1 and with the peels (0.34 ± 0.11 g g-1, both in natural state, enabled a conversion process efficiency to the order of 95% of theoretical yield. Maximum value reached in bioethanol was 3.0 ± 0.7 g L-1 h-1 with pulp and 1.32 ± 0.03 g L-1 h-1 with peels. Under the evaluated operating conditions, the pre-treatment of wastes with sulfuric acid is not recommended for bioethanol production.

  9. Effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient during the drying of bananas Difusividade efetiva e coeficiente de transferência convectivo de massa durante a secagem de bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide M. D. P. da S. e Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a methodology is used for the simultaneous determination of the effective diffusivity and the convective mass transfer coefficient in porous solids, which can be considered as an infinite cylinder during drying. Two models are used for optimization and drying simulation: model 1 (constant volume and diffusivity, with equilibrium boundary condition, and model 2 (constant volume and diffusivity with convective boundary condition. Optimization algorithms based on the inverse method were coupled to the analytical solutions, and these solutions can be adjusted to experimental data of the drying kinetics. An application of optimization methodology was made to describe the drying kinetics of whole bananas, using experimental data available in the literature. The statistical indicators enable to affirm that the solution of diffusion equation with convective boundary condition generates results superior than those with the equilibrium boundary condition.Neste artigo, é usada uma metodologia para a determinação simultânea da difusividade efetiva e do coeficiente de transferência convectivo de massa em sólidos porosos que possam ser considerados como um cilindro infinito, durante sua secagem. Dois modelos são utilizados para a otimização e a simulação do processo de secagem: o modelo 1 (volume e difusividade constantes, com condição de contorno de equilíbrio; e o modelo 2 (volume e difusividade constantes, com condição de contorno convectiva. Algoritmos de otimização por varredura, baseados no método inverso, foram acoplados às soluções analíticas referentes aos dois modelos utilizados, possibilitando ajustar tais soluções aos dados experimentais da cinética de secagem em camada fina de produtos com a forma cilíndrica. Foi feita uma aplicação da metodologia de otimização na descrição da cinética de secagem de bananas inteiras, usando dados experimentais disponíveis na literatura. Os indicadores estat

  10. Armazenamento refrigerado de banana 'Prata Anã' proveniente de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas Refrigerated storage of 'Prata Anã' banana originating from 16, 18 e 20 week-old bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da temperatura de refrigeração e idade do cacho sobre a conservação e qualidade pós-colheita da banana 'Prata Anã', produzida no Norte de Minas Gerais, visando a exportação. Utilizaram-se frutos de bananeira 'Prata Anã' provenientes do município de Nova Porteirinha, MG. A colheita foi realizada na 16ª, 18ª e 20ª semanas após a emissão floral. Dos cachos colhidos, utilizou-se às segundas pencas, separadas em buquês com 5 frutos, lavados e pesados (18 kg. Em seguida, os frutos foram revestidos com embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade, com 50m de espessura, sob vácuo parcial, acondicionados em caixas de papelão e distribuídos em paletes. Depois de embalados e paletizados, os frutos foram transportados para a EPAMIG/CTNM, onde foram armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (10 e 12ºC e umidade relativa de 95%, por um período de 35 dias, sendo analisados antes e após a refrigeração. O armazenamento de bananas 'Prata Anã', provenientes de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas, por 35 dias a temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC, não promoveu "chilling" nos frutos. A temperatura de 10ºC foi mais eficaz em prevenir a evolução da coloração da casca de bananas provenientes de cachos com 18 semanas, que à temperatura de 12ºC, enquanto as temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC foram igualmente eficientes na contenção da mudança de cor de bananas provenientes de cachos com 16 semanas. Frutos provenientes de cachos com 20 semanas amadureceram desuniformemente, ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado.This work had, as objective, to verify the influence of refrigeration temperature and bunch age on the conservation and post-harvest quality of the 'Prata Anã' banana produced in the North of Minas Gerais, looking towards exportation. 'Prata Anã' banana tree fruits were used originating from the municipal district of Nova Porteirinha, MG. The crop was harvested in the 16th, 18th

  11. On the distribution of scaling hydraulic parameters in a spatially anisotropic banana field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Carlos M.

    2005-06-01

    When modeling soil hydraulic properties at field scale it is desirable to approximate the variability in a given area by means of some scaling transformations which relate spatially variable local hydraulic properties to global reference characteristics. Seventy soil cores were sampled within a drip irrigated banana plantation greenhouse on a 14×5 array of 2.5 m×5 m rectangles at 15 cm depth, to represent the field scale variability of flow related properties. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention characteristics were measured in these 70 soil cores. van Genuchten water retention curves (WRC) with optimized m ( m≠1-1/ n) were fitted to the WR data and a general Mualem-van Genuchten model was used to predict hydraulic conductivity functions for each soil core. A scaling law, of the form ν=ανi*, was fitted to soil hydraulic data, such that the original hydraulic parameters νi were scaled down to a reference curve with parameters νi*. An analytical expression, in terms of Beta functions, for the average suction value, hc, necessary to apply the above scaling method, was obtained. A robust optimization procedure with fast convergence to the global minimum is used to find the optimum hc, such that dispersion is minimized in the scaled data set. Via the Box-Cox transformation P(τ)=(αiτ-1)/τ, Box-Cox normality plots showed that scaling factors for the suction ( αh) and hydraulic conductivity ( αk) were approximately log-normally distributed (i.e. τ=0), as it would be expected for such dynamic properties involving flow. By contrast static soil related properties as αθ were found closely Gaussian, although a power τ=3/4 was best for approaching normality. Application of four different normality tests (Anderson-Darling, Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and χ2 goodness-of-fit tests) rendered some contradictory results among them, thus suggesting that this widely extended practice is not recommended for providing a suitable probability

  12. Combination of membrane technologies for purification of L (+) - lactic acid from juice of banana (Musa AAA, variety Cavendish cultivar Gram naine) obtained from an agroindustrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process that has allowed recovery and purification of the L (+)-acid present in the juice fermented waste produced from banana was developed, treated enzymatically, using tangential nanofiltration. The effect of the enzymatic treatment was evaluated on physical chemical parameters of fermented banana juice. The process parameters of centrifugal clarification and microfiltration were characterized on banana juice as activities prior operations to recovery and purification of lactic acid. The temperature and the transmembrane pressure on the permeate flow and the performance of recovery and purification of lactic acid were evaluated by the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes. The properties physico-chemical the banana juice fermented and of the liquid filtrate obtained at the stage recovery and purification of lactic acid were compared by ultrafiltration

  13. In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains. Final reports of an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme from 1988 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains 9 final reports of the participants at the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on 'In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains'. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Oxidative Stress on Buccal Mucosa Wound in Rats and Rule of Topical Application of Ethanolic Extracts of Mauli Banana ( Musa acuminata Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Fitriati Noora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem on oxidative status in buccal mucosa wounds of rats. The sets involved three groups, P0 was the negative control; P1 was treated with alocair topically; and P2 was treated with ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem topically, respectively, 24h after wound creation for 3 days. The oxidative stress status was evaluated by monitoring the SOD, CAT activity, MDA and CC levels. Ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem showed significantly increased in SOD activity, decreased in MDA levels, and no significant change both in CAT activity and CC levels compared to negative control. These results showed that The ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem might affect the oxidative stress status during wound healing process.

  15. Drying kinetics of bananas by natural convection: Influence of temperature, shape, blanching and cultivar Cinética de secagem de bananas por convecção natural: Influência da temperatura, formato, branqueamento e cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of variables as temperature, solid shape, temperature, branching and cultivar on drying of bananas were studied. Bananas from cv. Prata and D'água, on disk and cylindrical shape, blanched or not, were dehydrated in a tray dryer in natural convection at 40 and 70ºC. Drying behavior was analyzed by using a mathematical model. The exponential model showed good agreement to experimental data (r² 0.93 - 0.99 and standard error: 0.01- 0.05. Temperature presented positive influence on drying rate in all the tested conditions. With respect to the sample shape, the disk shape carried out to significantly higher drying rates only for D'água cultivar without blanching. Blanching was significantly influent, with positive influence, on drying rate of banana cv. Prata at 40º C. The influence of the cultivar did not present a defined tendency.No presente trabalho, estudou-se a influência de variáveis como temperatura, formato do sólido, branqueamento e cultivar na secagem de bananas. Bananas cultivares Prata e D'água, nos formatos disco e cilindro, branqueadas ou não, foram desidratadas em secador de bandejas com convecção natural nas temperaturas de 40 e 70ºC. O comportamento da secagem foi analisado utilizandose modelagem matemática. O modelo exponencial mostrou bom ajuste aos resultados experimentais (r²: 0,93 - 0,99 e erro de estimativa padrão: 0,01 - 0,04. A temperatura apresentou influência positiva na taxa de secagem em todas as condições testadas. Com relação ao formato das amostras, o formato disco conduziu a taxas de secagem significativamente maiores somente para o cultivar D'água e sem branqueamento. O branqueamento se mostrou significativamente influente, com influência positiva na taxa de secagem da banana Prata a 40º C. A influência da cultivar não apresentou uma tendência definida.

  16. HIGH-FREQUENCY REGENERATION VIA DIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF AN ELITE RECALCITRANT MUSA (BANANA CVPURAKAL) BY USING SUCKER AS AN EXPLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar Choudhary; Suresh Tula; KM Path; Sandeep Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method for in vitro micro propagation and genetic transformation of plants are crucial for both basic and applied research. Bananas are important staple food crops for many people in developing countries. The development of efficient and rapid regeneration protocol for elite Indian banana variety could help improve the nutritional quality characteristics and biotic or abiotic stress tolerance. A callus based regeneration of plantlets was developed for indian culti...

  17. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE): a DNA finger printing technique to study the genetic diversity of blood disease bacterium of banana

    OpenAIRE

    HADIWIYONO; JAKA WIDADA; SITI SUBANDIYAH; MARK FEGAN

    2011-01-01

    Hadiwiyono, Widada J, Subandiyah S, Fegan F (2011) Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE): a DNA finger printing technique to study the genetic diversity of blood disease bacterium of banana. Biodiversitas 12: 12-16. Blood disease bacterium (BDB) is the most important pathogen of bananas in Indonesia. In some field, the disease incidence reaches over 80%. Epidemiologically, the disease is similar to moko disease in South America and bugtok disease in the Philippines caused by Ralstonia solan...

  18. 香蕉对酒曲中主要微生物作用的研究%Effect of banana on the main microorganisms in liquor Qu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 方中刚; 王世强

    2011-01-01

    试验分别用含不同浓度香蕉汁培养基,培养酒曲中的主要微生物酵母菌和根霉,结果表明,酵母菌的数量及出芽数随香蕉汁浓度的增加而增加,香蕉汁对根霉菌丝的生长和淀粉酶活力的提高有一定的促进作用.以香蕉为主料,添加酒饭,以酒曲为发酵剂酿制香蕉米酒.结果表明,含75%香蕉原料组出酒率为73.26%,酒精度为13.5°,比含50%香蕉原料组和纯米酒组出酒率分别只降低1%和7%,酒精度只降低1.5°.%The media containing banana juice at different concentrations were used for the cultivation of main microorganisms(yeasts and Rhizopus) in liquor Qu. The results showed that the biomass and budding rate of yeasts increased with the increase of banana juice concentration, and banana juice also had a certain stimulation effects on the mycelium growth and amylase activity of Rhizopus. Using banana as main material and liquor Qu as starter, a banana-rice wine was made with steamed rice. The results indicated that when 75% banana was used, the liquor distillation yield reached 73.26% and the alcohol content was 13.5°. The liquor distillation yield was only 1% and 7% lower than that of the rice wine made on 50% banana and the pure rice wine without banana respectively, while the alcohol content was slightly decreased by 1.5°.

  19. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: SOME LESSONS FROM THE PILOT TISSUE-CULTURE (TC) BANANA PRODUCTION PROMOTION PROJECT IN KENYA, 1997-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Mbogoh, Stephen G.; Wambugu, Florence M.; Wakhusama, Sam

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a socio-economic impact study of the introduction and adoption of tissue-culture (tc) technology in banana production in Kenya. It attempts to demonstrate that a prudent introduction and promotion of a new biotechnological innovation in farming can make a positive contribution to the socio-economic status of resource poor farmers in a developing country, such as Kenya. Adoption of tc technology in banana production in Kenya is considered a good example of biotechnolog...

  20. Genetic and mycotoxigenic diversity of isolates belonging to the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex, and recovered from maize and banana in China

    OpenAIRE

    Munaut, Françoise; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Gourgue, Mélanie; Bivort, Céline; Qi, Yanxiang; Wu, Aibo Wu; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhang, Dabing; Van Hove, François; 12th European Fusarium Seminar

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of a research project aiming at detection and control of Fusarium and related mycotoxins in banana fruits and maize in China, plant samples were collected in four provinces. In the southern provinces of Hainan and Yunnan, cultivated and wild banana plants coexist, together with maize. In Hubei and Henan, the Fusarium diversity was investigated on maize at the end of the growing season. Beside 14 Fusarium species, an important number of isolates belonging to the Fusarium incarnatu...