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Sample records for bananal island brazil

  1. Pivotal temperature and sexual dimorphism of Podocnemis expansa hatchlings (Testudines: Podocnemididae from Bananal Island, Brazil

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    Adélio Lubiana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A common problem when trying to identify the sex of hatchling turtles is that juveniles are not obviously externally dimorphic and current techniques to identify sex are often invasive. In this paper, 300 eggs of Podocnemis expansa from Bananal Island, state of Tocantins (Brazil, were incubated at constant temperatures. The carapaces of the hatchlings were photographed and subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. The hatchlings were subsequently euthanized and had their gonads removed for sex determination. The pivotal temperature of P. expansa was 33.5ºC, confirming that this species has the highest pivotal temperature among reptiles. Geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the carapace proved efficient in differentiating the sex of the hatchlings and confirmed that this methodology can be efficient for studies that need to ascertain the sex ratio in P. expansa hatchlings.

  2. Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is

  3. Geological control of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis nesting areas in Rio Javaés, Bananal Island, Brazil Controle geológico das áreas de nidificação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis no Rio Javaés, Ilha do Bananal, Brasil

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    Paulo Dias Ferreira Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the nests of Podocnemis expansa (Amazon turtle and Podocnemis unifilis (yellow-spotted side neck turtle along the point bars of the Javaés River in Bananal Island, demonstrates a clear preference of these chelonians for differentiated geological environments, in respect to the morphology, grain size or height of the nests in relation to the level of the river. The topographical distribution and the differences in the grain size of the sediments that compose the point bars of the river, originated from the multiple sedimentary processes, and make possible the creation and separation of different nesting environments. Each turtle species takes advantage of the place that presents physiographic characteristics appropriate to the hatching success of their eggs. The superposition of the P. expansa and P. unifilis nest placement areas is rare. The P. expansa nests are concentrated on the central portion of the beaches where successive depositional sedimentary events produced sandy banks more than 3.3 m above the river water level. The P. unifilis nests are distributed preferentially in the upstream and downstream portions along the point bars where the sandy deposits rarely surpass 1.5 m at the moment of laying. P. expansa nests located on the beaches of fine to medium sized sand hatch in a mean of 68 days, while those incubated on beaches of medium to coarse sand size take a mean of 54 days to hatch.A distribuição das covas de Podocnemis expansa (tartaruga-da-amazônia e Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá ao longo das barras em pontal do rio Javaés na Ilha do Bananal, mostra uma clara preferência destes quelônios por ambientes geológicos diferenciados, seja em relação à morfologia, constituição granulométrica ou altura das covas em relação ao nível do rio. A compartimentação topográfica e as diferenças no tamanho dos sedimentos que compõem as barras em pontal, oriundas de processos sedimentares m

  4. Assessment of control and epidemiologic details of the schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study in the municipality of Bananal, state of São Paulo, Brazil, was to stop the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni. Particular emphasis was given to such items as the active surveillance and eventual treatment of hosts, mapping parasite foci, and increasing the extent of basic sanitation in the municipality. Now, our records indicate that the eradication of schistosomiasis in the municipality of Bananal is attainable. However, as the vector Biomphalaria tenagophila can still be found in some water bodies within this municipality, it remains included in the area where schistosomiasis is endemic, which calls for very strict measures to avoid the human cases of schistososomiasis. The expansion of the coverage of the basic sanitation network and treatment of Schistosoma mansoni cases diagnosed during periodic surveys are part of the plans to eradicate schistosomiasis in Bananal.

  5. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  6. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.

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    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires.

  7. Relationships between water transparency and abundance of Cynodontidae species in the Bananal floodplain, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Cesar Enrique de Melo

    Full Text Available The Cerrado in the Central Brazil is currently one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. As a result, the aquatic habitats in this biome also undergo great impacts. Alterations related to land-use change increase sediment loadings in rivers, streams and lakes, resulting in sedimentation and decrease in water transparency. Water transparency determines underwater visibility conditions, and as a consequence fish assemblages respond to spatial and temporal changes in this variable. This work aimed to examine the influence of transparency on the abundance and distribution of Cynodontidae species, a visually oriented predatory fish group. Fish sampling was conducted in 15 sites located between Mortes and Araguaia rivers in the Bananal floodplain, Mato Grosso State. Regression analysis between relative abundance of Cynodontidae (in number of individuals and biomass and water transparency showed a positive and highly significant correlation, indicating that this group shows species-specific habitat affinities for clearer waters. These results suggest that the increase in water turbidity in this region can affect the patterns of abundance and distribution of the Cynodontidae species, as well as other visually oriented fishes.

  8. Transformation et commercialisation des chips de banane plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les chips de banane plantain jouent un rôle important dans la constitution des revenus des ménages modestes dans les régions du Centre et du Littoral au Cameroun. Au regard de l'émergence de cette filière, une analyse du système de transformation et de commercialisation des chips de banane plantain a été réalisée.

  9. da sede da Fazenda Rialto, Bananal

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    Regina A. Tirello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the eighteenth century mural paintings at the headquarters of Fazenda Rialto, in Bananal, which were destroyed in 1996. These constituted one of the most important sets of ambient paintings with secular themes produced in the state of São Paulo during the period corresponding to the first cycle of coffee production. Orally attributed to the painter José Maria Villaronga y Panella, all that remains of these paintings are some photographs and dozens of fragments, impossible to reassemble. Studying the fragments of the paintings of Rialto as primary material documents, the main objective of this article is to identify the artistic, technical, and executive characteristics of three sets of murals attributed to a single painter. A methodology which combines laboratory tests and historical research on artistic techniques was adopted for objectively recognizing the artistic and artisan characteristics of the period and discussing the attribution of exclusive authorship to the work. The analytical systems adopted for this purpose were: examination with ultraviolet and infra-red radiation, optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS to analyze its chemical elements. Issues related to the limitations on official Brazilian preservation activities for this category of artistic work were also discussed, reflecting on the development and changes in notions of historicity related to the preservation of works from the past and their methodological implications for conservation and restoration.

  10. Amélioration de la durée de conservation des bananes plantain aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amélioration de la durée de conservation des bananes plantain aux températures ambiantes. A Lepengue, I Mouaragadja, E Dick, B Mbatchi, S Ake. Abstract. La banane plantain est le premier aliment de base au Gabon. Malheureusement 30 à 40% de sa production sont perdues, par manque de techniques de ...

  11. Des bananes plus nutritives et qui résistent aux maladies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... Les petits agriculteurs jouissent de meilleurs revenus et d'une sécurité alimentaire accrue grâce à des variétés de bananes à haut rendement qui résistent aux maladies. Au cours des années 1980 et 1990, avec le soutien du CRDI, la Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agricola (FHIA) a mis au point ...

  12. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

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    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  13. Environmental sensitivity of the coastal islands of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

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    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps for Oil Spills (ESI Maps, or SAO in Portuguese constitute an essential component and source of basic information for emergency planning, response decision support and damage evaluation in case of oil spills. This study aims at the elaboration of sensitivity maps for oil spills for the islands within the Ubatuba municipality, north coast of the State of São Paulo. The adopted methodology is based on the Technical Specifications for the production of Environmental Sensitivity Maps for oil spills (SAO maps proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment. The study involved the gathering of secondary data, followed by field work carried out in the summer and winter periods of 2007; the elaboration of the cartographic base maps and, finally, the integration of the data to a GIS (Geographic Information System. As a result it was registered and mapped the physical (geology, geomorphology, oceanography and climatology, biological (fauna, flora and coastal environments and socioeconomic (anthropic influence, human use, artificial structures and impacts resources of Ubatuba coastal islands. Eleven beaches have been identified, located at six islands, with distinct topographic and geomorphologic features. The beaches were classified with sensitivity index 4, because they are sheltered from actions of waves and currents. Most of the mapped environments (44.8% were classified with sensitivity index 8, indicating high sensitivity of the islands. The oil spill impacts on coastal environments can be significantly minimized during the contingency actions when previous knowledge of the ecosystems that compose the islands environment is available, especially when it is integrated into GIS data basis, capable of displaying easy-to-use maps. The environmental sensitivity mapping is an important management instrument, especially when dealing with sensible and poorly studied areas such as the islands of Ubatuba.

  14. Assessment of Urban Heat Islands in Small- and Mid-Sized Cities in Brazil

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    Renata dos Santos Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands (UHIs in large cities and different climatic regions have been thoroughly studied; however, their effects are becoming a common concern in smaller cities as well. We assessed UHIs in three tropical cities, analyzing how synoptic conditions, urban morphology, and land cover affect the heat island magnitude. Data gathering involved mobile surveys across Paranavaí (Paraná, Rancharia (São Paulo, and Presidente Prudente (São Paulo, Brazil, during summer evenings (December 2013–January 2014. Temperature data collected over five days in each city point to heat islands with magnitudes up to 6 °C, under calm synoptic conditions, whereas summer average UHI magnitudes peak at 3.7 °C. In addition, UHI magnitudes were higher in areas with closely spaced buildings and few or no trees and building materials that are not appropriate for the region’s climate and thermal comfort.

  15. Spatial distribution and diet of Cephalopholis fulva (Ephinephelidae at Trindade Island, Brazil

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    Flavio do Nascimento Coelho

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the population structure and diet of the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Trindade Island, Brazil, through direct observation with SCUBA diving in 11 reef sites around the Island, up to 50 m deep. Diet was based on 77 individuals collected with speargun. Mean population density and biomass were estimated at 29 individuals/100 m² and 13 kg/100 m², respectively. This species is regularly distributed along the costal environments of the Trindade Island, with no significant differences in densities and biomass detected among the different collection habitats (reef crest, reef slope, and reef plateau. However, significantly higher densities were observed micro-habitats with greater structural complexity, which may offer more shelter and food to C. fulva. Four food item groups were identified from the gut contents of C. fulva: Annelida, Crustacea, Teleostei, and Testudinata. It is the first record of predation of the green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings by the coney. Trindade Island seems to present the densest concentration of C. fulva in all Brazilian and Caribbean ecosystems inhabited by this species. Scarcity of competitors, predators, and fishing pressure may explain the high densities observed in the Island.

  16. [Canine heartworm on São Luís Island, Northeastern Brazil: a potential zoonosis].

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    Ahid, S M; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Saraiva, L Q

    1999-01-01

    A survey on the prevalence of canine heartworm was conducted in 1, 495 dogs from Maranhão Island, State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, from 1991 to 1994, by testing for microfilariae in blood. Of the total, 1,358 (12.8% of which were infected) were dogs with no known history; they included 1,265 homeless animals (10.3% with microfilariae) and 93 kept by owners at the time the survey was conducted (37.8% of which were infected). Prevalence is high among dogs captured and/or living along the seashore. Examples of such high coastal prevalence rates were found in Olho d'Agua and Calhau (46% and 43%, respectively). The search for microfilariae in blood samples of 137 exclusively domiciliary dogs with a known history showed that 43% of these animals were infected, confirming transmission of heartworm on the island. This was the first survey formally published on canine dirofilariasis in Northeastern Brazil. Since D. immitis is infective to man and prevalence of the parasite is high, particularly along the coast of Maranhão Island, human cases of dirofilariasis may be expected. Local physicians should consider this parasite among the possible causes of solitary lesions in humans living in this area.

  17. Urban Heat Island and Park Cool Island Intensities in the Coastal City of Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil

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    Max Anjos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an evaluation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and Park Cool Island (PCI intensities in Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil, was performed. The basis of our evaluation is a 2-year dataset from the urban climatological network installed with the principles and concepts defined for urban areas related to climatic scales, sitting and exposure, urban morphology, and metadata. The current findings update UHI intensities in Aracaju refuting the trend registered in previous studies. On average, the UHI was more intense in the cool season (1.3 °C than in hot season (0.5 °C, which was caused by wind speed decrease. In relation to the PCI, mitigation of high air temperatures of 1.5–2 °C on average was registered in the city. However, the urban park is not always cooler than the surrounding built environment. Consistent long-term monitoring in the cities is very important to provide more accurate climatic information about the UHI and PCI to be applied in urban planning properly, e.g., to provide pleasant thermal comfort in urban spaces.

  18. Rock Rb-Sr ages from Bananal region - Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Neto, C.M.; Tassinari, C.G.C.; Silva, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    New Rb-Sr whole rock isochron ages have been determined for the main lithological units that occur in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States. These rocks belong to Serra do Mar domain. The purpose of this work is to characterize the sequence of the geological events as well as the possible relationship between the different rocks. The geochronological data suggest that the paragneisses and the basement rocks, represented by ortho gneisses nuclei, were generated under amphibolite conditions around 700 Ma. At the same time the leucogranites were generated by partial melting processes and injected into both gneiss types. Tarditectonic granitic magmatic activities took place within ductile shear zones. One of the granites, the Getulandia granite, yielded an age of 514 Ma, falling in the range of the late Brasiliano Cycle which extended into the Middle Cambrian. (author). 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Incidental catch of marine turtles by the artisanal fisheries on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

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    Natalia Hanazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The five species of sea turtles, which inhabit the Brazilian shore, have a wordwide distribution and are threatened with extinction. The south of Brazil is characterized as a feeding and breeding area of at least three of these species. The presence of turtles close to the shore and their incidental catch are occurrences reported by artisan fishermen of the Island of Santa Catarina in this work. The study was based on a questionnaire, applied to fishermen and fishfarmers at selected spots on the island. Scientific and popular names were matched using illustrations. The spots with the highest number of events and captures were close to the islands, rocky coasts and stony grounds, i.e. areas related with the foraging habits of the most abundant species, Chelonia mydas. The place, depth and size of the net are characteristics, which influence the capture. The time the net remains in the water is a factor which is fundamental to the survival of the captured turtles. The flesh of the turtle is used as an occasional feeding resource. Capacitation programs and training applied to the communities involved are recommended.

  20. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

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    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  1. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  2. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

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    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  3. Trophic structure of a fish community in Bananal stream subbasin in Brasília National Park, Cerrado biome (Brazilian Savanna, DF

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    Mariana Schneider

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the trophic structure of the fish community in the Bananal stream subbasin, which belongs to a well-preserved Cerrado area (Brazilian Savanna in Brasília National Park, Brazil. We also evaluated the influence of environmental variations in the diet of fish species. Four samples were taken in each 30 m long established transect, two in the rainy season and two in the dry season. A total of 1,050 stomachs of the 13 most abundant species were analyzed. A total of 36 food items were consumed, where 24 were autochthonous, 8 allochthonous, and 4 of undetermined origin. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis, in addition to the results of frequency of occurrence and abundance charts, was used to determine four groups of feeding guilds: detritivores, omnivores (tending toward herbivory and invertivory, invertivores and piscivores. Around 69% of the volume of resources consumed was allochthonous, which proves the importance of the resources provided by riparian vegetation. The contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous items in the diet differed due to seasonality for Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Astyanax sp., Characidium xanthopterum, Hyphessobrycon balbus, Kolpotocheirodon theloura, Moenkhausia sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Rivulus pictus. Despite the Cerrado climate characteristics, there was no significant influence of season on the fish diet. The absence of seasonal variation and the predominance of allochthonous items in the fish diet are probably associated with the presence of riparian vegetation, which acts as a transition area in the Cerrado biome and provides resources for the aquatic fauna. This work shows the importance of studies in non-disturbed areas considered here as a source of information concerning the biology of fish species and as a guide for direct conservation policies on the management of aquatic resources, recovery of damaged areas and determination of priority areas for

  4. Spatial distribution and diet of Cephalopholis fulva (Ephinephelidae at Trindade Island, Brazil

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    Flavio do Nascimento Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the population structure and diet of the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Trindade Island, Brazil, through direct observation with SCUBA diving in 11 reef sites around the Island, up to 50 m deep. Diet was based on 77 individuals collected with speargun. Mean population density and biomass were estimated at 29 individuals/100 m² and 13 kg/100 m², respectively. This species is regularly distributed along the costal environments of the Trindade Island, with no significant differences in densities and biomass detected among the different collection habitats (reef crest, reef slope, and reef plateau. However, significantly higher densities were observed micro-habitats with greater structural complexity, which may offer more shelter and food to C. fulva. Four food item groups were identified from the gut contents of C. fulva: Annelida, Crustacea, Teleostei, and Testudinata. It is the first record of predation of the green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings by the coney. Trindade Island seems to present the densest concentration of C. fulva in all Brazilian and Caribbean ecosystems inhabited by this species. Scarcity of competitors, predators, and fishing pressure may explain the high densities observed in the Island.Foram analisadas a estrutura populacional e a dieta do catuá Cephalopholis fulva na Ilha da Trindade, Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos através de censos visuais com mergulho autônomo em 11 locais no entorno da ilha, em profundidades de até 50 m. A dieta e a proporção sexual foram baseadas na análise de 77 indivíduos coletados com arpão. A densidade populacional e biomassa foram estimados em 29 indivíduos/m² e 13 kg/100 m², respectivamente. A espécie apresentou distribuição uniforme nos ambientes costeiros da ilha, não tendo sido registradas diferenças significativa em sua densidade e biomassa entre os diferentes habitats estudados (crista, talude e platô recifal. Entretanto, foi observado prefer

  5. Modelling the population control of the domestic cat: an example from an island in Brazil

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    ICM Lessa

    Full Text Available The domestic cat is an invasive species that often causes great impacts where introduced due to its high predatory and reproductive potential, especially on islands. In this study, carried out on Ilha Grande (RJ, Brazil, we aimed to: i estimate the population density of domestic cats, ii calculate the number of animals preyed upon annually by domestic cats, and iii evaluate the efficiency of methods to control the cat population. We used the Vortex program to project the population growth of domestic cats in fifty years, and simulated different scenarios of population control (without control, castration, spay and harvest. Population density of owned cats was 662 cats/km². The annual predation rate was 1.97 prey animals/cat which is an average of 1497.96 prey/year. The population would only be reduced if 70% of females were spayed or removed annually. Measures to control the domestic cat population must be undertaken urgently, since uncontrolled growth of this predator has the potential to seriously impact the biodiversity of Ilha Grande.

  6. Pattern of shell utilization by the hermit crab Paguristes tortugae (Diogenidae from Anchieta Island, Southern Brazil

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    F. L.M. Mantelatto

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the pattern of shell utilization by Paguristes tortugae, from infralittoral areas of Anchieta Island (Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil using the percentage of the different shell types occupied and the morphometric relationship between hermit crabs and occupied shells. Specimens were collected monthly (January to December 1998 by SCUBA diving. The animals and the shells were measured and weighed. A total of 2,429 hermit crabs were captured occupying 21 species of gastropod shells. The shells more occupied were Pisania auritula (35.49%, Cerithium atratum (27.83%, Morula nodulosa (12.70% and Leucozonia nassa (6.83%, respectively. There was differential shell occupation between sexes: males and ovigerous females occupied in higher percentage P. auritula shells while the non-ovigerous females occupied C. atratum. Regression analysis showed best correlation between the size of the crabs (shield length and shell dry weight. This study showed that shell occupation by P. tortugae involves inter- and intraspecific competition as well as shell type availability in the field.

  7. Early and late cretaceous magmatism from Sao Sebastiao island (SE-Brazil): geochemistry and petrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellieni, G.; Cavazzini, G.; Montes-Lauar, C.R.; Melfi, A.J.; Pacca, I.G.; De Min, A.; Piccirillo, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Sao Sebastiao island (236 km 2 ), located along the coast of the Sao Paulo State (Southern Brazil), is characterized by precambrian granitic affected by the Brasiliano tectonic-metamorphic cycle. This crystalline basement is intruded by Early Cretaceous (EC) sub alkaline basic and acid dykes, as well as by Late Cretaceous (LC) alkaline stocks (syenites) and dykes (basanite to phonolite). Geochemical, Sr-isotopic and mineral chemistry data point out that: EC-dykes reveal a basic-acid bimodal character, similar to that of the 'coeval' Parana basin flood volcanics; the acid dykes correspond, in composition, to the acid volcanics of the northern Parana basin: the EC-dykes can represent the eastern extension of the inland Santos-Rio de Janeiro dyke swarm, and LC alkaline stocks and dykes constitute distinct groups, characterized by different Sr-isotope initial ratios (syenites: av. 0.7052 and basanites + tephrites = av. 0.7045), which indicate that they are related to different time-integrated mantle source materials. (author)

  8. Shallow gas seismic structures: forms and distribution on Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

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    Antonio Henrique da Fontoura Klein

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the spatial distribution of shallow gas structures and classifies them on the basis of two different data sets of CHIRP seismic records, one from the Conceição Lagoon (CL and the other from North Bay (NB, both on Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. Side scan sonar data from the CL were used to facilitate the understanding. The sub bottom (SB seismic data were processed and interpreted by means of the SeisPrho software, the side scan sonar (SSS data by SonarWiz5 software and the spatial extension being measured with the help of GIS. The shallow gas structures were defined in accordance with their shapes in the seismic recordings (echo-character. At the CL, shallow gas accumulations were found in the form of seepages and features presenting shallow gas structures between the surface and 8.20 ms (around 12.3 m. Accumulations of gas were found in the form of Acoustic Blanking with Acoustic Plume, and also Black Shadows. Pockmarks were found on the lagoon floor and associated with gas seepages (average size diameter 0.97 ± 0.19 m and density from 54 to 242 units per 50 m2. In the NB three types of shallow gas features were found in the seismic profile, namely Acoustic Blanking, Turbidity Pinnacles and Intra-sedimentary plumes. The depth varied from the surface to 12.10 ms (around 18.15 m. In both environments, the gas is escaping from the sediment into the water column. The Pockmarks in the CL and the Acoustic Plume features and sediment rich in total sulfur in the NB validate these findings.

  9. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

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    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  10. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil

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    Cesar A. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g-1 of extractable organic matter; low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.A distribuição relativa de vários compostos identificados em quatro amostras de sedimentos recentemente depositados no manguezal do Itacorubi, localizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil, foi comparada a dos diversos compostos extraídos de folhas frescas de três espécies de mangues: Avicennia schaueriana, espécie dominante na região, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, e a gramínea Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenóis identificados previamente em espécies de mangues no norte do Brasil também foram encontrados. A espécie A. schaueriana cont

  11. Relationship Between Observed Heat Trends and Urban Heat Island in Manaus City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, D. O.; Alvalá, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, was evaluated. Initially, a statistical study of the evolution of temperature and precipitation fields in the past 50 years was performed. A heating trend of +0.74oC in the temperature dataset was observed, as well as an increase in the annual accumulated precipitation, which are possibly related to the intense urbanization of the study area. The impact of urbanization on the microclimate of Manaus was also evaluated with a comparison between NCEP reanalysis and data collected in the urban area. This comparison show that have a difference about +2.09oC, which could be related with the urbanization. Also, differences were observed in temperature and humidity between the urban area and adjacent forest, which provides evidence for an UHI. Analyses of the UHI showed that it has become more intense during the end of the dry season, having been observed that on average the city is up to 2.98oC warmer than the forest. The UHI intensity diurnal cycle presented distinct behavior from those found in various studies, exhibiting two peaks of highest intensity, one at 8 (LT) and one between the 15 and 17 (LT). It also highlighted that the urban area tends to heat first and more slowly and cool down later and faster than the forest, which explains the distinct behavior of the diurnal cycle of the UHI. Other characteristic of the microclimate of Manaus is that the local circulations, the river breeze, presented a pattern related with the UHI intensity. Furthermore, these heating extremes can possibly be associated with the liberation of heat from automobile and industrial sources, as well as with changes in the energy partitioning between the urban and forest areas. The obtained results provide evidence for the presence of an UHI in the city of Manaus and its influence on the local microclimate, showing that the process of urbanization is directly related with the heating trends observed in

  12. Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, Sao Sebastiao Island, state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    Mantelatto, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium is distributed globally in most biogeographical regions, and contains species with interestingmechanisms of evolution. We conducted an exhaustive survey on São Sebastião Island, the largest coastal island of the stateof São Paulo. Here we provide a list of species (M. acanthurus, M. carcinus, M. heterochirus, M. olfersi, M. potiuna togetherwith the diagnosis, distribution, and remarks on each species, and a key for their identification. We compare our findingswith available information on the genus. The high diversity of freshwater shrimps on the island is interesting in terms ofbiogeographical and evolutionary processes.

  13. Interdisciplinary paleovegetation study in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz C.R. Pessenda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental, carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years.Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de reconstruir trocas de vegetação (com referências climáticas que ocorreram durante o Holoceno na ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa utilizou-se de análises geoquímicas (minerais, elementar, isótopos do carbono (δ13C, 14C e análises polínicas em solos e sedimentos coletados na Lagoa da Viração e no manguezal do Sueste. Os isótopos do carbono dos solos indicaram que não houve trocas significativas de vegetação durante os últimos 7400 anos AP, sugerindo

  14. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

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    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  15. Trophic structure of a fish community in Bananal stream subbasin in Brasília National Park, Cerrado biome (Brazilian Savanna, DF

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    Mariana Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the trophic structure of the fish community in the Bananal stream subbasin, which belongs to a well-preserved Cerrado area (Brazilian Savanna in Brasília National Park, Brazil. We also evaluated the influence of environmental variations in the diet of fish species. Four samples were taken in each 30 m long established transect, two in the rainy season and two in the dry season. A total of 1,050 stomachs of the 13 most abundant species were analyzed. A total of 36 food items were consumed, where 24 were autochthonous, 8 allochthonous, and 4 of undetermined origin. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis, in addition to the results of frequency of occurrence and abundance charts, was used to determine four groups of feeding guilds: detritivores, omnivores (tending toward herbivory and invertivory, invertivores and piscivores. Around 69% of the volume of resources consumed was allochthonous, which proves the importance of the resources provided by riparian vegetation. The contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous items in the diet differed due to seasonality for Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Astyanax sp., Characidium xanthopterum, Hyphessobrycon balbus, Kolpotocheirodon theloura, Moenkhausia sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Rivulus pictus. Despite the Cerrado climate characteristics, there was no significant influence of season on the fish diet. The absence of seasonal variation and the predominance of allochthonous items in the fish diet are probably associated with the presence of riparian vegetation, which acts as a transition area in the Cerrado biome and provides resources for the aquatic fauna. This work shows the importance of studies in non-disturbed areas considered here as a source of information concerning the biology of fish species and as a guide for direct conservation policies on the management of aquatic resources, recovery of damaged areas and determination of priority areas for

  16. A new species of the highland frog genus Holoaden (Amphibia, Strabomantidae) from cloud forests of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Itamar A; Zaher, Hussam

    2013-01-04

    A new species of the genus Holoaden is described from the Atlantic forest of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, being restricted to primary or slightly disturbed high altitude cloud forests along the northeastern portion of the Serra do Mar. The typelocality is determined as Estação Ecológica de Bananal, in the Municipality of Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is characterized by its moderate body size (female 42.6-44.2 mm SVL; male 37.2-38.5 mm SVL) with long and slender limbs, a head wider than long, a highly glandular dorsum, covered by well developed macroglands that extend to the internasal region, thigh and tibia, and an intense dark brown dorsal coloration and dark grey ventral surface.

  17. Isosporoid Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae parasites of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae from the Marambaia Island, Brazil

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    Bruno P. Berto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years some coccidian parasites of birds were recorded in Marambaia Island, which is a protected environment with a great biodiversity of birds, mainly tanagers. In this current study Isospora tiesangui, I. sepetibensis, I. ramphoceli, I. navarroi, I. cadimi and I. marambaiensis were identified according to their respective thraupid hosts of the Marambaia Island. These species were characterized with histograms, linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The main feature of identification was the morphology of the sporocyst, mainly Stieda and substieda bodies, since the morphometry did not provide sufficient differentiation. Besides, Dacnis cayana and Thraupis palmarum were reported as new hosts to I. sepetibensis and I. navarroi respectively.

  18. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  19. Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity in a Small Urban Agglomerate in Brazil

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    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, SUHIs (surface urban heat islands have been greatly emphasized in urban climate studies, since it is one of the climate phenomena most influenced by human action. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of SUHIs in the cities of Ceres and Rialma (Brazil were investigated; satellite Landsat 8 TIRS/OLI images from 2013 to 2016 were used for this purpose. The results showed that in all seasons, two relationships were observed, one positive and one negative. An N D V I (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.2 is the divider of this relationship: up to this value, the relationship is positive, that is, the higher the N D V I value, the higher the surface temperature, while the relationship is negative at an N D V I greater than 0.2. There was high seasonal variation in the SUHIs, with the highest intensities recorded in the spring and summer (±12 °C, and the lowest in the winter. These temporal variations were attributed to the annual cycle of precipitation, which directly involves the robustness of the Cerrado vegetation. SUHIs occupied, on average, an area three times larger than the area of SUCIs (surface urban cool islands. The highest values of SUCIs were observed in water bodies and in valley bottoms. Overall, SUHIs showed high intensities; however, a more intense core area, such as in large cities, was not observed.

  20. Cat-rodent Toxoplasma gondii Type II-variant circulation and limited genetic diversity on the Island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Ferreira, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda Vianna; Magalhães, Fernando Jorge Rodrigues; Filho, Carlos Diógenes Ferreira Lima; Oliveira, Solange; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Aizawa, Juliana; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Dubey, Jitender Prakask; Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima Jesus

    2017-05-03

    In Brazil, studies on animals and humans in mainland areas have shown that most strains of Toxoplasma gondii are pathogenic to mice and exhibit great genetic variability. In this study, using a set of 11 PCR-RFLP and 15 microsatellite markers, we isolated and genetically characterised T. gondii strains from one cat and three rats on Fernando de Noronha Island. The cat had antibodies to T. gondii, which were revealed using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25) and the seroprevalence among the 46 rodents was 15.2%. Viable T. gondii was isolated from one cat (TgCatBrFN1), two brown rats (TgRatnoBrFN1 and TgRatnoBrFN2) and one black rat (TgRatraBrFN1). Unlike the strains from mainland Brazil, these isolates were not pathogenic to outbred mice. The genotypes of these strains were compared with strains previously isolated on the island and in mainland Brazil. The analysis based on microsatellite data showed a limited genetic diversity of T. gondii on Fernando de Noronha Island with the majority of strains clustered into the following three groups: type II, III, and Caribbean 1. There was little variation among strains within the same group, suggesting that the majority of strains circulating on Fernando de Noronha are derived from only a few strains that were recently introduced to the island, likely from imported cats. Except for the strain belonging to the Caribbean 1 group that originates from northeast Brazil, there was little evidence that strains from the other groups were introduced to Fernando de Noronha via mainland Brazil.

  1. Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920 isolated from a sylvatic rodent (Echimys dasythrix in Santa Catarina island, Santa Catarina state: first report of this trypanosome in southern Brazil

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    M. Steindel

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available A trypanosome strain isolated from a sylvatic rodent (Echimys dasythrix from Santa Catarina Island (Santa Catarina State, Brazil was characterized by the following methods: experimental transmission and development in invertebrate hosts, morphometry, cross protection, complement sensitivity, lectin agglutination and isoenzyme profiles. Comparasions were made with standard Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli strains. All methods except isoenzyne analysis led to the identification of the isolate as T. rangeli. The isoenzyme differences found could be explained on the basis of polymorphism. Therefore this is the first report of T. rangeli in southern Brazil, increasing the geographical distribution of this parasite.

  2. Bioremediation strategies of hydrocarbons and microbial diversity in the Trindade Island shoreline--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Edmo M; Kalks, Karlos H M; Fernandes, Péricles L; Tótola, Marcos R

    2015-12-30

    This study analyzed the microbial diversity colonizing the surface of an oil sample during its contact with water, off the Trindade Island coast and simulated the efficiency of eight different bioremediation strategies for this environment. The diversity analysis was performed using acrylic coupons that served as the support for an oil inclusion at sea. The coupons were sampled over 30 days, and T-RFLP multiplex was employed to access the diversity of fungi, Bacteria and Archaea present on the oil surface. The bioremediation strategies were simulated in a respirometer. The results showed that the bacterial domain was the most dominant in oil colonization and that the richness of the species attached to the oil gradually increases with the exposure time of the coupons. The combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation with a native population was proven to be an effective strategy for the remediation of oil off the Trindade Island shoreline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New species of miniature fish from Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil, with comments on its relationships (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    Full Text Available A new miniature species of the family Characidae from Marajó Island, Pará State, Brazil is described and assigned to the genus Tyttobrycon. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners primarily by having multicuspid teeth on jaws, and additionally by having the combination of 5-7 premaxillary teeth, dorsal fin only with scattered melanophores and the presence of an adipose fin.

  4. Hepatic steatosis associated with microsporidiosis in teleost fishes from Marajó Island, Brazil

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    MARCELA VIDEIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 specimens of the teleost fish Gobioides grahamae Palmer & Wheeler, 1955 were obtained from the municipality of Salvaterra on Marajó Island in the Brazilian state of Pará. Their livers were removed and processed for light microscopy. Overall, 90% of the specimens presented some degree of steatosis of the liver, which was invariably associated with the presence of Microsporidium sp. The present study confirms the occurrence of steatosis in G. grahamae associated with parasitic infections by Microsporidium. The findings indicate that the condition of otherwise healthy fishes in their natural environment may be affected negatively by parasites.

  5. Vulnerability Assessment of a Coastal Dune System at São Francisco do Sul Island, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquini, Fernanda; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Pozzebon, Alessandro; Ferreira de Melo Júnior, João Carlos; Voos Vieira, Celso

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Coastal Dune Vulnerability Index (CDVI) has been applied on a beach located in the eastern side of Sao Francisco do Sul Island (Brazil). The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of a coastal dune system and to identify the areas that result most sensitive to environmental changes. The CDVI has been applied along six transects traced out on two sectors that have been selected based on dune characteristics: Zone A is characterized by well developed parabolic dunes, whereas Zone B is characterized by transverse dunes. The analysis involved 51 quantitative and qualitative variables, divided into five groups: geomorphological dune system condition, marine influence, Aeolian effect, vegetation condition and human effect. The total CDVI was computed as the unweighted average of the partial vulnerability indices. In summary, the total vulnerability can be classified as medium: the geomorphological factor must be monitored at Grande beach, in particular the blowouts in Zone A and the frontal dune retreat in Zone B. The results of the study confirm that the management of coastal areas might be improved using a tool such as the CDVI, which can be easily applied on a regular basis to take under control the factors that mostly affect the evolution of the site.

  6. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Felipe Vemado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  7. Nematodes in Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus, Hoplias malabaricus and Pygocentrus nattereri (pisces characiformes) in Marajó Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Matos, Edilson Rodrigues; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Knoff, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tegument, musculature and mesentery of 102 specimens of Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus, 104 of Hoplias malabaricus and 101 of Pygocentrus nattereri, from Arari Lake, Marajó Island, State of Pará, Brazil. Were identified the nematodes Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Procamallanus sp. Contracaecum sp. was the most prevalent, with rates of 84.31% (H. unitaeniatus), 95.19% (H. malabaricus), and 89.11% (P. nattereri). The highest prevalences of Eustrongylides sp. occurred in H. unitaeniatus (56.86%) and H. malabaricus (53.84%). Procamallanus sp. was only collected in the mesentery. Specimens of Eustrongylides sp. collected from the musculature were 91.9% of its population. Among the nematodes found in the mesentery, 98.34% were Contracaecum sp. with a mean intensity (MI) of 7.92 ± 8.11 (H. unitaeniatus), 8.49 ± 8.34 (H. malabaricus) and 7 ± 6.40 (P. nattereri). Contracaecum sp. presented the highest MI (8.49 ± 8.34) and mean abundance (8.09 ± 8.34). The highest MI values were observed in the mesentery. Eustrongylides sp. presented MI of 2.65 ± 3.21 (H. unitaeniatus), 3.41 ± 3.27 (H. malabaricus) and 2.17 ± 1.18 (P. nattereri). Nematodes with zoonotic potential that were found with high prevalence, shows the importance of actions by the health authorities.

  8. Ants of João da Cunha Island, SC, Brazil: composition and diversity

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    Ricardo Corbetta

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The ant species of João da Cunha Island, SC, were collected both manually and by the use of attractive baits of honey and sardine. The samples were taken at 10 sites, each having one bait of each type, totalling 20 samples in each collection. A total of 14 genera, 52 species and 5 subfamilies was sampled in one year of monthly sampling. The richest genera were Pheidole (16 species and Camponotus (9. The biological diversity values were high, and the ant fauna presented a strong seazonality on account of this diversity. The greatest similarity between seasons of the year was observed between spring and summer, followed by autumn and winter.

  9. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  10. Subsistence patterns and blood pressure variation in two rural Caboclo communities of Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Crews, Douglas E; Neves, Walter A

    1995-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increases with age in westernized societies, is higher in men, and is correlated with the body mass index (BMI). Traditional societies present more variable patterns of BP. In 1991, BP and anthropometric data from two "Caboclo" (rural populations of mixed ancestry) groups from Marajó Island, Brazil, were collected: The Paricatuba group, (N = 20;12 women), with a subsistence base of fishing, collection of palm fruits, and traditional gardening; and the Praia Grande group (N = 26; 14 women), where subsistence is based on mechanized agriculture. In Paricatuba, mean BP is 109/74 mmHg in men and 101/70 mmHg in women. There are no significant differences between BP of men and women, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases with age. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are associated with weight, but only DBP is associated with the BMI, while SBP is associated with stature. In Praia Grande, mean BP is 120/76 mmHg in men and 118/70 mmHg in women, with no significant differences between the sexes. In Praia Grande, SBP is higher than in Paricatuba, and both SBP and DBP are associated with age. Compared with urban groups, both Caboclo samples have low BP. Still, differences in BP and body habitus between the two groups support a hypothesis that degree of westernization influences mean levels of BP in rural Amazonian populations. Further, the results also may be interpreted as suggesting that associations of sex, age, and BMI with BP, commonly reported in urban samples, are a byproduct of westernization rather than a result of genetic factors. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. Musgos (Bryophyta na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

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    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp. e Leucobryaceae (5 spp., as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr. e Trichosteleum papillosum (Hornsch. A. Jaeger. Evidenciou-se maior diversidade de espécies na mata de terra firme, confirmando a preferência das briófitas por este ecossistema. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. é citada como primeira referência para o Estado do Pará.This work presents a survey of mosses from different ecosystems of Trambioca Island, municipality of Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil. Forty taxa of mosses were found, belonging to 20 genera and 13 families. The families with highest number of species were Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp., and Leucobryaceae (5 spp., which also presented the highest number of individuals. The most common species were Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr., and Trichosteleum papillosum (Honrsch. A. Jaeger. It was observed a higher richness of species in the primary low land rainforest, confirming the preference of bryophytes for this ecosystem. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. is mentioned as the first report to Pará State.

  12. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE REDES DE CANAIS E PIRATARIA DE ÁGUA SUBTERRÂNEA: BACIA DO RIO DO BANANAL (RJ/SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Jorge Vaitsman Leal; Ana Luiza Coelho Netto; André Avelar

    2015-01-01

    Desde 1982, a bacia do rio do Bananal (512 km2), que drena o reverso da escarpa Atlântica da serra do Mar (localmente denominada serra da Bocaina), constituiu-se em área-laboratório de pesquisas de campo de natureza hidro-geomorfológica e geoecológica, fornecendo subsídios para a modelagem funcional e histórica da expansão de redes de canais em vales de cabeceiras de drenagem. Ao longo das últimas três décadas foram conduzidas mensurações do crescimento de um caso típico de canal inciso (tipo...

  13. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade Kersten, Rodrigo; Meneses Silva, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    A 3 000 m2 area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25º30” S 48º23” W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidend...

  14. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Andrade Kersten; Sandro Menezes Silva

    2006-01-01

    A 3 000 m² area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25º30" S 48º23" W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidend...

  15. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  16. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  17. Polychaete zonation on sandy beaches of São Sebastião Island, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Margarete de O. Reis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in the intertidal zone of Barra Velha, Perequê, and Engenho d'Água beaches, located on São Sebastião Island (São Paulo State, Brazil, to assess the composition, abundance, and zonation of the polychaete community in the intertidal zone. Four structurally different sectors were established, two on Barra Velha (I and lI, one on Perequê, and one on Engenho d'Água. Each sector was divided into 3 tidal levels (lower, middle, and upper, in which 5 or 6 random samples were taken seasonally using a corer of 0.01 m2 in area. Laeonereis acuta, Capitella capitata, and Heteromastus filiformis dominated in the upper tidal levels, and Scoloplos (Leodamas sp. and Cirriformia tentaculata in the lower levels. The structural complexity of Engenho d'Água, caused by rocky fTagments mixed with sand, supported the richest and most diverse polychaete fauna of ali the sectors. The salinity of the interstitial water and the organic matter content were the principal factors related to the zonation patterns at these sites.Este trabalho foi realizado na região entremarés das praias Barra Velha, Perequê e Engenho d'Água, situadas na Ilha de São Sebastião (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de estudar a composição, abundância e zonação da taxocenose dos poliquetas. Quatro setores estruturalmente diferentes foram delimitados, sendo dois na Barra Velha (I e II, um no Perequê e um no Engenho d'Água. Cada setor foi dividido em 3 níveis entremarés (inferior, intermediário e superior, nos quais 5-6 amostras aleatórias foram tomadas sazonalmente utilizando um delimitador com 0,01 m2 de área. Laeonereis acuta, Capitella capitata e Heteromastus filiformis ocorreram predominantemente nos níveis superiores e Scoloplos (Leodamas sp. e Cirriformia tentaculata nos inferiores. A complexidade estrutural do Engenho d' Água, caracterizado por fragmentos rochosos misturados ao sedimento, sustentou a fauna de poliquetas mais rica e

  18. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

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    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  19. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Rodrigo de Andrade; Silva, Sandro Menezes

    2006-09-01

    A 3,000 m2 area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25 degrees 30" S 48 degrees 23" W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Pleurothallis and Prosthechea. Eight families were represented by one species each. Most species were classified as obligatory holoepiphytes (62 %), followed by the relatively more rare preferential holoepiphytes (13 %), facultative epiphytes (11 %), hemiepiphytes (9 %) and accidental epiphytes (6 %).

  20. Large genetic differentiation and low variation in vector competence for dengue and yellow fever viruses of Aedes albopictus from Brazil, the United States, and the Cayman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço de Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2003-07-01

    We conducted a population genetic analysis of Aedes albopictus collected from 20 sites in Brazil, the United States (Florida, Georgia, and Illinois), and the Cayman Islands. Using isoenzyme analysis, we examined genetic diversity and patterns of gene flow. High genetic differentiation was found among Brazilian samples, and between them and North American samples. Regression analysis of genetic differentiation according to geographic distances indicated that Ae. albopictus samples from Florida were genetically isolated by distance. Infection rates with dengue and yellow fever viruses showed greater differences between two Brazilian samples than between the two North American samples or between a Brazilian sample and a North American sample. Introductions and establishments of new Ae. albopictus populations in the Americas are still in progress, shaping population genetic composition and potentially modifying both dengue and yellow fever transmission patterns.

  1. Reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia in the periurban environment of Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil

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    Manoel dos Santos Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita were studied through capture-recapture on Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil. Surveys were carried out from April 1996 to March 1997. The study area was located near the stream of a swamp in a disturbed Atlantic Forest area. On 880 trap-nights, 31 opossums were captured on 108 occasions during one year. The results of this paper indicate a seasonal polyestrous reproduction pattern. Autumn-winter population levels grew on account of juvenile recruitment. The sex ratio favored females in first captures and total captures. Emigration was discussed as being the main reason for the female bias. The effects of sampling procedures over deviation in the pouch young sex ratio of resident females were also discussed.

  2. Arboreous vegetation of an alluvial riparian forest and their soil relations: Porto Rico island, Paraná river, Brazil

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    Campos João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of alluvial deposits in floodplains forms islands and sandbanks. Deposits frequently accumulate at the river margins and on islands with consequent side growths. One of these sandbanks which started to form in 1952 annexed an area of 12.4ha to the Porto Rico island (53masculine15?W and 22masculine45?S. At present a forest fragment of approximately 2.0 ha exists in this place. The structural analysis of arboreous vegetation of this fragment showed a floristic gradient related to the physical and chemical variations of the substratum. High density of pioneer species associated to the absence of recruitment of new individuals of these and other successional categories indicated that the forest was impaired in its succession process. This fact could be associated with constant disturbances caused by cattle in the area.

  3. Natural Plasmodium infection in neotropical primates in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The states that make up the Legal Amazon Region, which include the state of Maranhão, account for 99% of registered cases of human malaria in Brazil. It is also believed that transmission of malaria from nonhuman primates (NHP to humans occurs in this region, because of current reports of seroepidemiological results from samples from humans and NHP coexisting in the same areas. This study aimed to make morphological, serological and molecular diagnoses of Plasmodium spp. in neotropical primates on the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The diagnostic techniques used were optical microscopy, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. From June 2009 to April 2010, 70 NHP were sampled: 50 at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS, located in the municipality of São Luís and 20 free-living individuals that were caught in a private reserve located in the municipality of São Jose de Ribamar, state of Maranhão. Under an optical microscope, 140 slides (two from each animal were evaluated and five animals (7.1% were found to be positive. IFA did not detect anti-Plasmodium spp. From PCR on the 70 animals sampled, amplified Plasmodium spp. products were observed in 13 samples, of which eight (61.5% were from free-living animals and five (38.5% were from animals at CETAS.

  4. Nesting ecology of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812 and Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Brazil

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    PD. Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Nest site has influence on incubation duration and hatching success of two Neotropical turtles, the Giant Amazon River Turtle (Podocnemis expansa and Yellow-Spotted Side-Neck Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis - "Tracajá". The 2000 and 2001 nesting seasons have been monitored at the Javaés River in Bananal Island, Brazil. Although they nest on the same beaches, there is a separation of the nesting areas of P unifilis and P. expansa nests on the upper parts of the beach. The incubation duration for P. expansa is influenced by the nesting period, the height of the nest from the river, the clutch size, and the grain size in the site of the nest. Nests of Podocnemis expansa placed in coarse sediments have shorter incubation duration than those placed in finer sediments. The hatching success in P. expansa is influenced by grain size, incubation duration, and nesting period. The grain size is negatively correlated with hatching success, indicating that the nests situated in finer-grained sand have better chances of successful egg hatching than those in coarser-grained sand. Nests of the end of the reproductive season have lower hatching success and incubation duration than those at the start of the season. For P. unifilis, the nesting period and nest depth influence the incubation duration; moreover, the river dynamics significantly affect the hatching success. The oscillation of the river level and the moment of initial increase, the height of the nest from the river level, and the nesting period are all decisive components for hatching success. The results of this research show the importance of protecting areas with great geological diversity, wherein the features of the environment can affect the microenvironment of nests, with consequences on incubation duration and hatching success.

  5. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE REDES DE CANAIS E PIRATARIA DE ÁGUA SUBTERRÂNEA: BACIA DO RIO DO BANANAL (RJ/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jorge Vaitsman Leal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1982, a bacia do rio do Bananal (512 km2, que drena o reverso da escarpa Atlântica da serra do Mar (localmente denominada serra da Bocaina, constituiu-se em área-laboratório de pesquisas de campo de natureza hidro-geomorfológica e geoecológica, fornecendo subsídios para a modelagem funcional e histórica da expansão de redes de canais em vales de cabeceiras de drenagem. Ao longo das últimas três décadas foram conduzidas mensurações do crescimento de um caso típico de canal inciso (tipo voçoroca resultante da erosão por exfiltração de água subterrânea. Enquanto o canal-tronco permaneceu relativamente estável nesse período, observou-se o crescimento de dois canais-dígitos, um dos quais bifurcou próximo à cabeça do canal-tronco, mostrando aceleração das taxas de recuo com a aproximação do divisor. Este último fato contrariou o esperado na medida em que a literatura apontava que a redução da área de contribuição a montante da cabeça de canal tenderia a desacelerar a atividade erosiva até sua estabilização final. Isto abriu a hipótese de que estaria ocorrendo migração de fluxo do vale de cabeceira vizinho, o que foi traduzido como “pirataria” de água subterrânea. Neste trabalho buscou-se testar tal possibilidade, visando compreender melhor a relação entre a expansão da rede de canais e o comportamento da rede de fluxos d’água subterrânea local. Para tanto, utilizou-se a modelagem numérica de fluxos subterrâneos, arbitrando-se uma profundidade limite da rocha impermeável em 25 m por aproximação aos dados de campo. Alguns cenários foram reproduzidos a partir do conhecimento sobre a evolução geomorfológica da região. Os resultados da modelagem mostraram que o crescimento da rede de canais promove mudanças na orientação da rede de fluxos d’água subterrânea, podendo concentrar parte da rede de fluxos dos vales de cabeceiras vizinhas, configurando-se uma “pirataria de

  6. Coastal Sedimentation in a Tropical Barrier-Island System During the Past Century in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa Vargas Borges; Charles A. Nittrouer

    2016-01-01

    The nature of sedimentation and sediment accumulation rates in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil were interpreted from grainsize patterns, natural radiochemical distributions and seismic stratigraphy. The grain-size analyses showed progressive upward fining of sediment in cores, and a higher percentage of clay in surficial deposits in 1996 than observed during a previous spatial survey in the 1970s. Based on 210Pb geochronology, accumulation rates range from 0.37 cm yr-1 to 2.0 cm yr-1 for the...

  7. Incidence of plastic debris in Sooty Tern nests: A preliminary study on Trindade Island, a remote area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Petersen, Elisa; Krüger, Lucas; Dezevieski, Alexandre; Petry, MariaVirginia; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-04-15

    Plastic is abundant in the oceans, reaching pelagic zones away from continents. Here we present the first recordings of plastic used as nest material in Sooty Tern nests, on a remote oceanic island. We describe our findings in terms of quantity, size and color of plastic debris. A total of 78 plastics were noted in 54 nests. Four color categories were found: Blue, White, Green and Red. Blue fragments were the most frequent color, present three times as much as white debris. This pattern was present despite blue fragments being smaller and lighter. The plastic debris of lowest frequency were the larger and heavier pieces (red). To our knowledge this is the first record of plastic in Sooty Tern nests. Trindade Island is on an oceanic zone expected to accumulate garbage due to the dynamic ocean currents. Such findings call for a closer inspection of pollution in the Atlantic Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The bryophytes of Trindade Island, South Atlantic, Brazil As briófitas da Ilha da Trindade, Atlântico Sul, Brasil

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    Allan Laid Alkimim Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trindade is a Brazilian oceanic island located about 1,200 Km east of the Brazilian coast (between 20º 31' 30" S, 29º 19' 30'' W. The island originated from the abissal zone about 3 million years ago, has a maximum altitude of 620 meters and an area of 9.28 Km². Even though the fanerogamic flora is known, there were virtually no data on the bryophyte flora. Four expeditions to the island were carried out during two years and approximately 431 specimens collected. This work presents the Bryoflora of this island, which comprises 32 species, including 20 species of liverworts distributed among six families; the most speciose being Lejeuneaceae with 11 species and Frullaniaceae with four. There are also 11 species of mosses distributed among eight families, the most diverse being Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae and Pottiaceae with two species each. Only one species of hornworts was found. The bryophyte flora of Trindade most likely originated from the threatened Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil and, therefore, has conservation implications. Keys and comments are provided.Trindade é uma ilha oceânica brasileira localizada a 1.200 km a oeste da costa do Brasil entre as coordenadas 20º 31' 30" S e 29º 19' 30'' W. A ilha emergiu da zona abissal cerca de 3 milhões de anos, com altitude máxima de 620 m e uma área de 9,28 km². Sua flora fanerógama é relativamente conhecida, sendo praticamente não tendo dados sobre a flora de briófitas. Foram realizadas quatro expedições entre os anos de 2010 e 2011 e cerca de 431 espécimes coletados. O resultado mostrou 32 espécies de briófitas, das quais 20 são hepáticas distribuídas em seis famílias, com 11 espécies de Lejeuneaceae e quatro de Frullaniaceae. Na divisão dos musgos foi representado com 11 espécies distribuídos em oito famílias sendo a mais diversificadas com duas espécies: Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae e Pottiaceae. Na divisão dos antóceros apenas uma espécie foi

  9. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil

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    Rodrigo de Andrade Kersten

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 000 m² area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25º30" S 48º23" W in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida. The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Pleurothallis and Prosthechea. Eight families were represented by one species each. Most species were classified as obligatory holoepiphytes (62 %, followed by the relatively more rare preferential holoepiphytes (13 %, facultative epiphytes (11 %, hemiepiphytes (9 % and accidental epiphytes (6 %. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 935-942. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Se muestreó plantas de todos los estratos en una área de 3 000 m² de selva estacionalmente inundada en Ilha do Mel (25º30 "S 48º23’ W, Paraná, Brazil. El área tiene 103 especies de epífitas en 49 géneros y 20 familias, de las cuales 28 especies son pteridófitas y 75 magnoliófitas (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida. Las familias más comunes son Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae y Araceae, y los géneros más frecuentes Vriesea, Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Encyclia y Pleurothallis. Ocho familias solamente están representadas por una especie cada una. La mayoría de las especies son loepífitas obligadas (62 %, seguidas de las relativamente escasas holoepífitas preferenciales (13 %, epífitas facultativas (11 %, hemiepífitas (9 % y epífitas accidentales (6 %.

  10. An integrative approach-using field and laboratory data to characterize shell utilization and selection pattern by the hermit crab Pagurus criniticornis (Paguridae from Anchieta Island, Brazil

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    Fernando L. Mantelatto

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of gastropod shell occupation in the field and selection of shell size and type under laboratory conditions by the hermit crab Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852, inhabiting the infralittoral area of Anchieta Island, São Paulo, Brazil. Hermit crabs were obtained monthly during 1999 by SCUBA diving. For experiments under laboratory conditions, samplings were performed in 2002. The hermit crabs occupied 16 species of gastropods shells. Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778 was the most occupied shell (89.31%, followed by Morula nodulosa (4.73% (Adams, 1845. No difference was observed in the pattern of occupation between males and females. The equations that best demonstrated the relationship between hermit crabs and their shells were those that involved Shell Wet Weight (SWW and Shell Internal Volume (SIV. The laboratory experiments were in accordance to the pattern of occupation observed in the field; the mean value of SAI (Shell Adequacy Index recorded to the population studied was 1.13 with a trend to increase this value in the last size classes. The results obtained corroborate with the hypothesis of the occupation process of shells governed not only by availability of shells, but also by its architecture. In addition, the shell stock in the area is one another important condition related to the exhibited pattern of shell occupation by P. criniticornis, and allows the stable coexistence among the island assemblage. The pattern of occupation observed promotes a high reproductive profile for the population studied, maximizing the populational growth.

  11. The population structure of two sympatric hermit-crab species on a subtidal rocky shore of an island in southeastern Brazil

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    DANIEL J.M. LIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this investigation was to characterize the population structure and shell occupancy of two sympatric hermit-crab species, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae. The study was undertaken at Couves Island on the southeastern coast of Brazil, from March 2010 through February 2011, on subtidal rocky bottoms. Specimens were collected by SCUBA diving sessions. A total of 195 individuals of P. brevidactylus and 132 of P. tortugae were examined. Both populations showed unimodal size-frequency distributions, which were non-normal for P. brevidactylus and normal for P. tortugae. The median size of P. brevidactylus was significantly smaller than P. tortugae; in both species, males were significantly larger than females. For both, juveniles and ovigerous females were recorded in all size classes and in almost the entire sampling period. No significant departures from the 1:1 sex ratio were detected, although some size classes were skewed. Overlaps in shell occupation were recorded. Pagurus brevidactylus and P. tortugae showed similar population features; they reached sexual maturity at small sizes, and the nearly year-round presence of young and ovigerous females suggests continuous reproduction. These inter-specific interactions involving resource partitioning suggest a regulatory process that is probably part of the equilibrium strategy of these populations.

  12. Tapping an Amazônian plethora: four medicinal plants of Marajó Island, Pará (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, M L; Johns, E A

    1993-09-01

    This study focused its attention on four medicinal plants (Carapa guianensis, Elephantopus scaber, Piper umbellatum, Stachytarpheta cayenensis) used by Caboclo communities on Marajó, the main island of the Amazon delta. In the field, interviews were conducted with Caboclos and the medicinal usages and preparation procedures of the four plants were recorded. In the laboratory, the plant extracts were subjected to bioassays and their crude chemical composition was established. All four plants showed significant bioactivity and the chemical tests confirmed the presence of bioactive compounds. In addition, the results of both the field and laboratory studies corresponded well with those of a literature search. The ethnopharmacological significance of the four plants is discussed.

  13. Carbonate cements in contemporaneous beachrocks, Jaguaribe beach, Itamaracá island, northeastern Brazil: petrographic, geochemical and isotopic aspects

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    Guerra Núbia C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holocene beachrocks of the Jaguaribe beach, State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, consist of horizontal, cemented layers approximately 40 cm thick. The cement shows three textural varieties: (a calciferous, surrounding siliciclastic grains, (b micritic, with an acicular fringe; and (c cryptocrystalline calcite in pores. Early cementation took place at the water table below beach ridges, where geochemical, hydrodynamic and, perhaps, also microbiological conditions favored rapid precipitation of aragonite and/or high-Mg calcite. delta13C values range from -1.8 to +1.5? for dissolved carbonate in interstitial water and from +0.2 to +2.1? for bioclastic components. delta18O values range from -2.8 to +0.5? for seawater, freshwater and interstitial water. delta13C values and diagenetic features suggest that cementation occurred in meteoric-vadose and/or marine-phreatic water by loss of CO2 during evaporation of the interstitial water. Locally, superimposed low-Mg calcite cements point to subsequent freshwater influence. Total-rock cement composition of vertically stacked beachrock beds at the Jaguaribe beach shows that the highest beachrock bed is older than the one (of same petrographic composition situated at the current groundwater level. This implies a downward progression of cementation, which probably followed the sea-level fall after a local high stand.

  14. Natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L; Figueiredo, F B; Almeida, A B; Benigno, C V; Pontes, C S; Souza, M B

    2014-08-01

    Immature phlebotomine sand flies develop in soils with essential and ideal characteristics for their life cycle, such as organic matter, humidity, temperature and low levels of light. Information regarding the potential breeding places of these dipterans is fundamental to understand the epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis, in addition to its importance to control them. In the present study, we aimed to find natural breeding sites of sand flies on Marambaia Island with the aid of emergence traps and direct search of immature forms using the flotation technique with saturated sugar solution in organic substrates of the region. Both methods were effective, with a total of 42 specimens of six different species - including some species that participate in the transmission cycle of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis - collected by the emergence traps, and five immature forms obtained by floatation technique. However, further studies are still necessary, mainly with respect to the ecology and biology of immature sandfly stages, so that control measures focused on breeding sites can produce positive sustainable results in natural environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spiders from the Island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil: Part III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida Aranhas da Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil: Parte III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida

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    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The female of Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 is described for the first time and Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, a species introduced from Europe, is recorded for the first time on the island of Fernando de Noronha, state of Pernambuco. The latter, along with T. lyonneti (Audouim, 1826 recorded from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, is the second species of this genus to be reported from Brazil. The spiders were collected with pitfall traps in five points of the island. Ecological data showed that Gnaphosidae was the fifth best sampled spider family, with 179 specimens, belonging to two species, T. kulczynskii and Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii was the most abundant with 118 adults while Z. hortenciae was represented by only 21 adults. Both species were collected during the dry and wet seasons but T. kulczynskii was more abundant during the wet season while Z. hortenciae was more abundant during the dry season. The male:female ratio for the dry season was similar for both species but in the wet season it was three times higher for T. kulczynskii.A fêmea de Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 é descrita pela primeira vez. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, uma espécie de origem européia, é registrada pela primeira vez na Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, no estado de Pernambuco. Junto com T. lyonneti (Audouin, 1826, já registrado para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é a segunda espécie do gênero introduzida no Brasil. As aranhas foram coletadas com armadilhas de solo em cinco pontos da ilha e os dados ecológicos detectados para Gnaphosidae foram de que esta foi a quinta família melhor amostrada dentre Araneae, com 179 espécimes de duas espécies, T. kulczynskii e Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii foi mais abundante com 118 adultos enquanto Z. hortenciae teve 21 adultos coletados. Ambas foram coletadas nas estações seca e chuvosa, sendo que T. kulczynskii foi mais

  16. The urban heat island in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the last 30 years using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Leonardo de Faria; Lucena, Andrews José de; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa; França, José Ricardo de Almeida

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to study urban heat island (UHI) in Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ) based on the analysis of land-surface temperature (LST) and land-use patterns retrieved from Landsat-5/Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat-7/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensors (TIRS) data covering a 32-year period between 1984 and 2015. LST temporal evolution is assessed by comparing the average LST composites for 1984-1999 and 2000-2015 where the parametric Student t-test was conducted at 5% significance level to map the pixels where LST for the more recent period is statistically significantly greater than the previous one. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon rank sum test has also confirmed at the same 5% significance level that the more recent period (2000-2015) has higher LST values. UHI intensity between ;urban; and ;rural/urban low density; (;vegetation;) areas for 1984-1999 and 2000-2015 was established and confirmed by both parametric and non-parametric tests at 1% significance level as 3.3 °C (5.1 °C) and 4.4 °C (7.1 °C), respectively. LST has statistically significantly (p-value < 0.01) increased over time in two of three land cover classes (;urban; and ;urban low density;), respectively by 1.9 °C and 0.9 °C, except in ;vegetation; class. A spatial analysis was also performed to identify the urban pixels within MARJ where UHI is more intense by subtracting the LST of these pixels from the LST mean value of ;vegetation; land-use class.

  17. Reproductive aspects of the caridean shrimp Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 (Decapoda: Atyidae in São Sebastião Island, southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

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    Juliana Herrera-Correal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The caridean freshwater shrimp Atya scabra is a common resident of stream systems of tropical rainforests in America, including Brazilian drainages. This shrimp has an amphidromous life cycle, which increases its vulnerability when facing habitat fragmentation. Since information on the reproduction of this species is still limited, we present here data on egg production, egg loss, and energy investment, to achieve a better understanding of reproductive features of A. scabra. Specimens were collected between 2006 and 2007 in São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazil, in 13 locations. The fecundity of 21 ovigerous females analyzed ranged between 414 and 19,250 eggs, which were higher than previously reported. However, the larger size of females analyzed may explain the observed intraspecific difference in egg production. During embryogenesis, egg volume and water content increased by 103 and 22.6%, respectively. The initial egg volume of A. scabra in the present study (0.027 mm³ was slightly lower, but comparable to the values reported previously from the same study area. During incubation, females of A. scabra lost 15% of their initially produced eggs. The reproductive output (average RO of 3.6% is the first report for any atyid species. Its value is fairly low compared to other freshwater shrimps, and it is hypothesized that this might be related to a high energy investment in morphological adaptations, which allows the shrimp to cling on to the substrate in the fast flowing environment they inhabit. Additionally, the long life span, a well-known phenomenon in atyid shrimp, may allow the species to invest a relatively low amount of energy per brood in egg production, but over a longer time span.

  18. Estimation of environmental radiological implications arising from the operation of the Nuclear Engineering Institute - IEN, locate at Fundao Island, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Sueli da Silva

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Institute is located at the Fundao Island in the City of the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Institute works in several fields such as reactors, physics, radiation protection and radioactive waste management, instrumentation and control, chemistry and metallurgy. It has a nuclear installation, represented by the Argonauta reactor, and the other installations are classified as radioactive. During the operation of these installations, some radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents are generated and released into the sanitary sewerage system and in the atmosphere, respectively. The main radioactive effluents are generated during the radioisotopes production and processing. The critical radionuclides released by Institute, in the period covered by this work, from 1985 to 1995, were 65 Zn and 123 l, respectively for the aquatic and atmospheric pathways. This study has shown that the main radiation exposure pathways to man were the inhalation of 123 l contaminated plume and external exposure to the 65 Zn contaminated sewage sludge - coming from the final treatment of the liquid effluents at the Sewage Treatment Plant - in the Sanitary landfilling. Considering the conditions of operation studied, the individual equivalent doses received by the critical groups of the population did not exceed 1/500 of the annual limit of 1 mSv.ano -1 established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission for the members of the public. These values do not represent any significant radiological risk increase for the local population. Therefore, the exposure calculated in this work, 2 (μSv.year -1 , can be considered acceptable. However, any future dose increment should be carefully evaluated in terms of cost-benefit analysis, according to the system of dose limitation established in the national rules and in the recommendations of the ICRP. (author)

  19. Ecoepidemiologia da esquistossomose urbana na ilha de Itamaracá, Estado de Pernambuco Ecoepidemiology of urban schistosomiasis in Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Constança Simões Barbosa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em 1988, 22 casos autóctones de esquistossomose foram registrados na Praia do Forte Orange, ilha de Itamaracá, Pernambuco. Todos os casos ocorreram em indivíduos de classe média/alta que veraneavam na ilha. Foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar criadouros/focos de vetores da esquistossomose na localidade, correlacionando os determinantes biológicos da doença com o contexto ambiental da sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: Foram levantados dados secundários para resgatar as características ambientais da área antes da ocupação humana. O inquérito malacológico teve a duração de um ano com mapeamento da área, coleta mensal e exame dos moluscos. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: Em 1 km de extensão da praia, foram identificados 20 criadouros e demarcadas 28 estações de coleta. Os resultados mostram a variação mensal da densidade populacional de moluscos e das taxas de infecção, correlacionados com sazonalidade e tipos de criadouros. Destaca-se a importância desse novo perfil epidemiológico da esquistossomose em Pernambuco, relacionando o modo de ocupação daquele espaço com o estabelecimento de sítios de transmissão ativa da esquistossomose.INTRODUCTION: In 1988, 22 autochthonous cases from accidental exposure were registered in Forte Orange beach, Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil. All cases occurred in middle-to-upper class individuals who were vacationing in the island. After the cases were identified, the major objective was to find breading sites of schistosomiasis vectors and correlate the biological factors with the environmental conditions. METHODS: The environmental characteristics of the beach before human occupation were obtained from several documents. Also, a one-year malacological survey was conducted with monthly collection of mollusks, and the determination of their infectivity rates. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The malacological survey was able to identify 20 breading sites of

  20. Quantification and classification of the main environmental impacts on a Halodule wrightii seagrass meadow on a tropical island in northeastern Brazil

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    Maria Elisa Pitanga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stress mechanisms have caused a worldwide decrease in seagrasses, which are vulnerable to environmental and/or anthropogenic pressure. The loss of seagrass meadows of Halodule wrightii is reported for the littoral of Itamaracá Island (Northeastern Brazil. The present study identified the main anthropogenic factors that negatively influenced over the abundance and distribution of seagrass meadows between July and September 2007 at the Jaguaribe and Pilar Beaches, Eastern littoral of Itamaracá. Anthropogenic impact included the discharge of untreated sewage through fluvial channels, urban and commercial development along the coast, the anchoring of motorized and non-motorized boats, diverse fishing techniques and the dumping of solid waste. The data indicates that the Pilar is an environment with a higher impact index (71.43% when compared with the Jaguaribe (57.14%, standing out the number of boats with a central motor, the total number of boats, the presence of shellfish gatherers and coastal urban development. The present study reinforces the need for defining management and conservation measures for this ecosystem, which has high ecological and economic value.Múltiplos mecanismos estressores têm causado em todo mundo declínio das angiospermas marinhas, que são vulneráveis a pressões ambientais e/ou antrópicas. A perda de prados de Halodule wrightii tem sido relatada para o litoral da Ilha de Itamaracá (Nordeste do Brasil. O presente estudo identificou os principais fatores antrópicos que influenciaram negativamente na abundância e distribuição desses prados entre Julho e Setembro de 2007 nas praias de Jaguaribe e do Pilar, litoral leste de Itamaracá. O impacto antropogênico incluiu despejo de efluentes in natura nos canais fluviais, desenvolvimento urbano e comercial na linha de costa, ancoragem de embarcações motorizadas e não-motorizadas, técnicas diversas de pesca e disposição de resíduos sólidos. Os dados

  1. Isotopic variations ({delta}{sup 13} C and {delta}{sup 18} O) in Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria-Anthozoa), Itamaraca island, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valderez P.; Sial, Alcides N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Mayeal, Elga M.; Exner, Marco Antonio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia. Lab. de Macro e Megabentos

    1998-12-01

    Isotopic determinations for O and C were performed in coral skeletons collected in beach rocks from two localities (Orange and Catuama), Itamaraca Island, north littoral of the State of pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Large variations of {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C in corals from both localities are found, the largest ones being observed at the Orange locality {delta}{sup 13} C in this locality varies from -0.8 to +1.8% PDB and {delta}{sup 1.8} O from -5.3 to -1.8% PDB, while at the Catuama locality, they vary from -1.8 to 0.1% PDB and -3.8 to -2.7% PDB, respectively. Large variations in {delta}{sup 18} O (up to 2.5%) coupled with weakly defined positive correlation between {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C, can be attributed to temperature variations as consequence of climatic perturbations. Temperature estimates, calculated from {delta}{sup 18} O values, assuming isotopic equilibrium with seawater, yield values between 24.9 deg C and 43.1 deg C at Orange, and from 28.4 deg C to 35 deg C at Catuama, all of them (expect one growth band from one sample) are high enough for the full development of the coral colony. Temperature average is 31.4 deg C at Orange, which is a little bit higher than that at Catuama, but both of them indicate thermal stress conditions. In all analyzed specimens, expect for one, at Orange, T increases was accompanied by decreasing in the organic activity, as suggested by corresponding negative {delta}{sup 13} C anomaly. Therefore, the observed bleaching is possibly related to thermal stress and the high T may be related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warning event. On the other hand, anthropogenic action at Orange, local of intense tourism throughout the year, coupled with high rate of sedimentation in the region, may contribute to the observed coral bleaching. (author)

  2. Surto de encefalomielite equina Leste na Ilha de Marajó, Pará Eastern equine encephalitis on Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

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    Karinny F. Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nove casos de encefalomielite equina foram estudados na Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. Os equinos apresentavam dificuldade em se manter em estação, andavam em círculo, tinham acentuada depressão, pálpebras cerradas, paralisia da língua, tremores musculares, bruxismo, anorexia e desidratação. Alguns apresentavam diminuição dos reflexos auricular, palpebral, de ameaça, diminuição do tônus da língua e taquicardia. Posição de auto-auscultação foi observada com frequência. Os animais muitas vezes eram encontrados apoiados em troncos e cercas para se manterem em estação. À necropsia verificou-se hemorragia das leptomeninges e da medula, alguns apresentaram ainda aderência das leptomeninges. À histopatologia verificou-se encefalite difusa que afetava principalmente a substância cinzenta, com meningite e coroidite. Foi observada perivasculite mononuclear. Em dois equinos identificou-se o vírus da encefalomielite equina Leste pela reação de Semi-Nested transcrição reversa de polimerase em cadeia (Semi-Nested RT-PCR.Nine cases of equine encephalomyelitis on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, were studied. The affected horses had difficulty to stand, walked in circles, with marked depression, closed eyelids, tongue paralysis, muscle tremors, bruxism, anorexia and dehydration. Some had their ear and eyelid reflexes diminished, decreased tongue tone and tachycardia; laid down frequently they kept their head on the chest. Often they were seen resting their head on tree trunks or fences. At necropsy, hemorrhages of the meninges and spinal cord, and in some animals also adhesion of the meninges were found. Histologically there was diffuse encephalitis affecting mainly the gray matter, with meningitis and choroiditis. Presence of perivascular cuffs consisting of mononuclear inflammatory cells was observed. From two horses the Eastern equine encephalitis virus was identified by semi-nested reverse transcription

  3. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  4. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  5. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  6. Complex complementizers and the structural relation with weak T. New (morpho)syntactic data from a Pomeranian language island in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I discuss three properties of Brazilian Pomeranian, a Germanic language spoken in Espirito Santo, Brazil by descendents who emigrated in the 19th century. These three aspects of the verbal system are: 1. The relation between complex complementizers, a two-infinitive system, and split

  7. A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeiriidae) from the grey-hooded attila Attila rufus Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) on the Marambaia island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; Da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Lopes, Bruno Do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2015-10-28

    The New World tyrant-flycatcher (Tyrannidae) Attila rufus (Vieillot, 1819) is commonly known as grey-hooded attila or 'capitão-de-saíra' in Brazil (Sick 1997; CBRO 2014). This species has a wide distribution and their population trends appear to be stable; therefore, it is least concern according to IUCN (2015) criteria.

  8. Cat-rodent Toxoplasma gondii Type II-variant circulation and limited genetic diversity on the Island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Brazil, studies on animals and humans in mainland areas have shown that most strains of Toxoplasma gondii are pathogenic to mice and exhibit great genetic variability. In this study, using a set of 11 PCR-RFLP and 15 microsatellite markers, we isolated and genetically characterised T. gondii stra...

  9. Molecular identification of Plasmodium spp. and blood meal sources of anophelines in environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Di Santi, Silvia Maria; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-04-26

    Considering the diversity of feeding habits that females of some species of anophelines present, it is important to understand which vertebrates are part of blood food sources and how important is the role of each in the ecoepidemiology of malaria. There are many vector species for Plasmodium spp. in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. In São Luís Island, Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector for human malaria; this species is abundant in areas with primates that are positive for Plasmodium. Anopheles aquasalis has natural exophilic and zoophilic feeding behavior, but in cases of high density and absence of animals, presents quite varied behavior, and feeds on human blood. In this context, the objective of the present study was to identify Plasmodium spp. and the blood meal sources of anophelines in two environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, using molecular methods. Between June and July 2013, female anophelines were collected in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve, in the municipality of São José de Ribamar, and in the Sítio Mangalho Reserve, located within the Maracanã Environmental Protection Area, in the municipality of São Luís. CDC-type light traps, Shannon traps and protected human bait were used during three consecutive hours in peridomestic and wooded areas. Pools of anophelines were formed using mosquitoes of the same species that had been caught at the same site on the same date. A genus-specific amplification protocol based on the 18S rRNA gene was used for qPCR and cPCR. A total of 416 anophelines were collected, of the following species: An. aquasalis (399), An. mediopunctatus (3), An. shannoni (1), An. nuneztovari (sensu lato) (1), An. goeldii (1), An. evansae (2) and An. (Nyssorhynchus) sp. (9), comprising 54 pools. Two pools were positive for Plasmodium (2/54) based on the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood method, based on a 240 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene, it was found that

  10. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil Conidial Fungi on Euterpe oleracea Mart. on Combu Island, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Corrêa de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de fungos conidiais (hyphomycetes associados à decomposição de material vegetal morto de Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Área de Proteção Ambiental da ilha do Combu, município de Belém, Pará. Entre agosto de 2008 e abril de 2009, foram coletadas partes em decomposição de palmeiras de E. oleracea e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante sete dias. As estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram retiradas e montadas em lâminas semipermanentes para o estudo morfológico em microscopia óptica. O presente trabalho contém descrições, comentários, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos novos registros para o Brasil. Como resultados deste estudo foram identificados 45 táxons de hifomicetos. Todos são novos registros para a área de estudo, destes 11 representam novos registro para o Brasil e 12 para a Amazônia brasileira.The objective of this study was look for conidial fungi (hyphomycetes associated with decomposing, dead vegetative material of Euterpe oleracea Mart. collected on Combu Island (Belém, Pará, an environmentally protected area. From August 2008 to April 2009, decomposing parts of E. oleracea were collected and kept in a moist chamber for seven days. Somatic and reproductive fungal structures were extracted from the substrate and mounted on semi-permanent slides for morphological study using optical microscopy. This paper includes descriptions, comments, geographical distributions and illustrations of new records for Brazil. All these records are new for the study area, 11 are new records for Brazil, and 12 are new for the Brazilian Amazon.

  11. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations in Larus dominicanus. Case study: Marambaia island, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds play a significant role as bioindicators: they are conspicuous, relatively easy to observe, well-established studied group of organisms, and in the focus of public interest due to pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Systematically, a significant number of man-made chemicals have been introduced in the marine environment and represent the major problem arising in the development worldwide. Many of these chemical contaminants are persistent, known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify through the aquatic food web, affecting species associated with aquatic systems. Dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD, dibenzofurans (PCDF] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB concentrations were measured in Kelp gull Larus dominicanus collected from 2006 to 2011 on Marambaia Island, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Detectable liver concentrations of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs were found in all samples analyzed. These represent some of the first measurements of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs in seabirds from this area. Although levels of these contaminants in the tested species currently appear to fall below critical values, a continuous and systematic monitoring on these compounds becomes essential and desirable to not express toxic values in the future.   

  12. Sex differences on the feeding of the gobiid fish Bathygobius soporator in tide pools of Maiandeua Island, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno E. Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837 is one of the most common fishes in tide pools in the estuary of Pará state, and has an omnivorous feeding habit. This study examined the diet of the species in Maiandeua Island, and aimed to: (i describe the diet of B. soporator through indexes based on the occurrence and weight of consumed items; and (ii evaluate if there is variation in diet composition between males and females. Frequency of Occurrence, frequency of weight and Alimentary Index were calculated for each item, and differences in the diet composition of males and females were observed through multivariate analyses (ANOSIM, NMDS and SIMPER. Bathygobius soporator presented carnivorous feeding habit, eating mainly crustaceans, and differences among males and females were observed, males consuming smaller amounts of crustaceans and including algae in their diet.

  13. Late Quaternary drainage dynamics in northern Brazil based on the study of a large paleochannel from southwestern Marajó Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marajó Island shows an abundance of paleochannels easily mapped in its eastern portion, where vegetation consists mostly of savannas. SRTM data make possible to recognize paleochannels also in western Marajó, even considering the dense forest cover. A well preserved paleodrainage network from the adjacency of the town of Breves (southwestern Marajó Island was investigated in this work combining remote sensing and sedimentological studies. The palimpsest drainage system consists of a large meander connected to narrower tributaries. Sedimentological studies revealed mostly sharp-based, fining upward sands for the channelized features, and interbedded muds and sands for floodplain areas. The sedimentary structures and facies successions are in perfect agreement with deposition in channelized and floodplain environments, as suggested by remote sensing mapping. The present study shows that this paleodrainage was abandoned during Late Pleistocene, slightly earlier than the Holocene paleochannel systems from the east part of the island. Integration of previous studies with the data available herein supports a tectonic origin, related to the opening of the Pará River along fault lineaments. This would explain the disappearance of large, north to northeastward migrating channel systems in southwestern Marajó Island, which were replaced by the much narrower, south to southeastward flowing modern channels.A Ilha do Marajó mostra uma abundância de paleocanais que são facilmente mapeáveis em sua porção leste, onde a vegetação consiste principalmente em savanas. Dados SRTM possibilitam reconhecer paleocanais também na porção oeste do Marajó, mesmo considerando a cobertura vegetal de floresta densa. Uma rede de paleodrenagem bem preservada nas adjacências da cidade de Breves (sudoeste da Ilha do Marajó foi investigada neste trabalho combinando-se sensoriamento remoto e estudos sedimentológicos. O sistema de drenagem palimpséstico consiste

  14. Dirofilariose canina na Ilha de São Luís, Nordeste do Brasil: uma zoonose potencial Canine heartworm on São Luís Island, Northeastern Brazil: a potential zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Mendes Ahid

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Um inquérito sobre a prevalência da dirofilariose canina foi realizado entre 1.495 cães de 64 localidades na Ilha de São Luís, de 1991 a 1994, através da pesquisa de microfilárias. Desses, 1.358 cães (12,8% positivos não tinham história pregressa conhecida, sendo 1.265 errantes (10,3% microfilarêmicos e 93 domiciliados (37,8%. A dirofilariose foi detectada em 46 das localidade, porém a prevalência da infecção aumenta consideravelmente quando se trata de cães da orla marítima, de onde procederam 47% dos animais positivos. Em alguns bairros costeiros, a prevalência é elevada, como em Olho d'Água e Calhau (46% e 43% positivos, respectivamente. A pesquisa de microfilárias em 137 cães estritamente domiciliados (DO e com história pregressa conhecida (43% microfilarêmicos permitiu a comprovação da existência de transmissão na Ilha. Este estudo é o primeiro dessa natureza e abrangência realizado no Nordeste do País. Sabendo-se que a dirofilariose é uma zoonose, e diante da elevada prevalência de cães microfilarêmicos, particularmente os domiciliados da orla marítima da Ilha, chama-se a atenção para que se considere tal parasitose como possível causa de lesões pulmonares solitárias na população humana local e naquelas assentadas em áreas com clima e paisagem semelhantes no Nordeste.A survey on the prevalence of canine heartworm was conducted in 1,495 dogs from Maranhão Island, State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, from 1991 to 1994, by testing for microfilariae in blood. Of the total, 1,358 (12.8% of which were infected were dogs with no known history; they included 1,265 homeless animals (10.3% with microfilariae and 93 kept by owners at the time the survey was conducted (37.8% of which were infected. Prevalence is high among dogs captured and/or living along the seashore. Examples of such high coastal prevalence rates were found in Olho d'Água and Calhau (46% and 43%, respectively. The search for

  15. Implantation of alpha spectrometry methodology for the determination of U and Th isotopes in igneous rocks: application to the study of radioactive desequilibrium in the Trindade Island, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rosana Nunes dos

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the implementation of experimental procedures for alpha spectrometry measurement of 238 U, 234 U and 230 Th activities in silicates. The best experimental conditions were defined using 233 U, 232 U and 229 Th radioactive tracers and simulating the usual conditions found in processing silicates. The chemical procedures consists of the following steps: radioactive tracer addition and sample dissolution by acid digestion, U and Th pre-concentration by co-precipitation, element separation and purification by ion exchange chromatography and electrodeposition in inox steel disks. In order to evaluate its effectiveness, the procedure was applied to the Brazilian geological standards BB-1 (basalt) and GB-1 (granite). The obtained chemical yields for uranium and thorium are of about 60% and 70%, respectively, for both matrices. The described methodology furnishes activity measurements with less than 4% relative precision and accuracies of about 1%, that are essential for petrogenetic applications. The 238 U and 232 Th series disequilibrium conditions were investigated by alpha spectrometry, together with neutron activation analysis and natural gamma-ray spectrometry. 234 U/ 238 U, 238 U/ 232 Th and 230 Th/ 232 Th activity ratios and the 234 Th, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 235 U, 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 212 Bi and 208 Tl specific activities were obtained. These results were interpreted with the help of additional constraints given by the larger and smaller elements concentrations, measured by X-ray fluorescence. The 232 Th series is in secular radioactive equilibrium in all analysed samples. In the case of the 238 U series, the equilibrium condition was verified, as expected, in the oldest rocks from the Trindade Island (Trindade Complex and Desejado Sequence). On the other hand, the results show that, in the samples from the last three volcanic episodes in the island (Morro Vermelho Formation, Valado Formation and Vulcao do Paredao), the 230 Th and 238 U are not in

  16. Spatial and multi-temporal analysis of deforestation and quantification of the remnant forests on Porto Rico Island, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Campos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of land occupation by the state of Paraná practically decimated its forests. Presently, only 7% from a total area of 83.41% is covered by forests. Most of them are now concentrated in the "Serra do Mar" and in the Iguaçu National Park. With regard to forest cover the most critical region is situated in the northwestern of the state with less than 1% of its area covered by forest. This restricted area mainly consists of conservation units and the islands of the high Paraná River floodplain. The present study consists of a spatial and multi-temporal analysis of deforestation and the quantification of the remnant forests on Porto Rico island (22º45'S; 53º15'W, which have their occupation history linked to the colonization process of the region. Historical aerial photographs of this region were used and the relationship of deforestation with the process of colonization and social transformation of the region is discussed.O processo de ocupação das terras do Paraná praticamente dizimou as florestas do Estado, que originalmente possuía 83,41% de sua área total coberta com florestas. Atualmente remanescem aproximadamente 7% da área com florestas, concentradas na Serra do Mar e no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu. Na região noroeste, a situação é mais crítica, com menos de 1% de sua área coberta por florestas, concentradas, principalmente, em unidades de conservação e nas ilhas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. Esta planície é formada por uma ampla calha aluvial, com inúmeros canais, lagoas e ilhas, que têm sua história de ocupação ligadas ao processo de colonização na região. Neste trabalho, é realizada uma análise espacial e multi-temporal dos desflorestamentos e uma quantificação das florestas remanescentes da ilha Porto Rico (22º45'S; 53º15'W, por meio de fotografias aéreas históricas da região e discutidas as relações destes desflorestamentos com os processo de colonização e transforma

  17. Two new species and new records of the genus Paraopisthosyllis Hartmann-Schröder, 1991 (Annelida: Syllidae) from northeastern Brazil and Philippine Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paresque, Karla; Martín, Guillermo San; Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos; Fukuda, Marcelo Veronesi

    2016-10-20

    Two new species of Paraopisthosyllis are described herein, P. correiae sp. nov. (State of Pernambuco, NE Brazil) and P. kuluguhin sp. nov. (Philippines). Paraopisthosyllis correiae sp. nov. represents the first record for the genus in Brazilian waters and it is also the second species known to occur outside the Pacific Ocean. This species is characterized by having a marked color pattern, with a transverse red stripe between dorsal cirri on each segment and an inverted V anteriorly and a V posteriorly on some segments, small papillae on body, large, distinct papillae on dorsal cirri, compound chaetae with elongated, bidentate blades, shafts with moderate subdistal serration on margin, pharyngeal tooth located on anterior third of pharynx, near the pharyngeal opening, and reproduction by schizogamy. Paraopisthosyllis kuluguhin sp. nov. represents the first report of the genus for the Philippines, together with P. pardus, originally known from Australia and also found in the Philippines in the present study. This new species is characterized by its color pattern, with dark patches irregularly distributed on anterior segments, forming one anterior pigmented short band and two lateral areas on each chaetiger after the proventricle, club-shaped dorsal cirri, and short, bidentate compound chaetae. Our findings allow us to synonymize the genus Basidiosyllis to Paraopisthosyllis and represent the first report of sexual stolons (scissiparity) in this genus, which supports its allocation into the subfamily Syllinae.

  18. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  19. Distribution of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs concentrations in soil samples nearby a nuclear laboratory, Capao Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Luciano S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Absolute soil concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs samples were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, called Capao Island, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center are in operation for more than 30 years. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite exponential pile in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, radiation monitoring of the isotopes was carried out. A total of eight 250 ml soil samples were extracted within an area of 300 m x 300 m. No trace of 137Cs was detected and the measured levels of 238U were found to be close to the global mean. However, some data that slightly exceeded the expected normal range for 232Th (60 % of samples and 40K (20 % of samples should be attributed to the construction debris (cement, rocks, and sand used in the embankment at the site. Since there is no handling of those isotopes at that site or adjacent facilities that could affect their presence, it was concluded that no detectable contamination has occurred.

  20. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Microfitoplâncton de águas costeiras amazônicas: Ilha Canela (Bragança, PA, Brasil Microphytoplankton of Amazon coastal waters: Canela Island (Bragança, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Brabo de Sousa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Variações sazonal e nictemeral do microfitoplâncton foram estudadas em uma estação fixa (00º46'37,2''S-046º43'24,5''W, localizada em uma área costeira próxima à ilha Canela (Norte do Brasil, durante os meses de setembro e dezembro/2004 (período seco e março e junho/2005 (período chuvoso. As amostras destinadas à análise qualitativa do fitoplâncton foram obtidas a partir da filtragem de 400 L de água, através de uma rede planctônica (65 μm de abertura de malha, durante marés de sizígia, em intervalos regulares de três horas, por um período de 24 horas. O material coletado foi fixado com formol neutro a 4%. Paralelamente a essas coletas foi medida a salinidade da superfície da água. A salinidade apresentou variação significativa ao longo do período de estudo, variando entre 26,1 (junho/2005 e 39,0 (dezembro/2004, caracterizando o ambiente como eualino-polialino. Foram identificados 130 táxons incluídos nas divisões Cyanophyta (dois táxons, Bacillariophyta (115 táxons e Dinophyta (13 táxons. As diatomáceas dominaram o microfitoplâncton da área, sendo Asterionellopsis glacialis, Dimeregramma minor, Skeletonema sp. e Thalassiosira subtilis os táxons mais freqüentes e abundantes. Os altos valores de salinidade condicionaram a maior representatividade das espécies marinhas neríticas, polialóbias. Os processos de ressuspensão provocados pelos ventos e arrebentação das ondas promoveram intercâmbios entre as populações planctônicas e ticoplanctônicas, dentre as quais as espécies Dimeregramma minor, Triceratium biquadratum e T. pentacrinus representaram novas ocorrências para as águas costeiras do litoral amazônico.Seasonal and nyctemeral variations of the microphytoplankton were studied at a fixed station (00º46'37.2''S-046º43'24.5''W on Canela Island (North Brazil in September and December/2004 (dry season and in March and June/2005 (rainy season. Samples for qualitative phytoplankton studies were

  2. Excess density compensation of island herpetofaunal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.; Dean-Bradley, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim Some species reach extraordinary densities on islands. Island assemblages have fewer species, however, and it is possible that island species differ from their mainland counterparts in average mass. Island assemblages could be partitioned differently (fewer species or smaller individuals) from mainland sites without differing in aggregate biomass (density compensation). Our objective was to determine the generality of excess density compensation in island herpetofaunal assemblages.Location Our bounded removal plot data were obtained from Pacific Island sites (Guam, Saipan and Rota), the West Indies (British Virgin Islands), and the Indian Ocean (Ile aux Aigrettes off Mauritius). The literature values were taken from several locales. Other island locations included Barro Colorado Island, Bonaire, Borneo, Philippine Islands, Seychelle Islands, Barrow Island (Australia), North Brother Island (New Zealand), Dominica and Puerto Rico. Mainland sites included Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Australia, Thailand, Peru, Brazil, Panama and the USA.Method We added our thirty-nine bounded total removal plots from sixteen island habitats to fifteen literature records to obtain seventy-five venues with estimable density and biomass of arboreal or terrestrial herpetofaunal assemblages. These biomass estimates were evaluated geographically and in relation to sampling method, insularity, latitude, disturbance regime, seasonality, community richness, vegetative structure and climate. Direct data on trophic interactions (food availability, parasitism and predation pressure) were generally unavailable. Sampling problems were frequent for arboreal, cryptic and evasive species.Results and main conclusions We found strong evidence that herpetofaunal assemblages on small islands (mostly lizards) exhibit a much greater aggregate density of biomass (kg ha−1) than those of larger islands or mainland assemblages (small islands show excess density compensation). High aggregate biomass

  3. Potential emigration of Siberian cattle germplasm on Chirikof Island ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. D. MACNEIL

    migration (Lídia Colominas et al. 2015). ... immigration events, contemporary cattle on Chirikof Island are isolated in the ..... Brazil. MacNeil M. D., Cronin M. A., Blackburn H. D., Richards C. M.,. Lockwood D. R. and Alexander L. J. 2007 Genetic relation- ships between feral cattle from Chirikof Island, Alaska and other breeds.

  4. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil Conhecimento etnoveterinário dos habitantes da Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vivina Barros Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%, bark (18%, roots (14%, seeds (14% and fruit (8%. With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9% utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.Em várias partes do mundo existem relatos etnoveterinários sobre a utilização de plantas em protocolos terapêuticos, entretanto não existem informações disponíveis sobre a etnoveterinária praticada na Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma

  5. Nematodes in Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus, Hoplias malabaricus and Pygocentrus nattereri (pisces characiformes in Marajó Island, Brazil Nematóides em Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus, Hoplias malabaricus e Pygocentrus nattereri (pisces characiformes na Ilha de Marajó, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Moraes Benigno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the tegument, musculature and mesentery of 102 specimens of Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus, 104 of Hoplias malabaricus and 101 of Pygocentrus nattereri, from Arari Lake, Marajó Island, State of Pará, Brazil. Were identified the nematodes Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Procamallanus sp. Contracaecum sp. was the most prevalent, with rates of 84.31% (H. unitaeniatus, 95.19% (H. malabaricus, and 89.11% (P. nattereri. The highest prevalences of Eustrongylides sp. occurred in H. unitaeniatus (56.86% and H. malabaricus (53.84%. Procamallanus sp. was only collected in the mesentery. Specimens of Eustrongylides sp. collected from the musculature were 91.9% of its population. Among the nematodes found in the mesentery, 98.34% were Contracaecum sp. with a mean intensity (MI of 7.92 ± 8.11 (H. unitaeniatus, 8.49 ± 8.34 (H. malabaricus and 7 ± 6.40 (P. nattereri. Contracaecum sp. presented the highest MI (8.49 ± 8.34 and mean abundance (8.09 ± 8.34. The highest MI values were observed in the mesentery. Eustrongylides sp. presented MI of 2.65 ± 3.21 (H. unitaeniatus, 3.41 ± 3.27 (H. malabaricus and 2.17 ± 1.18 (P. nattereri. Nematodes with zoonotic potential that were found with high prevalence, shows the importance of actions by the health authorities.Examinou-se o tegumento, mesentério e musculatura de 102 espécimes de Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus, 104 de Hoplias malabaricus e 101 de Pygocentrus nattereri, do Lago Arari, Ilha do Marajó, Estado do Pará, Brasil. Foram identificados os nematóides Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp. e Procamallanus sp. nas três espécies de peixes. Contracaecum sp. foi o mais prevalente, com índices de 84,31% (H. unitaeniatus, 95,19% (H. malabaricus e 89,11% (P. nattereri. As maiores prevalências de Eustrongylides sp. foram observadas em H. unitaeniatus (56,86% e H. malabaricus (53,84%. Procamallanus sp. só foi coletado no mesentério, sendo o sítio de infec

  6. Comparison of the diet of Alouatta caraya (Primates: Atelidae between a riparian island and mainland on the Upper Parana River, southern Brazil Comparação da dieta de Alouatta caraya (Primates: Atelidae em mata ciliar insular e continental na região do Alto rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ludwig

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Howler monkeys (Alouatta Lacèpéde, 1799 are folivores-frugivores with flexible diets depending on conditions. Here, we compare the diets of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 in two riparian forests (island and mainland, in Porto Rico region, Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Howlers were followed from October 2004 to September 2005 in the riparian forest of a 1,050 ha island and in the continuous riparian forest on the mainland (left bank of the river. The "scan sampling" method with instantaneous samples every 15 minutes was used. Besides vines, diet breadth was similar: 17 species consumed on the island versus 16 species on the mainland. Both consumed leaves followed by fruits more than any other food type (leaves: island - 65%, mainland - 49%, fruits: island - 24%, mainland - 46%. Even though the plant Cecropia pachystachya Trécul is less abundant in the mainland it was the item most consumed in both locations all year long, which suggests its importance for the howlers. Diet also varied both seasonally and between the island and mainland, apparently following changes in local abundance of each item and due to plant phenologies.Os bugios (Alouatta Lacèpéde, 1799 são primatas folívoros-frugívoros que podem adaptar suas dietas dependendo das condições do ambiente. O presente trabalho compara a dieta de grupos de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 presentes em matas ciliares estruturalmente diferentes (ilha e continente, na região de Porto Rico, Alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. Os bugios-pretos foram seguidos de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005 em mata ciliar de uma ilha fluvial de 1050 ha e em mata ciliar contínua da margem esquerda do rio. Foi utilizado o método "scan sampling" em amostragens instantâneas com intervalos de 15 minutos. Além das lianas, 17 espécies foram consumidas na ilha versus 16 espécies no continente. Ambos os grupos consumiram mais folhas seguido de frutos do que qualquer outro tipo de alimento (folhas

  7. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisla Boehs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  8. Comparison of inundation patterns among major South American floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen K.; Sippel, Suzanne J.; Melack, John M.

    2002-08-01

    A comparative view of inundation patterns in the large floodplains of South America was derived by analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR; Nimbus-7 satellite, 1979-1987). The following floodplains were analyzed: (1) mainstem Amazon River floodplain in Brazil; (2) Llanos de Moxos (Beni and Mamoré rivers) in Bolivia; (3) Bananal Island (Araguaía River) in Brazil; (4) Llanos del Orinoco (Apure and Meta rivers) in Venezuela and Colombia; (5) Roraima savannas (Branco and Rupununi rivers) in Brazil and Guyana; and (6) Pantanal wetland (Paraguay River) in Brazil. The maximum areas subject to inundation in each region, which include permanent open waters of river channels and lakes, were as follows (in km2): mainstem Amazon 97,360, Moxos 92,094, Bananal 58,550, Orinoco 107,530, Roraima 16,530, and Pantanal 130,920. The duration of inundation was correlated with the maximum area inundated. Predictive relationships between flooded area and water levels in the nearby rivers allowed extension of the inundation record over nearly a century for the Amazon and Pantanal and several decades for the other floodplains. Interannual variability in the maximum extent of inundation is greatest in the Pantanal, followed by Roraima and Bananal. Based on these extended records, the long-term mean inundation areas (in km2 and including rivers and lakes) were as follows: mainstem Amazon 46,920, Moxos 29,460, Bananal 13,110, Orinoco 34,700, Roraima 3,480, and Pantanal 34,880. This information is fundamental for hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological studies of these floodplain-river systems and will improve estimates of methane and other trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these vast wetlands.

  9. Registro de Atherinella blackburni (Schultz) (Actinopterygii, Teleostei, Atherinopsidae) na praia de Ponta da Ilha, Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brasil Record of Atherinella blackburni (Schultz) (Actinopterygii, Teleostei, Atherinopsidae) in the Ponta da Ilha beach (Itaparica Island, Bahia, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes; Jailza Tavares de Oliveira-Silva

    2001-01-01

    Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949) (Atherinopsidae), is known in the Atlantic Ocean in Costa Rica, south of Caribe and from Venezuela to central Brazil. The distribution and the intraespecific variation of characters of A. blackburni are poorly known. This study records A. blackburni in Bahia littoral and presents more informations about its intraespecific variation.

  10. Brazil`s mineral policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, C.A.V. [Pinheiro Neto-Advogados, Brasilia (Brazil)

    1997-06-01

    Brazil is a large producer of many minerals, with a favourable regulatory framework, tax policy and foreign investment legislation. Although there are strict environmental requirements, mining ventures can cope with them and they represent no obstacle to mining activities. Efficient regulatory agencies are in place, such as the Department of Mines (DNPM) and the Geological Survey (CPRM). The Brazilian mineral policy is set out in a number of different documents, the more important being the Federal Constitution and the Mining Code. Important constitutional amendments have been recently passed, so as to open Brazil`s economy to foreign investments.

  11. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  12. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  14. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0840] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION... Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH. (a) Location. The...

  15. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  16. Diversidade de bromeliáceas epífitas na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, Belém, Pará, Brasil Diversity of epiphytic bromeliads in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Costa Quaresma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a diversidade no nível de espécie oferecem subsídios importantes para o desenvolvimento sustentável e a conservação biológica. Neste contexto, estudos com Bromeliaceae merecem destaque, especialmente porque o grupo é importante ecologicamente, mas ainda pouco conhecido na Região Norte. Neste trabalho, foram demarcadas duas parcelas de 100 m x 100 m em uma floresta de várzea localizada na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, em Belém, Estado do Pará. Cada parcela foi subdividida em oito parcelas de 50 m x 50 m, tendo todas as espécies e espécimes de bromeliáceas epífitas registradas e quantificadas. A diversidade do grupo foi calculada utilizando o índice de Shannon-Wiener. Foram registrados 1.339 indivíduos pertencentes a oito espécies e quatro gêneros. Tillandsia e Aechmea apresentaram maior riqueza. A diversidade de espécies na área foi de H= 1,10, apresentando dominância acentuada de muitos indivíduos em poucas espécies.Information about diversity at the species level offers data for sustainable development and biological conservation. In this context, studies about Bromeliaceae are noteworthy, especially because this group is ecologically important and poorly known in the North Region of Brazil. In this study, two grids (100 m x 100 m were delineated in a floodplain forest in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The grids were subdivided into eight grids of 50 m x 50 m, and all species and individuals of epiphytic Bromeliaceae were recorded and quantified. The diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Wiener index. A total of 1,339 individuals, belonging to eight species and four genera were recorded. Tillandsia and Aechmea presented the greatest richness. The diversity of species was H= 1.10, presenting sharp dominance of many individuals of few species.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  18. The island rule in the Brazilian frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura: Hylidae: incipient gigantism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Mageski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The island rule suggests that, when mainland animals are isolated on islands, large animals tend to become smaller, while small animals tend to become larger. A small frog in eastern Brazil, Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, is widely distributed in association with bromeliads. At the end of the last glaciation, parts of the mainland became islands due to rising sea levels, thereby isolating frog populations on these islands. If the island rule holds, we predicted that frogs on islands would tend to be larger than frogs on the mainland. We compared sizes (weight and length of 30 randomly selected male frogs from the mainland with 30 from an island in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We also sampled population density on the island and mainland because concurrent with changing sizes, depending on the causal relationship, density may also change. As predicted, island frogs tended to be larger (both in snout-vent length and weight and were much more abundant. While not specifically addressed in this study, the absence of predators and interspecific competitors may explain both of these trends.

  19. Lipídios em sedimentos arqueológicos: resultados preliminares do sítio arqueológico Rio do Meio, Ilha de Santa Catarina (SC Lipids in archaeological sediments: preliminary results of the archaeological site Rio do Meio, Santa Catarina Island (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Augusto Hansel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de lipídios em sedimentos arqueológicos do sítio Rio do Meio, Ilha de Santa Catarina. Nos extratos totais de lipídios, analisados por cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas (CG e CG-EM, predominaram os compostos ácidos e álcoois saturados. Foram detectados pelo menos dois tipos de matéria orgânica: uma antiga e outra comparativamente recente. Na primeira, o extrato total de lipídios foi dominado por ácidos graxos de cadeias curtas ( Ac20:0 e Al20:0. Em contraste, na deposição classificada como recente, foram identificados em maiores teores os ácidos e álcoois de cadeias longas (> Ac20:0 e Al20:0. Neste estudo, foi possível observar a incorporação de material orgânico procedente de fontes de origem vegetal, bacteriana e, possivelmente, animal (gorduras nos sedimentos arqueológicos analisados.In this study the distribution of lipid compounds was evaluated in sediment samples of an archaeological site Rio do Meio, Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. In the total lipid extracts, analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC and GC-MS, saturated fatty acids and alcohols were predominant. At least two sources of organic matter were detected, an older and a more recent one. In the old deposit, the most abundant lipids were short-chain fatty acids ( Ac20:0 and Al20:0. In contrast, the fresh deposit was dominated by long-chain fatty acids and alcohols (> Ac20:0 and Al20:0. This paper described the incorporation of vegetal, bacterial and possible animal (fat sources into the archaeological sediments analyzed.

  20. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  1. Focos de dirofilariose canina na Ilha do Marajó: um fator de risco para a saúde humana Focus of canine heartworm disease in Marajó Island, North of Brazil: a risk factor for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Garcez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de dirofilariose pulmonar humana relaciona-se com a prevalência de infecção por Dirofilaria immitis na população canina. Várias espécies de mosquitos são vetores desse nematóide. Analisaram-se amostras de sangue canino coletados nas vilas Pingo d'Água e União, município de Salvaterra (Ilha do Marajó, PA, em junho, 2004 (n=34 e abril, 2005 (N=90. Os diagnósticos parasitológico e imunológico (ELISA - kit SNAP® 3DX™, Biobrasil foram comparados (chi2, alfa=0,05 no exame de 34 amostras. A prevalência na população (N=90 foi avaliada pelo ELISA. O ELISA revelou mais positivos (25/34; 73,5% que a gota espessa (23/34, 67,6% e o Knott (21/34, 61,8%, mas a diferença não foi significativa (p>0,05. A freqüência de infecção por D. immitis na faixa de 0 a 2 anos foi 58%, enquanto em cães mais velhos foi 100%. A prevalência da dirofilariose canina em Pingo d'Água e Vila União foi alta (53,5%, indicando risco de transmissão do parasito às pessoas nessa área.The occurrence of human pulmonary dirofilariasis maintains a relation with the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in the canine population. Several mosquito species are vectors of this nematode. Canine blood samples collected in Pingo d'Água and União villages, Salvaterra municipality (Marajó Island, Pará, in June, 2004 (n=34 and April, 2005 (N=90 were analyzed. Parasitological and immunological (ELISA - kit SNAP® 3DX™, Biobrasil diagnoses were compared following the examination of 34 samples. The prevalence in the population (N=90 was evaluated by means of ELISA. ELISA revealed more positive samples (25/34; 73.5% than thick smears (23/34, 67.6% or Knott (21/34, 61.8%, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05. The frequency of D. immitis infection was 58% in dogs ranging from 0-2 years old, whereas in older dogs it was 100%. The prevalence of canine dirofilariasis was high in Pingo d'Água and Vila União (53.5%, indicating the risk of

  2. New records of Aparasphenodon bokermanni (Pombal, 1993) from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and extension of genus range (Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanette-Silva, Larissa; Farias, Douglas; Ghizoni-Jr, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Aparasphenodon bokermanni is a poorly known casque-headed tree frog found in São Paulo and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Here we provide two new records, one from Joinville, northeastern Santa Catarina, and the first record from Santa Catarina Island, Brazil, which extends to the south the range of the genus by approximately 150 km.

  3. La banane : de son origine à sa commercialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana: from origin to market. Cultivated bananas are giant herbaceous plants within the genus Musa. They are both sterile and parthenocarpic. There are well over a thousand domesticated Musa cultivars, they are mostly triploid (a few are diploid or tetraploid and are derived from crosses between two wild species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. In terms of production, bananas are the fourth agricultural product after rice, wheat, and maize. They constitute the basis of food security for many people. Cropping systems vary widely around the world and contrasting objectives are encountered: consumption by the producer, sale on local or national markets, export, etc. Cooking bananas, including plantains, must be distinguished from dessert bananas, which constitute a major international trade. This international trade started only in the early 1900s but it has since grown continuously. Banana is currently the most exported fruit, in terms of both value and quantity. Despite the high genetic diversity found within the genus Musa, the export market is mainly based on single Cavendish. There are major challenges to banana production from biotic or abiotic stresses to continue to meet the criteria of sustainability, quality and yield that are imposed.

  4. Podostemaceae in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mello,Anderson Santos de; Tavares,Aldaléa Sprada; Trevisan,Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study provides a taxonomic treatment of the Podostemaceae family in southern Brazil. Podostemaceae is the largest family of strictly aquatic angiosperms. The center of family richness is the equatorial region of South America. Taxonomic studies are still scarce in Brazil. For southern Brazil there are six genera and 10 species recognized. Dichotomous key and illustrations are presented for species identification.

  5. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  6. Distribuição temporal de densidade de Aporobopyrus curtatus (Richardson (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae, um parasito de Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes (Crustacea, Anomura, Porcellanidae na Ilha do Farol, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Temporal distribution of density of Aporobopyrus curtatus (Richardson (Isopoda, Bopyridae, a parasite of Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes (Anomura, Porcellanidae from Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinalva Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os seguintes aspectos foram tratados sobre uma população do isopódo bopirídeo Aporobopyrus curtatus, parasito do caranguejo porcelanídeo Petrolisthes armatus: descrição e morfometria dos estágios de desenvolvimento, distribuição temporal da densidade relativa e da proporção de sexos. Adicionalmente, um provável ciclo de vida do parasito foi proposto. As coletas dos caranguejos hospedeiros foram feitas na Ilha do Farol, Matinhos, Estado do Paraná, de novembro de 1989 a abril de 1991. Um total de 967 bopirídeos foi obtido de 529 caranguejos porcelanídeos. Os seguintes estágios de desenvolvimento ou reprodutivos foram reconhecidos na população do parasito: criptonisco, fêmea imatura, fêmea madura, fêmea ovígera, fêmea embrionada, bopirídeo e macho maduro. A densidade relativa flutuou de 0,09 (janeiro/1990 a 0,33 parasitos por hospedeiro (abril/1990 e abril/1991. Dentre os parasitos imaturos, houve predominância de fêmeas, entretanto, a proporção de sexos foi de 1:1 na população madura. As larvas criptoniscos invadiram os hospedeiros P. armatus de novembro a maio, mas, casais de adultos de A. curtatus estiveram presentes o ano inteiro, exceto em janeiro. Fêmeas imaturas estiveram ausentes somente em quatro meses e os bopirídeos em seis meses durante os 18 meses de estudo. Houve uma sincronia no desenvolvimento do hospedeiro e do respectivo parasito: parasitos larvais infestaram hospedeiros juvenis e parasitos maduros, os hospedeiros maduros.The following aspects on the population of the bopyrid Aporobopyrus curtatus infesting the porcelain crab Petrolisthes armatus from Farol Island were treated: description and biometry of the developmental stages, temporal distribution of the relative density and the sex-ratio. Furthermore, a probable life cycle of this parasite is proposed. Collections of the crab hosts were done in the Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná State, Brazil, from November 1989 to April 1991. A total of 967

  7. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  8. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  9. Macroscopic coherent magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcelli, F.; Airoldi, A.; Angioni, C.

    2001-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical investigations on the dynamics of coherent magnetic islands in high temperature, magnetically confined plasmas of thermonuclear interest, and of their effects on plasma transport. (author)

  10. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  11. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  12. A summary of the Three Mile Island accident: from zero hour to lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Oliveira Barroso, A.C. de

    The accident that occured at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, unit 2 (TMI-2) in March 1979 is analysed. The main events that occured during the accident are described in detail. The main project features of TMI-2 and Angra-1 nuclear power plant, Brazil are compared and analysed. (L.F.S.) [pt

  13. Podostemaceae in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Anderson Santos de; Tavares, Aldaléa Sprada; Trevisan, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study provides a taxonomic treatment of the Podostemaceae family in southern Brazil. Podostemaceae is the largest family of strictly aquatic angiosperms. The center of family richness is the equatorial region of South America. Taxonomic studies are still scarce in Brazil. For southern Brazil there are six genera and 10 species recognized. Dichotomous key and illustrations are presented for species identification. Resumo O presente estudo apresenta um tratamento taxonômico par...

  14. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  15. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  16. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  17. Bryophyte richness of soil islands on rocky outcrops is not driven by island size or habitat heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Bruno Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The species-area relationship (SAR is one of the oldest and most studied ecological models, having even served as the foundation of the Theory of Island Biogeography. Nevertheless, the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity to SAR remains poorly understood. Our aim was to test the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity to the SAR of bryophyte assemblages of soil islands of rocky outcrops in the semi-arid region of Brazil. We randomly selected 15 to 20 soil islands on each of four outcrops for a total of 59 soil islands, and calculated the area, mean depth, and number of substrates for each. We used Generalized Linear Models (GLM to test the SAR with two models, one using species richness and another using life-form richness as the dependent variables. We found no positive relationship between area and habitat heterogeneity, nor any evidence of a SAR, such as a positive relationship between area and species or life-form richness neither between habitat heterogeneity and species richness. However, our findings did show that life-form richness is related to bryophyte species richness on the soil islands. We conclude by suggesting that not only can microclimate influence bryophyte richness, but opportunistic colonization by bryophytes is also important.

  18. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  19. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  20. Qualidade das águas superficiais e avaliação do estado trófico do Rio Arari (Ilha de Marajó, norte do Brasil Surface water's quality and trophic status assessment in the Arari River (Marajo Island, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Charles Castor Alves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A deterioração da qualidade da água pode ser causada tanto por resultado da pressão antrópica sobre os ambientes aquáticos em maiores escalas, como por fatores naturais em menores escalas, tal como ocorre em parte da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Arari (Ilha de Marajó, Pará. Este artigo teve como objetivo a avaliação da qualidade das águas superficiais e o estado trófico do Rio Arari, no trecho entre Santana e Cachoeira do Arari, considerando as variações temporais e espaciais de variáveis físicas, químicas e biológicas da água em dois períodos hidrológicos distintos de 2009: descarga máxima (abril e maio e descarga mínima (setembro e novembro. Os Índices de Qualidade da Água (IQA e Estado Trófico (IET foram determinados simultaneamente em amostras de água superficial durante 12 horas consecutivas nas três estações de coleta ao longo do Rio Arari. Os valores do IQA variaram entre "Ruim" e "Regular", e estão provavelmente relacionadas aos elevados níveis de coliformes fecais, baixas concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e pH ácido do Rio Arari. Conforme o IET, o rio pode ser classificado como supereutrófico e hipereutrófico, reflexo da grande disponibilidade de nutrientes (e.g. fósforo e elevada biomassa fitoplanctônica em termos de clorofila a. O Rio Arari está sob um processo de eutrofização natural, visto que as fontes de contaminação antrópica ainda são incipientes, mas elas podem contribuir para um processo de longo prazo de eutrofização artificial.The deterioration of the water quality may be caused either by the result of human pressure on aquatic environments in larger scales, or by natural factors in smaller scales, such as part of the Arari River basin (Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil .This work aimed to evaluate the surface water's quality and the trophic state of the Arari River, between Santana and Cachoeira do Arari localities, taking into account the seasonal and spatial variations

  1. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    bird populations of the island group have led to it being declared an Important Bird Area by BirdLife .... 2000) and South African (Barnes 2000) classifications of conservation status are indicated, as well as the trend over the most recent decade ..... Congruity with a number of Southern Ocean is- land nature reserves of other ...

  2. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  3. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  4. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  5. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...

  6. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  7. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is especially true in the music, film, and publishing industries. Researchers are exploring how Brazil could better exploit its diverse and vibrant culture through digital technologies. They will identify incentives that help the government promote creativity and entrepreneurship. □ Wage inequalities in Brazil and India.

  8. The Case of Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    Brazilian assistance programs focus on technical cooperation in developing countries (TCDC), a concept Brazil has promoted since the 1960s. As a result, the country does not undertake programs that involve grants or concessional loans. TCDC programs and projects represent the largest component of Brazil's ...

  9. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  10. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores...... patterns (five questions in total); island ontogeny and past climate change (4); island rules and syndromes (3); island biogeography theory (4); immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics (5); speciation and diversification (4); dispersal and colonization (3); community assembly (6); biotic interactions (2...

  11. Technical and institutional safety features of nuclear power plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    This work reports technical, political and institutional safety features of nuclear power plants in Brazil. It is mainly concerned with reactor accidents and personnel safety. The three mile Island and Chernobyl accidents are also discussed and taken as examples. (A.C.A.S.)

  12. Pronounced particularity: a comparison of governance structures on Lord Howe Island and Fernando de Noronha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Reis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the management systems and governance structures of two island sites with national and international World Heritage recognition: Lord Howe Island (off the mid-east coast of Australia and Fernando de Noronha (off the north-east coast of Brazil. Using historical and contemporary references, the paper explores the manner in which two distinct approaches to governance are implicated in the daily living of community members, and considers their socioeconomic activities. We use the case of tourism and World Heritage management as examples of the complexities involved in the different forms of governance structures adopted by these two small oceanic islands: similar in nature and official status, but significantly different when the outcomes of their governance practices are analysed. In the final part of the paper, we suggest mechanisms and approaches that can promote sustainable local engagement with island issues.

  13. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  14. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  15. Analysis and Improvement of the Energy Management of an Isolated Microgrid in Lencois Island based on a Linear Optimization Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization-based decision support strategy to enhance the management of the distributed energy sources of an islanded microgrid. The solutions provided by the optimization algorithm are compared with the current strategy, already implemented in a real site microgrid on Le...... on Lencois’ island/Brazil. Significant economic and energy savings are achieved when the optimal management of the diesel generator is performed.......This paper proposes an optimization-based decision support strategy to enhance the management of the distributed energy sources of an islanded microgrid. The solutions provided by the optimization algorithm are compared with the current strategy, already implemented in a real site microgrid...

  16. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  17. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  18. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  19. Energy Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Rosemary; de Paiva, Terezhina Villela O'Grady

    1980-01-01

    Compares energy education in Brazil and the United States. Topics discussed include the Brazilian setting, government initiatives, dependence on foreign fuel sources, public reaction, schools and energy education, and mass media involvement. (DB)

  20. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  1. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato de Andrade, C.

    2003-05-01

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  2. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  3. Colonização de ecótopos artificiais pelo Panstrongylus megistus na ilha de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Colonization of artificial ecotopes by Panstrongylus megistus at Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Steindel

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a colonização de Panstrongylus megistus em ecótopos artificiais em Florianópolis foram examinados, de 1985 a 1992, 779 anexos peridomiciliares (524 galinheiros, 46 currais e 209 ranchos em 9 localidades e 443 domicílios no distrito de Lagoa, todos na Ilha de Santa Catarina. Todo o ecótopo, incluindo forro e porão das casas, era examinado após aplicação de líquido insentífugo (Pirisa a 5%. A pesquisa nos anexos peri-domiciliares revelou 3 galinheiros e um rancho positivo no distrito de Lagoa, onde foram também encontrados 2 domicílios colonizados pelo P. megistus, com a captura de ovos, ninfas e adultos em todos os ecótopos. Pesquisas dirigidas foram realizadas em dois outros domicílios e em uma escola, nos quais os moradores haviam detectado anteriormente exemplares de P. megistus e, em todos os 3, foi confirmada a colonização pelo triatomíneo. Nos 9 ecótopos artificiais foram coletados 559 ovos, 305 ninfas e 24 adultos de P. megistus, com um índice de infecção pelo T. cruzi de 53,3% (182/329. Índice de infecção semelhante, de 56,5% (78/ 138, foi também encontrado nos adultos de P. megistus oriundos dos ecótopos silvestres e capturados nos domicílios pelos moradores, no período de 1983 a 1991. Os testes de precipitina revelaram, em 94,0% dos insetos examinados (170/181, sangue de uma única fonte alimentar e presença de sangue humano em 80,6% (25/31 dos adultos e em 5,8% (1/17 das ninfas capturados nos domicílios. Os resultados encontrados sugerem a necessidade de adoção de medidas de vigilância epidemiológica com a participação da comunidade, face o risco potencial de domiciliação do P. megistus.The aim of this work was to verify the colonization of Panstrongylus megistus on artificial ecotopes in Florianópolis, in the Santa Catarina Island, South Brazil. For this purpose 443 houses of the Lagoa district and 779 house annexes (524 chicken-houses, 46 corrals and 209 storage-houses in

  4. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands... geographic coordinates for Bucholz AAF in the Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, Class D airspace legal...

  5. 76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... part 71 by amending Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993... Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the Federal ] Register on October 7, 2010, FR Doc...

  6. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  7. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  8. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  9. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  10. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available expeditions to Marion Island from 1948 to 1985 and research visits to Prince Edward Island from 1965 to 1985. A third appendix is a bibliography relevant to the study of historical sites at the Prince Edward islands...

  11. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  12. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  14. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  15. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  16. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-03-03

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images.

  17. New records, distribution and status of six seabird species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antunes Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution records of poorly-known species are currently the most explored theme in the Brazilian seabird literature. If properly evaluated, this kind of information can improve our knowledge on distribution, migration and status of occurrence of these species. In this note we present new records for six species of poorly-known seabirds in the Brazilian coast, reviewing distribution records and defining their status of occurrence in the country. We consider Chionis albus (Gmelin, 1789 a pseudo-vagrant in Brazil and define its status as a scarce seasonal visitor from southern South America. We present the first records of Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758 for Trindade Island, and of Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler, 1831 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and determined that the former is a vagrant in eastern Brazil and the latter a vagrant across the country. Anous stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a vagrant in southernmost Brazil. We were unable to determine if records of Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758 for Brazil and southern South America refer to vagrancy or pseudo-vagrancy. Additionally, we verified the occurrence of breeding individuals of Anous minutus Boie, 1844 on Martin Vaz Island and confirmed that there is no evidence of breeding on neighboring Trindade Island.

  18. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  19. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  20. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  1. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over...... the last 130 years and through reconstruction of the vegetation from the end of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (5528 ± 75 cal year BP) using meta-barcoding of plant DNA recovered from the nunatak sediments (sedaDNA). Our results show that several of the plant species detected with sedaDNA are described from...

  2. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  3. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  4. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  5. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  6. the Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To face the forecasted increase of 4 % of the Gross Domestic Product, it is necessary to increase the energy capacity installed in Brazil. The action at first planned on 10 to 20 years, is oriented today on a shorter period from 2001 to 2004. The program proposes investment of 43 milliards or Reals from which 32 will come from the private sector. This report takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the actions in favor of the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  7. Práticas educativas em grupo com uma tecnologia sócio-educativa: vivências na Ilha de Caratateua, Belém Prácticas educativas en el grupo con una tecnología socio-educativa: viviencias en la Isla de Caratateua, Belém - Brasil Educational practices in group with a partner-educational technology: existences in the Caratateua Island, Belém - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Teixeira

    2007-03-01

    in group and with a social and educational technology in a Freire's perspective with the women of the Caratateua Island, Belém - Pará - Brazil, and to show the necessities of the nurses to dare in the educational practical, discovering the wealthy of the group work where is developed and/or is applied light technologies to produce health. Are stand out some presupposed that guide the project, the existence of the team with the Dynamics Among Us, a social-educational technology in construction, as well as reflections about the existence starting from some speeches of the participants.

  8. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  9. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  10. Regionalization of Methane Emissions in the Amazon Basin with Multi-temporal Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Hess, L. L.; Forsberg, B. R.; Hamilton, S. K.; Novo, E. M.

    2002-12-01

    Remote sensing of the Amazon basin with passive and active microwave techniques were applied to determine the temporally varying extent of inundation and associated vegetation, and used in conjunction with field measurements to calculate regional rates of methane emission from wetlands to the atmosphere. Monthly inundation areas were derived from analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (1979 -87) for the mainstem Amazon floodplain in Brazil, the Llanos de Moxos (Beni and Mamore rivers) in Bolivia, the Bananal Island (Araguaia River) and Roraima savannas. Data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1, L-band synthetic aperture radar were used to determine inundation and wetland vegetation for Amazon basin less than 500 m above sea level at high water (May-June 1996) and low water (October 1995). Although all the measurements of methane emission from aquatic habitats have been performed in the deeply inundated, central basin in open water, flooded forests or floating macrophytes, our basin-wide remote sensing has revealed large areas of seasonally flooded savannas. Therefore, improvements in basin-wide estimates of methane emission will require field studies in wetlands such as those in Bolivia, Roraima and the Bananal.

  11. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  12. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    OpenAIRE

    KARSONO; ELIZABETH A. WIDJAJA

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001) Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species whi...

  13. The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami reached large magnitude on the coasts of the Caribbean Islands. A maximum tsunami height of 10 m was reported for two coastal locations (Deshaies and Sainte-Rose in Guadeloupe. Modelling of the 1867 tsunami is performed in the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory. The directivity of the tsunami wave source in the Caribbean Sea according to the assumed initial waveform is investigated. The tsunami records at the several coastal regions in the Lesser Antilles, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and South America are simulated. The comparison between the computed and observed data is in reasonable agreement.

  14. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  15. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule..., Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This... feet or more above the surface of the earth at Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI...

  16. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costamilan, L.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  17. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  18. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  19. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  20. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of

  1. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 2. Experience with Danish 75 kW wind turbine - the first modern turbine in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husted Rich, N.; Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1996-04-01

    In June of 1992, the first grid-connected wind turbine (75 kW, 12 m/s) in Brazil was installed in the complex terrain of the island of Fernando de Noronha in the northeastern part of the country. The objective was to install a Danish wind turbine in order to encourage the use of wind energy in Brazil and to demonstrate Danish wind technology with the view of opening up the Brazilian market for Danish windmills. It is claimed that the turbine, backed up by the media, attracted a certain amount of attention despite problems caused by the weakness of the electric grid on the island. The market in Brazil is still not ready for wind turbines and responsibility for any future wind energy policy is held by the political decision makers, so it is recommended that further demonstration projects be set up. The document presents a general view of the wind conditions and a view of the local electric power system with the aim of improving the potential for further installation of Danish wind turbines on the island. It proved difficult to obtain information on the performance of the windmill due to frequent rotations in the hierarchy of the state utility company CELPE, and the highly bureaucratic structure in general. It is stated that CELPE intends to install two more wind turbines on the island and that this could be a proof of recognition that technical problems that arose were caused by the unsatisfactory grid structure on the island and not related to faults in the wind turbine itself, and also a proof of their confidence in the idea of wind energy as a reliable source of electricity production. (AB)

  2. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  3. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  4. Diabetes Care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Walmir F; Silva Júnior, Wellington Santana

    2015-01-01

    The diabetes epidemic affects most countries across the world and is increasing at alarming rates in Latin America. Nearly 12 million individuals have diabetes in Brazil, and the current prevalence ranges from 6.3% to 13.5%, depending on the region and the diagnostic criteria adopted in each study. To provide an overview of diabetes care in Brazil, focusing on studies of diabetes epidemiology, prevalence of patients within the standard targets of care, and economic burden of diabetes and its complications. SciELO and PubMed searches were performed for the terms "diabetes," "Brazil," "Brazilian," and "health system"; relevant literature from 1990 to 2015 was selected. Additional articles identified from reference list searches were also included. All articles selected were published in Portuguese and/or English. Recent studies detected a prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus of nearly 20%. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, almost 90% fail to reach target of glycemic control, with less than 30% receiving treatment for both hypertension and dyslipidemia. More than 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes are either overweight or obese. Most of these patients fail to reach glycemic targets (42.1%) and less than 30% reached the target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only 0.2% of patients reach all these anthropometric and metabolic targets. Brazil is the fourth country in the world in number of patients with diabetes. Regardless of the diabetes type, the majority of patients do not meet other metabolic control goals. The economic burden of diabetes and its complications in Brazil is extremely high, and more effective approaches for preventions and management are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works.......The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  6. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island

  7. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  8. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  9. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our draft comprehensive conservation plan (CCP), draft wilderness stewardship plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our alternatives, including our preferred alternative, for managing the Refuges for the 15 years following approval of the final CCP/WSP.

  10. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  11. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  12. Ilhas de vegetação em afloramentos de quartzito-arenito no Morro do Pai Inácio, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Islands of vegetation on quartzite-sandstone outcrops, Pai Inácio Mountain, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2007-06-01

    ilhas de vegetação em cada platô.Islands of vegetation on rocky surfaces were studied on two plateaus at Pai Inácio Mountain (41°28'; 12°27'S in the Chapada Diamantina. Both plateaus have quartzite-sandstone outcrops interspersed with sandy, acidic soils at the summit between 1,100 and 1,170 meters above sea level, with a well-defined dry season. Islands are defined as clumps of one or more species of vascular plants completely surrounded by a rocky surface devoid of vascular plants. The study included 39 vegetation islands of different sizes on each plateau, with 63 herb and shrub species, of which 22 are common to both plateaus. Liliopsida species had the highest abundance, frequency and dominance, with Velloziaceae, Cyperaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Guttiferae families predominating on both plateaus. The chamaephyte life-form was also predominant. Similar species richness was detected on both plateaus, with most of the islands composed of up to five species. Four species groups were revealed using UPGMA and Jaccard´s similarity index, two groups with species typical of sunlit islands, one group with species from shadier sites, and a fourth composed of more generalist species. The Vellozia hemisphaerica - Trilepis lhotzkiana association was typical of rocky outcrops at Pai Inácio Mountain. Orchidaceae and Cyperaceae were the only families present in the two smallest island-size classes, while Guttiferae, Rubiaceae and Bromeliaceae were mostly present in the largest class. Variation in species composition and abundance between the two plateaus suggest environmental and isolation differences affecting the species spatial distribution in the vegetation islands on each plateau.

  13. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  14. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  15. Magnetic Storms in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, K.; Siqueira, F.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic storms result from atypical processes generated in the Sun, the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere and the energization of particles in the magnetosphere. As consequence, magnetic storms may cause problems on radio communication, in satellites, GPS imprecision and induce geomagnetic induced currents that my cause saturation and damage of transformers. Magnetic storms are measured in magnetic observatories, where it is possible to observe large variations in the horizontal magnetic field. These variations are most visible in equatorial or low-latitude magnetograms. In this work, we use low latitude dataset from three magnetic observatories in Brazil: Vassouras (Rio de Janeiro) that presents data since 1915, Tatuoca (Pará) since 1957 and data from a new magnetic observatory that was installed in Pantanal (Brazil) on the 22nd October 2012. Vassouras and Pantanal observatories are in the region of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. External magnetic field interactions in this region are poorly known due to the lack of magnetic data. Tatuoca observatory is located in another important geomagnetic region: the equatorial electrojet. In this work we present the data processing of the recent geomagnetic time series in Pantanal Observatory and its comparison with Vassouras and Tatuoca observatories in Brazil. We analyse the main characteristics of magnetic storms in these observatories, as the sudden commencement and their duration.

  16. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  17. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island....... Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present...

  18. On the propagation and decay of North Brazil Current rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Rhein, Monika; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; BöNing, Claus W.

    2010-10-01

    Near the western boundary of the tropical North Atlantic, where the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflects into the North Equatorial Countercurrent, large anticyclonic rings are shed. After separating from the retroflection region, the so-called NBC rings travel northwestward along the Brazilian coast, until they reach the island chain of the Lesser Antilles and disintegrate. These rings contribute substantially to the upper limb return flow of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by carrying South Atlantic Water into the northern subtropical gyre. Their relevance for the northward transport of South Atlantic Water depends on the frequency of their generation as well as on their horizontal and vertical structure. The ring shedding and propagation and the complex interaction of the rings with the Lesser Antilles are investigated in the ? Family of Linked Atlantic Model Experiments (FLAME) model. The ring properties simulated in FLAME reach the upper limit of the observed rings in diameter and agree with recent observations on seasonal variability, which indicates a maximum shedding during the first half of the year. When the rings reach the shallow topography of the Lesser Antilles, they are trapped by the island triangle of St. Lucia, Barbados and Tobago and interact with the island chain. The model provides a resolution that is capable of resolving the complex topographic conditions at the islands and illuminates various possible fates for the water contained in the rings. It also reproduces laboratory experiments that indicate that both cyclones and anticyclones are formed after a ring passes through a topographic gap. Trajectories of artificial floats, which were inserted into the modeled velocity field, are used to investigate the pathways of the ring cores and their fate after they encounter the Lesser Antilles. The majority of the floats entered the Caribbean, while the northward Atlantic pathway was found to be of minor importance. No prominent

  19. Potential geographic distribution and conservation of Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília P.A. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri Lesson 1839 is a tropical seabird occurring mainly between southern Canada and the southeast coast of Brazil. Puffinus lherminieri is considered Critically Endangered on the Brazilian Red List because it only occurs in two known localities, both of which contain very small populations. However, many offshore islands along the Brazilian coast are poorly known and the discovery of new colonies would be of considerable significance for the conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential geographic distribution of Audubon's Shearwater in Brazil, based on ecological niche model (ENM using Maxent algorithm with layers obtained from AquaMaps environmental dataset. The ENM was based on 37 records for reproduction areas in North and South America. The model yielded a very broad potential distribution, covering most of the Atlantic coast ranging from Brazil to the US. When filtered for islands along the Brazilian coast, the model indicates higher levels of environmental suitability near the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia. However, P. lherminieri prefers islands in environments with warm saline water. Thus, based on the influence of currents that act on the Brazilian coast we can infer undiscovered colonies are most likely to occur on islands on coast of Bahia, Espírito Santo and extreme north of the Rio de Janeiro. These should be intensively surveyed while the islands south of Cabo Frio should be discarded. The existence of new populations would have profound effects on the conservation status of this enigmatic and rarely seen seabird.

  20. Forest structure of artificial islands in the Tucuruí dam reservoir in northern Brazil: a test core-area model Estrutura da floresta em ilhas artificiais no reservatório da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Brasil: um teste do modelo de área nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro V. Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction of hydroelectric dams in tropical regions has been contributing significantly to forest fragmentation. Alterations at edges of forest fragments impact plant communities that suffer increases in tree damage and dead, and decreases in seedling recruitment. This study aimed to test the core-area model in a fragmented landscape caused by construction of a hydroelectric power plant in the Brazilian Amazon. We studied variations in forest structure between the margin and interiors of 17 islands of 8-100 hectares in the Tucuruí dam reservoir, in two plots (30 and >100m from the margin per island. Mean tree density, basal area, seedling density and forest cover did not significantly differ between marginal and interior island plots. Also, no significant differences were found in liana density, dead tree or damage for margin and interior plots. The peculiar topographic conditions associated with the matrix habitat and shapes of the island seem to extend edge effects to the islands' centers independently of the island size, giving the interior similar physical microclimatic conditions as at the edges. We propose a protocol for assessing the ecological impacts of edge effects in fragments of natural habitat surrounded by induced (artificial edges. The protocol involves three steps: (1 identification of focal taxa of particular conservation or management interest, (2 measurement of an "edge function" that describes the response of these taxa to induced edges, and (3 use of a "Core-Area Model" to extrapolate edge function parameters to existing or novel situations.A construção de usinas hidrelétricas em regiões tropicais tem contribuído significativamente para a fragmentação da floresta. As alterações nas bordas de fragmentos florestais causam profundos impactos na comunidade de plantas, tais como, o aumento em de árvores mortas ou danificadas e a diminuição do recrutamento de plântulas. Este estudo tem como objetivo testar o

  1. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Augusto Alves Fracasso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm=167.91 (1-e-0.062t--0.23 to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006, whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks’ main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil.

  2. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  3. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  4. Slope protection for artificial island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, M.T.; Collins, J.I.; Shak, A.T.

    1981-08-01

    The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of reliability, construction-cost, and maintenance-cost factors, choosing 8 candidates for wave and ice model testing. The cases of interest involve exploration and production islands in shallow and deeper water applications.

  5. FLUVIAL PROCESSES IN ATTACHMENT BARS IN THE UPPER PARANÁ RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bars are semi-submerged fluvial forms associated with the availability of sediments and a temporal dynamic, whose dimensions are controlled by the flow and depth of the channel.  Attachment bars are very common in large anabranching river systems and play an important role in island formation and ecology. The Upper Paraná River exhibits an anabranching pattern characterized by channels of different sizes, separated by islands and bars. The objective of this work is to present the processes involved in the formation and development of attachment bars in Santa Rosa Island, situated in Porto Rico, State of Parana, Southern Brazil. Acquisition campaigns were performed to obtain data on channel hydraulics (ADCP equipment, morphometry (Echo-sound profiles and textural parameters (grain-size analyses at high and medium water levels. Santa Rosa Island divides the flow into two channels of distinct hydraulic and sedimentary dynamics. Flow diversion produces a decrease in flow velocity and consequent sediment deposition near the upstream end of Santa Rosa Island. The formation and maintenance of attachment bars in Santa Rosa Island is related to flow competence reduction and the occurrence of divergent currents. Vegetation cover and flow regime control its permanence. 

  6. Small Island Systems: A Case Study of the Comoro Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Abdourahim Said

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the sociocultural context of education in the Comoro Islands, where effects of French colonization combine with Islamic influences. Examines education and cultural changes under French colonialism prior to independence in 1975. Since then, political changes resulted in establishment of French and South African hegemony. One table, 5…

  7. Rock glaciers, Disko Island, Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Disko Island (8600 km2) is situated west of central mainland Greenland. The island is part of the Tertiary volcanic province of West Greenland and is mainly made up...

  8. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  9. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  10. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  11. March 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  12. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  13. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species. Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies.

  14. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  15. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  16. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  17. Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    DJAMALI, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The “Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation” is an excellent textbook for the island biology. After a brief chapter “The natural laboratory paradigm”, in which the structure of the book is described, the second chapter gives a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of the islands; their origin, formation, geological evolution, and natural physical disturbances. In chapter 3, the status of the global biodiversity distribution on the Earth’s islands is shor...

  18. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  19. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Palhares, L.C.; Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  1. Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Gonçalo; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Silva, Ana Clara; Campos, Melina; Spenassatto, Carine; Reyes-Lugo, Matías; Novo, Maria Teresa; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Silva Pinto, João Pedro Soares da; Sousa, Carla Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.

  2. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  3. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  4. Unifocal Bone Paracoccidioidomycosis, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-de-Castro, Bruna; Pompilio, Mauricio A.; Odashiro, Danilo N.; Odashiro, Maçanori; Arão-Filho, Adalberto; Paniago, Anamaria M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a 47 year-old man from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with unifocal tibial paracoccidioidomycosis. A radiograph showed an osteolytic lesion on the tibial middle third diaphysis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic analysis, and treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was started. After three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement. Ten months after treatment, the patient showed lesion bone healing. This case describes the rare occurrence of an osteolytic lesion caused by endemic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Latin America. PMID:22403319

  5. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  6. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  7. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  8. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  9. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  10. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  11. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  12. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  13. Threats to avifauna on oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Heather S; Skibiel, Amy L; Karels, Tim J; Dobson, F Stephen

    2007-02-01

    Results of the study by Blackburn et al. (2004a) of avifauna on oceanic islands suggest that distance from the mainland and time since European colonization have major influences on species extinctions and that island area is a significant but secondary contributing factor. After augmenting the data of the study on geographical properties for some of the islands they examined, we used a causal analysis approach with structural equation modeling to reexamine their conclusions. In our model geographical properties of islands, such as island area and isolation, were considered constraints on biological factors, such as the number of introduced mammalian predators and existing number of avifauna, that can directly or indirectly influence extinction. Of the variables we tested, island area had the greatest total influence on the threat of extinction due to its direct and indirect effects on the size of island avifauna. Larger islands had both a greater number of threatened bird species and more avifauna, increasing the number of species that could become threatened with extinction. Island isolation also had a significant, positive, and direct effect on threats to island avifauna because islands farther from the mainland had fewer current extant avifauna. Time since European colonization had a significant negative, but relatively weaker, influence on threats compared with the traditional biogeographic factors of island area and distance to the mainland. We also tested the hypothesis that the amount of threat is proportionally lower on islands that have had more extinctions (i.e., there is a "filter effect"). Because the proportion of bird extinctions potentially explained only 2.3% of the variation in the proportion of threatened species on islands, our results did not support this hypothesis. Causal modeling provided a powerful tool for examining threat of extinction patterns of known and hypothesized pathways of influence.

  14. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  15. The population of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1970 the population of Brazil with 94,508,554 inhabitants was extreme youth, since 42.67% was composed of children under 14 years old. In that year the proportion of female was 50.2%. The population density increased from 1.17 inhabitants /km² in 1872 to 11.18 in 1970, and in this last year the range was 1.03 in the North region and 43.90 in the South-East region. The urban population increased from 31.24% in 1940 to 55.98% in 1970 and for the first time the rural population was smaller than the urban population. In 1950 concerning with marital status 39% of the population 15 years old and over was single and 54% married. In 1970 this rate was respectively 35.4% and 56.6%. The population economically inactive increased from 49.17% in 1940 to 52.24% in 1970. The literacy ratio increased from 43% in 1940, to 48% in 1950 and 68.04% in 1970. The crude birth rate was 43/1000 live births in 1950 and fell to 37.7/1000 in 1970. The fertility rate decreased from 179.3/1000 women (15-49 years old} to 156.7/1000 in 1960/70. The crude death rate decreased from 20.60/1000 inhabitants in 1940/50 to 9.4/1000 in 1960/70. The infant mortality rate still remains high: 171/1000 live births in 1940/50 and 170/1000 in 1971. Concerning with the size of the cities, 8 in 1940 had 100,000 or more inhabitants and in 1970 this number increased to 94 cities. The population growth increased from 2.38% in 1940/50, to 2.99% in 1950/60 and 2.83% in 1960./70. Brazil is the first country in population size in Latin America and the eighth in the world. Concerning his area, Brazil is the fifth country in size.

  16. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, W.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  17. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  18. Equine infectious anemia on Marajo Island at the mouth of the Amazon river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra F.Q.R. Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Equine infectious anemia (EIA is a transmissible and incurable disease caused by a lentivirus, the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. There are no reports in the literature of this infection in Equidae on Marajo Island. The objective of this study was to diagnose the disease in the municipalities of Cachoeira do Arari, Salvaterra, Santa Cruz do Arari and Soure, on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil. For serological survey samples were collected from 294 horses, over 5-month-old, males and females of puruca and marajoara breeds and from some half-breeds, which were tested by immunodiffusion in Agar gel (AGID. A prevalence of 46.26% (136/294 positive cases was found. EIA is considered endemic in the municipalities studied, due to the ecology of the region with a high numbered population of bloodsucking insect vectors and the absence of official measures for the control of the disease.

  19. [Psychotherapy in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, H

    1980-01-01

    Present conditions in Brazil are characterized by sharp contrasts and rapid social changes. Modern Brazilian civilisation has its roots in Indian, Portuguese and African cultures, which have grown together in the course of many years to form a harmonious union of civilisations. The Indian and Afro-Brazilian elements of this civilisation in particular have brought about a great number of syncretistic cults, hitherto scarcely explored; such as Candomblé, Umbanda, Macumba and Spiritualism, all of which, together with a vigorously active folklore, exert an important psychohygienic function. The institutions created within these cults provide a ritualized therapeutic treatment of psychiatric conditions supplementing the professional psychiatric care available to the population. The variety of forms of the Brazilian psychotherapy stretches from the pre-scientifical methods of the Indian medicine man through the seemingly medieval forms of exorcisme and spiritualism right to the scientifically founded psychotherapy in all its lines. Integrative endeavours towards a culture-anthropological psychotherapy are becoming evident.

  20. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  1. The Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  2. Remote Monitoring of Island Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    particularly susceptible to the spread of virulent diseases. The key to rapidly detecting such a threat to the island fox is intensive monitoring. But...contributed to the death of each fox, and revealed no evidence of virulent disease, no further action was necessary. While the monitoring system used...a population-threatening disease (e.g. rabies , canine distemper virus) should immediately lead to vaccination efforts and the preparations to

  3. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  4. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  5. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  6. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  7. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  8. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  9. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  10. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R; Meyer, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    .... Lula was re-elected in the second round of voting with fairly broad popular support. His immediate tasks were to boost Brazil's lagging economic growth and address the issues of crime, violence, and poverty...

  11. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R; Durand, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    .... Lula was re-elected in the second round of voting with fairly broad popular support. His immediate tasks were to boost Brazil's lagging economic growth and address the issues of crime, violence, and poverty...

  12. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

    2001-02-01

    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state.

  13. Landscapes and landforms of brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Bianca Carvalho; Santos, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the greater part of geomorphological sites in Brazil. It explains how these landscapes have influenced human settlements as well as provides details on parallel geological processes, climate variations and landscape changes.

  14. Brazil's Difficult Road to Greatness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, David C

    2008-01-01

    Brazil is an emerging country that has made important strides in consolidating its democracy, constructing a diversified and financially sound economy, and enhancing its diplomatic participation on the world stage...

  15. Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

    2011-12-01

    The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.D.; Fonte, J. da; Suckau, V.; Thakur, V.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  17. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/).

  18. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  19. Geology and petrology of Raiatea Island (Society islands, French Polynesia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blais, S.; Miau, D.; Guille, G.; Maury, R.C.; Cotten, J.; Guillou, H.

    1997-01-01

    Raiatea Island is made up of an alkali basaltic shield volcano, the upper 1000 m of which were emplaced between 2.75 and 2.52 Ma with an average construction rate of ca. 4 mm/year. Trachytic lavas were then emplaced between 2.54 and 2.44 Ma, both as flows and plugs along N-S trending fractures. Their geochemical characteristics point to a fractionation-controlled derivation from the basaltic magmas. Our new age set is consistent with a Pacific plate motion of 11 cm/year with respect to a fixed Society plume. (authors)

  20. Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Sauria, Tropiduridae em duas áreas com diferentes níveis de conservação na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of habitat disturbance on the feeding ecology of two local populations of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 in restinga habitats on Ilha da Marambaia, Southeastern Brazil. Both populations presented a relatively diverse diet and differ in the number (D Max = 0.22, DF = 2, p = 0.00 and volume of prey consumed (D Max = 0.82, DF = 2, p = 0.00. Ants were the most frequent and numerous preys in both areas, and plant matter and coleopterans were the most important alimentary items in volume. The population from the disturbed area presented a larger niche breadth for number of prey items consumed (Bi num = 3.06 and volume (Bi vol = 2.98, when compared to the other population (Bj num = 2.44, Bj vol = 1.52. Niche overlap was higher for number of items consumed between the populations (Oij num = 0.82 but lower for volume (Oij vol = 0.05. Our data suggest dietary differences between the two lizard populations, and these differences may be associated with environmental modifications. Our main hypothesis to explain the dietary differences is based in the Optimal Foraging Theory. However, the alimentary behavior, and consequently the diet of these lizards, seems to be constrained phylogenetically, with a pattern that may have evolved in the ancestor of all iguanids.Comparamos os efeitos da degradação ambiental sobre a ecologia alimentar de duas populações de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 em áreas de restinga da Ilha da Marambaia, sudeste do Brasil. Ambas as populações apresentaram dieta relativamente diversa e deferiram em número (D Max = 0,22; DF = 2; p = 0,00 e volume de presas consumidas (D Max = 0,82; DF = 2; p = 0,00. Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentes e numerosos em ambas as áreas, e material vegetal e coleópteros os mais importantes em volume. A população da área perturbada apresentou maior largura de nicho alimentar para número de presas consumidas (Bi num = 3,06 e volume (Bi vol = 2,98, quando comparada

  1. Aspectos ecológicos de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares da mata tropical úmida da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil Ecological aspects of mycorrhizal vesicular-arbuscular fungi of the tropical humid forest of Cardoso Island, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F. B Trufem

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto/1984 a maio/1987, em nove ocasiões, foram coletadas 300 amostras de solo da rizosfera de 35 espécies de plantas nativas da mata tropical úmida do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil, para a investigação da ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares (MVA ea obtenção de dados sobre aspectos ecológicos desses microrganismos. Foram verificados 35 taxa de fungos MV A, sete dos quais espécies novas. Os esporos qué ocorreram em maior quantidade foram os de Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd.. Glomus geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. e Glomus microcarpum Tul. & Tul. As plantas cujas rizosferas apresentaram maior número de esporos de fungos MV A foram as de Blechnum serrulatum L.C. Rich., Euterpe edulis Mart, Neomarica caerulia Sprague, Geonoma elegans Mart, e Piper aduncum L. A maior diversidade de espécies de fugnos MV A ocorreu nas rizosferas de Aphettandra sp., Geonoma elegans Mart e Leandra barbinervis Cogn. Verificouse que houve predominancia de espécies de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares clamidospóricas sobre as azigospóricas, bem como que a quantidade de esporos em urna dada rizosfera está diretamente relacionada com a diversidade. Glomus monosporum Gerd. & Trappe e as espécies de Sclerocystis podem ser apontadas como características do ecossistema estudado, que apresentou a média de 50,04 esporos/ 100g de solo.From August/1984 to May/1987, 300 soil samples were collected from the rhizospheres of 35 species of native plants of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brazil, in a wet tropical forest, to investigate the occurrence and some ecological aspects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungi. Thirty five taxa of VA M fungi were reported, seven of them as new species. The most numerous VA M fungal spores belong to Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora

  2. ISLANDNESS AND REMOTENESS AS RESOURCES: EVIDENCE FROM THE TOURISM PERFORMANCE OF SMALL REMOTE ISLAND ECONOMIES (SRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamnaaz B. Sufrauj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small remote island economies are known to face a number of economic challenges, in particular, in their trade relations. In addition, their geographical handicap—remoteness—enhances their vulnerability. The cost of distance is well-documented in the economics literature. This paper takes an optimistic position and puts forward the strengths of islands. It investigates the impact of remoteness and islandness on tourism performance. Remote islands are found to be well-endowed in nature and scenery which plausibly play a major role in promoting tourism. The results of an empirical analysis favour the hypothesis that nature has a positive impact on tourism performance (revealed comparative advantage and tourism demand. Interestingly while being distant is detrimental to tourism performance, being both an island and remote is favourable. Tourism demand is negatively affected by being an island, a small country, or a remote country but favoured by being a small island or a remote island.

  3. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  4. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  5. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  6. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  7. Observations on the natural history of the lizard Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Scincidae in Queimada Grande Island, São Paulo, Brazil Observações sobre a história natural do lagarto Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Scincidae na Ilha da Queimada Grande, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vrcibradic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Data are presented on the on diet, thermal biology, microhabitat use, reproduction and helminth infection parameters of a population of Mabuya macrorhyncha hoge, 1946 inhabiting the small island of Queimada Grande, on the southern coast of São Paulo State. The lizards were collected on November 1997 (spring and on July 1998 (winter. Most lizards were perched above ground, mainly on herbaceous vegetation. Mean lizard body temperatures were significantly higher in spring (32.6 ± 1.9ºC than in winter (28.5 ± 2.4ºC, as were air temperatures. Mean litter size of females was 2.7 (range 2-3. The diet was composed of a diverse array of arthropods and some small fruits. Of the 19 lizards examined, 16 (84.2% harboured helminths. Three species of helminth (one acanthocephalan and two nematodes were found infecting the lizards. Compared to other M. macrorhyncha populations previously studied in mainland areas, the Queimada Grande population appears to be less strongly associated to bromeliads, to consume plant matter (fruits more frequently, and to have a poorer helminth fauna.Dados são apresentados referentes à dieta, biologia térmica, uso de microhabitats, reprodução e parâmetros de infecção por helmintos de uma população de Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946 habitando a pequena ilha da Queimada Grande, na costa sul do Estado de São Paulo. Os lagartos foram coletados em novembro de 1997 (primavera e em julho de 1998 (inverno. A maioria dos lagartos foi encontrada empoleirada acima do solo, principalmente sobre vegetação herbácea. As temperaturas corpóreas médias dos lagartos foram significativamente mais altas na primavera (32,6 ± 1,9ºC do que no inverno (28,5 ± 2,4ºC, como ocorreu com as temperaturas do ar. O tamanho médio de ninhada das fêmeas foi de 2.7 (amplitude 2-3. A dieta foi composta por artrópodes variados e por alguns pequenos frutos. Dos 19 lagartos examinados, 16 (84.2% estavam infectados por helmintos. Três esp

  8. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  9. Periodic Shoreline Morphology, Fire Island, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gravens, Mark B

    1999-01-01

    The presence of shoreline undulations along the Atlantic coast of Fire Island, NY requires careful consideration in developing erosion control and hurricane protection plans and design alternatives...

  10. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  11. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  12. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  13. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  14. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  15. Solid waste management on small islands: the case of Green Island, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The

  16. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  17. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that are developed or...-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast... restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Catawba Island Club Memorial Day Fireworks. This...

  18. GE tackles the nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, G.G.; Sasso, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The General Electric Standard Safety Analysis Report (GESSAR) is discussed. This described a standard 1220 MWe BWR/6 nuclear steam supply system, the containment and includes all the structures, systems, equipment and interfaces with the 'nuclear island' so that fewer safety related interfaces need be defined and reviewed. The establishment of pre-approved sites as a method of shortening licensing schedules is discussed. The economic advantages of standardised design, and other benefits such as improved product control and productivity are considered. (U.K.)

  19. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...... on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present...

  20. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  1. Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba-Stonehouse, V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  2. Development of the Islands of Calleja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chun; Puche, Adam C

    2013-01-15

    The Islands of Calleja are aggregations of granule cells located in the basal forebrain of most vertebrate species. These cellular aggregations are typically classified as consisting of a single island, the insula magna located adjacent to the nucleus accumbens, and numerous small islands scattered among the dorsal aspect of the olfactory tubercle. While these structures have been widely described in adult, comparatively little is known about their development. Islands are first identifiable at P2-P4 with formation of the Insula Magna and several small aggregations in the caudolateral aspect of the basal forebrain. The Insula Magna fully forms at approximately P4, with continued formation of the small islands through P10 in a caudal to rostral gradient. Historically, there has been controversy as to whether neurons in the islands are GABAergic, due to limitations in resolving immunolabeling for GABA in the densely packed islands. We investigated the neurochemical identity of island cells by exploiting transgenic reporter mice expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the GAD65 promoter. This demonstrated that the majority of neurons in the Islands of Calleja are GABAergic, primarily utilizing GAD65. Interestingly, several calcium binding protein expressing interneuron classes are present in the postnatal islands, but disappear with maturation. These findings show that the SVZ derived progenitors that migrate to the Islands of Calleja form different lineages to those destined for the olfactory bulbs, despite generation of both populations at the same age/location in the SVZ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  4. All about neosporosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990’s N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  5. All about neosporosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila Koutsodontis; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2017-01-01

    Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990's N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  7. Updating Rhode Island's strategic highway safety plan (SHSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the peer exchange sponsored by the Rhode Island : Department of Transportation (RIDOT) that focused on Rhode Islands SHSP : update. : Rhode Islands goals for the peer exchange included learning from other States : expe...

  8. Electricity storage in island systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiou, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in zones which are not connected with the continental grid (ZNI). Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008, thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. However, the rapid and massive deployment of wind and solar energy may endanger the stability of the electric system: these productions are subject to rapid variations that are difficult to predict and that other local energy source are not able to compensate properly. As a consequence, a regulatory technical acceptability limit for intermittent energy has been defined to 30% above which it becomes difficult to balance the system. With controlled energy storage, it will be possible to maintain the stability and security of the electricity system. Owing to several experiments of storage of electricity, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix. (author)

  9. Eruption reported in Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 29, an airplane pilot reported the start of an eruption on Mount Westdahl on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands (54.52°N, 164.65°W), according to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network. The pilot sighted an ash plume rising to more than 7 km altitude at 1705 local time ( = UT-11 hours). The main portion of the plume, at about 5 km altitude, extended 80-95 km east-northeast by 0930 the next morning.About noon, U.S. Coast Guard pilots observed a NE-SW fissure vent 5-8 km long, with at least one active lava flow traveling down the east flank. The area surrounding the vent was ash-covered, and increased runoff and possible mudflows were observed. Vigorous steam and ash emission was visible throughout the day from False Pass (90 km NE), which experienced a very fine dusting of ash. A strong sulfur odor at False Pass lasted into the night, and similar odors were reported by pilots up to several hundred kilometers inland. No ashfall has been reported in Cold Bay (145 km NE).

  10. Islam in Brazil or the Islam of Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Peres de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This article is about the Islam lived and practiced by Muslim communities in Brazil. It attempts to understand the identity that this religion is acquiring in the Brazilian religious field. It discusses the discrepancy between figures presented by the official census and Muslim sources and offers models to think about the emergence of Muslim communities and possible changes due to the entrance of "new Muslims" (converted Brazilians without Muslim origin. Based on empirical data, it discusses the difficulties found and strategies used by the communities. It suggests that Islam in Brazil is starting to put down roots and to have a profile of its own.

  11. The Brazil of Marianne North: Memories of an English Traveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Almeida Gazzola

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting from reflections about woman and femininity in the Victorian era, the explosion of literary market in the 19th century, and the access of women to education, literature, and journalism, this text introduces the work of Marianne North, English painter who used to travel aiming to paint the flora of other countries, particularly the exotic tropical flora. Marianne became one of the most famous globetrotter travelers of her time, visiting several countries such as Canada, USA, Jamaica, Brazil, Tenerife, Japan, Borneo, Java, Ceylon, Singapore, India, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, South Africa, Seychelles Islands, and Chile. In total, she left registers of about 272 genres (almost 1000 species of plants, some of them little known by the experts. Hence, the text deals with the dual condition of Marianne North as a painter and author of reports about the visited countries. In Brazil, for instance, she lived between 1972 and 1873. Her professionalism and objectivity distinguish her from the other travelers of 19th century.

  12. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  13. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  14. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Nico; Reinhard, Stijn; Bets, van L.K.J.; Kuhlman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. However, at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems.

  15. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  16. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  17. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  18. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  19. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  20. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  1. Shape and coarsening dynamics of strained islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifani, Guido; Frisch, Thomas; Argentina, Mederic

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the formation and the coarsening dynamics of islands in a strained epitaxial semiconductor film. These islands are commonly observed in thin films undergoing a morphological instability due to the presence of the elastocapillary effect. We first describe both analytically and numer...

  2. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  3. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...

  4. Marine Resource Management for Misali Island: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    2Frontier-Tanzania, P.O. Box 9473, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... Abstract—In collaboration with local stakeholders, Frontier-Tanzania is collecting biophysical ... fishing industry. Misali Island's current management status. The Misali Island Marine Conservation Area. (MIMCA) was legally established by the then. Ministry of ...

  5. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  6. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  7. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  8. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  9. Factors influencing tropical Island freshwater fishes: species, status, threats and conservation in Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hainan Island is located within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot, however, the freshwater fish fauna on this island is poorly understood. Based on field investigations and literature review, we compiled a list of 154 freshwater fish species (138 native and 16 non-native belonging to 10 orders, 31 families and 104 genera found on Hainan Island. Of these, 31 species are endemic to China. The native freshwater fish fauna in Hainan Island is affiliated to South China sub-region of the Oriental Region. Current knowledge suggests that overexploitation, water pollution, flow modification, habitat degradation, and non-native species have severely reduced the freshwater fish biodiversity in Hainan Island. To protect freshwater fish biodiversity and fisheries in Hainan Island, some new measures should be adopted and current measures better enforced. This study constitutes an important resource for conservation management of freshwater fishes in Hainan Island.

  10. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in above...... sea level, as determined by airborne laser scanning. High-quality geodetic GPS measurements determine the position of a small cairn erected on the island to 79 degrees 20'34.48" N, 15 degrees 46'31.23" W. Minor parts of the island are ice free, with small hills of gravel. Late Holocene shells...... of marine bivalves have been found and were presumably brought up by ice floe push. Shell fragments of southern extralimital marine invertebrates point to the presence of pre-Holocene deposits. Three species of moss are the only land plants that have been found on the island....

  11. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  12. Analysis of hybrid systems for La Graciosa Island (Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Departament of Process Engineering Industrial Enviromental Section, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Leon, V. [Red Electrica de Espana, Polygono de la Majuelos 38108 San Cristobal de La Laguna (Spain); Nuez, I. [Departament of Electronic and Automatic Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The main objectives of the study are the integration of the renewable energies, the study of the production of the hydrogen and the utilization in areas where have a high potential of renewable origin sources and a low capacity of drinkable water and energy power. In this work, it has been done the study of the actual energy necessity of the island and it is posed a series of solutions to its energy system. It is analyzed three cases. In the first step, it is exposed an isolated system with renewable energies and hydrogen as energy storage; in the second step, it is studied a system with renewable energies, hydrogen and an electricity-generating group as support; and in the third step, it is analyzed a case with renewable energy and connexion to the network (in this case, it would already not be an isolated system). (authors)

  13. PROJECT BLUE: An Operational Oceanography program in the Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves dos Santos, Francisco; da Rocha Fragoso, Maurício; Maturo Marques da Cruz, Leonardo; de Castro Pellegrini, Julio Augusto; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Landau, Luiz; Adissi, Flávia

    2013-04-01

    The beginning of 2013 will mark the start for the Project BLUE, one of the greatest efforts in operational oceanography ever proposed in Brazil. The region of interest is located in the continental shelf break between Cabo Frio (23°S) and Floriananópolis Island (28°S). The region is dominated by the Brazil Current system, formed by the Brazil Current, carrying Tropical Water southward from surface down to 400-500 meters and the Intermediate Counter Current, flowing northward in the interface of the South Atlantic Central Water and the Antarctic Intermediate Water. In situ data and operational forecasts efforts in this oil rich region are still few and disperse. Nevertheless, the constant increase of offshore operations is followed by the necessity of both a baseline study and a systematic data collection. All project structure is aimed at optimizing real-time data collection and displaying. Project BLUE is formed by 4 modules: (1) In situ data collection will be performed by 5 gliders, 108 surface drifters and 36 subsurface profiling floats. (2) Remote Sensing module count on a local receiving antenna to provide operational information of Sea Surface Temperature, Height and Ocean Color. (3) Numerical Modelling module aims, initially, to implement a regional grid for long climatological runs, followed by an operational run, with assimilation of the data generated by the first module. One of the great concerns of the Project BLUE is to turn public all collected data, allowing for a greater number of researchers to access the data and, consequently, improving the knowledge on the region. For that purpose, there is an specific module (4) Data displaying focused on easing the access to the data via web services. It is expected, by the end of the first three years, to have a systematic data collection system, a well adapted assimilation scheme and an operational forecast model for the Santos Basin, providing reliable information for offshore operations and emergency

  14. Quantifying and interpreting nestedness in habitat islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The concept of nestedness is important in determining the relative contribution to overall system diversity of different habitat patches within a fragmented system. Much of the previous work on nestedness has focused on islands within oceans (islands sensu stricto). The largest analysis...... of habitat island systems to date found significant nestedness to be a near universal feature, but the methods used have since been criticized as inappropriate. Thus, there is a need for an updated, critical examination of the prevalence, underlying drivers and implications of nestedness in multiple habitat...... island systems. Location: Global. Methods: Here, we collate 97 datasets from published habitat island studies, comprising multiple taxa. We use the NODF metric (nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing fill) to estimate nestedness and determine significance using the four-step proportional...

  15. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  16. A new golden era in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Fernandez-Palacios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For two centuries, islands have served as rich sources of inspiration and data for biogeographers, thus gaining renown as ideal natural laboratories. Their research potential continues to expand today thanks to the combined application of recent advances in several scientific fields. First, increasingly detailed geological and palaeoecological data are extending our understanding of the history of development of island biotas. At the same time, rapid methodological advances in molecular evolutionary biology and systematics are revealing the pathways by which species colonized islands, evolved, and formed communities. Third, basic data on species distributions are being collected from increasing numbers of islands and taxa, distributed widely through electronic resources, and analyzed with powerful software to reveal macroecological patterns. The pace and quality of recent advances signal a promising future in which islands will continue to play key roles in revealing how biodiversity is produced and maintained.

  17. Prévention du brunissement lors de l'extraction de jus de banane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par ailleurs, la confiture contenant la poudre de baobab (Adansonia digitata) aura une meilleure conservation grâce à son pH plus acide. ... conducted with a view to evaluating both the ability of various anti browning treatments to prevent browning of plantain juice and also to value the residues from the extraction as jam.

  18. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  19. Study of C13/C12 and O18/O16 variations on environments of beach rocks formation in Itaparica island - Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands or beach rocks have been observed to occur in the inter tidal zone of many tropical beaches. Near Salvador (Brazil) occurrences are found in several locations on the island of Itaparica. A study of the stable isotope composition (C 13 / C 12 and O 18 / O 16 ) of the cement and the local groundwater was carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. (author)

  20. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear. 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.

  1. The magnetic observatory on Tatuoca, Belém, Brazil: history and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Haseloff, Jürgen; Bronkalla, Oliver; Protásio, José; Pinheiro, Katia; Matzka, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    The Tatuoca magnetic observatory (IAGA code: TTB) is located on a small island in the Amazonian delta in the state of Pará, Brazil. Its location close to the geomagnetic equator and within the South Atlantic Anomaly offers a high scientific return of the observatory's data. A joint effort by the National Observatory of Brazil (ON) and the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) was undertaken, starting from 2015 in order to modernise the observatory with the goal of joining the INTERMAGNET network and to provide real-time data access. In this paper, we will describe the history of the observatory, recent improvements, and plans for the near future. In addition, we will give some comments on absolute observations of the geomagnetic field near the geomagnetic equator.

  2. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Can minimum wages help to reduce labour market inequality? : experiences in India and Brazil; project paper H (c). Download PDF. Reports. Policy debate on minimum wages : report on a Panel Discussion at the Indian Society of Labour Economics, 57th Annual Conference, Srinagar; project paper H (g). Download PDF.

  3. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Brazil, inequality has dropped by 9% between 1993 and 2008, while in India,, it increased by 16%. This reflects the different labour markets in both countries, which provide the main source of income for households. This research project brings together The Centre for Analysis and Planning in São Paulo (CEBRAP) and ...

  4. Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Jose Milton E.; Batista, Nouga C.; Carvalho, Rogerio M.; Santana, Sirlane A. A.; Puzzi, Paula N.; Sanches, Mario; Lima-Neto, Benedito S.

    2007-01-01

    Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts). In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community. (author)

  5. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in Brazil and India are joining forces to examine the factors behind wage inequality in their countries and propose policy options to reduce inequality in labour markets. While these two economies have succeeded in reducing poverty and gaining influence in global affairs, both still experience high inequality, ...

  6. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in Brazil and India are joining forces to examine the factors behind wage inequality in their countries and propose policy options to reduce inequality in labour markets. While these two economies have succeeded in ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les ...

  7. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  8. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  9. Fuelwood production in Prince Edward Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    The most recent Prince Edward Island Fuelwood Survey occurred in 1990-91. Consumption of fuelwood rose again to 49% of Prince Edward Island's 43,170 households. Total residential fuelwood consumption was estimated to be 242,000 m 3 . The fuelwood industry makes an important contribution to the economy of Prince Edward Island. In the 1990-91 heating season, fuelwood valued at USD 9 million displaced approximately 43 million litres of domestic heating oil valued at USD 16.4 million. In addition, it is estimated that 70 cents of every dollar spent on fuelwood remains in the province and contributes spin-off benefits, whereas 90 cents of every dollar spent on heating oil is lost to the economy of Prince Edward Island. The percentage of people cutting their own fuelwood decreased from 52 in 1984-85 to only 23.4 in 1990-91. The governments of Canada and Prince Edward Island have implemented a series of Forest Resource Development Agreements (FRDAs) starting in 1983. The current 1988-1993 FRDA provides USD 24 million for research and incentives for reforestation and management of Prince Edward Island woodlots. It is expected that 3,800 Prince Edward Island woodlot owners will be participating in a woodlot management program by 1993. Silviculture treatments of hardwood stands include thinning, stand conversion (removal of lowgrade softwoods such as balsam fir in mainly hardwood stands), and shelterwood (strip) cutting, particularly in marginal stands. (9 refs.)

  10. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  11. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  12. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  13. Brazil well worth the wait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duey, R.

    1999-11-01

    Oil companies weren't the only ones waiting for Brazil to make up its mind about privatizing its oil and gas industry. Seismic firms are flocking to the area in droves to work their spec magic. Exploratory activities in these large offshore blocks are described.

  14. Brazil and International Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yuryevna Borzova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers features of Brazilian participation in peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the United Nations related to the commitment to preventive diplomacy in resolving the conflict, the combination of diplomacy and peace-building efforts and rehabilitation of the economies of countries-participants of the conflict. Brazil put forward the initiative “Supporters of mediation”, that adds the concept of the United Nations “Responsibility to Protect” (R2P with the concept “Responsibility while protecting” (RwhileP. Brazil advocates for human rights. It marked Brazil's position on the rejection of humanitarian intervention, since the use of force leads to increased violence and instability, which manifested itself in the situation in the Middle East, and mass migration. For the country is characterized the analysis of the sources of conflict, adherence to international law, and understanding of the relationship between security and sustainable development, which is reflected in Brazil's foreign policy strategy, national security strategy.

  15. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date.

  16. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m 3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  17. Isotopic investigation of an Australian island environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groecke, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Collagen has been extracted from fossil bones of mega-fauna herbivores from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Australia). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of collagen have provided an insight into the palaeo-ecology of these late Pleistocene herbivores. In comparison with continental fossil localities in South Australia, the island herbivores have elevated nitrogen isotopic abundances. Carbon isotopic abundances suggest that browsing species had a mixed diet of grasses and leaves on the island, in contrast to the specimens from mainland Australia. Possible causes regarding elevated nitrogen isotope abundances and dietary shifts in this palaeo-ecology are discussed. (authors). 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  19. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  20. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....

  1. Studying Islands: On Whose Terms? Some Epistemological and Methodological Challenges to the Pursuit of Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of nissology, or island studies, calls for a re-centering of focus from mainland to island, away from the discourse of conquest of mainlanders, giving voice and platform for the expression of island narratives. Yet, studying islands ‘on their own terms’, in spite of its predilection for “authenticity”, is fraught with epistemological and methodological difficulties. The insider/outsider distinction does not work all that well when it comes to islands, where hybridity is the norm. This paper seeks to extend this debate, grappling especially with the contributions of Grant McCall and Peter Hay to the sparse literature. Five dilemmas related to indigenous island geographies are presented and discussed, in a semi-autobiographical style.

  2. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...... multimodel comparisons demonstrated the nonlinear implementation of the power model to be the best overall model and thus to be a sensible choice for general use. As the z-value of the log–log power model varied in relation to ecological and geographical properties of the study systems, caution should...

  3. Avaliação da contaminação do Igarapé do Sabino (Bacia do Rio Tibiri por metais pesados, originados dos resíduos e efluentes do Aterro da Ribeira, em São Luís, Maranhão Evaluation of contamination on Sabino streamlet (Basin Rio Tibiri by heavy metals originated from waste and effluents of the Ribeira landfill, in São Luis island, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Lopes Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to carry out an environmental monitoring in sabino narrow river (affluent of Tibiri Basin, in São Luís - MA, Brazil, in order to verify the main environmental impacts caused by effluent residues from Ribeira landfill. Chemical analysis and bibliographic and cartographic researches on this ecosystem were also carried out. In addition, heavy metals, such as Hg, Pb and Zn, were investigated in water samples by ICP-MS technique. It was observed that the contents of such heavy metals were above the tolerance limits established by the Brazilian legislation, showing a strong impact level on the evaluated ecosystem.

  4. Botanical results of a trip to the Salajar Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docters van Leeuwen, W.M.

    1937-01-01

    The Salajar Islands strew the Flores Sea between Celebes and Flores. The group consists of no less than 73 smaller and larger islands. The principal islands are: Salajar or Tanadoang, Djampea, Kalao, Kalaotoa, and Bonerate. A number of smaller islands form together the group of the so-called Tiger

  5. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are held on Wake Island or Hawaii at times and places designated by the Chief Judge. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake...

  6. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological time-scales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that

  7. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... easternmost extremity of Hilton Head at latitude 32°13.0′ N. longitude 80°40.1′ W. [CGD 77-118a, 42 FR 35784...

  8. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  9. Elastic energies of coherent germanium islands on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderbilt, D.; Wickham, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by recent observations of coherent Ge island formation during growth of Ge on Si (100), the authors of this paper have carried out a theoretical study of the elastic energies associated with the evolution of a uniform strained overlayer as it segregates into coherent islands. In the context of a two-dimensional model, the authors have explored the conditions under which coherent islands may be energetically favored over both uniform epitaxial films and dislocated islands. The authors find that if the interface energy (for dislocated islands) is more than about 15% of the surface energy, then there is a range of island sizes for which the coherent island structure is preferred

  10. Oceanic island biogeography: Nomothetic science of the anecdotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Meiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islands get more than their fair share of attention from biogeographers, macroecologists and evolutionary biologists. Adding to this existing bias, I claim that oceanic islands, especially oceanic island archipelagos (and among them, especially the Hawaii, the Canaries, Azores and, of course, the Galapagos attract much more scientific attention than the insights they offer or warrant. This focus on oceanic islands ignores other island types that may be better heuristic tools for studies of general ecological, biogeographic and evolutionary dynamics. The evolutionary and ecological dynamics of landbridge and continental islands are often as fast, dramatic, interesting and insightful, and merit more attention from island biogeographers. 

  11. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...... with islanding detection on the utility side, whereas a local technique is associated with islanding detection on the DG side. Local techniques can further be divided into passive techniques, active techniques and hybrid techniques. These islanding detection techniques for DG are described and analyzed....

  12. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  13. Anomalous scaling of Cu-island dynamics on Ag(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaum, Christopher; Morgenstern, Karina [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet, Appelstr. 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We deposited Cu-islands containing 10 to 500 atoms on a clean Ag(100) surface at room temperature and investigated diffusion and decay of these islands with a fast scanning tunneling microscope. Islands at sizes above 80 atoms per island are adsorbed in hollow-sites. Islands at sizes below 80 atoms per island are adsorbed in bridge-sites. Diffusion and decay behavior of the hollow-site islands is similar to the behavior of both Ag-islands on Ag(100) and Cu-islands on Cu(100). In contrast, the diffusivity and the decay time of the bridge-site islands are significantly higher than any previously measured values. This indicates a novel mechanism of diffusion.

  14. Hematology and serum chemistry of the island spotted skunk on Santa Cruz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kevin R; Garcelon, D K; Scott, Cheryl A; Wilcox, Jeffery T; Timm, Steven F; Van Vuren, Dirk H

    2003-04-01

    We determined serum biochemistry and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet season). One parameter, glucose, significantly differed with season, with higher levels during the wet season. Serum chemistry and hematologic profiles suggest that method of restraint (manual or chemical), as well as other methodologic details, may influence blood characteristics in the island spotted skunk.

  15. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S

    2017-06-06

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  16. Assessing vulnerability to climate change and socioeconomic stressors in the Reef Islands group, Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the vulnerability to climatic and socioeconomic stresses in the Reef Islands, Solomon Islands, an atoll island group in the Southwest Pacific. Climate change and the associated sea-level rise are often seen as the most pressing challenges to atoll communities, yet this study...... infrastructure, economic marginalization and weak governance of Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that some of these non-climatic stresses are currently – and in the short term – more important determinants of local vulnerability than climate change and sea-level rise. Certainly, these stresses are likely...

  17. Control and Operation of Islanded Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar

    A yearly demand growth of less than 3%, concern about the environment, and various benefits of onsite generation have all resulted in a significant increase in penetration of dispersed and distributed generation (DG) in many distribution systems. This has also resulted in some power system...... operational challenges. But, on the other hand, it has also opened up some opportunities. One opportunity/challenge is an islanded operation of a distribution system with DG unit(s). Islanding is a situation in which a distribution system becomes electrically isolated from the remainder of the power system...... and yet continues to be energized by DG unit(s) connected to it. Currently, it is seen as a challenge and so far all DG units need to shut down when a distribution system is islanded. However, with the DG penetration expected to increase sharply, islanding is an opportunity to improve the reliability...

  18. Hillshades for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These hillshade datasets were derived from USGS 7.5' DEM Quads for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands. Individual DEM quads were first converted to a common datum, and...

  19. Urban Heat Island Effect Actions - Neighborhood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisville Metro Government — The urban heat island effect — defined as the difference in temperature between the core of Louisville and its suburbs — contributes to heat-related illnesses and...

  20. In the Shadow of Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Clough, Ida; Wheeler, Brenda

    1979-01-01

    Describes how teachers turned the reality of the nuclear reactor incident at Three Mile Island into a learning experience for children by recreating the sequence of events through creative dramatics. (CM)

  1. A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammano, Nicholas J.

    1980-01-01

    Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)

  2. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  3. Protection of Marine Structures by Artificial Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ottesen Hansen, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    protection of the bridge and of the grounding ships aspects like erosion of the islands and hydraulic resistance to the water flow through the belt must also be considered. The paper is focused on the design aspects related to ship grounding. It presents a theoretical model, which predicts the ship motions......The theoretical background for the ship protection islands for the Great Belt suspension bridge in Denmark is presented. The islands protect two anchor blocks and five approach bridge piers of the Great Belt Suspension Bridge in Denmark. The design is a complex multi-discipline task. Besides......, the loads and the deformations during a ship grounding event on a soft sea bed. The models applied to determine the shapes of the artificial islands, which most efficiently protect the bridge from ship impact while posing minimum risk of damage to the grounding ships, requiring the least amount of building...

  4. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  5. Studies on littoral flora of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Marine macrophytes of Andaman islands were qualitatively surveyed. In all 40 genera, 64 species of marine algae, 17 genera, 22 species of mangroves while 3 genera, 3 species of seagrasses are reported. There were 26 species of rhodophyta, 21 species...

  6. 1- HARPs of the Pacific Islands Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information on acoustic recordings of cetaceans collected from areas within the Pacific Islands Region since 2006. In collaboration with...

  7. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  8. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Jarvis Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Jarvis Island in the US...

  9. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...... water levels. These storms induce collision, overwash or inundation of the barrier crest and generate wash-over fans and barrier breaching. In this presentation, we focus on the present-day morphologic evolution of these barrier islands, couple these to extreme events, and we will predict the potential...... changes in this evolution due to changes in the climate and associated sea levels. We analyzed the morphologic evolution of a series of barrier islands over the last decades using maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. This decadal morphologic evolution was coupled to the frequency and intensity...

  10. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Howland Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland Island in the...

  11. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    to navigators through the ages. Recent discoveries made during marine archaeological exploration and excavations in the Lakshadweep have revealed evidences of early settlement and shipwrecks. The findings suggest that the islands had been inhabited much before...

  12. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  13. Reef Fish of Navassa Island 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This record refers to reef fish data collected on the 2004 cruise to Navassa Island National Wildlife Refuge. The random point count method (Bohnsack-Bannerot 1986)...

  14. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  15. Development of Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... The DoD Hotline complaint alleged that the Navy was not receiving the fair market value for the land, the Navy was understating the estimated cost to construct the causeway and to develop Ford Island...

  16. Maritime archaeology of Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

    route from Europe to Asia before the opening of the Suez Canal In order to delineate the earliest human habitation and maritime contacts of Lakshadweep Islands, archaeological explorations was carried on by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI...

  17. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  18. Potential For Conflict in the Spratly Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chin, Chin

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the potential for conflict in the Spratly Islands and determines whether the Declaration of Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea signed between China and ASEAN on November 4...

  19. Urban Heat Island towards Urban Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, Widya

    2018-02-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is defined as the temperature difference between the urban and suburban areas and rural areas in the same region. Researchers have discussed several different techniques for evaluating the phenomenon. This paper reviews some of the causes and effects of urban heat islands, mainly on urban climate. Both directly and indirectly, the UHI influences multiple sectors. According to this, it is needed to develop a strategic mitigation between government and scientists to reduce the temperature.

  20. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  1. The urban heat island in Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank P. Martin; Grace L. Powell

    1977-01-01

    Data gathered by automobile traverse were used to describe the urban heat of Akron, Ohio. Observations were made at 2100 or 2200 EST on four nights-17 April, 11 July, 10 October, and 2 January. Weather conditions not conducive to heat-island development were avoided. Temperatures in the center of the heat island were 6 to 14?F warmer than rural areas outside the city....

  2. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  3. Body size of commom opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied 1826 (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae on southern brazilian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. Salvador

    Full Text Available The body size of vertebrates isolated on islands can undergo changes due to ecological features of these environments. This study aimed to compare the body size of the common opossum, Didelphis aurita, from different insular populations within the same archipelago in southern Brazil. The opossum populations showed corporal variation and different hypotheses were raised to understand the results. This study constitutes the most detailed body size comparison of a marsupial within different insular populations in the Neotropical zone and the data gathered represents an initial contribution for regional fauna biometric knowledge.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 in Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD Rocha

    Full Text Available The gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus mabouia is an exotic species in Brazil and is found in different ecosystems. This species was recorded at Ilha Grande, RJ, one of the largest insular remains of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. In this study, the occurrence of H. mabouia was determined throughout the island, including the rain forest, restinga and anthropic environments. We used the active search method in points along 19 trails that surround Ilha Grande. At each regular interval of 100 m, we searched for the presence of H. mabouia. The species was recorded in a total of 100 points among the 719 sampled and, in all cases, the occurrence of the lizard corresponded to points located in anthropic or perianthropic areas. As most of Ilha Grande is covered by dense tropical rain forest, we believe this has restricted the invasion of H. mabouia in natural environments within the island.

  5. Of Africa and island nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.; Jaremko, D.

    2009-06-15

    Trinidad and Tobago is now planning to develop its heavy oil and oil sands reserves. Officials with the state-owned energy company Petrotrin advised local media that its heavy oil reserves have the potential to double the country's total reserves. A licence has been issued to explore oil sands in the Parrylands and Guapo fields. Petrotrin is aiming to follow the example of Canadian oil sands producers, and hopes to limit the environmental impacts of production on the island. Government agencies will also conduct research to evaluate suitable technologies for oil sands production. New air pollution rules have recently been enforced, and studies are being conducted in order to determine how best to preserve the country's aquifers. The Congolese government has recently signed a contract with the Italy-based company Eni, who will explore and exploit oil sands resources of 2.5 billion barrels in the Tchikatanga and Tchikatanga-Makola regions. Madagascar Oil is now planning to develop 2.5 billion barrels of oil sands resources in Madagascar using cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) technologies. It was concluded that a continuous steam flood pilot program is being conducted in 2009. 1 fig.

  6. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Ou...... the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.......BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...

  7. Island studies as a decolonial project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaso Nadarajah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colonialism influenced the cultures, economies, and politics of the majority of the world’s population. The subsequent decolonization process has likewise had profound affects on colonized societies. Island societies undergoing decolonization face many of the same pressures and challenges as do mainland societies, yet island spatiality and the history of island colonization itself has left former and present-day island colonies with distinctive colonial legacies. From the Caribbean to the Arctic to the Pacific to the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean, colonial and decolonial processes are creating tensions between maintenance of the culture of indigenous peoples, economic development, cultivation of cultural heritage, political modernization, status on the global stage, democratic governance, and educational achievement. We call for an island studies perspective on decolonization, emphasizing the importance of appropriately positioning expert knowledge relative to the needs of colonized and indigenous peoples and highlighting the pitfalls of neocolonialsim. We thus lay the groundwork for island studies as a decolonial project.

  8. The new record orchids from Wawonii Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAH SULISTIARINI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wawonii Island is belonging to Province of South-east Sulawesi, which covers area of about 650 km2. The areas is divided into four forest zones that were protected forests, production forests, limited production forests and social forests. This island was selected as a study site with consideration that this island estimated to have unique flora as same as to Sulawesi Island in general. In addition, so far there is no information about flora in this area. The study was conducted by exploring where the forest area visited, in order to collected and inventoried of plant with special attention to orchid species. Out of this study there are about 80 species of orchid were recorded and three species of them were Anoectochilus cetaceus Bl., Cryptostylis javanica J.J. Sm. and Malaxis koordersii (J.J. Sm. Bakh. f., identified as new record from Wawonii Island. Those three species according to previous information were admitted as endemic of Java. Although morphologically those three species collected from Wawonii were little bit different to which occurred in Java, but based on the species character they unable to be considered as different species. Consequently since those three the species found in Wawonii Island, those species should be categorized as non endemic of Java.

  9. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/.

  10. Islands of dairy in a sea of sugarcane: the future of family dairy farming in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The future of family farming is a matter of debate, especially because of the far-reaching economic and political changes that are occurring. One vision is that family farms will disappear because they are less efficient than large-scale industrial farming enterprises. Others foresee that they will

  11. Islands of dairy in a sea of sugarcane: the future of family dairy farming in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The future of family farming is a matter of debate, especially because of the far-reaching economic and political changes that are occurring. One vision is that family farms will disappear because they are less efficient than large-scale industrial farming enterprises. Others foresee that they

  12. Microbial populations and activities of mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils from Cardoso Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, B; Nahas, E

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves provide a distinctive ecological environment that differentiates them from other ecosystems. This study deal to evaluate the frequency of microbial groups and the metabolic activities of bacteria and fungi isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils. Soil samples were collected during the summer and winter at depths of 0-2, 2-5 and 5-10 cm. Except for fungi, the counts of the total, sporulating, Gram-negative, actinomycetes, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria decreased significantly in the following order: Atlantic forest >mangrove > restinga. The counts of micro-organisms decreased by 11 and 21% from the surface to the 2-5 and 5-10 cm layers, but denitrifying bacteria increased by 44 and 166%, respectively. A larger growth of micro-organisms was verified in the summer compared with the winter, except for actinomycetes and fungi. The average frequency of bacteria isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils was 95, 77 and 78%, and 93, 90 and 95% for fungi, respectively. Bacteria were amylolytic (33%), producers of acid phosphatase (79%) and solubilizers (18%) of inorganic phosphate. The proportions of fungi were 19, 90 and 27%. The mangrove soil studied had higher chemical characteristics than the Atlantic forest, but the high salinity may have restricted the growth of microbial populations. Estimates of the microbial counts and activities were important to elucidate the differences of mangrove ecosystem from restinga and Atlantic forest. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    pharmaceutical industry . In May 2001, the United States submitted a complaint to the WTO, which was later withdrawn, that Brazil’s practices violated...the pharmaceutical industry argued that TRIPS was an essential tool to protect intellectual property rights, developing countries (like Brazil... Argentina , Paraguay, and Uruguay that was established in 1991. See CRS Report RL33620, Mercosur: Evolution and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

  14. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  15. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Barbosa, L.F.W.; Patire Junior, H.; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  16. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  17. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  18. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  19. Status of uranium in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdalani, S.A.; Tavares, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium exploration in Brazil was started in 1952 by the Brazilian National Research Council. This led to the discovery of the first uranium deposits in Pocos de Caldas and Jacobina. These activities was later continued by the National Energy Commission/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), formed in 1962. The founding of NUCLEBRAS at the end of 1974 marked the increasing effort of the country's uranium exploration programme. At this time only the Pocos de Caldas deposit was known with measurable resources. Due to the reorganization of the Brazilian nuclear programme in 1988, all uranium exploration in the country was stopped. By then, eight areas with uranium reserves has been identified. Brazil uranium resources in the RAR category at ≤ $80/kg U cost range are estimated to be 162,000 tonnes U, out of which 56,100 tonnes are in the ≤ $40/kg U cost range. Additional resources in the EAR-I category and the cost range ≤ 80/kg U are in the order of 100,200 tonnes U. The first production of uranium in Brazil, at the Osamu Utsumi mine (Pocos de Caldas deposit), started in 1982. Because of escalated costs and reduced demand, this activity was put on stand-by status between 1990 and 1992. The mine was restarted in 1993, but was stopped again in October 1995. The cumulative production of the mine to 1996 was 1241 tonnes U. The Lagoa Real deposit is currently being prepared as a new producing mine. (author)

  20. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  1. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  2. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Necker Island (100-021) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-021b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Necker Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  3. Biological invasions on oceanic islands: Implications for island ecosystems and avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions present a global threat to biodiversity, but oceanic islands are the systems hardest hit by invasions. Islands are generally depauperate in species richness, trophic complexity, and functional diversity relative to comparable mainland ecosystems. This situation results in low biotic resistance to invasion and many empty niches for invaders to...

  4. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  5. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 9. The amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea) in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoniphargus was known from inland stygohabitats in the Iberian peninsula, the Azores, Madeira, N.W. Africa, and Bermuda, but not from the Canary Islands. Systematic sampling in six of the seven larger islands of the latter archipelago has revealed the presence of the genus in Tenerife (4

  6. Island Fox Veterinary And Pathology Services On San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Naval Base Coronado, Public Works Office, Environmental Div. Code N45 14. ABSTRACT The San Clemente Island fox (Urocyon littoralis clementae) is a...Wayne. 2001. The behavioral ecology of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). Journal of Zoology 255:22–23. Roemer, G. W., T. J. Coonan, D. K

  7. The name of the white-eye from Rendova Island (Solomon Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1955-01-01

    Of the various races of white-eyes that inhabit the central group of the Solomon Islands, the race from the island of Rendova was the first to become known to science. Tristram (1882) recorded this race, which he indentified with Tephras olivaceus Ramsay, described the previous year from the

  8. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Nihoa Island (100-025) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-025b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Nihoa Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  9. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Laysan Island (100-006), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-006b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  10. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank (100-002), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-002b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has...

  11. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island (100-001), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-001b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  12. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  13. Islands erased by snow and ice: approaching the spatial philosophy of cold water island imaginaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Representations of islands in Western fiction typically revolve around tropical islands. Critical discourse tends to reproduce this tendency and rarely addresses the specific spatial poetics of cold-water island fictions. This paper discusses three texts that poetically deploy the geographical inventory of northern snow- and icescapes to challenge essentialist assumptions about islands: D. H. Lawrence’s short story “The man who loved islands”, Georgina Harding’s novel The solitude of Thomas Cave, and Michel Serres’s treatise Le passage du Nord-Ouest. It is argued that these texts reflect on the importance of the horizontal and vertical components of material and textual topographies for the conception and experience of islands. In all three, the physical transformation of the islandscapes by snow and ice serves to put the island concept itself into question. Serres’s philosophical text geopoetically portrays the Arctic archipelago of the Northwest Passage to explore the reciprocal relations between language and the material world. In Lawrence and Harding, the snow-covered islands cease to function as economically productive spaces and turn into complex spatial figures offering a philosophical meditation on islandness as a contradictory and multifaceted condition.

  14. Revisiting the Metaphor of the Island: Challenging "World Culture" from an Island Misunderstood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the newly "discovered" island that world culture theorists have repeatedly utilised to explain their theoretical stance, conceptual preferences and methodological approach. Yet, it seeks to (re)connect world culture with the real world by replacing their imagined atoll with a real one--the island-nation of Japan. In…

  15. 78 FR 27877 - Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH AGENCY: Coast... fireworks display will be launched in conjunction with a wedding. The Captain of the Port Detroit has.... Add Sec. 165.T09-0165 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0165 Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks...

  16. Neoclassical islands on COMPASS-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Lloyd, B.; Morris, A.W.; McArdle, G.; O'Brien, M.R.; Valovic, M.; Warrick, C.D.; Wilson, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical magnetic islands are observed to limit the achievable β in COMPASS-D low collisionality single null divertor tokamak plasmas with ITER-like geometry (R 0 = 0.56 m, B 0 1.2 T, I p = 120-180 kA, κ = 1.6, ε = 0.3). The limiting β is typically well below that expected from ideal instabilities with maximum βN in the range of 1.6 to 2.1. The plasma is heated with up to 1.8 MW of 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at the second harmonic with X mode polarization. The time history of the measured island width is compared with the predictions of neoclassical tearing mode theory, with good agreement between theory and experiment. The measured islands have a threshold width below which the mode will not grow. The density scaling of the point of onset of the measured instabilities is compared with two theories that predict a threshold island width for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes. Applied resonant helical error fields are used to induce islands in collisionality regimes wherein the neoclassical islands do not occur naturally, allowing the study of the behaviour of neoclassical tearing modes in this regime. The critical β for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes is seen to be ∼3 times higher in the naturally stable region. This observation is compared with the predictions of both threshold theories. A simple expression for the q scaling of the maximum achievable β N in the presence of neoclassical tearing modes is derived on the basis of the assumption of a maximum allowable island width. The predicted q scaling of this β limit is compared with data from a q scan, and the results are in good agreement. (author)

  17. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  18. Recent hydrogeologic study of the Vis island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislav Kapelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vis Island belongs to the group of the Middle Dalmatian islands. It comprises an area of about 90.2 km2. Morphologically, three belts of highlands and two depressions with karst poljes are significant. The highest point on the island is Hum with 587 m a.s.l. theisland’s water supply is organized from the water-supply station “Korita”, situated in the central part of island, in tectonically formed depression. There are two additional capturedobjects: the well K-1 above the Komiža town and the spring “Pizdica”. The most important hydrogeological role on the island have two hydrogeological barriers, one in the KomižaBay, completely made of impermeable igneous and clastic rocks, and another one, the recently recognized relative barrier in the area of Dra~evo, Plisko and Velo polje. Since the island karst aquifer is in permanent dynamic relation with seawater, classical geologic,structural and hydrogeologic investigations have been performed with application of hydrogeochemical methods taking into account the natural chemical tracer content of groundwater and its variations in different hydrologic and vegetation conditions. Precipitationregime is very unfavorable with regard to the recharging of island’s aquifer, because dry periods are usually very long. During the summer tourist season, when the number of inhabitants and fresh water consumption considerably increase, amounts of island’sgroundwater suitable for water supply and irrigation rapidly decrease. Sometimes, insufficient quantity of fresh water on the Vis Island causes restrictions. Concerning the development of tourist potential and the present agricultural activities, summer lack ofwater is a serious restrictive factor. Some results of the performed hydrogeological study, important as a basis for island’s fresh water potential assessment, will be presented.

  19. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2016-08-01

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  20. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  1. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragos, J.E.; Agegian, Catherine

    1986-01-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  2. Tools for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems: an application to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Banos-González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model, in combination with other methods (indicators, policy and scenario analysis, is presented as a tool for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems (SES. The Fuerteventura sustainability model (FSM, tested for the 1996-2011, allows a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between sustainability indicators and other factors of this island. The FSM was first applied to analyse the vulnerability of this island to climate change for the 2012-2025 period; results point to the need for urgent measures to mitigate its effects on some of the analysed indicators. A set of policy measures was then assessed from the behaviour of nine indicators and their sustainability thresholds. Finally, the FSM facilitated the development of a dynamic model of the island of El Hierro, extrapolating the features common to both SES. We propose this to be a useful tool for the quantitative sustainability assessment and the management of real island socio-ecological systems

  3. Virtually Impossible: Deleuze and Derrida on the Political Problem of Islands (and Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is commonplace to think of an island as a discreetly bounded unit. Selected writings on islands by the poststructuralist philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida reveal the island variously to be both real and imaginary, mythological and scientific, but as most problematic when constituted in political terms as an indivisible, sovereign entity. These two thinkers’ more broadly developed concepts of the virtual and the impossible, respectively, are seen to disrupt any assumptions about the fixity and closure of the island polity. Instead they emphasize its actualization through processual relations that can be difficult yet dynamic and decisive in effecting the move from being to becoming-other. As the possibilities for instituting more ethical as well as different political relations open up, the question of island studies remaining in its currently coherent, familiar form is raised for consideration.

  4. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barbosa J.D., Bomjardim H.dosA., Lima D.H.daS., Reis A.dosS.B., Barboza F.B., Albernaz T.T., Oliveira C.M.C., Fonseca A.H., Nicolino R.R. & da Silva J.B. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil. [Detecção de brucelose em búfalos d’agua para exportação no norte e nordeste do Brasil}. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3: 129-135, 2016. Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7 Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: adivaldofonseca@yahoo.com The prevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes was evaluated by the Buffered Acidified Plate Antigen (BAPA in 5.163 water buffaloes from Maranhão state, Pará state and Marajó Island, Brazil. The detection of buffaloes positive for brucellosis by BAPA was 7.37% in Marajó Island, 8.45% in Pará state and 29.86% in Maranhão state. The locations with the highest prevalences were Santa Cruz do Arari, in Marajó Island (12.50%; Ipixuna, in Pará state (30.25%; and Santa Inês, in Maranhão state (34.76%. After the confirmatory test (Complement Fixation Test, only 7 animals remained positive in Marajó Island, and 22 remained positive in the state of Pará. None of the 66 animals that reacted positively in the BAPA test in Maranhão reacted positively in the CF. The high prevalence of B. abortus that was observed in animals, especially in the state of Maranhão, is worrisome for the health system for the control and eradication of bovine brucellosis.

  5. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  6. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  7. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  8. Patterns of prescribing - the Rhode Island prescription monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Catherine; Kelly, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Drug overdose and abuse is a growing epidemic nationally and for Rhode Island. The Rhode Island Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) is a web-based system that collects all schedule II and III prescription information for prescriptions dispensed in or into Rhode Island. The Rhode Island Board of Pharmacy at the Rhode Island Department of Health operates this program and uses the information for investigative purposes to curb drug overdose and professional misconduct. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the use of PMP in Rhode Island.

  9. International experience in the implementation of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This document consists of two parts and an Appendix. Part I provides a summary of worldwide experiences and subsequent recommendations regarding the implementation of the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 incident lessons learned. Part II gives in a summary fashion, specific responses and actions of the mentioned countries and international organizations as categorized into ten (10) subject areas. The Appendix, on the other hand, contains examples of the experiences of Brazil, Germany (F.R.), Hungary, and the Philippines, on the implementation of TMI lessons learned. This document should be useful to countries with nuclear power development programmes in that it provides a means for comparison of their actions with others. For countries which are embarking on their first nuclear power project, the document should provide a useful reference for specific TMI-related issues that need to be considered in their nuclear programmes

  10. Geophysical studies of ilmenite and monazite placers in Itaparica island - Bahia State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira Neto, J.X.

    1976-01-01

    A ground scintillometric survey along the southern shores of the island of Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, discovered numerous anomalies. Detailed geophysical and sedimentological studies proved that the major anomaly is due to an ilmenite placer deposit. A comparison of the field geophysical measurements (ground scintillometry, magnetics and induced polarization) with the laboratory samples suggests the following: i) Ground scintillometry is suitable for locating and delineating such placer deposits. ii) Induced polarization is useful to investigate the deposit at depth. iii) Magnetic surveys were not particularly useful in spite of the high ilmenite concentration, thus they do not appear to be a helpful survey tool in this case. A more extensive prospecting program in the Brazilian coastal areas particularly in the State of Bahia are also proposed. (author)

  11. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... family of Lecythidaceae, is native to the Amazon rain forest and adjacent areas in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru (Ferreira et al., 2011). It is an extractive product with high ... humidity below 15%) to be processed in-shell or shelled. Figure 1 shows a flowchart of Brazil nut production. The nuts that do not meet the size ...

  12. Brazil dominates global fuel ethanol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Brazil is on its way to become oil self-sufficient this year and will meet its demand for fuel by increasing production from petroleum and ethanol. Flex-fuel cars that run on both gasoline and ethanol make up three-fourths of new car sales in Brazil. Brazilian companies are aiming to double their exports of ethanol by 2010

  13. Forging partnerships in Brazil | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Brazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon. Brazilian and Canadian researchers seeking to find the source of mercury contamination in the Amazon came to a startling conclusion: agricultural p. View moreBrazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon ...

  14. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  15. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  16. An overview on small hydro in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, G.T.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of small-scale hydro development in Brazil was presented in the context of the Brazilian energy sector. Brazil's energy sector is currently comprised of 45 per cent renewable energy. Brazil is the tenth largest energy producer in the world, with an installed capacity of 105.986 MW. Brazil currently has an estimated 258.410 MW of hydroelectric power potential. Small hydropower (SHP) plants in Brazil are defined as plants capable of producing up to 30 MW of power, with a reservoir area smaller than 12 km 2 . It is estimated that SHP plants will provide 5 per cent of Brazil's electrical supply by 2030. SHP plants in Brazil typically use Kaplan and Pelton hydraulic turbines, as well as Michell-Banki cross-flow turbines. Hydrokinetic turbine prototypes are also being designed at the Federal University of Brazil. Researchers are currently developing a diffuser enhancement design. However, there are currently no designs available that use peripheric generators. Researchers are currently investigating the design of fish-friendly turbines as well as mobile dams. Development projects in the Amazon region were outlined. tabs., figs.

  17. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  18. Floristic and ecological characterization of habitat types on an inselberg in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza F. A. de Paula

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Inselbergs are granitic or gneissic rock outcrops, distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. They are considered terrestrial islands because of their strong spatial and ecological isolation, thus harboring a set of distinct plant communities that differ from the surrounding matrix. In Brazil, inselbergs scattered in the Atlantic Forest contain unusually high levels of plant species richness and endemism. This study aimed to inventory species of vascular plants and to describe the main habitat types found on an inselberg located in the state of Minas Gerais, in southeastern Brazil. A total of 89 species of vascular plants were recorded (belonging to 37 families, of which six were new to science. The richest family was Bromeliaceae (10 spp., followed by Cyperaceae (seven spp., Orchidaceae and Poaceae (six spp. each. Life forms were distributed in different proportions between habitats, which suggested distinct microenvironments on the inselberg. In general, habitats under similar environmental stress shared common species and life-form proportions. We argue that floristic inventories are still necessary for the development of conservation strategies and management of the unique vegetation on inselbergs in Brazil.

  19. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  20. 3D equilibrium reconstruction with islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciosa, M.; Hirshman, S. P.; Seal, S. K.; Shafer, M. W.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3D equilibrium reconstruction tool and the results of the first-ever reconstruction of an island equilibrium. The SIESTA non-nested equilibrium solver has been coupled to the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. Computed from a coupled VMEC and SIESTA model, synthetic signals are matched to measured signals by finding an optimal set of equilibrium parameters. By using the normalized pressure in place of normalized flux, non-equilibrium quantities needed by diagnostic signals can be efficiently mapped to the equilibrium. The effectiveness of this tool is demonstrated by reconstructing an island equilibrium of a DIII-D inner wall limited L-mode case with an n = 1 error field applied. Flat spots in Thomson and ECE temperature diagnostics show the reconstructed islands have the correct size and phase. ).

  1. Resonant island divertor experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGrassie, J.S.; Evans, T.E.; Jackson, G.L.

    1988-09-01

    The first experimental tests of the resonant island divertor (RID) concept have been carried out on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). Modular perturbation coils produce static resonant magnetic fields at the tokamak boundary. The resulting magnetic islands are used to guide heat and particle fluxes around a small scoop limiter head. An enhancement in the limiter collection efficiency over the nonisland operation, as evidenced by enhanced neutral density within the limiter head, of up to a factor of 4 is obtained. This enhancement is larger than one would expect given the measured magnitude of the cross-field particle transport in TEXT. It is proposed that electrostatic perturbations occur which enhance the ion convection rate around the islands. Preliminary experiments utilizing electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in conjunction with RID operation have also have been performed. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  3. A man and his island: The island mirror in Michael Crummey’s Sweetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1946 and 1975, dozens of islands and outports in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador were abandoned as part of a government resettlement policy. Families and communities were torn apart, and a culture and way of life that revolved around the fishery changed irrevocably. The practice, which continues to this day, has been well documented, particularly by artists and writers. Michael Crummey’s 2014 novel Sweetland is a recent iteration. The relationship between humans and place is complex: on an island, with compressed space and a very real boundary that is the ocean, emotional attachments to one’s place are often heightened and distilled. What happens when a person is displaced from his or her island; when bonds of attachment are severed and one’s mirrored double is destroyed? Sweetland offers a fictional lens through which we see an example of a mirrored relationship between an island protagonist and his island setting. Exploring themes of attachment to place, and what Barry Lopez calls a “storied” or “reciprocal” relationship with the land, this paper examines what happens to a man when confronted with leaving an island he knows as deeply as his own body and soul; and how the island reacts.

  4. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  5. Dispute Resolutions Sea Border Between the Province of Bangka Belitung Islands in Riau Islands Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Sulistyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted and based on the existence of “persistence” claims of the province of Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands province that seven islands groups, which is disputes region territory. Therefore, this study would be likely to provide a solution in resolving the dispute between the two provinces. This study uses qualitative methods with descriptive analytical approach. This method is used, because the phenomenon of inter-regional constellation boundary disputes (including sea boundary is considered to be multidimensional. The data were taken from both the research field of primary data and secondary data, conducted through in-depth interviews with selected key informants and field observations, and combined with the study of literature through a search of the authentic evidence disputes the relevant past. Government (the Ministry of Home Affairs should immediately resolves disputes in the sea boundary segment cluster seven islands involving the provincial government Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands provincial government with reference to the four approaches, namely: a the historical side; b juridical side; c side of the rule; d the social side of the culture. And coupled with the desire not to deny the people who live on the islands so expect to be appreciated by the government well.

  6. Assesing Geographic Isolation of the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Smith, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth's surface. Galapagos' geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption). Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  7. ASSESING GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Orellana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth’s surface. Galapagos’ geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption. Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  8. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-06-05

    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social Environmental Eeterminants and Health: Rural Brazil versus Brazil Urban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves SARMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural population lives in socioeconomic inequality conditions motivated by several problems, including an insufficient sewage systems and water supply, these, sometimes, most responsibles by the appearance of waterborne diseases that contribute to the rise of child mortality and other problems. Rural areas in Brazil are defined by opposition and exclusion in urban areas. This definition is arbitrary and physical-geographic, not considering the social and economic processes involving the territories. This study purposed to verify, by means of sociodemographic aspects, environmental sanitation and main grievances/diseases importance for public health of the population from forest field and water, if the most rural municipalities (MMR are more precarious than the more urban (MMU. To this end, was carried out a descriptive study based on secondary sources (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE census, PNAD and Sinan. Among the results, it follows that the rural population identified by IBGE boils down to 15.6% of Brazil’s population. In 29% of the municipalities, the population living in rural areas exceeds the city. The higher frequencies from IDMH very low are for MMR, while the higher frequency from IDMH very high and high are for MMU. In health, the MMR also exhibit deficiency. It was observed high incidence rates of diseases related to poor conditions of sanitation. From these results, it was identified a more precarious health profile in MMR when compared to MMU.

  10. The aging population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nasri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently in an advanced stage of both the mortality andfertility transitions, which allows one to confi dently forecast the agedistribution and population size over the next four decades. Whereasthe elderly population with more than 65 years will increase at highrates (2 to 4% per year the young population will decline. Accordingto United Nations projections, the elderly population will increasefrom 3.1% of the population in 1970 to 19% in 2050. The changingage distribution of the Brazilian population brings opportunities andchallenges that could lead to serious social and economic issues ifnot dealt with properly in coming decades.

  11. Malaria in Brazil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Brasil, Patrícia; Ladislau, José L B; Tauil, Pedro L; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2010-04-30

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306,000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  12. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasil Patrícia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several

  13. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  14. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  15. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira Coltri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS and atmospheric modeling. The urban heat-islands were analyzed by using Landsat 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ images for the sugar cane crop (January to March and non-crop (August to November periods, and these images were subsequently converted to land surface brightness temperature. The average temperature in the non-crop period was 3.5°C higher than in the crop period, which suggested that heat-island intensity may be linked to the seasonality of sugar cane cultivation. In order to examine the influence of urban areas on regional temperature changes and heat fluxes, numerical simulations were done with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS. Overall, the results obtained suggested that local and regional climatic dynamics were related to land use and changes in land cover.

  16. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira-Coltri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS and atmospheric modeling. The urban heat-islands were analyzed by using Landsat 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ images for the sugar cane crop (January to March and non-crop (August to November periods, and these images were subsequently converted to land surface brightness temperature. The average temperature in the non-crop period was 3.5°C higher than in the crop period, which suggested that heat-island intensity may be linked to the seasonality of sugar cane cultivation. In order to examine the influence of urban areas on regional temperature changes and heat fluxes, numerical simulations were done with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS. Overall, the results obtained suggested that local and regional climatic dynamics were related to land use and changes in land cover.

  17. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  18. Kaskaskia Island Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    include a Victorian era brick church and a small shrine housing a historic bell. 1.2. AUTHORIZATION AND HISTORY The plan of improvement for Kaskaskia...kinship ties. Inter- marriage among island families has been common, and a complicated web of kinship lines exists. Almost all residents of the island know...impact of disaster on kin relationships." Journal of Marriage and the Family. 37:481-494, August. Emge, W.P.; Solomon, R.C.; Johnson, J.H.; Bingham, R.C

  19. Stabilization of sawtooty oscillation by island heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Chu, T.K.

    1986-10-01

    Using the compressible resistive MHD equations in a finite aspect ratio cylinder, it is found that the m = 1 mode (the sawtooth oscillation) can saturate when the pressure inside the magnetic island is higher than that of the original core plasma. The saturation condition is of the form Δβ/sub p/ ≥ 8 ε -1 /sub q = 1/ (1 - q 0 ) 2 . This saturation effect can be used to actively stabilize sawteeth by heating the island and/or by cooling the core plasma. This mechanism together with a stabilizing toroidal effect may also explain recent lower-hybrid-wave-driven tokamak experiments where the saturation of sawteeth has been observed

  20. Islands in the Midst of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the

  1. Local island divertor experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Ohyabu, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Ida, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Ikeda, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kubo, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Toi, K.; Tsumori, K.; Watababe, K.Y.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yoshimura, Y.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    A local island divertor (LID) experiment has begun on LHD, with the aims of controlling edge recycling and improving the plasma confinement. The fundamental divertor functions of the LID have been demonstrated in the recent experiments. From the particle flux profile measurements on the LID head it was found that the particles diffusing out from the core region are well guided along the island separatrix to the LID head. Owing to the closed configuration around the LID head, evidence of the high efficient pumping was observed, together with a strong capacity to screen impurities. The first results of edge modeling using the EMC3-EIRENE code are also presented

  2. Local island divertor experiments on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisaki, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Orosi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)]. E-mail: morisaki@nifs.ac.jp; Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A; Ohyabu, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Ida, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Ikeda, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kubo, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Toi, K.; Tsumori, K.; Watababe, K.Y.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yoshimura, Y.; Motojima, O. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Orosi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Feng, Y.; Sardei, F. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    A local island divertor (LID) experiment has begun on LHD, with the aims of controlling edge recycling and improving the plasma confinement. The fundamental divertor functions of the LID have been demonstrated in the recent experiments. From the particle flux profile measurements on the LID head it was found that the particles diffusing out from the core region are well guided along the island separatrix to the LID head. Owing to the closed configuration around the LID head, evidence of the high efficient pumping was observed, together with a strong capacity to screen impurities. The first results of edge modeling using the EMC3-EIRENE code are also 0015present.

  3. How a bird is an island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapoint Richard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Replicate adaptive radiations occur when lineages repeatedly radiate and fill new but similar niches and converge phenotypically. While this is commonly seen in traditional island systems, it may also be present in host-parasite relationships, where hosts serve as islands. In a recent article in BMC Biology, Johnson and colleagues have produced the most extensive phylogeny of the avian lice (Ischnocera to date, and find evidence for this pattern. This study opens the door to exploring adaptive radiations from a novel host-parasite perspective. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/52

  4. Epigean freshwater Gammaridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from La Gomera (Canary Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Gabriele; Stock, Jan H.

    1994-01-01

    Description of two new species of freshwater amphipods from La Gomera (Canary Islands), both found in the higher parts of the island: Chaetogammarus chaetocerus n. sp. and Rhipidogammarus gomeranus n. sp. Both species have distinct Afro- Iberian relationships.

  5. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  6. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  7. Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Division Reef Fish Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents island-scale mean and Standard Error of biomass for 4 trophic groups using all data from North West Hawaiian Islands gathered using NOAA's...

  8. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  9. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  10. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  11. Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government is currently directing its focus of development on the optimum uses of marine and coastal ecosystem services including the marine and coastal tourism. One of the main locus of coastal and marine tourism is the small islands tourism such as Gili Matra Islands among others. Small islands tourism is one of the favourite touristic activities because the destination provides beauty, exotism, aesthetic and a diversity of natural habitats including the warm, clear and attractive water. Tourism is being considered as a development instrument in order to boost a country’s economy and has become part of the global industry. However, tourism is also one of the actors that is responsible for environmental depletion, due to the constructions of buildings and tourism activities. This paper aims to study the level of vulnerability in small islands to tourism as a basis of integrated small islands management in Indonesian conservation area. The group of islands in this study consists of three islands namely Gili Ayer Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Trawangan Island (known as Gili Matra Islands that were observed using Small Islands Vulnerability Index (SIVI. The results indicate that Gili Matra Islands have a vulnerability status from low into moderate, ranging from 2.25 to 2.75. Gili Ayer Island has the highest vulnerability with SIVI of 2.75 (Moderate, followed by Gili Meno Island with SIVI of 2.50 (Low and Gili Trawangan Island with SIVI of 2.25 (Low. The driving factor of vulnerability is the intensive utilization of marine tourism activities. Tourism is the sole stress to Gili Matra Island’s ecosystem due to its direct damaging impact and reducing its environmental quality. The vulnerability index which was built from the coastline, coral reef, live coral reef, and development area was applicable to assess the small island’s vulnerability in Indonesia, especially for coral island.

  12. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  13. Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

  14. Barriers, Springboards and Benchmarks: China Conceptualizes the Pacific Island Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    ways in which Chinese military thinkers are actually dis- cussing the island chains and their significance for China. US academic and government...Ryukyu and Philippine archipela- gos, the western edge of Malaysia , and Singapore. The Second Island Chain starts on Japan’s Honshu Island, crosses the...written by Chinese NDU scholars states that, “Near-sea combat stresses that the front lines of the First Island Chain is a primary battlefield for our near

  15. Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Farmer, Andrew S.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2018-04-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

  16. [Women and development in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha Neves, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the social, political and cultural status of women in Brazil. In 1976 only 29.6% of Brazilian women participated in economic activities; 54.3% of these were still employed as laborers in the countryside, while only 6% were employed in urban and industrial jobs. The greatest concentration of female labor is in the category of the very badly paid domestic employment. Man is traditionally the head of the family, even when he is not the breadwinner. Illiteracy has decreased in Brazil to 24.3%, but female analphabetism is 26.5% versus 21.9% male analphabetism. Schools are open to males and females at all levels, but the traditional and cultural structure of Brazilian society considers the home, not the school, as the only proper place for young girls, and maternity is still the primary social function of women. Politically Brazilian women have very little power, even if they make up 44% of the electoral body. Sex education does not exist in the school or in the home, and any sexuality exercised outside the bonds of marriage is considered as deviant.

  17. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  18. Hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thiago R; Penm, Jonathan; Baldoni, André O; Ayres, Lorena Rocha; Moles, Rebekah; Sanches, Cristina

    2018-01-04

    This study aims to describe the distribution of the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil. Data were acquired, during 2016, through the Brazilian National Database of Healthcare Facilities (CNES). The following variables were extracted: hospital name, registry number, telephone, e-mail, state, type of institution, subtype, management nature, ownership, presence of research/teaching activities, complexity level, number of hospital beds, presence of pharmacists, number of pharmacists, pharmacist specialization. All statistical analyses were performed by IBM SPSS v.19. The number of hospitals with a complete registry in the national database was 4790. The majority were general hospitals (77.9%), managed by municipalities (66.1%), under public administration (44.0%), had no research/teaching activities (90.5%), classified as medium complexity (71.6%), and had no pharmacist in their team (50.6%). Furthermore, almost 60.0% of hospitals did not comply with the minimum recommendations of having a pharmacist per 50 hospital beds. The Southeast region had the highest prevalence of pharmacists, with 64.4% of hospitals having a pharmaceutical professional. This may have occurred as this region had the highest population to hospital ratio. Non-profit hospitals were more likely to have pharmacists compared to those under public administration and private hospitals. This study mapped the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil, showing a higher prevalence of hospital pharmacists in the Southeast region, and in non-profit specialized hospitals.

  19. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2011-01-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  20. Counterfeiting of drugs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Joseane; Souza, Daniele Zago

    2012-02-01

    To identify the main counterfeit drugs seized by the Brazilian Federal Police and the states where seizures have been made. A retrospective descriptive study on expert reports produced by criminal investigators of the Federal Police between January 2007 and September 2010, in relation to counterfeit drugs, was carried out. The drugs with greatest numbers of seizures were selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors that are used for treating male erectile dysfunction (Cialis® and Viagra®, mean = 66% ), followed by anabolic steroids (Durateston® and Hemogenin®: 8.9% and 5.7%, respectively). The greatest proportions of the counterfeit drugs were seized in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina (both Southeastern Brazil) and São Paulo (Southeastern), and the number of non-authentic drugs sent for investigation increased by more than 200% over the study period. There were increases in seizures of smuggled drugs found together with counterfeit drugs: 67% of the seizures included at least one smuggled drug. Counterfeiting of drugs is a severe public health problem. Identification of the classes of counterfeit drugs present in Brazil and the main Brazilian states with this problem may facilitate future preventive and suppressive actions by the Brazilian bodies responsible for such actions.