WorldWideScience

Sample records for banana predictions based

  1. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  2. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560...

  3. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  4. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  5. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  6. Worldwide geographical distribution of Black Sigatoka for banana: predictions based on climate change models Distribuição geográfica da Sigatoka Negra da bananeira estimada por modelos de mudanças climáticas globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Cintra de Jesus Júnior

    2008-12-01

    research were to compare the global geographical distribution of the disease based on maps elaborated using weather data representing: i current and future periods (2020, 2050 and 2080, ii Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios A2 and B2, iii predictions based on six different climate change models and the " multimodel ensemble" and, iv individual months. The " multimodel ensemble" lead to a reduction in the variability of the simulations when compared to the results obtained using the individual models separately. The predictions suggested that, in the future, areas favorable for the development of the Black Sigatoka disease will decrease. This reduction will occur gradually and will be higher for the A2 than for the B2 scenario. Changes in the geographical distribution of the disease will occur from one month to another, with unfavorable areas becoming favorable and vice-versa. However, in spite of these changes, extensive areas will still continue to be favorable for the occurrence of Black Sigatoka.

  7. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  8. Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania: the potential role of herbaceous legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use changes; Herbaceous legumes; Adoptability; N 2 -fixation; Residual effect; Legume management; Exploration of options, Nutrient depleted soils.The banana-based farming system in

  9. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  10. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  11. Second look procedure for large burn defect by banana peel pericranial flap based on one artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličkov Asen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scalp and calvarial defects may result from trauma, thermal or electrical burns, resection of benign or malignant tumors, infections or radionecrosis. Reconstruction of large scalp defects is a demanding procedure. The reconstructive ‘‘ladder’’ are applicable to scalp and calvarial defects reconstruction. Case Outline. A 68-year-old female was admitted to our clinic due to the nine-day old scalp burn wound, incurred under unclear circumstances. Third degree burn wound affected the left frontal-parietal, temporal and part of the occipital region with carbonification of the whole left ear lobe. The treatment was carried out in two stages. Radical full thickness necrectomy of the scalp was performed, the defect margins were curetted to the active bleeding, and the ear lobe was amputated. The defect sized 23 x 15 cm was reconstructed using the “banana peel” transposition galea-cutaneous flap from the remainder of the scalp, which was based only on the right occipital artery. Two months after the surgery the appearance was satisfactory, and all wounds were healed. Conclusion. Designing of large-scale flaps is very hazardous, especially in elderly people. Scalp reconstruction based on one artery has to be planned in detail and performed when the possibility of complication is reduced to minimum. Our case report underlines possible reconstruction as delayed procedure even with the exposed bone (second look procedure, as well as the reconstruction of half scalp with the local flap based on one pericranial artery. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41018

  12. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  13. Substitution of corn and soybean with green banana fruits and Gliricidia sepium forage in sheep fed hay-based diets: effects on intake, digestion and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, H; González-García, E; Despois, P; Etienne, T; Alexandre, G

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of imported corn and soybean by local feed resources from tropical production settings such as entire green banana and Gliricidia sepium forage as energy and protein sources, respectively, in sheep diets. Two experiments were conducted: first, a 'growth trial' and second, an in vivo digestion study. In the 'growth trial', 40 Martinik lambs [body weight (BW): 29.4 +/- 3.6 kg; 6 months old) were used and distributed into four groups of 10 lambs each according to treatment: HBGl (banana + gliricidia at low level; 1500 g/day; 119 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBGh (banana + gliricidia at high level; 3000 g/day; 238 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBS (banana + soybean cake) and Control (corn + soybean cake). In digestion trial, four Martinik rams (BW: 57.2 +/- 3.45 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used; treatments (HBG, HBS and Control) were similar but adjusted to metabolic body weight (MW) and just one level of gliricidia was used. Intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed intake to gain index (F:G), apparent total and ruminal digestibilities as well as nitrogen balance, microbial efficiency and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile were monitored. Lambs fed HBGh had greater dry matter (DM) intake based on MW and ADG (173 g/day vs. 141 g/day; p banana or corn + soybean cake (687 g/kg DM and 658 g/kg DM, respectively). Ruminal DM and OM digestibilities did not differ among treatments. Total or individual VFA concentrations were also not influenced by the diet. Higher (p = 0.006) ruminal fluid pH values were recorded for diets combining banana and gliricidia (6.54) or banana and soybean (6.39) until 3 h after a meal. As all animals on gliricidia- and banana-supplemented diets gained weight and maintained a positive N balance, it is concluded that green banana and gliricidia forage may be a viable alternative to replace conventional energy and protein supplements in sheep diets.

  14. An Investigation of pH Effects on the Properties of the Fabricated Banana Flower Extracts-based Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to fabricate banana flower extracts-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC using spin coating method. DSSC is made of photoactive material of banana extract by spincoating method and thermal evaporation, using indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. Spincoater speed, coating duration and heating temperature are fixed as controlled variables, anthocyanin pH is fixed as independent variable, while optical and electrical properties of solar cell device are fixed as dependent variables. The anthocyanin content decreased as well as the pH increased and the voltage knee also increased. The pH enhance has caused the current generation of device decreased.

  15. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  16. A Comparison of Fitness Characters of Two Host Plant-Based Congeneric Species of the Banana Aphid, Pentalonia Nigronervosa and P. Caladii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Parna; Agarwala, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Aphids and other phytophagous insects often show intra-specific variations in relation to host plant utilization. In several instances, intra-species variations lead to host-plant specialization. These are considered to be important source of speciation. In a recent study (Foottit RG et al. 2010. Zootaxa 2358: 25–38) two forms of the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa f typica Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from banana hosts and P. nigronervosa f. caladii van der Goot collected from Zingiberaceae and Araceae respectively were described as separate species, P. nigronervosa Coquerel and P. caladii van der Goot, based on morphological and molecular differences. A study was undertaken to examine the ecological and biological characters in asexual wingless morphs of the two forms of P. nigronervosa sensu lat. using taro (Araceae) and banana (Musaceae) as host plants. The results showed consistent differences between the two forms. In biological characters, the apterous morphs off. caladii from taro host plants were found to be significantly more fecund, showed a higher net reproductive rate, longer reproductive duration, and their adults lived longer than the f. typica aphids from banana host plants. In ecological characters, f. caladii aphids formed bigger colonies and in significantly less time on taro plants in comparison to f. typica aphids which formed smaller colonies in significantly more time on banana plants. Reciprocal transfer of the two forms of P. nigronervosa aphids between their host plant species lowered performance on the transferred host plants. These results confirmed that P. nigronervosa f. typica from banana hosts and P. nigronervosa f. caladii from taro hosts are indeed two different species in relation to host plant utilization and suggested that the observed differences in their fitness characters represented distinct genotypes. PMID:20883136

  17. 基于椭圆傅里叶描述子的香蕉形状识别%Banana shape recognition based on elliptic Fourier descriptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡孟晗; 董庆利; 刘宝林; 张重阳; 叶飞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , a method based on computer vision and elliptic Fourier descriptor ( EFD) was developed to recognize the banana shape .The number of banana with shapes of the curved , slightly curved , end-straight and straight was 107 , and the bananas were previously indentified by the experts .Subsequently , the boundary chain codes of the pre-processed images of these bananas were obtained for extracting the elliptic Fourier coefficients .The suitable number of coefficients was determined by comparing the original and reconstructed banana shape , and then the principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of non-negative coefficients .Finally, the classifica-tion was achieved by the fuzzy C-means clustering .The results demonstrated that this machine method could be ap-plied for banana shape identification in practice .This study provided a technological means for the value increase of banana and its secondary products , and also might be the basis of realizing the shape recognition of banana hand and bunch in the future .%为实现香蕉形状的识别,文章提出了一种基于计算机视觉和椭圆傅里叶描述子的形状识别方法。先由专家挑选果指果形为弯、微弯、末端直和直的香蕉共107枚,再获取预处理后图像的边界链码并提取其椭圆傅里叶系数,通过比较原形状和重建形状来选取合适的系数个数,然后用主成分分析对非负系数进行降维,最后进行模糊C均值聚类。研究结果表明,可以将该机器识别方法应用于香蕉形状的识别,为实现香蕉及其深加工产品的增值提供了一种技术手段,并为进一步实现香蕉果把和果穗的形状识别奠定了基础。

  18. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  19. Let's Go Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  20. The use of principle component and cluster analyses to differentiate banana pulp flours based on starch and dietary fiber components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah Bin; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Yong, Yeoh Shin; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    Flour prepared from green and ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for total starch, digestible starch, resistant starch, total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber. Principle component analysis identified only one component responsible for explaining 83.83% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fiber components data to indicate that ripe banana flour had different characteristics from the green. Cluster analysis applied on similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters of green and ripe banana to indicate difference in behaviors according to the stages of ripeness. In conclusion, starch and dietary fiber components could be used to discriminate between flour prepared from fruits of different stage of ripeness. Results are also suggestive of the potential of green as well as the ripe banana flour as functional ingredients in food.

  1. Pesticide residues in heterogeneous plant populations, a model-based approach applied to nematicides in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Philippe; Chabrier, Christian; Malézieux, Eric

    2007-03-21

    Nematicides are widely used to control plant-parasitic nematodes in intensive export banana (Musa spp.) cropping systems. Data show that the concentration of fosthiazate in banana fruits varies from zero to 0.035 g kg-1, under the maximal residue limit (MRL=0.05 mg kg-1). The fosthiazate concentration in fruit is described by a Gaussian envelope curve function of the interval between pesticide application and fruit harvest (preharvest interval). The heterogeneity of phenological stages in a banana population increases over time, and thus the preharvest interval of fruits harvested after a pesticide application varies over time. A phenological model was used to simulate the long-term harvest dynamics of banana at field scale. Simulations show that the mean fosthiazate concentration in fruits varies according to nematicide application program, climate (temperature), and planting date of the banana field. This method is used to assess the percentage of harvested bunches that exceed a residue threshold and to help farmers minimize fosthiazate residues in bananas.

  2. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  3. 基于PLC的香蕉秸秆切片机的优化设计%Optimization Design of Banana Straw Slicing Machine based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙光涛

    2015-01-01

    在传统香蕉秸秆切片机的基础上设计一种以PLC数字控制系统为核心技术的全自动控制系统,该系统主要是通过液压驱动系统实现进给、传送、切削等操作,达到连续切片的要求,同时通过PLC技术对液压驱动系统实现调节传送距离、进给量以及控制系统的启动、停止等过程,达到香蕉秸秆切片机全自动控制的效果. 此系统的应用不仅能够提高香蕉秸秆切片机工作的效率,满足香蕉秸秆生产需求,提高香蕉秸秆再利用率,同时对降低劳动力,提高香蕉产业的经济效益和社会效益也尤为重要.%An automatic control system of the core technology of PLC digital control system based on the traditional banana straw slicing machine was designed. The system is mainly through the hydraulic drive system to achieve feeding, transmis-sion, cutting and other operations to achieve the requirements of continuous slicing, and through the PLC technology to achieve the hydraulic drive system to adjust the transmission distance, feed rate and control system to start, stop and other processes, to achieve the full automatic control of banana straw. The application of this system can not only improve the effi-ciency of banana straw slicing machine, meet the needs of banana straw production, improve the utilization rate of banana straw, but also reduce the labor force, improve the economic benefit and social benefit of banana industry.

  4. Bananas go paraelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: peter.lunkenheimer@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2008-05-14

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  5. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  6. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved...

  8. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Alwi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SSs, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages by banana stem juice were 80.1%, 88.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, observed for effluent at pH 7 using 90 mL dosage. The inulin concentration in the banana stem was examined to be 1.22016 mg/mL. It could be concluded that banana stem juice showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes and could be applied in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian spent coolant wastewater prior to secondary treatment.

  9. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  10. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  11. Potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of some constituents of coffee and banana residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, M K D; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, M M C

    2013-05-01

    Banana (stalk, leaf, rhizome, rachis and stem) and coffee (leaf and husks) residues are promising feedstock for fuel and chemical production. In this work we show the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate analysis to replace reference methods in the characterization of some constituents of coffee and banana residues. The evaluated parameters were Klason lignin (KL), acid soluble lignin (ASL), total lignin (TL), extractives, moisture, ash and acid insoluble residue (AIR) contents of 104 banana residues (B) and 102 coffee (C) residues from Brazil. PLS models were built for banana (B), coffee (C) and pooled samples (B+C). The precision of NIR methodology was better (p0.80. The range error ratios varied from 4.5 to 16.0. Based on the results of external validation, the statistical tests and figures of merit, NIR spectroscopy proved to be useful for chemical prediction of banana and coffee residues and can be used as a faster and more economical alternative to the standard methodologies.

  12. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  13. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS Based Machine Olfaction (Electronic Nose for Monitoring of Banana Ripeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanaeifar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is one of the most important sensory properties of fruits and is particularly sensitive to the changes in fruit compounds. Gases involved in aroma of fruits are produced from the metabolic activities during ripening, harvest, post-harvest and storage stages. Therefore, the emitted aroma of fruits changes during the shelf-life period. The electronic nose (machine olfaction would simulate the human sense of smell to identify and realize the complex aromas by using an array of chemical sensors. In this research, a low cost electronic nose based on six metal oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors were designed, developed and implemented and its ability for monitoring changes in aroma fingerprint during ripening of banana was studied. The main components are used in the e-nose system include sampling system, an array of gas sensors, data acquisition system and an appropriate pattern recognition algorithm. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA technique was used for classification of the extracted features of e-nose signals. Based on the results, the classification accuracy of 97/3% was obtained. Results showed the high ability of e-nose for distinguishing between the stages of ripening. It is concluded that the system can be considered as a nondestructive tool for quality control during banana shelf-life.

  14. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  15. Fighting Baddies and Collecting Bananas: Teachers' Perceptions of Games-Based Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how practicing teachers conceptualize commercial off the shelf (COTS) videogames within classroom-based English language arts instruction. Understanding how today's teachers perceive virtual worlds and videogames as an instructional tool for schema building within literacy development will help researchers better understand…

  16. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  17. 基于单片机控制的香蕉秸秆粉碎机的设计%Research of Banana Stalk Crusher Based on Single Chip Microcomputer Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张燕

    2014-01-01

    In the production process of the banana planting , rational utilization of banana straw has become an important part of the banana industry , scale development .Banana planting industry in our country has been using the traditional manual processing of straw , which is a very hard work ,which requires a lot of manpower and greatly reduce the labor in-tensity of workers and improve the production efficiency .Therefore , there will be designed to provide a banana stalk crusher and a kind of efficient , practical set cutting , crushing one .The machine based on single chip microcomputer is full automatic control ,pressure sensor and step motor to realize the reasonable step motion , can better solve the problem of banana stalk crushing .%在香蕉种植生产过程中,香蕉秸秆的合理利用成为了香蕉产业化、规模化发展的重要组成部分。我国香蕉种植业一直采用传统的人工方式处理秸秆,既耗费大量的人力物力,又大大降低了生产效率且工人劳动强度高。为此,设计一种效率较高、实用性较强的集切割、粉碎一体的香蕉秸秆粉碎机。该机械基于单片机进行全程自动控制,压力传感器与步进电机合理配合实现各运动,能较好地解决香蕉秸秆粉碎的处理问题。

  18. 基于单片机控制的自动香蕉秸秆粉碎机研究%Research of Automatic Banana Straw Pulverizer Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬进; 张燕; 喻晓; 马兆玉

    2014-01-01

    Banana stalks as the main byproduct of bananas , has been treated as waste , not only didn't get reasonable use , but also caused the pollution of the environment .So far , and use of banana straw is still in the more primitive is in-efficient stage , greatly restricted the banana leaf by-products industry the development of industrialization and commer-cialization .Therefore , this project will design a practical , high efficiency of the banana straw pulverized , the machine is based on 51 single chip microcomputer automatic control , coupled with the hydraulic system and step motor to cooperate with each other can well solve the dehydration of banana straw crushing processing problem .%香蕉秸秆作为主要的香蕉副产品,一直被当作废弃物,不仅没有得到合理的利用,而且还造成了环境污染。至今为止,对香蕉秸秆的利用仍停留在较原始、较低效的阶段,极大地制约了香蕉茎叶副产物产业化、商品化的发展。为此,设计了一种实用性强、效率较高的香蕉秸秆粉碎机,可基于单片机进行全自动控制,设计的液压系统与步进电机相互配合能较好地解决香蕉秸秆破碎处理的问题。

  19. A molecular marker-based linkage map of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C; Gońzalez de León, D

    1993-12-01

    A partial molecular linkage map of the Musa acuminata diploid genome is presented. This map is based on 58 RFLP, four isozyme and 28 RAPD markers segregating in an F2 population of 92 individuals. A total of 90 loci was detected, 77 of which were placed on 15 linkage groups while 13 segregated independently. Segregation distortions were shown by 36% of all loci, mostly favoring the male parent. Chromosome structural rearrangements were believed to be one of the main causes of these distortions. The use of genetic linkage data to further the genetic and evolutionary knowledge of the genus Musa, as well as to help improve the design of breeding strategies, is discussed.

  20. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  1. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Sujakhu, Nani M; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops.

  2. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  3. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  4. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    , it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...

  5. Dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a powerful tool to differentiate banana cultivars based on their volatile metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Marisela; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2012-10-15

    In this study the effect of the cultivar on the volatile profile of five different banana varieties was evaluated and determined by dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (dHS-SPME) combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (1D-GC-qMS). This approach allowed the definition of a volatile metabolite profile to each banana variety and can be used as pertinent criteria of differentiation. The investigated banana varieties (Dwarf Cavendish, Prata, Maçã, Ouro and Platano) have certified botanical origin and belong to the Musaceae family, the most common genomic group cultivated in Madeira Island (Portugal). The influence of dHS-SPME experimental factors, namely, fibre coating, extraction time and extraction temperature, on the equilibrium headspace analysis was investigated and optimised using univariate optimisation design. A total of 68 volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) were tentatively identified and used to profile the volatile composition in different banana cultivars, thus emphasising the sensitivity and applicability of SPME for establishment of the volatile metabolomic pattern of plant secondary metabolites. Ethyl esters were found to comprise the largest chemical class accounting 80.9%, 86.5%, 51.2%, 90.1% and 6.1% of total peak area for Dwarf Cavendish, Prata, Ouro, Maçã and Platano volatile fraction, respectively. Gas chromatographic peak areas were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and stepwise linear discriminant analysis) in order to visualise clusters within samples and to detect the volatile metabolites able to differentiate banana cultivars. The application of the multivariate analysis on the VOMs data set resulted in predictive abilities of 90% as evaluated by the cross-validation procedure.

  6. A workflow for peptide-based proteomics in a poorly sequenced plant: A case study on the plasma membrane proteome of banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertommen, A.; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Cordewener, J. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    for membrane proteomics. However, their application in non-model plants demands special precautions to prevent false positive identification of proteins.In the current paper, a workflow for membrane proteomics in banana, a poorly sequenced plant, is proposed. The main steps of this workflow are (i......, integral plasma membrane proteins from banana leaves were successfully identified....

  7. Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Garcia, E; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-09-01

    Banana flour (BF) was obtained from unripe banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) and characterized in its chemical composition. Experimental bread was formulated with BF flour and the product was studied regarding chemical composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. The chemical composition of BF showed that total starch (73.36%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) were the highest constituents. Of the total starch, available starch was 56.29% and resistant starch 17.50%. BF bread had higher protein and total starch content than control bread, but the first had higher lipid amount. Appreciable differences were found in available, resistant starch and indigestible fraction between the bread studied, since BF bread showed higher resistant starch and indigestible fraction content. HI-based predicted glycemic index for the BF bread was 65.08%, which was significantly lower than control bread (81.88%), suggesting a "slow carbohydrate" feature for the BF-based goods. Results revealed BF as a potential ingredient for bakery products containing slowly digestible carbohydrates.

  8. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  9. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  10. A Comparative study Of Catalityc Activity Of Heterogeneous Base Of Banana Stem Ash And Fly Ash On Production Of Biodiesel Byultrasonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of heterogeneous catalysts in the production of biodiesel provides many advantages due to heterogeneous catalysts can be easily separated from the product so that it can be reused. This research using heterogeneous catalysts derived from natural materials namely banana stem ash and coal fly ash containing alkali and alkaline earth elements. The preparation of catalyst from banana stem ash and coal fly ash used activator KOH 1.9 N and impregnation with KNO3 15 and then heated to a temperature of 550 0C for 3 hours. Results of preparation banana stem ash contains potassium of 36.52 and surface area of 41.901 m2g. This work presents the effect of ultrasonic assisted of waste cooking oil with methanol as solvent using banana stem ash and coal fly ash as catalyst. The diameter of catalyst particles of banana stem ash and coal fly ash varied at 50 100 150 200 and 250 mesh. The transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of ultrasonic operating frequency constant at 40 kHz methanol molar ratio to oil of 9 1 and reaction time of 30 minutes. The methyl ester biodiesel content of product was 93.26 of banana stems ash and 57 of coal fly ash respectively. The physical property was compared with the National Indonesia Standard SNI 2006 with a density viscosity cloud point flash point and cetane number.

  11. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  12. 基于激光点云的含笑树叶重建与形变方法%Banana Shrub Tree Leave Reconstruction and Deformation Based on Laser Point Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇俊; 云挺; 薛联凤; 张浩平

    2014-01-01

    针对室外含笑树叶存在抖动及树叶间存在遮挡,导致含笑树叶点云数据不易重建与形变的问题。提出了一种含笑树叶重建与形变的方法,首先根据噪声特点和扫描线特性,对点云数据去噪;然后根据每条扫描线边缘点拟合出树叶的边缘,采用双三次广义张量积Bezier曲面拟合叶面,并结合三角剖分算法实现叶面的重建;最后采用基于非线性的有限元形变方法,模拟出真实的含笑树叶形变。实验结果表明,该算法简单高效。%Due to banana shrub tree leave quivering and blocking between tree leaves, it is not easy to realize reconstruction and deformation of banana shrub tree leaves based on laser point cloud. A method for reconstruction and deformation of banana shrub tree leaves is put forward. First, point cloud data are denoised based on the characteristics of noise and scan lines;then, conduct fitting of tree leaves according to the edge points of each scan line, with bicubic generalized tensor product Bezier surface for leave surface fitting, with triangulation algorithm used to realize reconstruction of leaves;finally, a method based on non-linear finite element deformation is adopted to simulate the real deformation of banana shrub trees. The experimental result shows that this algorithm is simple and efficient.

  13. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  14. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  15. 基于产量的海南省香蕉寒害风险分析与区划%Cold-damage risk analysis and division of banana production in Hainan Province of South China based on yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡大鑫; 王春乙; 张京红; 刘少军

    2013-01-01

    根据海南省1990-2010年的香蕉产量数据,采用线性滑动平均、回归分析、信息扩散等方法,建立了香蕉理论收获面积模型,实现了寒害与其他气象灾害减产率的分离,构建了香蕉产量寒害危险性评价模型,结合地区间种植规模的差异,开展了海南省香蕉产量寒害风险区划.结果表明:海南省香蕉产量寒害危险性较高的区域主要存在于北部、中部和西部,其中儋州的危险等级为全岛最高,南部、东南部和西南部的危险性较低;种植规模较大的地区主要分布在北部和西部的沿海市县;风险以低级别为主,五指山的风险最高,澄迈、海口和昌江略低,东部沿海地区和南部三亚的风险最低,基本不受寒害影响.%Based on the banana production data of Hainan Province in 1990-2010,and by using the methods of linear moving average,regression analysis,and information diffusion,a model for calculating the theoretical harvest area of banana was developed,which could distinguish the relative contribution of cold weather hazard to the reduction rate of banana yield from other weather hazards.Then,the model of the cold-damage risk assessment for banana production was developed,and the risk division of banana production in Hainan Province was conducted.The results showed that the higher dangerous regions of banana cold-damage were located in the north,middle,and west parts of Hainan Island,and the danger rank was the highest in Danzhou.The lower hazard areas were mainly located in the south,southeast,and southwest parts.However,banana was widely planted in the northern and western coastal cities/counties.In most parts,the cold-damage risk was at low level.The risk was the highest in Wuzhishan,followed by in Chengmai,Haikou and Changjiang,and the lowest in east coastal areas and Sanya,where the banana production was almost not affected by cold weather hazard.

  16. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  17. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  18. PREDICCIÓN DEL RENDIMIENTO DE UN CULTIVO DE PLÁTANO MEDIANTE REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES DE REGRESIÓN GENERALIZADA // PREDICTION OF THE YIELD OF BANANA CROP BY MEANS OF A GENERALIZED REGRESSION ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ávila de Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana is an important crop in Latin America, for both large scale and small farmers. In Venezuela, the main production centers are in the area of Sur del Lago de Maracaibo. Knowing the crop yield is vital due to the need to maximize the investment-pro_t, and availability of such information in advance helps in the decision-making process of the production unit. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the ability of artificial neural networks to predict the yield of a banana crop, employing the best predictors dataset, given the physical characteristics of the soil and the chemical profile of leaf tissue. Generalized regression networks trained with the leave-one-out strategy, and two types of data transformations were used in this study. It was found that neural networks were excellent tools for predicting the yield of banana crop. The physicochemical profiles of soil and leaf tissue were suitable descriptors of the response variable. Among the data evaluated in this study, it was found that the physical data of 20-40 cm of soil was, after standardization of the training data, the best predictor group. // RESUMEN: El plátano es un cultivo importante en Latinoamérica, tanto a gran escala como para pequeños hacendados. En Venezuela, los principales centros productivos están en la zona del Sur del Lago de Maracaibo. Conocer el rendimiento de un cultivo obedece a la necesidad de maximizar la relación inversión-ganancia y la disponibilidad de esa información, con anticipación, permite tomar decisiones sobre el manejo de una plantación. La finalidad de esta investigación es evaluar la capacidad de las redes neuronales artificiales para predecir el rendimiento de un cultivo de plátano, empleando para ello el mejor grupo de datos predictores, determinado entre las características físicas del suelo y el perfil químico del tejido foliar. Se emplean redes de regresión generalizada y la estrategia leave-one-out, así como dos tipos de

  19. Data-Based Predictive Control with Multirate Prediction Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Data-based predictive control is an emerging control method that stems from Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC computes current control action based on a prediction of the system output a number of time steps into the future and is generally derived from a known model of the system. Data-based predictive control has the advantage of deriving predictive models and controller gains from input-output data. Thus, a controller can be designed from the outputs of complex simulation code or a physical system where no explicit model exists. If the output data happens to be corrupted by periodic disturbances, the designed controller will also have the built-in ability to reject these disturbances without the need to know them. When data-based predictive control is implemented online, it becomes a version of adaptive control. One challenge of MPC is computational requirements increasing with prediction horizon length. This paper develops a closed-loop dynamic output feedback controller that minimizes a multi-step-ahead receding-horizon cost function with multirate prediction step. One result is a reduced influence of prediction horizon and the number of system outputs on the computational requirements of the controller. Another result is an emphasis on portions of the prediction window that are sampled more frequently. A third result is the ability to include more outputs in the feedback path than in the cost function.

  20. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  1. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  2. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  3. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  4. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  5. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  6. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  7. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  9. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-20

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  12. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  13. Collective prediction based on community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yasong; Li, Taisong; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Collective prediction algorithms have been used to improve performances when network structures are involved in prediction tasks. The training dataset of such tasks often contain information of content, links and labels, while the testing dataset have only content and link information. Conventional collective prediction algorithms conduct predictions based on the content of a node and the information of its direct neighbors with a base classifier. However, the information of some direct neighbor nodes may be not consistent with the target one. In addition, the information of indirect neighbors can be helpful when that of direct neighbors is scant. In this paper, instead of using information of direct neighbors, we propose to apply community structures in networks to prediction tasks. A community detection method is aggregated into the collective prediction process to improve prediction performance. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms a number of standard prediction algorithms specially under conditions that labeled training dataset are limited.

  14. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  15. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  16. High-efficiency phenotyping for vitamin A in banana using artificial neural networks and colorimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in Brazil and an important source of minerals, vitamins and carbohydrates for human diet. The characterization of banana superior genotypes allows identifying those with nutritional quality for cultivation and to integrate genetic improvement programs. However, identification and quantification of the provitamin carotenoids are hampered by the instruments and reagents cost for chemical analyzes, and it may become unworkable if the number of samples to be analyzed is high. Thus, the objective was to verify the potential of indirect phenotyping of the vitamin A content in banana through artificial neural networks (ANNs using colorimetric data. Fifteen banana cultivars with four replications were evaluated, totaling 60 samples. For each sample, colorimetric data were obtained and the vitamin A content was estimated in the ripe banana pulp. For the prediction of the vitamin A content by colorimetric data, multilayer perceptron ANNs were used. Ten network architectures were tested with a single hidden layer. The network selected by the best fit (least mean square error had four neurons in the hidden layer, enabling high efficiency in prediction of vitamin A (r2 = 0.98. The colorimetric parameters a* and Hue angle were the most important in this study. High-scale indirect phenotyping of vitamin A by ANNs on banana pulp is possible and feasible.

  17. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  18. The Inverse Problemof Structural Dynamics Modification of Large Banana Screen Based on Sensitivity Analysis%基于灵敏度分析的大型香蕉筛结构动力修改逆问题的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕高常

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the concept of sensitivity and its role in the inverse problem of structural dynamic modification,and then combined with FEAM technology,conducts in-depth analysis of the inverse problem of structural dynamic modification in banana screen based on sensitivity analysis,and finally takes crossbeam of large banana screen BVB3661 for example,modifies the natural frequency of the crossbeam to improve its dynamic characteristics.%本文简单介绍了灵敏度的概念及其在结构动力修改逆问题中的作用,然后结合有限元分析技术对基于灵敏度分析的方法在香蕉筛筛结构动力修改逆问题中的应用进行了深入的分析,最后,以大型香蕉筛BVB3661横梁为例,对横梁固有频率进行了修改,改善了横梁的动态特性。

  19. Trajectory Prediction of Rotating Objects in Viscous Fluid: Based on Kinematic Investigation of Magnus Glider

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zhiyuan; Ding, Lijie; Wei, Kai; Wang,Ziwei; Dai, Rucheng

    2016-01-01

    The case of a rotating object traveling through viscous fluid appears in many phenomena like the banana ball and missile movement. In this work, we build a model to predict the trajectory of such rotating objects with near-cylinder geometry. The analytical expression of Magnus force is given and a wind tunnel experiment is carried out, which shows the Magnus force is well proportional to the product of angular velocity and centroid velocity. The trajectory prediction is consistent with the tr...

  20. Energy based prediction models for building acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach robust and simplified yet accurate prediction models, energy based principle are commonly used in many fields of acoustics, especially in building acoustics. This includes simple energy flow models, the framework of statistical energy analysis (SEA) as well as more elaborated...... principles as, e.g., wave intensity analysis (WIA). The European standards for building acoustic predictions, the EN 12354 series, are based on energy flow and SEA principles. In the present paper, different energy based prediction models are discussed and critically reviewed. Special attention is placed...

  1. Trust-based collective view prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Tiejian; Xu, Guandong; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Collective view prediction is to judge the opinions of an active web user based on unknown elements by referring to the collective mind of the whole community. Content-based recommendation and collaborative filtering are two mainstream collective view prediction techniques. They generate predictions by analyzing the text features of the target object or the similarity of users' past behaviors. Still, these techniques are vulnerable to the artificially-injected noise data, because they are not able to judge the reliability and credibility of the information sources. Trust-based Collective View

  2. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Banana by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paranthaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of endosulfan, carbendazim, chloropyripos in 10 banana samples in southern area of Tamilnadu, India (hill banana, karpuravalli, monthan, nendran, ney poovan, pachanadan, poovan, rasthali, red banana, robusta was investigated. Approach: In 7 samples, Carbendazim was found at concentrations ranging from 0.002-0.11 mg kg-1. In three samples, carbendazim was not found, whereas endosulfan, chloropyripos was not detected in any sample. Results: Analysis was carried out using HPLC-UV and samples were confirmed by GC-MS. The seven samples contained carbendazim that not exceeded the FAO/WHO codex alimentarius standards for MRLs (Maximum Residue Limit values of carbendazim pesticide on banana (whole is 1.0 mg kg-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the HPLC results carbendazim is finding in Hill banana (0.007 mg kg-1, Monthan (0.019 mg kg-1, Nendran (0.002 mg kg-1, Pachanadan (0.007 mg kg-1, Poovan (0.016 mg kg-1, Rasthali (0.017 mg kg-1 and Robusta (0.11 mg kg-1 and carbendazim is not finding Karpuravalli, Ney poovan and Red banana. Endosulfan, Chloropyrifos and Carbendazim in Robusta Banana sample are identified by matching their retention times and characteristic ion. TIC chromatogram for a positive Robusta Banana sample.

  3. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between...... pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus......-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re...

  4. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology.

  5. 香蕉育苗技术的推广应用%Extension and Utilization of Seedling Breeding Technique for Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永壮; 符运柳; 刘以道; 覃和业

    2011-01-01

    介绍健康、优质香蕉组培苗一、二级苗的培育技术,以促进香蕉产业的健康发展。%Based on many years of practical experience in the production of banana seedlings,author now is introducing the seedling cultivation technology on health and quality of banana tissue culture to promote the healthy development of the banana industry.

  6. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  7. Banana Fibers – Variability and Fracture Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana fibers obtained from the stem of banana plant (Musa sapientum have been characterised for their diameter variability and their mechanical properties, with a stress on fracture morphology. The nature of representative stress strain curves and fracture at different strain rates have been analysed through SEM.

  8. A study of Yoshimoto Banana : Focusing on expression of sense

    OpenAIRE

    李, 銀炯

    2003-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana's 'expression of sense' is based on human five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching). And her 'expression of sense' seems to be connected to the theme of her works by describing or implying mood, consciousness and feeling. 'Expression of sense' can reveal the individuality of a writer more than any other lingual expression because it is based on human subjectivity. In that point of view, I considered how her 'expression of sense'(which intend to bring great ef...

  9. Design and Implementation on the Diseases and Insect Pests Information Management System of Banana Base on WEBGIS%基于WEBGIS的香蕉病虫害信息管理系统研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 李俊

    2014-01-01

    Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan and Fujian have been considered as main banana production areas in China. In order to accurately understand the spatial distribution and changing characteristics of banana diseases and insect pests in time, a set of banana disease and insect pest information management system covering these five provinces and taking town as minimal units was designed in this paper. The system used GEOSERVER as the server of GIS, TOMCAT as the server of WEB, MYSQL as the server of Database. Through the browser, users can not only input the disease and insect pest data of villages and towns in past years, but also show dynamic display and analysis of the changing characteristics and its regularity. This system based on WEBGI was in possession of characteristics like easily using and maintaining, and it would become the main development direction of information management system in future.%中国香蕉主产区为海南、广西、广东、云南、福建等5省,为即时准确地了解香蕉病虫害空间分布及变化特点,本文设计了一套5省以乡镇为最少单元的香蕉病虫害信息管理系统,系统以GEOSERVER作为GIS服务器、TOMCAT为WEB服务器、MYSQL为数据库,用户通过浏览器可以方便输入历年各乡镇香蕉病虫害数据,并能动态显示与分析香蕉病虫害变化特点与规律,这种基于WEBGIS的香蕉病虫害信息管理系统具有使用与维护简单、方便等特点,是未来信息管理系统主要发展方向。

  10. Speech Intelligibility Prediction Based on Mutual Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Taal, Cees H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of predicting the average intelligibility of noisy and potentially processed speech signals, as observed by a group of normal hearing listeners. We propose a model which performs this prediction based on the hypothesis that intelligibility is monotonically related...... to the mutual information between critical-band amplitude envelopes of the clean signal and the corresponding noisy/processed signal. The resulting intelligibility predictor turns out to be a simple function of the mean-square error (mse) that arises when estimating a clean critical-band amplitude using...... a minimum mean-square error (mmse) estimator based on the noisy/processed amplitude. The proposed model predicts that speech intelligibility cannot be improved by any processing of noisy critical-band amplitudes. Furthermore, the proposed intelligibility predictor performs well ( ρ > 0.95) in predicting...

  11. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  12. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  13. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  14. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  15. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Ana

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves; Silvia Nietsche; Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira; Manoel Xavier de Oliveira Júnior; Roberto Célio Antunes Júnior; Carlos Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    Prata Ana is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible to several pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Ana cv. in the first and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments and four replications. lit an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found on Thap Maeo and Caip...

  16. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  17. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  18. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  19. Detection of Cardamom mosaic virus and Banana bract mosaic virus in cardamom using SYBR Green based reverse transcription-quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljo, A; Bhat, A I; Biju, C N

    2014-01-01

    Cardamom being perennial, propagated vegetatively, detecting viruses in planting material is important to check the spread of viruses through infected material. Thus development of effective and sensitive assay for detection of viruses is need of the time. In this view, assay for the detection of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV), infecting cardamom was developed using SYBR Green one step reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The RT-qPCR assay amplified all isolates of CdMV and BBrMV tested but no amplification was obtained with RNA of healthy plants. Recombinant plasmids carrying target virus regions corresponding to both viruses were quantified, serially diluted and used as standards in qPCR to develop standard curve to enable quantification. When tenfold serial dilutions of the total RNAs from infected plants were tested through RT-qPCR, the detection limit of the assay was estimated to be 16 copies for CdMV and 10 copies for BBrMV, which was approximately 1,000-fold higher than the conventional RT-PCR. The RT-qPCR assay was validated by testing field samples collected from different cardamom growing regions of India. This is the first report of RT-qPCR assay for the detection of CdMV and BBrMV in cardamom.

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  1. Banana-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations.

  2. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  3. Wavelet-based prediction of oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Shahriar [Econometric Group, Department of Economics, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Weinreich, Ilona [Department of Mathematics and Technology, University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, RheinAhr Campus, D-53424 Remagen (Germany)]. E-mail: weinreich@rheinahrcampus.de; Reinarz, Dominik [Department of Mathematics and Technology, University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, RheinAhr Campus, D-53424 Remagen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This paper illustrates an application of wavelets as a possible vehicle for investigating the issue of market efficiency in futures markets for oil. The paper provides a short introduction to the wavelets and a few interesting wavelet-based contributions in economics and finance are briefly reviewed. A wavelet-based prediction procedure is introduced and market data on crude oil is used to provide forecasts over different forecasting horizons. The results are compared with data from futures markets for oil and the relative performance of this procedure is used to investigate whether futures markets are efficiently priced.

  4. Trajectory Prediction of Rotating Objects in Viscous Fluid: Based on Kinematic Investigation of Magnus Glider

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhiyuan; Wei, Kai; Wang, Ziwei; Dai, Rucheng

    2016-01-01

    The case of a rotating object traveling through viscous fluid appears in many phenomena like the banana ball and missile movement. In this work, we build a model to predict the trajectory of such rotating objects with near-cylinder geometry. The analytical expression of Magnus force is given and a wind tunnel experiment is carried out, which shows the Magnus force is well proportional to the product of angular velocity and centroid velocity. The trajectory prediction is consistent with the trajectory record experiment of Magnus glider, which implies the validity and robustness of this model.

  5. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer.

  6. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  7. Statistical Seasonal Sea Surface based Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Roberto; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Diouf, Ibrahima

    2014-05-01

    The interannual variability of the sea surface temperature (SST) plays a key role in the strongly seasonal rainfall regime on the West African region. The predictability of the seasonal cycle of rainfall is a field widely discussed by the scientific community, with results that fail to be satisfactory due to the difficulty of dynamical models to reproduce the behavior of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). To tackle this problem, a statistical model based on oceanic predictors has been developed at the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM) with the aim to complement and enhance the predictability of the West African Monsoon (WAM) as an alternative to the coupled models. The model, called S4CAST (SST-based Statistical Seasonal Forecast) is based on discriminant analysis techniques, specifically the Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Beyond the application of the model to the prediciton of rainfall in West Africa, its use extends to a range of different oceanic, atmospheric and helth related parameters influenced by the temperature of the sea surface as a defining factor of variability.

  8. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  9. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  10. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  11. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  12. Multivariate Modelling of the Canary Islands Banana Output. The Role of Farmer Income Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González-Concepción

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest importer of bananas and the only major managed market in the international banana trade. Spain is the main banana producer within the European Union (EU, followed by France and Portugal. In all these countries the fruit is grown in overseas islands situated in tropical or sub-tropical areas and bananas are a pillar of the economic, social and environmental balance of these regions. Spanish production comes from the Canary Islands, an insular environment located in the Atlantic Ocean more than 1000 km south of the Iberian Peninsula and near the northwest coast of Africa. In the context of high production costs and strong competition from Latin American imports, the compensatory aid that local farmers have been receiving from the EU since 1993 has helped the archipelago to maintain its agricultural position while constituting a main support from an economic, social and landscaping standpoint. This research analyses the Canary Islands banana output evolution through the use of certain multivariate dynamic models that consider the influence of past production costs, past farmer income and future expectations, including a sensitivity analysis. We consider annual data time series on production, perceived prices and production costs for the period 1938-2002. Model predictions are contrasted using data for the period 2003-2006, thus spanning a wide period of time that includes key points such as the 1993 reform and the introduction of the 2006 reform. The empirical work highlights, as do all EU norms, the importance of maintaining adequate farmer income expectations to assure subsistence banana production.

  13. 某公司租用土地开发香蕉项目综合效益分析%Analysis on Comprehensive Benefits of a Company Planting Banana on Rented Lands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈西林

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made in this article on the eco-benefit, social benefit, and economic benefit from banana planting of a company in three planting bases in Xinping County. Before the banana is planted, the land is classified into sloppy land, woodland and arable land We carefully study the three types of land, analyze the various effects and benefits made by banana planting on these types of land, and make a comprehensive comment.

  14. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  15. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  16. Colored Noise Prediction Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Fei; Zhang Xiaohui

    2003-01-01

    A method for predicting colored noise by introducing prediction of nonhnear time series is presented By adopting three kinds of neural networks prediction models, the colored noise prediction is studied through changing the filter bandwidth for stochastic noise and the sampling rate for colored noise The results show that colored noise can be predicted The prediction error decreases with the increasing of the sampling rate or the narrowing of the filter bandwidth. If the parameters are selected properly, the prediction precision can meet the requirement of engineering implementation. The results offer a new reference way for increasing the ability for detecting weak signal in signal processing system

  17. Based on the New Type of Banana Planting Open Pit of UG Simulation Machine%基于新型香蕉种植开坑机的UG仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炳光; 马俊生; 马桂香; 梁甲; 刘子良; 文棋

    2016-01-01

    For large banana plantations of relative lack of research and development of the open pit machine , designed a new type of banana planting machine open pit.This machine has the open pit are of good quality, lower cost, and can adapt to the characteristics of different digging holes required .In this paper , the new type of banana planting the working principle of the open pit machine kinematics analysis and using 3 d software UG , new real banana planting open pit machine working condition .The results show that the new type of banana planting open pit machine can meet the de -mand of work .A new type of banana planting the development of the open pit machine can be used as crop other similar open pit machine developed to provide the reference .%针对大规模香蕉种植开坑机的研发比较缺乏的问题,设计了一种新型香蕉种植开坑机. 该机具有开坑质量高、成本较低及能适应不同挖坑要求的特点. 为此,介绍了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作原理,并运用三维软件UG进行运动学分析,真实再现了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作状况. 结果表明:新型香蕉种植开坑机能够满足工作需求,可为其他类似农作物开坑机器的研制提供参考.

  18. Effects of high CO2 treatment on green-ripening and peel senescence in banana and plantain fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mu-bo; TANG Lu-ping; ZHANG Xue-lian; BAI Mei; PANG Xue-qun; ZHANG Zhao-qi

    2015-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa, AAA group, cv. Brazil) peel fails to ful y degreen but the pulp ripens normal y at temperatures above 24°C. This abnormal ripening, known as green-ripening, does not occur in plantains (Musa, ABB group, cv. Dajiao). Based on the fact that un-completely yel owing was also observed for bananas in poorly ventilated atmospheres, in the present study, the effect of high CO2 with regular O2 (21%) on banana ripening was investigated along with that on plantains at 20°C. The results showed that high CO2 conferred different effects on the color changing of bananas and plantains. After 6 d ripening in 20%CO2, plantains ful y yel owed, while bananas retained high chlorophyl content and stayed green. In contrast to the differentiated color changing patterns, the patterns of the softening, starch degradation and soluble sugar accumulation in the pulp of 20%CO2 treated bananas and plantains displayed similarly as the patterns in the fruits ripening in regular air, indicating that the pulp ripening was not inhibited by 20%CO2, and the abnormal ripening of bananas in 20%CO2 can be considered as green ripening. Similar expression levels of chlorophyl degradation related genes, SGR, NYC and PaO, were detected in the peel of the control and treated fruits, indicating that the repressed degreening in 20%CO2 treated bananas was not due to the down-regulation of the chlorophyl degradation related genes. Compared to the effect on plantains, 20%CO2 WUHDWmHQW GHOD\\HG WKH GHFOLQH LQ WKH FKORURSK\\O ÀRUHVFHQFH Fv/Fm) values and in the mRNA levels of a gene coding smal subunit of Rubisco (SSU), and postponed the disruption of the ultrastructure of chloroplast in the peel tissue of bananas, indicating that the senescence of the green cel s in the exocarp layer was delayed by 20%CO2, to more extent in bananas than in plantains. High CO2 reduced the ethylene production and the expression of the related biosynthesis gene, ACS, but elevated the respiration rates in both

  19. Predicting Scientific Success Based on Coauthorship Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigöl, Emre; Scholtes, Ingo; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We address the question to what extent the success of scientific articles is due to social influence. Analyzing a data set of over 100000 publications from the field of Computer Science, we study how centrality in the coauthorship network differs between authors who have highly cited papers and those who do not. We further show that a machine learning classifier, based only on coauthorship network centrality measures at time of publication, is able to predict with high precision whether an article will be highly cited five years after publication. By this we provide quantitative insight into the social dimension of scientific publishing - challenging the perception of citations as an objective, socially unbiased measure of scientific success.

  20. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  1. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  2. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  3. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  4. Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, S S; Patel, P R; Patel, S S; Nikam, S D; Rane, T U; Sayyed, R Z

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.

  5. Design of Banana Stalk Cutting Machine Based on Hydraulic System%基于液压系统控制的香蕉秸秆切片机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张燕

    2014-01-01

    香蕉产业在海南经济中占有很大的比重,但香蕉生产的同时也产生了75%左右的香蕉茎叶副产物。完成香蕉采摘后,剩余的茎叶等废弃不用,造成了资源的严重浪费。为此,设计了一种新型的香蕉秸秆切片机,采用上下刀盘偏置高速交替旋转切削的方法,并以高压气体辅助切削,以达到良好的切片效果和质量,并采用液压控制系统对整个投料、切削过程进行自动控制,从而节省了人力,大大提高了秸秆切片的效率和资源的再回收利用率,减轻了因香蕉秸秆处理不当所造成的废物和废气对人体的危害,促进香蕉茎叶副产品产业化及商品化的发展。%The banana industry occupies a large proportion in Hainan economy , but also produced about 75%of the ba-nana leaf byproducts of banana production at the same time .Complete the banana after picking , the rest of the stems and leaves are discarded , causing a serious waste of resources .So we designed a banana stalk cutting machine model , using the method of upper and lower cutter offset high-speed rotation of cutting , and the high pressure gas assisted cutting , in order to achieve the slicing effect and good quality .And the whole feeding hydraulic control system , the cutting process is automatically controlled , thereby saving manpower , greatly improving the efficiency of straw slice , recycling in order to improve the utilization rate of resources , reduce the harm of banana straw due to improper handling caused by waste and waste gas on the human body , and will promote the banana stems and leaves of vice industry the development of industri -alization , commercialization .

  6. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  7. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  8. Community Detection Based on Link Prediction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Community detection and link prediction are both of great significance in network analysis, which provide very valuable insights into topological structures of the network from diffrent perspectives. In this paper, we propose a novel community detection algorithm with inclusion of link prediction, motivated by the question whether link prediction can be devoted to improve the accuracy of community partition. For link prediction, we propose two novel indices to compute the similarity between each pair of nodes, one of which aims to add missing links, and the other tries to remove spurious edges. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark data sets, and the results of our proposed algorithm are compared with two classes of baselines. In conclusion, our proposed algorithm is competitive, revealing that link prediction does improve the precision of community detection.

  9. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  10. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-ba...

  11. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  12. Neural Fuzzy Inference System-Based Weather Prediction Model and Its Precipitation Predicting Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a weather prediction model in this article based on neural network and fuzzy inference system (NFIS-WPM, and then apply it to predict daily fuzzy precipitation given meteorological premises for testing. The model consists of two parts: the first part is the “fuzzy rule-based neural network”, which simulates sequential relations among fuzzy sets using artificial neural network; and the second part is the “neural fuzzy inference system”, which is based on the first part, but could learn new fuzzy rules from the previous ones according to the algorithm we proposed. NFIS-WPM (High Pro and NFIS-WPM (Ave are improved versions of this model. It is well known that the need for accurate weather prediction is apparent when considering the benefits. However, the excessive pursuit of accuracy in weather prediction makes some of the “accurate” prediction results meaningless and the numerical prediction model is often complex and time-consuming. By adapting this novel model to a precipitation prediction problem, we make the predicted outcomes of precipitation more accurate and the prediction methods simpler than by using the complex numerical forecasting model that would occupy large computation resources, be time-consuming and which has a low predictive accuracy rate. Accordingly, we achieve more accurate predictive precipitation results than by using traditional artificial neural networks that have low predictive accuracy.

  13. Natural product of wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong: biopesticide to control the vector of banana blood disease bacterium in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N; Dharma, A; Efdi, M; Yuhendra; Eliesti, F

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the most important food crops in Indonesia. Its production is greater than any other agricultural commodity. With the population of 230 million in 2010, banana was consumed up to three million tons in this country. However, Banana Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB), one of the most devastating banana pathogens in the world, which is only found in Indonesia, threatens not only the growth of this plant but also the lives and the livelihoods for most of the Indonesian society. BDB is caused by a lethal bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype-4, which infects a wide range of bananas, from bananas used for consumption to wild bananas. In West Sumatera, the disease killed 1.40% of bananas in 1998, and then increased dramatically to 37.9% in 2003. The total banana production dropped to 62% in this province. The search for controlling the vector has led to the pre-investigation of Wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong C.K. Lim which has a stink bug odour similar to a methidathion insecticide. The plant was collected around the conservation area of Lembah Anal in West Sumatra. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of natural insecticides compound contained in E. slahmong against D. melanogaster. This study tested the effect of E. slahmong on the mortality, anti-feedant and repellent levels against Drosophila melanogaster, the vector of BDB. The essential oil of E. slahmong was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaves. We found that the extract of E. slahmong significantly affected the mortality of D. melanogaster of 30-40% and also acted as an antifeedant (with success rate of 73-93%) and repellent (with success rate of 99-99.6%). The long- term objective of this study is to develop green biopesticide to control BDB in Indonesia, based on an environmentally friendly pest management.

  14. De Novo characterization of the banana root transcriptome and analysis of gene expression under Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. are among the most important crops in the world due to their nutritional and export value. However, banana production has been devastated by fungal infestations caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc, which cannot be effectively prevented or controlled. Since there is very little known about the molecular mechanism of Foc infections; therefore, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional changes induced by Foc in banana roots. Results We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from banana roots infected with Foc Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR 4 at days 0, 2, 4, and 6. We generated over 26 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library using deep sequencing and assembled 25,158 distinct gene sequences by de novo assembly and gap-filling. The average distinct gene sequence length was 1,439 base pairs. A total of 21,622 (85.94% unique sequences were annotated and 11,611 were assigned to specific metabolic pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. We used digital gene expression (DGE profiling to investigate the transcriptional changes in the banana root upon Foc TR4 infection. The expression of genes in the Phenylalanine metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism pathways was affected by Foc TR4 infection. Conclusion The combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the banana root transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes during the response of banana genes to Foc TR4 infection. The assembled banana transcriptome provides an important resource for future investigations about the banana crop as well as the diseases that plague this valuable staple food.

  15. Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang

    2008-01-01

    To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.

  16. Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUYU SURYASARI POERBA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poerba YS, Ahmad F (2010 Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 11: 118-123. This study was done to assess the molecular diversity of 36 accessions (18 cultivars of the plantain and cooking bananas (Musa acuminata x M. balbisiana, AAB, ABB subgroups based on Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR markers and to determine genetic relationships in the bananas. RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting of these banana varieties was carried out by five primers of RAPDs and two primers of ISSRs. RAPD primers produced 63 amplified fragments varying from 250 to 2500 bp in size. 96.82% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. ISSR primers produced 26 amplified fragments varying from 350 bp to 2000 bp in size. The results showed that 92.86% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. The range of genetic distance of 18 cultivars was from 0.06-0.67.

  17. Isolation of retro-transcribed RNA from in vitro Mycosphaerella fijiensis-infected banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, C M; Peraza-Echeverría, L; Islas-Flores, I R; Canto-Canché, B B; Grijalva-Arango, R

    2010-07-27

    High polyphenol and polysaccharide levels in plant tissues such as banana fruit and leaves constitute a significant challenge to the extraction of sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA required for cDNA library synthesis and molecular analysis. To determine their comparative effectiveness at eliminating polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins, three protocols for RNA extraction from in vitro banana plantlet leaves were tested: Concert(TM) Plant RNA isolation kit, a small-scale protocol based on Valderrama-Cháirez, and a modified version of the Valderrama-Cháirez protocol. RNA quantity and purity were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry using DEPC-treated water and Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Purity was greater using Tris-HCl. The Concert(TM) Plant protocol produced the poorest quality RNA. Reverse transcription into cDNAs from RNA isolated from in vitro banana plantlet leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis using the modified Valderrama-Cháirez protocol, followed by PCR using primers designed against gamma-actin from banana and M. fijiensis, yielded products of the anticipated size. In addition, this protocol reduced the processing time, lowered costs, used less expensive equipment, and could be used for other plants that have the same problems with high polyphenol and polysaccharide levels.

  18. Ethanol Production from Banana Fruit and its Lignocellulosic Residues: Exergy and Renewability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Tropical countries such as Brazil and Colombia have the possibility of using their lands for growing vegetable products to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. The objective of this work is to apply exergy analysis to evaluate the renewability of anhydrous ethanol production from surplus banana fruit production and its residual biomass. The study takes into account all production stages: growing, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, and dehydration. It also considers the cogeneration plant and residues treatment. Four production routes were analyzed according to the biomass used as feedstock: banana pulp, banana fruit, hanging cluster or banana skin. Based on the exergy concept, performance indicators are proposed and calculated. In order to quantify the renewability of the ethanol production processes, a new indicator called “Renewability Performance Indicator” is defined and applied to the four ethanol production routes studied. The results show that when amilaceous material is used, better results than lignocellulosic material are obtained and four production processes studied must be classified as non-renewable.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  19. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas.

  20. Effect of beta-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A source. However the studies  on  carotenoid from yellow  banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum  level in group treated with  of β - carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/ dL , was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of   control group ( 22.08 ± 1.35 mg /dL . β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  1. Effect of β-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A sources. However the studies on carotenoid from yellow banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. The β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum level in group treated with of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/dL, was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of control group (22.08 ± 1.35 mg/dL. The β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  2. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  3. Theoretical bases analysis of scientific prediction on marketing principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Rosohata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview categorical apparatus of scientific predictions and theoretical foundations results of scientific forecasting. They are integral part of effective management of economic activities. The approaches to the prediction of scientists in different fields of Social science and the categories modification of scientific prediction, based on principles of marketing are proposed.

  4. Optimization of extraction parameters on the antioxidant properties of banana waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Yee Toh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18–33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extrac- tion parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel. Materials and methods. Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA, Pisang Berangan (PB, and Pisang Mas (PM were investigated. The best extrac- tion parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0–100% v/v, extraction time (1–5 hr, and extraction temperature (25–60°C for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB assays at optimum extrac- tion conditions. Results. Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best

  5. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  6. Activity Prediction: A Twitter-based Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Social media platforms allow users to share their messages with everyone else. In microblogs, e.g., Twitter, people mostly report on what they did, they talk about current activities, and mention things they plan to do in the near future. In this paper, we propose the task of activity prediction, th

  7. Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju on banana stalk and Bahia grass based substrates Cultivo de Pleurotus sajor-caju em substratos a base de grama batatais e engaço de bananeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix G de Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana stalks and Bahia grass were utilized as basic starting materials for the production of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. Banana stalks were combined with other waste or supplement products (wheat bran, coast-cross hay, bean straw and cotton textile mill to obtain different nitrogen concentrations. Since Bahia grass is relatively rich in protein, it was combined with other substrates (banana stalk, coast-cross hay and bean straw to maintain a substrate nitrogen concentration of about 1.5%. Banana stalks and Bahia grass were both more efficient in the production of the mushroom P. sajor-caju when utilized without the addition of other substrates, with biological efficiencies of 74.4% and 74.12%, respectively. When combined with other substrates or grasses, there was a drop in biological efficiency, independent of the concentration of nitrogen. Furthermore, the addition of protein-rich waste to banana stalks resulted in a decrease or absence of fructification, which indicates that high concentrations of nitrogen in the cultivation substrate may hinder the cultivation of this mushroom. On the other hand, results reveal that the ideal concentration of nitrogen may depend on other physicochemical factors and these factors may determine the success in cultivating P. sajor-caju. Therefore, we conclude that P. sajor-caju may be cultivated on banana stalk and Bahia grass as pure substrates, not being necessary their supplementation or combine them with another substrates.O engaço de bananeira e a grama batatais foram utilizados como matérias-primas básicas para a produção do substrato de cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju. O engaço de bananeira foi combinado com outros resíduos (farelo de trigo, capim "Coast-cross", palha de feijão e resíduo de lixadeira de algodão, com o objetivo de se obter substratos com diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio. Como a grama batatais é relativamente rica em proteína, a mesma foi combinada com

  8. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  9. Principal Component Analysis and Its Application on Banana Fields Mapping Using ENVISAT ASAR Data in Zhang zhou, Fujian Province%基于主成分分析的ENVISAT ASAR数据在福建省漳州市香蕉园地提取中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小钦; 王钦敏; 凌飞龙; 朱晓铃; 江洪

    2009-01-01

    Banana is one of the main economic agrotypes in Zhangzhou, Fujian Province. The multi-temporal ENVISAT ASAR data with different polarization are used to classify the banana fields in this paper. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for six pairs of ASAR dual-polarization data. For its large leaves, banana has high backscatter. So the value of banana fields is high and shows very bright in the 1st component, which makes it much easier for banana fields extraction.Dual-polarization data provide more information, and the VV and VH backscatter of banana show different characters with other land covers. Based on the analysis of the radar signature of banana fields and other land covers and the 1st component, banana fields are classified using object-oriented classifier. Compared to the field survey data and ASTER data, the accuracy of banana fields in the study area is 83.5%. It shows that the principal component analysis provides the useful information in SAR images analysis and makes the extraction of banana fields easier.

  10. Feature Selection for Neural Network Based Stock Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugunnasil, Prompong; Somhom, Samerkae

    We propose a new methodology of feature selection for stock movement prediction. The methodology is based upon finding those features which minimize the correlation relation function. We first produce all the combination of feature and evaluate each of them by using our evaluate function. We search through the generated set with hill climbing approach. The self-organizing map based stock prediction model is utilized as the prediction method. We conduct the experiment on data sets of the Microsoft Corporation, General Electric Co. and Ford Motor Co. The results show that our feature selection method can improve the efficiency of the neural network based stock prediction.

  11. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  12. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  13. Heart Attack Prediction System Based Neural Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Helwan, Abdulkader

    2015-01-01

    Heart attack is an asymptomatic and epidemic medical condition that may suddenly occur and causes “death”. Therefore, it is a life-threatening condition and it should be detected before it occurs. Heart attack is so far predicted using the conventional ways of doctor’s examination and by performing some medical tests such as stress test, ECG, and heart CTScan etc. The coronary vessels constriction, the cholesterol levels in the arteries, and other attributes can be good indicators for making ...

  14. A Simulation Model Estimates of the Intercropping Advantage of an Immature-Rubber, Banana and Pineapple System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadu B. Jalloh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Intercropping has been shown to have many advantages but it is fallacious to conclude it is always a better cropping system. Little is known about a new double-hedgerow intercropping of rubber, banana and pineapple in relation to its effects on growth and yield of the component crops when compared to their monocrops. Simulation modeling offers a cheaper and faster alternative to explore cropping scenarios and estimate their productivity under a wide range of management and environmental conditions. This simulation study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the growth and yield of immature rubber, banana and pineapple intercrop and monocrop scenarios with the aid of an intercrop simulation model named SURHIS, as well as estimating the intercropping advantage. Approach: A FORTRAN computer model (SURHIS that simulated the daily light interception and utilization by immature-rubber, banana and pineapple intercropping system was used to simulate intercrop and monocrop scenarios to estimate potential Dry Matter Yield (DMY for all crops as well as fruit yields for banana and pineapple. The results of the model were tested for accuracy by comparing actual field experimental results with the aid of Mean Deviation (MD and Mean Absolute Error (MAE statistical analyses. Intercropping advantage was assessed using the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER analysis. Results: The model was representative or predicted DMY of the crops with sufficient accuracy. The LER analysis showed that the intercropping system had a dry matter yield productivity advantage of 81% more than monocrops of the component crops. The results also showed that the higher the Plant Population Density (PPD, the greater is the dry matter yield. It was also shown that banana and pineapple had no deleterious effect on the growth of rubber. Fruit weight per plant of banana and pineapple was reduced with increase in PPD for the monocrops. Measured average fresh fruit bunch weight for

  15. Link prediction based on path entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhongqi; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Information theory has been taken as a prospective tool for quantifying the complexity of complex networks. In this paper, we first study the information entropy or uncertainty of a path using the information theory. Then we apply the path entropy to the link prediction problem in real-world networks. Specifically, we propose a new similarity index, namely Path Entropy (PE) index, which considers the information entropies of shortest paths between node pairs with penalization to long paths. Empirical experiments demonstrate that PE index outperforms the mainstream link predictors.

  16. Indexação biológica de genótipos de bananeira para o Banana streak virus Germplasm biological indexing for Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma (BAG de bananeira é a base do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi indexar os acessos do BAG para o vírus das estrias da bananeira (Banana streak virus, BSV. Cada amostra foliar, coletada dos 220 acessos do BAG foi utilizada na inoculação de três plantas de bananeira 'Caipira' produzidas por micropropagação. As plantas foram inoculadas, através da cochonilha vetora Planococcus citri Risso, fornecendo-se um acesso de aquisição de 24 horas e de transmissão de 48 horas. Como controle positivo e negativo foram utilizadas plantas previamente analisadas por PCR, quanto a presença de BSV. Entre 15 e 70 dias após a inoculação, as plantas indicadoras apresentaram os primeiros sintomas. Desta forma, verificou-se que 44 dos 220 acessos estavam infectados com BSV.The Germplasm Active Bank (BAG of banana is the base of the genetic breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. The objective of this work was to index the accessions of the BAG for Banana streak virus (BSV. Each sample collected in the 220 accessions of BAG was used to inoculate three 'Caipira' banana plants, produced by micropropagation. The plants were inoculated using the mealybug Planococcus citri Risso as vector. The vector being allowed an access of acquisition of 24 hours and 48 hours of transmission. Plants were previously analysed by PCR for the presence or absence of BSV were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Between 15 and 70 days after inoculation the test plants showed the first disease symptoms. Using this methodology, it was observed that 44 of the 220 accesses were infected with BSV.

  17. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  18. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  19. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  20. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced sp

  1. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  2. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  3. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  4. Caracterização de acessos de bananeira com base na concentração de compostos funcionais Characterization of banana accessions with base on functional compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perito Amorim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração de polifenóis totais, flavonóides, vitamina C e carotenóides totais em 61 acessos de banana pertencentes ao Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de bananeira da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Foram detectadas diferenças significativas para todas as características analisadas por meio da análise de variância. A média para os teores de polifenóis totais entre os 61 acessos de banana foi de 38,06mg 100g-1, com variação de 12,51mg 100g-1 para o triplóide 'Torp' a 257,80mg 100g-1 para o tetraplóide 'Teparod'. A média para flavonóides foi de 2,09mg 100g-1, variando de 0,85mg 100g-1 ('Maravilha' AAAB a 6,63mg 100g-1 ('Teparod' ABBB. Para vitamina C, a média foi de 21,60mg 100g-1, variando de 8,60mg 100g-1 (tetraplóide 'Bucaneiro' a 76,82mg 100g-1 (tetraplóide 'Teparod'. A média do teor de carotenóides totais foi de 4,34mg g-1, variando de 1,18mg g-1 ('Champa Madras', triplóide ABB a 19,24mg g-1 ('Saney', triplóide AAB. Os diplóides Modok Gier e NBA-14 apresentaram, respectivamente, quatro e cinco vezes mais carotenóides totais que as cultivares do grupo Cavendish ('Nanica', 'Willians' e 'Lacatan'. Esses resultados permitem concluir sobre a possibilidade da obtenção de cultivares com altos níveis de compostos funcionais por meio de cruzamentos e seleção. Cultivares com este perfil têm potencial como alimento funcional, ajudando a prevenir doenças, por meio da neutralização de radicais livres.The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of polyphenols, flavonols, vitamin C and carotenoid and in 61 banana accessions from Musa germplasm collection from Embrapa Cassava and Fruits, Brazil. Was detected significant differences for all characteristic analyzed in ANOVA. The average for polyphenols among the 61 accessions was of 38.06mg 100g-1, with variation of 12.51mg 100g-1 for the triploid 'Torp' to 257.80mg 100g-1 for the tetraploid 'Teparod'. The average

  5. Size-based predictions of food web patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Hartvig, Martin; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    simulations with varying species richness. To this end, we develop a new size- and trait-based food web model that can be simplified into an analytically solvable size-based model. We confirm existing solutions for the size distribution and derive novel predictions for maximum trophic level and invasion......We employ size-based theoretical arguments to derive simple analytic predictions of ecological patterns and properties of natural communities: size-spectrum exponent, maximum trophic level, and susceptibility to invasive species. The predictions are brought about by assuming that an infinite number...... of species are continuously distributed on a size-trait axis. It is, however, an open question whether such predictions are valid for a food web with a finite number of species embedded in a network structure. We address this question by comparing the size-based predictions to results from dynamic food web...

  6. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  7. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  8. Comparing model predictions for ecosystem-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Essington, Timothy E.; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2016-01-01

    E)) and a size-structured fish community model. The models were compared with respect to predicted ecological consequences of fishing to identify commonalities and differences in model predictions for the California Current fish community. We compared the models regarding direct and indirect responses to fishing...... on one or more species. The size-based model predicted a higher fishing mortality needed to reach maximum sustainable yield than EwE for most species. The size-based model also predicted stronger top-down effects of predator removals than EwE. In contrast, EwE predicted stronger bottom-up effects...... of forage fisheries removal. In both cases, the differences are due to the presumed degree of trophic overlap between juveniles of large-bodied fish and adult stages of forage fish. These differences highlight how each model’s emphasis on distinct details of ecological processes affects its predictions...

  9. Transmission line icing prediction based on DWT feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. N.; Niu, D. X.; Huang, Y. L.

    2016-08-01

    Transmission line icing prediction is the premise of ensuring the safe operation of the network as well as the very important basis for the prevention of freezing disasters. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of icing, a transmission line icing prediction model based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) feature extraction was built. In this method, a group of high and low frequency signals were obtained by DWT decomposition, and were fitted and predicted by using partial least squares regression model (PLS) and wavelet least square support vector model (w-LSSVM). Finally, the final result of the icing prediction was obtained by adding the predicted values of the high and low frequency signals. The results showed that the method is effective and feasible in the prediction of transmission line icing.

  10. Copula-based prediction of economic movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. E.; González-López, V. A.; Hirsh, I. D.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we model the discretized returns of two paired time series BM&FBOVESPA Dividend Index and BM&FBOVESPA Public Utilities Index using multivariate Markov models. The discretization corresponds to three categories, high losses, high profits and the complementary periods of the series. In technical terms, the maximal memory that can be considered for a Markov model, can be derived from the size of the alphabet and dataset. The number of parameters needed to specify a discrete multivariate Markov chain grows exponentially with the order and dimension of the chain. In this case the size of the database is not large enough for a consistent estimation of the model. We apply a strategy to estimate a multivariate process with an order greater than the order achieved using standard procedures. The new strategy consist on obtaining a partition of the state space which is constructed from a combination, of the partitions corresponding to the two marginal processes and the partition corresponding to the multivariate Markov chain. In order to estimate the transition probabilities, all the partitions are linked using a copula. In our application this strategy provides a significant improvement in the movement predictions.

  11. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  12. Model Predictive Control based on Finite Impulse Response Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasath, Guru; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    We develop a regularized l2 finite impulse response (FIR) predictive controller with input and input-rate constraints. Feedback is based on a simple constant output disturbance filter. The performance of the predictive controller in the face of plant-model mismatch is investigated by simulations...

  13. Prediction based chaos control via a new neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Liqun [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: liqunshen@gmail.com; Wang Mao [Space Control and Inertia Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu Wanyu [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun Guanghui [Space Control and Inertia Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2008-11-17

    In this Letter, a new chaos control scheme based on chaos prediction is proposed. To perform chaos prediction, a new neural network architecture for complex nonlinear approximation is proposed. And the difficulty in building and training the neural network is also reduced. Simulation results of Logistic map and Lorenz system show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos control scheme and the proposed neural network.

  14. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa.

  15. Entropy-based link prediction in weighted networks

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhongqi; Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Li, Lunbo; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Information entropy has been proved to be an effective tool to quantify the structural importance of complex networks. In the previous work (Xu et al, 2016 \\cite{xu2016}), we measure the contribution of a path in link prediction with information entropy. In this paper, we further quantify the contribution of a path with both path entropy and path weight, and propose a weighted prediction index based on the contributions of paths, namely Weighted Path Entropy (WPE), to improve the prediction accuracy in weighted networks. Empirical experiments on six weighted real-world networks show that WPE achieves higher prediction accuracy than three typical weighted indices.

  16. Slope Deformation Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper principally studies the prediction of slope deformation based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. In the prediction process,explore how to reconstruct the phase space. The geological body’s displacement data obtained from chaotic time series are used as SVM’s training samples. Slope displacement caused by multivariable coupling is predicted by means of single variable. Results show that this model is of high fitting accuracy and generalization, and provides reference for deformation prediction in slope engineering.

  17. Neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity with effects of finite banana width for finite aspect ratio tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaing, K. C.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity has been developed to model transport phenomena, especially, toroidal plasma rotation for tokamaks with broken symmetry. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the results of the numerical codes in the large aspect ratio limit. The theory has since been extended to include effects of finite aspect ratio and finite plasma β. Here, β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the magnetic field pressure. However, there are cases where the radial wavelength of the self-consistent perturbed magnetic field strength B on the perturbed magnetic surface is comparable to the width of the trapped particles, i.e., bananas. To accommodate those cases, the theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity is further extended here to include the effects of the finite banana width. The extended theory is developed using the orbit averaged drift kinetic equation in the low collisionality regimes. The results of the theory can now be used to model plasma transport, including toroidal plasma rotation, in real finite aspect ratio, and finite plasma β tokamaks with the radial wavelength of the perturbed symmetry breaking magnetic field strength comparable to or longer than the banana width.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  19. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  20. Prediction-based estimating functions: Review and new developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The general theory of prediction-based estimating functions for stochastic process models is reviewed and extended. Particular attention is given to optimal estimation, asymptotic theory and Gaussian processes. Several examples of applications are presented. In particular, partial observation...

  1. Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting Aspergillus section Flavi incidence in Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, A C; Azanza, P V; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting the incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi in dried Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines were examined. The average counts of Aspergillus section Flavi (AFC) in fresh and dried Cavendish bananas from 10 production batches of the Philippine Agro-Industrial Development Cooperative in Davao del Norte, Southern Philippines were 1.2 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(2) cfu/g, respectively. Isolates from both samples were identified to be Aspergillus flavus based on spore type and conidial structure of isolates. An increasing trend in the AFC of Cavendish bananas was observed during dried banana chips processing. Variability in the AFC between production batches was attributed to differences in aerobic and fungal populations and physicochemical characteristics of the fruits, peel damage of the raw materials, concentration of AFC in the air and food-contact surfaces of the production area, and temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the environment during production and storage. Physicochemical characteristics of Cavendish bananas from the receipt of raw materials up to the first day of drying were within the reported range of values allowing growth and toxin production by aflatoxigenic fungi. Air-borne AFC varied depending on the section of the production area examined. The close proximity of the waste disposal area from the production operation to the preparation, drying and storage areas suggests that cross-contamination, probably air-borne or insect-borne was a likely occurrence. The hands of workers were also identified as AFC sources. Results of this study highlight the need for the development of strategies to control aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in Philippine dried Cavendish bananas.

  2. Prediction of Betavoltaic Battery Output Parameters Based on SEM Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Yakimov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach for the prediction of betavoltaic battery output parameters based on EBIC investigations of semiconductor converters of beta-radiation energy into electric power is presented. Using this approach the parameters of battery based on porous Si are calculated. These parameters are compared with those of battery based on a planar Si p-n junction.

  3. Predicting links based on knowledge dissemination in complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Jia, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    Link prediction is the task of mining the missing links in networks or predicting the next vertex pair to be connected by a link. A lot of link prediction methods were inspired by evolutionary processes of networks. In this paper, a new mechanism for the formation of complex networks called knowledge dissemination (KD) is proposed with the assumption of knowledge disseminating through the paths of a network. Accordingly, a new link prediction method-knowledge dissemination based link prediction (KDLP)-is proposed to test KD. KDLP characterizes vertex similarity based on knowledge quantity (KQ) which measures the importance of a vertex through H-index. Extensive numerical simulations on six real-world networks demonstrate that KDLP is a strong link prediction method which performs at a higher prediction accuracy than four well-known similarity measures including common neighbors, local path index, average commute time and matrix forest index. Furthermore, based on the common conclusion that an excellent link prediction method reveals a good evolving mechanism, the experiment results suggest that KD is a considerable network evolving mechanism for the formation of complex networks.

  4. Local-prediction-based difference expansion reversible watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the use of local prediction in difference expansion reversible watermarking. For each pixel, a least square predictor is computed on a square block centered on the pixel and the corresponding prediction error is expanded. The same predictor is recovered at detection without any additional information. The proposed local prediction is general and it applies regardless of the predictor order or the prediction context. For the particular cases of least square predictors with the same context as the median edge detector, gradient-adjusted predictor or the simple rhombus neighborhood, the local prediction-based reversible watermarking clearly outperforms the state-of-the-art schemes based on the classical counterparts. Experimental results are provided.

  5. Radurization of bananas under commercial conditions: Pt. 2. Shelf- or market-life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thord-Gray, R.S.; Strydom, G.J. (Nuclear Development Corp. of South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Pelindaba, Pretoria)

    1984-04-01

    In two large-scale commercial trials with bananas, a 2 to 4 d extension in marketable life was achieved by radurisation at a dose of 0,60 kGy. The criteria for marketability were based primarily on skin colour and fruit firmness. It was also observed that browning associated with the handling of ripe fruit was significantly less in the radurised fruits.

  6. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  7. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  8. Network Traffic Prediction based on Particle Swarm BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional BP neural network algorithm has some bugs such that it is easy to fall into local minimum and the slow convergence speed. Particle swarm optimization is an evolutionary computation technology based on swarm intelligence which can not guarantee global convergence. Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is a global optimum algorithm with many advantages such as simple, convenient and strong robust. In this paper, a new BP neural network based on Artificial Bee Colony algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to optimize the weight and threshold value of BP neural network. After network traffic prediction experiment, we can conclude that optimized BP network traffic prediction based on PSO-ABC has high prediction accuracy and has stable prediction performance.

  9. Gibberella musae (Fusarium musae) sp. nov., a recently discovered species from banana is sister to F. verticillioides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, van F.; Waalwijk, C.; Logrieco, A.; Munaut, F.; Moretti, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several strains of Fusarium isolated from banana were identified previously as F. verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg but described as unable to produce fumonisin. Here we report biochemical and morphological evidence, as well as multilocus phylogenetic analyses based on elongation factor (EF-1a), cal

  10. Comparison of Simple Versus Performance-Based Fall Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar K. Gadkaree BS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the predictive ability of standard falls prediction models based on physical performance assessments with more parsimonious prediction models based on self-reported data. Design: We developed a series of fall prediction models progressing in complexity and compared area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC across models. Setting: National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Medicare enrollees (age ≥65 at baseline (Round 1: 2011-2012 and 1-year follow-up (Round 2: 2012-2013. Participants: In all, 6,056 community-dwelling individuals participated in Rounds 1 and 2 of NHATS. Measurements: Primary outcomes were 1-year incidence of “any fall” and “recurrent falls.” Prediction models were compared and validated in development and validation sets, respectively. Results: A prediction model that included demographic information, self-reported problems with balance and coordination, and previous fall history was the most parsimonious model that optimized AUC for both any fall (AUC = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.67, 0.71] and recurrent falls (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.79] in the development set. Physical performance testing provided a marginal additional predictive value. Conclusion: A simple clinical prediction model that does not include physical performance testing could facilitate routine, widespread falls risk screening in the ambulatory care setting.

  11. Stomatal density and responsiveness of banana fruit stomates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Brun, W A

    1966-01-01

    Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host.

  12. Information flows and social externalities in a Tanzanian banana growing village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the role of social networks as facilitators of information flows and banana output increase. Based on a village census, full information is available on the socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmers' kinship group members, neighbours and informal insurance group members. The census data enable us to use individual specific reference groups and include exogenous group controls to tackle standard difficulties related to identification and omitted variables bias when analysing social effects. For the survey village of Nyakatoke in Tanzania the results suggest that information flows exist within all types of groups analysed but output externalities are limited to kinship groups. Using networks may offer scope for effective information flows on agricultural techniques, but our evidence suggests that not just any local network will have a social externality impact, requiring a clear understanding of local social networks for maximum impact.

  13. Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening: benchmark dataset and prediction tools evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Chen, Wenhan; Huang, Yanxin; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Zhiqiang; Lv, Yinghua

    2011-06-16

    Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening has become a focus as a promising method in immunoinformatics research. Some novel software and web-based servers have been proposed in recent years and have succeeded in given test cases. However, since the number of available mimotopes with the relevant structure of template-target complex is limited, a systematic evaluation of these methods is still absent. In this study, a new benchmark dataset was defined. Using this benchmark dataset and a representative dataset, five examples of the most popular epitope prediction software products which are based on random peptide library screening have been evaluated. Using the benchmark dataset, in no method did performance exceed a 0.42 precision and 0.37 sensitivity, and the MCC scores suggest that the epitope prediction results of these software programs are greater than random prediction about 0.09-0.13; while using the representative dataset, most of the values of these performance measures are slightly improved, but the overall performance is still not satisfactory. Many test cases in the benchmark dataset cannot be applied to these pieces of software due to software limitations. Moreover chances are that these software products are overfitted to the small dataset and will fail in other cases. Therefore finding the correlation between mimotopes and genuine epitope residues is still far from resolved and much larger dataset for mimotope-based epitope prediction is desirable.

  14. Epitope Prediction Based on Random Peptide Library Screening: Benchmark Dataset and Prediction Tools Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxin Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening has become a focus as a promising method in immunoinformatics research. Some novel software and web-based servers have been proposed in recent years and have succeeded in given test cases. However, since the number of available mimotopes with the relevant structure of template-target complex is limited, a systematic evaluation of these methods is still absent. In this study, a new benchmark dataset was defined. Using this benchmark dataset and a representative dataset, five examples of the most popular epitope prediction software products which are based on random peptide library screening have been evaluated. Using the benchmark dataset, in no method did performance exceed a 0.42 precision and 0.37 sensitivity, and the MCC scores suggest that the epitope prediction results of these software programs are greater than random prediction about 0.09–0.13; while using the representative dataset, most of the values of these performance measures are slightly improved, but the overall performance is still not satisfactory. Many test cases in the benchmark dataset cannot be applied to these pieces of software due to software limitations. Moreover chances are that these software products are overfitted to the small dataset and will fail in other cases. Therefore finding the correlation between mimotopes and genuine epitope residues is still far from resolved and much larger dataset for mimotope-based epitope prediction is desirable.

  15. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    that social effects are strongly dependent on the definition of the reference group. It emerges that no social effects are found in distance based groups, exogenous social effects linked to group education exist in informal insurance groups, and only kinship related groups generate the endogenous social...

  16. Consumo de massas, biodiversidade e fitomelhoramento da banana de exportação 1920 a 1980 Mass markets, biodiversity and breeding improvements of export bananas 1920-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Soluri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A exportação de banana, na América, foi constituída sob uma base genética extremamente limitada: ao longo de setenta anos, uma só variedade de banana, a Gros Michel, foi praticamente a única a ser vendida nos mercados norte-americanos. Esta variedade produzia grandes cachos, resistentes ao transporte, e dotados de um sabor e de uma casca que os consumidores norte-americanos identificavam como pertencentes a uma banana de qualidade. Entretanto, a Gros Michel também se mostrou muito suscetível a um grande número de patógenos fúngicos, incluindo o Mal do Panamá e a Sigatoka. A dinâmica histórica ocasionada, durante a primeira metade do século XX, pela propagação desse fungo, acelerou o aumentou dos índices de desmatamento, desestabilizou os sistemas de vida rural, aumentou os riscos à saúde dos trabalhadores do campo, e limitou os rendimentos das principais companhias de comércio de banana. Tais epidemias impeliram o governo britânico e a United Fruit Company a estabelecerem programas de fitomelhoramento, durante a década de 1920, tendo como meta o desenvolvimento de uma banana para exportação, que fosse resistente ao Mal do Panamá. Contudo, a criação de um híbrido que fosse capaz tanto de prosperar nas zonas tropicais, quanto de encontrar aceitação no mercado norte-americano, se mostrou uma tarefa de difícil realização. A história dos programas de melhoramento revela uma das principais contradições da agricultura do século XX: os mesmos processos de produção massificada, que tendem a reduzir a diversidade biológica a nível local e regional, permaneciam dependentes do acesso a de um banco genético "global", para manter níveis lucrativos de produção.The export banana industry in Latin America and the Caribbean developed on a very narrow genetic base: a single variety, the Gros Michel, was the only banana variety mass marketed in the United States for at least seventy years. The Gros Michel variety

  17. Model-based uncertainty in species range prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, R. G.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Bastos Araujo, Miguel;

    2006-01-01

    Aim Many attempts to predict the potential range of species rely on environmental niche (or 'bioclimate envelope') modelling, yet the effects of using different niche-based methodologies require further investigation. Here we investigate the impact that the choice of model can have on predictions...... day (using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and kappa statistics) and by assessing consistency in predictions of range size changes under future climate (using cluster analysis). Results Our analyses show significant differences between predictions from different models......, with predicted changes in range size by 2030 differing in both magnitude and direction (e.g. from 92% loss to 322% gain). We explain differences with reference to two characteristics of the modelling techniques: data input requirements (presence/absence vs. presence-only approaches) and assumptions made by each...

  18. Traffic Prediction Scheme based on Chaotic Models in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the local support vector algorithm of chaotic time series analysis, the Hannan-Quinn information criterion and SAX symbolization are introduced. Then a novel prediction algorithm is proposed, which is successfully applied to the prediction of wireless network traffic. For the correct prediction problems of short-term flow with smaller data set size, the weakness of the algorithms during model construction is analyzed by study and comparison to LDK prediction algorithm. It is verified the Hannan-Quinn information principle can be used to calculate the number of neighbor points to replace pervious empirical method, which uses the number of neighbor points to acquire more accurate prediction model. Finally, actual flow data is applied to confirm the accuracy rate of the proposed algorithm LSDHQ. It is testified by our experiments that it also has higher performance in adaptability than that of LSDHQ algorithm.

  19. The OASE project: Object-based Analysis and Seamless prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troemel, Silke; Wapler, Kathrin; Bick, Theresa; Diederich, Malte; Deneke, Hartwig; Horvath, Akos; Senf, Fabian; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    The research group on Object-based Analysis and SEamless prediction (OASE) is part of the Hans Ertel Centre for Weather Research (HErZ). The group consists of scientists at the Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, the Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig and the German Weather Service. OASE addresses seamless prediction of convective events from nowcasting to daily predictions by combining radar/satellite compositing and tracking with high-resolution model-based ensemble generation and prediction. While observation-based nowcasting provides good results for lead times between 0-1 hours, numerical weather prediction addresses lead times between 3-21 hours. Especially the discontinuity between 1-3 hours needs to be addressed. Therefore a central goal of the project is a near real-time high-resolved unprecedented data base. A radar and satellite remote sensing-driven 3D observation-microphysics composite covering Germany, currently under development, contains gridded observations and estimated microphysical quantities. Observations and microphysics are intertwined via forward operators and estimated inverse relations, which also provide uncertainties for model ensemble initialisations. The lifetime evolution of dynamics and microphysics in (severe) convective storms is analysed based on 3D scale-space tracking. An object-based analysis condenses the information contained in the dynamic 3D distributions of observables and related microphysics into descriptors, which will allow identifying governing processes leading to the formation and evolution of severe weather events. The object-based approach efficiently characterises and quantifies the process structure and life cycles of severe weather events, and facilitates nowcasting and the generation and initialisation of model prediction ensembles. Observation-based nowcasting will exploit the dual-composite based 3D feature detection and tracking to generate a set of predictions (observation-based

  20. Noncausal spatial prediction filtering based on an ARMA model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhipeng; Chen Xiaohong; Li Jingye

    2009-01-01

    Conventional f-x prediction filtering methods are based on an autoregressive model. The error section is first computed as a source noise but is removed as additive noise to obtain the signal, which results in an assumption inconsistency before and after filtering. In this paper, an autoregressive, moving-average model is employed to avoid the model inconsistency. Based on the ARMA model, a noncasual prediction filter is computed and a self-deconvolved projection filter is used for estimating additive noise in order to suppress random noise. The 1-D ARMA model is also extended to the 2-D spatial domain, which is the basis for noncasual spatial prediction filtering for random noise attenuation on 3-D seismic data. Synthetic and field data processing indicate this method can suppress random noise more effectively and preserve the signal simultaneously and does much better than other conventional prediction filtering methods.

  1. LS-SVR and AGO Based Time Series Prediction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shou-peng; LIU Shan; CHAI Wang-xu; ZHANG Jia-qi; GUO Yang-ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently , fault or health condition prediction of complex systems becomes an interesting research topic.However, it is difficult to establish precise physical model for complex systems , and the time series properties are often necessary to be incorporated for the prediction in practice .Currently ,the LS -SVR is widely adopted for prediction of systems with time series data .In this paper , in order to improve the prediction accuracy, accumulated generating operation (AGO) is carried out to improve the data quality and regularity of raw time series data based on grey system theory;then, the inverse accumulated generating operation ( IAGO) is performed to obtain the prediction results .In addition , due to the reason that appropriate kernel function plays an important role in improving the accuracy of prediction through LS-SVR, a modified Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) is proposed.The requirements of distance functions-based kernel functions are satisfied , which ensure fast damping at the place adjacent to the test point and a moderate damping at infinity .The presented model is applied to the analysis of benchmarks .As indicated by the results , the proposed method is an effective prediction one with good precision .

  2. Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Liang-shan; FU Gui-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The technique of data mining was provided to predict gas disaster in view of thecharacteristics of coal mine gas disaster and feature knowledge based on gas disaster.The rough set theory was used to establish data mining model of gas disaster prediction,and rough set attributes relations was discussed in prediction model of gas disaster tosupplement the shortages of rough intensive reduction method by using information en-tropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the predictionof gas disaster is confirmed through practical application.

  3. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  4. Integrated Software Architecture-Based Reliability Prediction for IT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brosch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing importance of reliability in business and industrial IT systems, new techniques for architecture-based software reliability prediction are becoming an integral part of the development process. This dissertation thesis introduces a novel reliability modelling and prediction technique that considers the software architecture with its component structure, control and data flow, recovery mechanisms, its deployment to distributed hardware resources and the system´s usage p...

  5. Cloud Based Metalearning System for Predictive Modeling of Biomedical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vukićević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and storage of biomedical data enabled many opportunities for predictive modeling and improvement of healthcare processes. On the other side analysis of such large amounts of data is a difficult and computationally intensive task for most existing data mining algorithms. This problem is addressed by proposing a cloud based system that integrates metalearning framework for ranking and selection of best predictive algorithms for data at hand and open source big data technologies for analysis of biomedical data.

  6. Accurate Multisteps Traffic Flow Prediction Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is prerequisite and important for realizing intelligent traffic control and guidance, and it is also the objective requirement for intelligent traffic management. Due to the strong nonlinear, stochastic, time-varying characteristics of urban transport system, artificial intelligence methods such as support vector machine (SVM are now receiving more and more attentions in this research field. Compared with the traditional single-step prediction method, the multisteps prediction has the ability that can predict the traffic state trends over a certain period in the future. From the perspective of dynamic decision, it is far important than the current traffic condition obtained. Thus, in this paper, an accurate multi-steps traffic flow prediction model based on SVM was proposed. In which, the input vectors were comprised of actual traffic volume and four different types of input vectors were compared to verify their prediction performance with each other. Finally, the model was verified with actual data in the empirical analysis phase and the test results showed that the proposed SVM model had a good ability for traffic flow prediction and the SVM-HPT model outperformed the other three models for prediction.

  7. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  9. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  10. Synthetic information prediction system for crisis mine based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin Ye; Ping Yu; Shi Wang; Shuisheng Ye

    2006-01-01

    Reserves of some kinds of the crisis mines will be lack now or from now on, because of lacking seriously reserves of mineral resources and the crisis of exploring bases in support. So that it is urgent to predict, appraise, development and utilize the replaceable resources of the crisis mines. The mineral resources prediction software system of synthetic information is intelligent GIS which is used to quantitative prediction of large-scale synthetic information mineral target. It takes the geological body and the mineral resource body as a unit. And it analyzes the ore deposit genesis and metallotect, knows the spatial distribution laws of the ore deposit and ore body, and establish the prospecting model based on the concept of establishing the three-dimensional space of a mine. This paper will primarily discuss some important problems as follows: the secondary development of various kinds of data(including geology, geophysical prospecting, geochemical prospecting and remote sensing, etc); process synthetically and establish the synthetic information interpretative map base; correspond prospecting model with synthetic information of ore deposit; divided into statistical units of metallogenic information synthetic anomalies based on the synthetic information anomalies of ore control, then research the metallogenic information variable of unit synthetically and make quantitative prediction according to choose the quantitative prediction math model which is suitable to the demands of large-scale precision; at last, finish the target area optimization of ore deposit (body).

  11. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  12. Use of competitive PCR to assay copy number of repetitive elements in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurens, F C; Noyer, J L; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1996-11-27

    Banana is one of the most important subtropical fruit crops. Genetic improvement by traditional breeding strategies is difficult and better knowledge of genomic structure is needed. Repeated sequences are powerful markers for genetic fingerprinting. The method proposed here to determine the copy number of nuclear repetitive elements is based on competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and can also be used for quantifying cytosolic sequences. The reliability of this method was investigated on crude preparations of total DNA. Variations due to the heterogeneity of crude DNA extracts showed that a single locus reference is needed for accurate quantification. A mapped microsatellite locus was used to normalize copy number measurements. Copy number assay of repetitive elements using this method clearly distinguishes between the two banana subspecies investigated: Musa acuminata spp. banskii and M. acuminata spp. malaccensis. Two repetitive sequence families, pMaCIR1115 and pA9-26, were assayed that cover up to 1% of the M. acuminata genome. Their copy number varied up to six fold between the two subspecies. Furthermore, sequence quantification showed that mitochondrial genomes are present in crude leaf-extracted banana DNA at up to 40 copies per cell.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  14. Antioxidant potential of banana: Study using simulated gastrointestinal model and conventional extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Anjali; Patel, Vinayak

    2015-07-01

    Most reports on fruit antioxidant capacities are based on extraction of antioxidants using polar solvents. In banana, little is known about the fate of bioactive compounds during the digestion process, particularly in the food matrix under the gastric and intestinal conditions. In the present study, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method was used to simulate physiological conditions of the stomach and small intestine to evaluate the actual antioxidant capacity of banana. The simulated gastrointestinal extracts showed significantly higher antioxidant properties. The total phenol content of the physiological enzymatic extract was higher by almost 150% than the methanolic extract. Similarly, the flavonoid and flavonol contents were higher in the physiological enzymatic extract by 330.6 and 141.7%, respectively as compared to methanolic extract. These differences were also noticed in the antioxidant capacity measurement parameters. From the results, it can be concluded that the conventional extracts underrate the antioxidant value of banana and that they may have much higher health significance, as an antioxidant in particular.

  15. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  16. Decadal prediction of Sahel rainfall using dynamics-based indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Noelia; Mohino, Elsa; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-12-01

    At decadal time scales, the capability of state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean coupled climate models in predicting the precipitation in Sahel is assessed. A set of 14 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is selected and two experiments are analysed, namely initialized decadal hindcasts and forced historical simulations. Considering the strong linkage of the atmospheric circulation signatures over West Africa with the rainfall variability, this study aims to investigate the potential of using wind fields for decadal predictions. Namely, a West African monsoon index (WAMI) is defined, based on the coherence of low (925 hPa) and high (200 hPa) troposphere wind fields, which accounts for the intensity of the monsoonal circulation. A combined empirical orthogonal functions analysis is applied to explore the wind fields' covariance modes, and a set of indices is defined on the basis of the identified patterns. The WAMI predictive skill is assessed by comparing WAMI from coupled models with WAMI from reanalysis products and with a standardized precipitation index (SPI) from observations. Results suggest that the predictive skill is highly model dependent and it is strongly related to the WAMI definition. In addition, hindcasts are more skilful than historical simulations in both deterministic and probability forecasts, which suggests an added value of initialization for decadal predictability. Moreover, coupled models are more skilful in predicting the observed SPI than the WAMI obtained from reanalysis. WAMI performance is also compared with decadal predictions from CMIP5 models based on a Sahelian precipitation index, and an improvement in predictive skill is observed in some models when WAMI is used. Therefore, we conclude that dynamics-based indices are potentially more effective for decadal prediction of precipitation in Sahel than precipitation-based indices for those models in which Sahel rainfall variability is not well

  17. Signature prediction for model-based automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keydel, Eric R.; Lee, Shung W.

    1996-06-01

    The moving and stationary target recognition (MSTAR) model- based automatic target recognition (ATR) system utilizes a paradigm which matches features extracted form an unknown SAR target signature against predictions of those features generated from models of the sensing process and candidate target geometries. The candidate target geometry yielding the best match between predicted and extracted features defines the identify of the unknown target. MSTAR will extend the current model-based ATR state-of-the-art in a number of significant directions. These include: use of Bayesian techniques for evidence accrual, reasoning over target subparts, coarse-to-fine hypothesis search strategies, and explicit reasoning over target articulation, configuration, occlusion, and lay-over. These advances also imply significant technical challenges, particularly for the MSTAR feature prediction module (MPM). In addition to accurate electromagnetics, the MPM must provide traceback between input target geometry and output features, on-line target geometry manipulation, target subpart feature prediction, explicit models for local scene effects, and generation of sensitivity and uncertainty measures for the predicted features. This paper describes the MPM design which is being developed to satisfy these requirements. The overall module structure is presented, along with the specific deign elements focused on MSTAR requirements. Particular attention is paid to design elements that enable on-line prediction of features within the time constraints mandated by model-driven ATR. Finally, the current status, development schedule, and further extensions in the module design are described.

  18. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  19. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  20. [Predicting suicide or predicting the unpredictable in an uncertain world: Reinforcement Learning Model-Based analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In general, it appears that the suicidal act is highly unpredictable with the current scientific means available. In this article, the author submits the hypothesis that predicting suicide is complex because it results in predicting a choice, in itself unpredictable. The article proposes a Reinforcement learning model-based analysis. In this model, we integrate on the one hand, four ascending modulatory neurotransmitter systems (acetylcholine, noradrenalin, serotonin, and dopamine) with their regions of respective projections and afferences, and on the other hand, various observations of brain imaging identified until now in the suicidal process.

  1. Multi-Objective Predictive Balancing Control of Battery Packs Based on Predictive Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbiao Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Various balancing topology and control methods have been proposed for the inconsistency problem of battery packs. However, these strategies only focus on a single objective, ignore the mutual interaction among various factors and are only based on the external performance of the battery pack inconsistency, such as voltage balancing and state of charge (SOC balancing. To solve these problems, multi-objective predictive balancing control (MOPBC based on predictive current is proposed in this paper, namely, in the driving process of an electric vehicle, using predictive control to predict the battery pack output current the next time. Based on this information, the impact of the battery pack temperature caused by the output current can be obtained. Then, the influence is added to the battery pack balancing control, which makes the present degradation, temperature, and SOC imbalance achieve balance automatically due to the change of the output current the next moment. According to MOPBC, the simulation model of the balancing circuit is built with four cells in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that MOPBC is not only better than the other traditional balancing control strategies but also reduces the energy loss in the balancing process.

  2. Estimating Stochastic Volatility Models using Prediction-based Estimating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Brix, Anne Floor

    In this paper prediction-based estimating functions (PBEFs), introduced in Sørensen (2000), are reviewed and PBEFs for the Heston (1993) stochastic volatility model are derived. The finite sample performance of the PBEF based estimator is investigated in a Monte Carlo study, and compared to the p......In this paper prediction-based estimating functions (PBEFs), introduced in Sørensen (2000), are reviewed and PBEFs for the Heston (1993) stochastic volatility model are derived. The finite sample performance of the PBEF based estimator is investigated in a Monte Carlo study, and compared...... to the performance of the GMM estimator based on conditional moments of integrated volatility from Bollerslev and Zhou (2002). The case where the observed log-price process is contaminated by i.i.d. market microstructure (MMS) noise is also investigated. First, the impact of MMS noise on the parameter estimates from...

  3. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  4. Prediction on carbon dioxide emissions based on fuzzy rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, Herrini; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    There are several ways to predict air quality, varying from simple regression to models based on artificial intelligence. Most of the conventional methods are not sufficiently able to provide good forecasting performances due to the problems with non-linearity uncertainty and complexity of the data. Artificial intelligence techniques are successfully used in modeling air quality in order to cope with the problems. This paper describes fuzzy inference system (FIS) to predict CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Furthermore, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to compare the prediction performance. Data of five variables: energy use, gross domestic product per capita, population density, combustible renewable and waste and CO2 intensity are employed in this comparative study. The results from the two model proposed are compared and it is clearly shown that the ANFIS outperforms FIS in CO2 prediction.

  5. Predicting cycle 24 using various dynamo-based tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dikpati

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Various dynamo-based techniques have been used to predict the mean solar cycle features, namely the amplitude and the timings of onset and peak. All methods use information from previous cycles, including particularly polar fields, drift-speed of the sunspot zone to the equator, and remnant magnetic flux from the decay of active regions. Polar fields predict a low cycle 24, while spot zone migration and remnant flux both lead to predictions of a high cycle 24. These methods both predict delayed onset for cycle 24. We will describe how each of these methods relates to dynamo processes. We will present the latest results from our flux-transport dynamo, including some sensitivity tests and how our model relates to polar fields and spot zone drift methods.

  6. The effect of genealogy-based haplotypes on genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Fernando, Rohan L.; Su, Guosheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic prediction uses two sources of information: linkage disequilibrium between markers and quantitative trait loci, and additive genetic relationships between individuals. One way to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction is to capture more linkage disequilibrium by regression...... on haplotypes instead of regression on individual markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction using haplotypes based on local genealogy information. Methods A total of 4429 Danish Holstein bulls were genotyped with the 50K SNP chip. Haplotypes were constructed using...... local genealogical trees. Effects of haplotype covariates were estimated with two types of prediction models: (1) assuming that effects had the same distribution for all haplotype covariates, i.e. the GBLUP method and (2) assuming that a large proportion (pi) of the haplotype covariates had zero effect...

  7. Generalized ESO and Predictive Control Based Robust Autopilot Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavnesh Panchal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel continuous time predictive control and generalized extended state observer (GESO based acceleration tracking pitch autopilot design is proposed for a tail controlled, skid-to-turn tactical missile. As the dynamics of missile are significantly uncertain with mismatched uncertainty, GESO is employed to estimate the state and uncertainty in an integrated manner. The estimates are used to meet the requirement of state and to robustify the output tracking predictive controller designed for nominal system. Closed loop stability for the controller-observer structure is established. An important feature of the proposed design is that it does not require any specific information about the uncertainty. Also the predictive control design yields the feedback control gain and disturbance compensation gain simultaneously. Effectiveness of GESO in estimation of the states and uncertainties and in robustifying the predictive controller in the presence of parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, unmodeled dynamics, and measurement noise is illustrated by simulation.

  8. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  9. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  10. [Effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shu-tang; Shen, Zong-zhuan; Sun, Yi-fei; Lyu, Na-na; Ruan, Yun-ze; Li, Rong; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. The fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (CF), cow manure compost (CM), pig manure compost (PM) and bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). The banana soil microflora was invested using plate-counting method and culture-dependent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method (CD PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, compared with the other treatments, 2-year consecutive application of BIO significantly reduced the banana fusarium wilt disease incidence, and improved the banana mass per tree, crop yield, total soluble sugar content and the ratio of total soluble sugar to titratable acidity of fruits (sugar/acid ratio). Moreover, the analysis of culturable microflora showed that BIO application significantly increased the soil microbial biomass, soil culturable bacteria, bacillus and actinomycetes, and the ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) , while decreased the Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the CD PCR-DGGE results, the BIO application significantly altered the soil culturable bacterial structure and showed highest richness and diversity after 2 years of BIO application. The phylogenetic analysis of the selected bands showed that BIO application enriched the soil with the species of Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., uncultured Verrucomicrobia sp. and Bacillus aryabhattai, and depressed the species of Ralstonia sp., Chryseobacterium gleum, Fluviicola taffensis, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium. These results confirmed that the continuous application of BIO effectively controlled the fusarium wilt disease, improved the crop yield and fruit quality, and modulated the soil culturable microflora under field

  11. 我国香蕉储藏的研究进展%Research Progress of Banana Storage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪虹; 谢德芳; 吕岱竹; 冯信平

    2012-01-01

    The research process of banana storage was introduced. The new methods that can prolong the storage period and shelf life of bananas in planting, harvesting and storage were also described, including uniform of application, bananas bagging, antiseptic treatment, radiation treatment, new packing materials and new ethylene absorbents. Based on these progresses, the developing direction of banana storage in China was mentioned in the article.%简述了近几年我国在香蕉储藏方面的研究成果,在香蕉种植、采收和储藏等各个环节中能够延长香蕉贮藏期和货架期的各种新的保鲜方法有均衡施肥、套袋种植、防腐处理、辐照处理、新的包装材料、新的乙烯吸收剂等,最后提出了今后我国香蕉储藏研究的发展万向.

  12. Members of Gammaproteobacteria as indicator species of healthy banana plants on Fusarium wilt-infested fields in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Culminating in the 1950’s, bananas, the world’s most extensive perennial monoculture, suffered one of the most devastating disease epidemics in history. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), forced the abandonment of the Gros Michel-based export banana industry. Comparative microbiome analyses performed between healthy and diseased Gros Michel plants on FW-infested farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica revealed significant shifts in the gammaproteobacterial microbiome. Although we found substantial differences in the banana microbiome between both countries and a higher impact of FOC on farms in Costa Rica than in Nicaragua, the composition especially in the endophytic microhabitats was similar and the general microbiome response to FW followed similar rules. Gammaproteobacterial diversity and community members were identified as potential health indicators. Healthy plants revealed an increase in potentially plant-beneficial Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, while diseased plants showed a preferential occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae known for their plant-degrading capacity. Significantly higher microbial rhizosphere diversity found in healthy plants could be indicative of pathogen suppression events preventing or minimizing disease expression. This first study examining banana microbiome shifts caused by FW under natural field conditions opens new perspectives for its biological control. PMID:28345666

  13. Molecular characterization of banana bunchy top virus isolate from Sri Lanka and its genetic relationship with other isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W A R T; Shankarappa, K S; Rangaswamy, K T; Maruthi, M N; Rajapakse, R G A S; Ghosh, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of six DNA components; DNA-R, DNA-U3, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C for Sri Lanka isolate. Comparisons of sequence data of DNA components followed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouped Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate in the Pacific Indian Oceans (PIO) group. Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate of BBTV is classified a new member of PIO group based on analysis of six components of the virus.

  14. Fast prediction unit selection method for HEVC intra prediction based on salient regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Dai, Ming; Zhao, Chun-lei; Xiong, Jing-ying

    2016-07-01

    In order to reduce the computational complexity of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard, a new algorithm for HEVC intra prediction, namely, fast prediction unit (PU) size selection method for HEVC based on salient regions is proposed in this paper. We first build a saliency map for each largest coding unit (LCU) to reduce its texture complexity. Secondly, the optimal PU size is determined via a scheme that implements an information entropy comparison among sub-blocks of saliency maps. Finally, we apply the partitioning result of saliency map on the original LCUs, obtaining the optimal partitioning result. Our algorithm can determine the PU size in advance to the angular prediction in intra coding, reducing computational complexity of HEVC. The experimental results show that our algorithm achieves a 37.9% reduction in encoding time, while producing a negligible loss in Bjontegaard delta bit rate ( BDBR) of 0.62%.

  15. Pre-processing in AI based Prediction of QSARs

    CERN Document Server

    Patri, Om Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Machine learning, data mining and artificial intelligence (AI) based methods have been used to determine the relations between chemical structure and biological activity, called quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for the compounds. Pre-processing of the dataset, which includes the mapping from a large number of molecular descriptors in the original high dimensional space to a small number of components in the lower dimensional space while retaining the features of the original data, is the first step in this process. A common practice is to use a mapping method for a dataset without prior analysis. This pre-analysis has been stressed in our work by applying it to two important classes of QSAR prediction problems: drug design (predicting anti-HIV-1 activity) and predictive toxicology (estimating hepatocarcinogenicity of chemicals). We apply one linear and two nonlinear mapping methods on each of the datasets. Based on this analysis, we conclude the nature of the inherent relationships betwee...

  16. A NEW ADMISSION CONTROL APPROACH BASED ON PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Kaining; Jin Zhigang; Zou Jun

    2002-01-01

    Admission control plays an important role in providing QoS to network users. Motivated by the measurement-based admission control algorithm, this letter proposed a new admission control approach for integrated service packet network based on traffic prediction. In the letter, FARIMA(p, d, q) models in the admission control algorithm is deployed. A method to simplify the FARIMA model fitting procedure and hence to reduce the time of traffic modeling and prediction is suggested. The feasibility-study experiments show that FARIMA models which have less number of parameters can be used to model and predict actual traffic on quite a large time scale. Simulation results validate the promising approach.

  17. Snippet-based relevance predictions for federated web search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong; Trieschnigg, Dolf; Develder, Chris; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2013-01-01

    How well can the relevance of a page be predicted, purely based on snippets? This would be highly useful in a Federated Web Search setting where caching large amounts of result snippets is more feasible than caching entire pages. The experiments reported in this paper make use of result snippets and

  18. Fuzzy-Based Trust Prediction Model for Routing in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Anita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative nature of multihop wireless sensor networks (WSNs makes it vulnerable to varied types of attacks. The sensitive application environments and resource constraints of WSNs mandate the requirement of lightweight security scheme. The earlier security solutions were based on historical behavior of neighbor but the security can be enhanced by predicting the future behavior of the nodes in the network. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy-based trust prediction model for routing (FTPR in WSNs with minimal overhead in regard to memory and energy consumption. FTPR incorporates a trust prediction model that predicts the future behavior of the neighbor based on the historical behavior, fluctuations in trust value over a period of time, and recommendation inconsistency. In order to reduce the control overhead, FTPR received recommendations from a subset of neighbors who had maximum number of interactions with the requestor. Theoretical analysis and simulation results of FTPR protocol demonstrate higher packet delivery ratio, higher network lifetime, lower end-to-end delay, and lower memory and energy consumption than the traditional and existing trust-based routing schemes.

  19. Fuzzy Prediction for Traffic Flow Based on Delta Test

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to one-step-forward prediction of traffic flow based on fuzzy reasoning. The successful construction of a competent fuzzy inference system of Sugeno type largely relies on proper choice of input dimension and accurate estimation of structure parameters and rules. The first issue is addressed with a proposed method, based on δ-test, which can simultaneously determine input dimension and reduce noise level. In response to the second issue, two clustering tec...

  20. Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning Algorithm Based on Action Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Liang; LU Ji-lian

    2006-01-01

    Multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithms are studied. A prediction-based multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithm is presented for multi-robot cooperation task. The multi-robot cooperation experiment based on multi-agent inverted pendulum is made to test the efficency of the new algorithm, and the experiment results show that the new algorithm can achieve the cooperation strategy much faster than the primitive multiagent reinforcement learning algorithm.

  1. Lifetime prediction based on Gamma processes from accelerated degradation data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haowei; Xu Tingxue; Mi Qiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated degradation test is a useful approach to predict the product lifetime at the normal use stress level, especially for highly reliable products. Two kinds of the lifetime prediction based on Gamma processes were studied. One was to predict the lifetime of the population from accelerated degradation data, and the other was to predict the lifetime of an individual by taking the accelerated degradation data as prior information. For an extensive application, the Gamma process with a time transformation and random effects was considered. A novel contribution is that a deducing method for determining the relationships between the shape and scale parameters of Gamma processes and accelerated stresses was presented. When predicting the lifetime of an indi-vidual, Bayesian inference methods were adopted to improve the prediction accuracy, in which the conjugate prior distribution and the non-conjugate prior distribution of random parameters were studied. The conjugate prior distribution only considers the random effect of the scale parameter while the non-conjugate prior distribution considers the random effects of both the scale and shape parameter. The application and usefulness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the accelerated degradation data of carbon-film resistors.

  2. A burnout prediction model based around char morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wu; E. Lester; M. Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Energy and Fuel Centre

    2005-07-01

    Poor burnout in a coal-fired power plant has marked penalties in the form of reduced energy efficiency and elevated waste material that can not be utilized. The prediction of coal combustion behaviour in a furnace is of great significance in providing valuable information not only for process optimization but also for coal buyers in the international market. Coal combustion models have been developed that can make predictions about burnout behaviour and burnout potential. Most of these kinetic models require standard parameters such as volatile content, particle size and assumed char porosity in order to make a burnout prediction. This paper presents a new model called the Char Burnout Model (ChB) that also uses detailed information about char morphology in its prediction. The model can use data input from one of two sources. Both sources are derived from image analysis techniques. The first from individual analysis and characterization of real char types using an automated program. The second from predicted char types based on data collected during the automated image analysis of coal particles. Modelling results were compared with a different carbon burnout kinetic model and burnout data from re-firing the chars in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 5% oxygen across several residence times. An improved agreement between ChB model and DTF experimental data proved that the inclusion of char morphology in combustion models can improve model predictions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. SVM-based prediction of caspase substrate cleavage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Shoba

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspases belong to a class of cysteine proteases which function as critical effectors in apoptosis and inflammation by cleaving substrates immediately after unique sites. Prediction of such cleavage sites will complement structural and functional studies on substrates cleavage as well as discovery of new substrates. Recently, different computational methods have been developed to predict the cleavage sites of caspase substrates with varying degrees of success. As the support vector machines (SVM algorithm has been shown to be useful in several biological classification problems, we have implemented an SVM-based method to investigate its applicability to this domain. Results A set of unique caspase substrates cleavage sites were obtained from literature and used for evaluating the SVM method. Datasets containing (i the tetrapeptide cleavage sites, (ii the tetrapeptide cleavage sites, augmented by two adjacent residues, P1' and P2' amino acids and (iii the tetrapeptide cleavage sites with ten additional upstream and downstream flanking sequences (where available were tested. The SVM method achieved an accuracy ranging from 81.25% to 97.92% on independent test sets. The SVM method successfully predicted the cleavage of a novel caspase substrate and its mutants. Conclusion This study presents an SVM approach for predicting caspase substrate cleavage sites based on the cleavage sites and the downstream and upstream flanking sequences. The method shows an improvement over existing methods and may be useful for predicting hitherto undiscovered cleavage sites.

  4. Blind test of physics-based prediction of protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, M Scott; Ozkan, S Banu; Voelz, Vincent; Wu, Guohong Albert; Dill, Ken A

    2009-02-01

    We report here a multiprotein blind test of a computer method to predict native protein structures based solely on an all-atom physics-based force field. We use the AMBER 96 potential function with an implicit (GB/SA) model of solvation, combined with replica-exchange molecular-dynamics simulations. Coarse conformational sampling is performed using the zipping and assembly method (ZAM), an approach that is designed to mimic the putative physical routes of protein folding. ZAM was applied to the folding of six proteins, from 76 to 112 monomers in length, in CASP7, a community-wide blind test of protein structure prediction. Because these predictions have about the same level of accuracy as typical bioinformatics methods, and do not utilize information from databases of known native structures, this work opens up the possibility of predicting the structures of membrane proteins, synthetic peptides, or other foldable polymers, for which there is little prior knowledge of native structures. This approach may also be useful for predicting physical protein folding routes, non-native conformations, and other physical properties from amino acid sequences.

  5. A burnout prediction model based around char morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Several combustion models have been developed that can make predictions about coal burnout and burnout potential. Most of these kinetic models require standard parameters such as volatile content and particle size to make a burnout prediction. This article presents a new model called the char burnout (ChB) model, which also uses detailed information about char morphology in its prediction. The input data to the model is based on information derived from two different image analysis techniques. One technique generates characterization data from real char samples, and the other predicts char types based on characterization data from image analysis of coal particles. The pyrolyzed chars in this study were created in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 200 ms, and 1% oxygen. Modeling results were compared with a different carbon burnout kinetic model as well as the actual burnout data from refiring the same chars in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 5% oxygen, and residence times of 200, 400, and 600 ms. A good agreement between ChB model and experimental data indicates that the inclusion of char morphology in combustion models could well improve model predictions. 38 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  8. 广西南宁市香蕉产业发展探讨%Discussion on the Development of Banana Industry of Nanning City in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亭君; 林作晓; 周金娇; 陈永宁

    2011-01-01

    在分析国内外香蕉产业概况和对南宁市香蕉产业现状调查的基础上,针对南宁市香蕉生产存在的制约因素,提出南宁市香蕉产业发展的七大对策,即加快南宁市香蕉产业化生产进程,实行香蕉标准化生产,推广香蕉“无伤化”采收包装和“冷链”贮藏运输技术,减少损耗、提高商品价值,努力实现香蕉生产基地与销售市场零对接,设立市级“香蕉产业协调办公室”,建立“香蕉期货交易中心”和采取坚决有力的措施控制香蕉灾害性病害的蔓延扩大,为南宁市香蕉产业的发展提供理论参考。%Based on analysis of industry overview in China and abroad and investigation on banana industry status of Nanning city, aimed to restrictive factors existing in banana production of Nanning city, seven countermeasures to develop banana industry of Nanning city were put forward, including accelerating the banana industrial process, standardizing production, promoting the banana recovery packaging without wound and the store and transportation technologies with the cold chain, reducing loss and improving commodity value, realizing the connection of banana production base with sell market, establishing the banana industry coordination office and futures transaction center, adoping the fim~ powerful measure to control expansion of banana catastrophie diseases, and so on, which provided the theory reference for the Nanning banana industry's development.

  9. Prediction of Banking Systemic Risk Based on Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking systemic risk is a complex nonlinear phenomenon and has shed light on the importance of safeguarding financial stability by recent financial crisis. According to the complex nonlinear characteristics of banking systemic risk, in this paper we apply support vector machine (SVM to the prediction of banking systemic risk in an attempt to suggest a new model with better explanatory power and stability. We conduct a case study of an SVM-based prediction model for Chinese banking systemic risk and find the experiment results showing that support vector machine is an efficient method in such case.

  10. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-Mei; WANG Zheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural networkcontrol algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknownchaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is muchhigher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of thecontrol system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulationsdemonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  11. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDong-Mei; WANGZheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural network control algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is much higher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of the control system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  12. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. PPA BASED PREDICTION-CORRECTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bingsheng; Jiang Jianlin; Qian Maijian; Xu Ya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the proximal point algorithm (PPA) based predictioncorrection (PC) methods for monotone variational inequalities. Each iteration of these methods consists of a prediction and a correction. The predictors are produced by inexact PPA steps. The new iterates are then updated by a correction using the PPA formula. We present two profit functions which serve two purposes: First we show that the profit functions are tight lower bounds of the improvements obtained in each iteration. Based on this conclusion we obtain the convergence inexactness restrictions for the prediction step. Second we show that the profit functions are quadratically dependent upon the step lengths, thus the optimal step lengths are obtained in the correction step. In the last part of the paper we compare the strengths of different methods based on their inexactness restrictions.

  14. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  15. Prediction of potential drug targets based on simple sequence properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Luhua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decades, research and development in drug discovery have attracted much attention and efforts. However, only 324 drug targets are known for clinical drugs up to now. Identifying potential drug targets is the first step in the process of modern drug discovery for developing novel therapeutic agents. Therefore, the identification and validation of new and effective drug targets are of great value for drug discovery in both academia and pharmaceutical industry. If a protein can be predicted in advance for its potential application as a drug target, the drug discovery process targeting this protein will be greatly speeded up. In the current study, based on the properties of known drug targets, we have developed a sequence-based drug target prediction method for fast identification of novel drug targets. Results Based on simple physicochemical properties extracted from protein sequences of known drug targets, several support vector machine models have been constructed in this study. The best model can distinguish currently known drug targets from non drug targets at an accuracy of 84%. Using this model, potential protein drug targets of human origin from Swiss-Prot were predicted, some of which have already attracted much attention as potential drug targets in pharmaceutical research. Conclusion We have developed a drug target prediction method based solely on protein sequence information without the knowledge of family/domain annotation, or the protein 3D structure. This method can be applied in novel drug target identification and validation, as well as genome scale drug target predictions.

  16. COMPONENTS OF CELL WALL, ENZYME ACTIVITY IN PEDICEL AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BANANAS TO FINGER DROP

    OpenAIRE

    GLORIA ANNABELL COBEÑA RUIZ; LUIZ CARLOS CHAMHUM SALOMÃO; DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA; SEBASTIÃO TAVARES DE REZENDE; LEILA CRISTINA ROSA DE LINS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A major problem in post-harvest handling of bananas is the individual detachment of the fruit from the hands. This study aimed to establishing the relationship between carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity in the pedicel region of three cultivars of bananas, resistant and susceptible to natural dropping, during post-harvest ripening, and the susceptibility of bananas to finger dropping. Cultivars ‘Terra’ (plantain, AAB group) and ‘Prata’ (banana, AAB group) triploids and th...

  17. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  18. Prediction of tectonically deformed coal based on lithologic seismic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanjuan; Pan, Dongming; Cui, Ruofei; Ding, Enjie; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Mingshun

    2016-02-01

    Owing to the differences in physical properties between tectonically deformed coal (TDC) and primary coal, lithologic seismic inversion methods were adopted to identify the coal structure type, including probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion, elastic impedance (EI) inversion and simultaneous inversion methods. Based on poststack and prestack gathers, the inversion methods were applied to calculate lithologic seismic information, which included porosity, acoustic impedance, elastic impedance, λ × ρ and μ × ρ data. The inversion results were then analysed to evaluate the development potential of TDC. The research showed that the lithology inversion results, which indicated the potential zone of development areas of the coal, were all basically identical and a comprehensive prediction factor (the linear lithologic information combination) was proposed to effectively predict the development potential. Therefore, the prediction of TDC by lithologic seismic information could provide a scientific basis for both coal mining safety and the development potential of large-scale coalbed methane resources.

  19. Ontology-based prediction of surgical events in laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    Context-aware technologies have great potential to help surgeons during laparoscopic interventions. Their underlying idea is to create systems which can adapt their assistance functions automatically to the situation in the OR, thus relieving surgeons from the burden of managing computer assisted surgery devices manually. To this purpose, a certain kind of understanding of the current situation in the OR is essential. Beyond that, anticipatory knowledge of incoming events is beneficial, e.g. for early warnings of imminent risk situations. To achieve the goal of predicting surgical events based on previously observed ones, we developed a language to describe surgeries and surgical events using Description Logics and integrated it with methods from computational linguistics. Using n-Grams to compute probabilities of followup events, we are able to make sensible predictions of upcoming events in real-time. The system was evaluated on professionally recorded and labeled surgeries and showed an average prediction rate of 80%.

  20. New Approaches for Channel Prediction Based on Sinusoidal Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Torbjörn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range channel prediction is considered to be one of the most important enabling technologies to future wireless communication systems. The prediction of Rayleigh fading channels is studied in the frame of sinusoidal modeling in this paper. A stochastic sinusoidal model to represent a Rayleigh fading channel is proposed. Three different predictors based on the statistical sinusoidal model are proposed. These methods outperform the standard linear predictor (LP in Monte Carlo simulations, but underperform with real measurement data, probably due to nonstationary model parameters. To mitigate these modeling errors, a joint moving average and sinusoidal (JMAS prediction model and the associated joint least-squares (LS predictor are proposed. It combines the sinusoidal model with an LP to handle unmodeled dynamics in the signal. The joint LS predictor outperforms all the other sinusoidal LMMSE predictors in suburban environments, but still performs slightly worse than the standard LP in urban environments.

  1. Prediction Research of Red Tide Based on Improved FCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red tides are caused by the combination effects of many marine elements. The complexity of the marine ecosystem makes it hard to find the relationship between marine elements and red tides. The algorithm of fuzzy c-means (FCM can get clear classification of things and expresses the fuzzy state among different things. Therefore, a prediction algorithm of red tide based on improved FCM is proposed. In order to overcome the defect of FCM which is overdependent on the initial cluster centers and the objective function, this paper gains the initial cluster centers through the principle of regional minimum data density and the minimum mean distance. The feature weighted cluster center is added to the objective function. Finally, the improved FCM algorithm is applied in the prediction research of red tide, and the results show that the improved FCM algorithm has good denoising ability and high accuracy in the prediction of red tides.

  2. Temperature prediction control based on least squares support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin LIU; Hongye SU; Weihua HUANG; Jian CHU

    2004-01-01

    A prediction control algorithm is presented based on least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) model for a class of complex systems with strong nonlinearity.The nonlinear off-line model of the controlled plant is built by LS-SVM with radial basis function (RBF) kernel.In the process of system running,the off-line model is linearized at each sampling instant,and the generalized prediction control (GPC) algorithm is employed to implement the prediction control for the controlled plant.The obtained algorithm is applied to a boiler temperature control system with complicated nonlinearity and large time delay.The results of the experiment verify the effectiveness and merit of the algorithm.

  3. Prediction of Breast Cancer using Rule Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar SINGH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work proposes a model for prediction of breast cancer using the classification approach in data mining. The proposed model is based on various parameters, including symptoms of breast cancer, gene mutation and other risk factors causing breast cancer. Mutations have been predicted in breast cancer causing genes with the help of alignment of normal and abnormal gene sequences; then predicting the class label of breast cancer (risky or safe on the basis of IF-THEN rules, using Genetic Algorithm (GA. In this work, GA has used variable gene encoding mechanisms for chromosomes encoding, uniform population generations and selects two chromosomes by Roulette-Wheel selection technique for two-point crossover, which gives better solutions. The performance of the model is evaluated using the F score measure, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC by plotting points (Sensitivity V/s 1- Specificity.

  4. STUDIES ON VASCULAR INFECTION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CUBENSE RACE 4 IN BANANA BY FIELD SURVEY AND GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN REPORTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp. caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the most serious banana fungal diseases in the world. Understanding the infection process of Foc is important for development of effective ways in disease control. In order to follow infection and colonization of this pathogen from root to rhizome and pseudostem tissues of banana, a highly pathogenic strain FJAT-3076 of Foc race 4 (Foc4 was transformed with gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP and the fungus carrying gfp (FJAT-3076-GFP was used to inoculate banana plants (Cavendish cv. B.F.. After inoculation for 3 to 10 d, it was observed that the conidia and their germ-tubes had penetrated into epidermis of young roots. The hyphae were found inside the root xylem 10 d after inoculation in the rhizome and pseudostem xylem after inoculation for 17 d. All plants infected by Foc died in 24 d after inoculation. It was also observed that Foc had spread all over the xylem and part of hyphae reached the pseudostem surface. Hyphal population was found the highest in the pseudostem, lower in root and least in rhizome. Field survey confirmed that Foc4 were mostly present in the base of pseudostem and less in the rhizome. Thus, effective prevention of the Foc hyphae movement from the rhizome up to the pseudostem might delay or control banana wilt disease.

  5. Banana Stem Fiber Scraping Device Hybrid Optimization Design Based on Response Surface Methodology%基于响应面分析法的香蕉茎秆纤维刮杂装置优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 梁栋; 李粤; 蔡毅; 宋德庆; 薛忠

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize the banana stem fiber extraction scraping machine complex parts of the device structure to improve the fiber quality extraction, by scraping the impurity unit knife roller speed, blade spacing, knife arc length as influencing factors, using response surface optimization design method, established the mathematical model between influ-ence factors and fiber extraction rate to determine the optimum combination of parameters. Experiments show that when banana fibre extraction machine scraping miscellaneous devices influence factor of actual parameters for knife roller speed 1200R / min, the blade pitch 110 mm, fixed blade arc length of 50 mm, fiber extraction rate average reaches 92. 6%, in line with the optimization target and production requirements. The research results can provide theoretical basis and i-deas for the development and application of plant fiber extraction device.%为了优化香蕉茎秆纤维提取机刮杂装置部件结构,提高纤维提取质量,以刮杂装置的刀辊速度、刀片间距、定刀弧长为影响因子,采用响应面优化设计方法,建立了影响因子与纤维提取率之间的数学模型,确定了较优的参数组合。试验表明:当香蕉纤维提取机刮杂装置影响因子的实际参数为刀辊转速1200r/min、刀片间距110mm、定刀弧长50mm 时,纤维提取率平均可达到92.6%,符合优化目标及生产要求。研究结果可为植物纤维提取装置的研发和应用提供理论依据和思路。

  6. The Attribute for Hydrocarbon Prediction Based on Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermana, Maman; Harith, Z. Z. T.; Sum, C. W.; Ghosh, D. P.

    2014-03-01

    Hydrocarbon prediction is a crucial issue in the oil and gas industry. Currently, the prediction of pore fluid and lithology are based on amplitude interpretation which has the potential to produce pitfalls in certain conditions of reservoir. Motivated by this fact, this work is directed to find out other attributes that can be used to reduce the pitfalls in the amplitude interpretation. Some seismic attributes were examined and studies showed that the attenuation attribute is a better attribute for hydrocarbon prediction. Theoretically, the attenuation mechanism of wave propagation is associated with the movement of fluid in the pore; hence the existence of hydrocarbon in the pore will be represented by attenuation attribute directly. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the quality factor ratio of P-wave and S-wave (Qp/Qs) as hydrocarbon indicator using well data and also we developed a new attribute based on attenuation for hydrocarbon prediction -- Normalized Energy Reduction Stack (NERS). To achieve these goals, this work was divided into 3 main parts; estimating the Qp/Qs on well log data, testing the new attribute in the synthetic data and applying the new attribute on real data in Malay Basin data. The result show that the Qp/Qs is better than Poisson's ratio and Lamda over Mu as hydrocarbon indicator. The curve, trend analysis and contrast of Qp/Qs is more powerful at distinguishing pore fluid than Poisson ratio and Lamda over Mu. The NERS attribute was successful in distinguishing the hydrocarbon from brine on synthetic data. Applying this attribute on real data on Malay basin, the NERS attribute is qualitatively conformable with the structure and location where the gas is predicted. The quantitative interpretation of this attribute for hydrocarbon prediction needs to be investigated further.

  7. "Banana-mania." Gender Politics in Yoshimoto Banana's Works and Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Mekkin Guðmundsdóttir Beck 1988

    2011-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana, a popular female writer in Japan, writes stories about Japanese adolescents finding their way in Japan. A great majority of them are female and must face a culture where there are basically separate worlds for men and women, the domestic and the corporate. The characters do not seem to experience this even if it is evident in the texts. Banana’s writing shows that women and men have a real hard time relating to each other, resulting in alienation in their divided worlds. Her...

  8. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia de Maria Borges; Joelma Pereira; Eliseu Marlônio Pereira de Lucena

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp.) verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fra...

  9. Deep-Learning-Based Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhimin; Niu, Shaoyu; Sha, Haozhi; Yang, Ruihan; Yun, Yonghuan; Lu, Hongmei

    2017-03-13

    Identifying interactions between known drugs and targets is a major challenge in drug repositioning. In silico prediction of drug-target interaction (DTI) can speed up the expensive and time-consuming experimental work by providing the most potent DTIs. In silico prediction of DTI can also provide insights about the potential drug-drug interaction and promote the exploration of drug side effects. Traditionally, the performance of DTI prediction depends heavily on the descriptors used to represent the drugs and the target proteins. In this paper, to accurately predict new DTIs between approved drugs and targets without separating the targets into different classes, we developed a deep-learning-based algorithmic framework named DeepDTIs. It first abstracts representations from raw input descriptors using unsupervised pretraining and then applies known label pairs of interaction to build a classification model. Compared with other methods, it is found that DeepDTIs reaches or outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. The DeepDTIs can be further used to predict whether a new drug targets to some existing targets or whether a new target interacts with some existing drugs.

  10. Temperature-based bioclimatic parameters can predict nematode metabolic footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Daya Ram; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Sgardelis, Stefanos P

    2015-09-01

    Nematode metabolic footprints (MFs) refer to the lifetime amount of metabolized carbon per individual, indicating a connection to soil food web functions and eventually to processes supporting ecosystem services. Estimating and managing these at a convenient scale requires information upscaling from the soil sample to the landscape level. We explore the feasibility of predicting nematode MFs from temperature-based bioclimatic parameters across a landscape. We assume that temperature effects are reflected in MFs, since temperature variations determine life processes ranging from enzyme activities to community structure. We use microclimate data recorded for 1 year from sites differing by orientation, altitude and vegetation cover. At the same sites we estimate MFs for each nematode trophic group. Our models show that bioclimatic parameters, specifically those accounting for temporal variations in temperature and extremities, predict most of the variation in nematode MFs. Higher fungivorous and lower bacterivorous nematode MFs are predicted for sites with high seasonality and low isothermality (sites of low vegetation, mostly at low altitudes), indicating differences in the relative contribution of the corresponding food web channels to the metabolism of carbon across the landscape. Higher plant-parasitic MFs were predicted for sites with high seasonality. The fitted models provide realistic predictions of unknown cases within the range of the predictor's values, allowing for the interpolation of MFs within the sampled region. We conclude that upscaling of the bioindication potential of nematode communities is feasible and can provide new perspectives not only in the field of soil ecology but other research areas as well.

  11. Neural Network Predictive Control Based Power System Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohamed Yousef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the power system stabilizer based on neural predictive control for improving power system dynamic performance over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study a design and application of the Neural Network Model Predictive Controller (NN-MPC on a simple power system composed of a synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line is proposed. The synchronous machine is represented in detail, taking into account the effect of the machine saliency and the damper winding. Neural network model predictive control combines reliable prediction of neural network model with excellent performance of model predictive control using nonlinear Levenberg-Marquardt optimization. This control system is used the rotor speed deviation as a feedback signal. Furthermore, the using performance system of the proposed controller is compared with the system performance using conventional one (PID controller through simulation studies. Digital simulation has been carried out in order to validate the effectiveness proposed NN-MPC power system stabilizer for achieving excellent performance. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controller in terms of fast response and small settling time.

  12. A New Particle Swarm Optimization Based Stock Market Prediction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam El. Seidy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the average person's interest in the stock market has grown dramatically. This demand has doubled with the advancement of technology that has opened in the International stock market, so that nowadays anybody can own stocks, and use many types of software to perform the aspired profit with minimum risk. Consequently, the analysis and prediction of future values and trends of the financial markets have got more attention, and due to large applications in different business transactions, stock market prediction has become a critical topic of research. In this paper, our earlier presented particle swarm optimization with center of mass technique (PSOCoM is applied to the task of training an adaptive linear combiner to form a new stock market prediction model. This prediction model is used with some common indicators to maximize the return and minimize the risk for the stock market. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior than the other PSO based models according to the prediction accuracy.

  13. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  14. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  15. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  16. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

  17. Chaos Time Series Prediction Based on Membrane Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a prediction model based on membrane computing optimization algorithm for chaos time series; the model optimizes simultaneously the parameters of phase space reconstruction (τ,m and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM (γ,σ by using membrane computing optimization algorithm. It is an important basis for spectrum management to predict accurately the change trend of parameters in the electromagnetic environment, which can help decision makers to adopt an optimal action. Then, the model presented in this paper is used to forecast band occupancy rate of frequency modulation (FM broadcasting band and interphone band. To show the applicability and superiority of the proposed model, this paper will compare the forecast model presented in it with conventional similar models. The experimental results show that whether single-step prediction or multistep prediction, the proposed model performs best based on three error measures, namely, normalized mean square error (NMSE, root mean square error (RMSE, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE.

  18. Predicting online ratings based on the opinion spreading process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Predicting users' online ratings is always a challenge issue and has drawn lots of attention. In this paper, we present a rating prediction method by combining the user opinion spreading process with the collaborative filtering algorithm, where user similarity is defined by measuring the amount of opinion a user transfers to another based on the primitive user-item rating matrix. The proposed method could produce a more precise rating prediction for each unrated user-item pair. In addition, we introduce a tunable parameter λ to regulate the preferential diffusion relevant to the degree of both opinion sender and receiver. The numerical results for Movielens and Netflix data sets show that this algorithm has a better accuracy than the standard user-based collaborative filtering algorithm using Cosine and Pearson correlation without increasing computational complexity. By tuning λ, our method could further boost the prediction accuracy when using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) as measurements. In the optimal cases, on Movielens and Netflix data sets, the corresponding algorithmic accuracy (MAE and RMSE) are improved 11.26% and 8.84%, 13.49% and 10.52% compared to the item average method, respectively.

  19. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  20. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  1. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  2. Support vector machine-based multi-model predictive control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhejing BA; Youxian SUN

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a support vector machine-based multi-model predictive control is proposed,in which SVM classification combines well with SVM regression.At first,each working environment is modeled by SVM regression and the support vector machine network-based model predictive control(SVMN-MPC)algorithm corresponding to each environment is developed,and then a multi-class SVM model is established to recognize multiple operating conditions.As for control,the current environment is identified by the multi-class SVM model and then the corresponding SVMN.MPCcontroller is activated at each sampling instant.The proposed modeling,switching and controller design is demonstrated in simulation results.

  3. In silico network topology-based prediction of gene essentiality

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Joao Paulo Muller; Mombach, Jose Carlos Merino; Vieira, Renata; da Silva, Jose Guliherme Camargo; Lemke, Ney; Sinigaglia, Marialva

    2007-01-01

    The identification of genes essential for survival is important for the understanding of the minimal requirements for cellular life and for drug design. As experimental studies with the purpose of building a catalog of essential genes for a given organism are time-consuming and laborious, a computational approach which could predict gene essentiality with high accuracy would be of great value. We present here a novel computational approach, called NTPGE (Network Topology-based Prediction of Gene Essentiality), that relies on network topology features of a gene to estimate its essentiality. The first step of NTPGE is to construct the integrated molecular network for a given organism comprising protein physical, metabolic and transcriptional regulation interactions. The second step consists in training a decision tree-based machine learning algorithm on known essential and non-essential genes of the organism of interest, considering as learning attributes the network topology information for each of these genes...

  4. Stabilisation of difference equations with noisy prediction-based control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E.; Kelly, C.; Rodkina, A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the influence of stochastic perturbations on stability of a unique positive equilibrium of a difference equation subject to prediction-based control. These perturbations may be multiplicative We begin by relaxing the control parameter in the deterministic equation, and deriving a range of values for the parameter over which all solutions eventually enter an invariant interval. Then, by allowing the variation to be stochastic, we derive sufficient conditions (less restrictive than known ones for the unperturbed equation) under which the positive equilibrium will be globally a.s. asymptotically stable: i.e. the presence of noise improves the known effectiveness of prediction-based control. Finally, we show that systemic noise has a "blurring" effect on the positive equilibrium, which can be made arbitrarily small by controlling the noise intensity. Numerical examples illustrate our results.

  5. Predictive Potential Field-Based Collision Avoidance for Multicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuisen, M.; Schadler, M.; Behnke, S.

    2013-08-01

    Reliable obstacle avoidance is a key to navigating with UAVs in the close vicinity of static and dynamic obstacles. Wheel-based mobile robots are often equipped with 2D or 3D laser range finders that cover the 2D workspace sufficiently accurate and at a high rate. Micro UAV platforms operate in a 3D environment, but the restricted payload prohibits the use of fast state-of-the-art 3D sensors. Thus, perception of small obstacles is often only possible in the vicinity of the UAV and a fast collision avoidance system is necessary. We propose a reactive collision avoidance system based on artificial potential fields, that takes the special dynamics of UAVs into account by predicting the influence of obstacles on the estimated trajectory in the near future using a learned motion model. Experimental evaluation shows that the prediction leads to smoother trajectories and allows to navigate collision-free through passageways.

  6. Ac Synchronous Servo Based On The Armature Voltage Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Akihiro; Kuromaru, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shinichi

    1987-10-01

    A new control method of the AC synchro-nous servo-system (Brushless DC servo-system) is discussed. The new system is based on the armature voltage prediction model. Without a resolver-digital-conver-ter nor a tachometer-generator, the resolver provides following three signals to the system immediately, they are the current command, the induced voltage, and the rotor speed. The new method realizes a simple hardware configuration. Experimental results show a good performance of the system.

  7. Network Based Prediction Model for Genomics Data Analysis*

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Biological networks, such as genetic regulatory networks and protein interaction networks, provide important information for studying gene/protein activities. In this paper, we propose a new method, NetBoosting, for incorporating a priori biological network information in analyzing high dimensional genomics data. Specially, we are interested in constructing prediction models for disease phenotypes of interest based on genomics data, and at the same time identifying disease susceptible genes. ...

  8. Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2014-04-01

    Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the

  9. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  10. Seminal Quality Prediction Using Clustering-Based Decision Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of seminal quality with statistical learning tools is an emerging methodology in decision support systems in biomedical engineering and is very useful in early diagnosis of seminal patients and selection of semen donors candidates. However, as is common in medical diagnosis, seminal quality prediction faces the class imbalance problem. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised ensemble learning approach, namely Clustering-Based Decision Forests, to tackle unbalanced class learning problem in seminal quality prediction. Experiment results on real fertility diagnosis dataset have shown that Clustering-Based Decision Forests outperforms decision tree, Support Vector Machines, random forests, multilayer perceptron neural networks and logistic regression by a noticeable margin. Clustering-Based Decision Forests can also be used to evaluate variables’ importance and the top five important factors that may affect semen concentration obtained in this study are age, serious trauma, sitting time, the season when the semen sample is produced, and high fevers in the last year. The findings could be helpful in explaining seminal concentration problems in infertile males or pre-screening semen donor candidates.

  11. Fuzzy Prediction for Traffic Flow Based on Delta Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to one-step-forward prediction of traffic flow based on fuzzy reasoning. The successful construction of a competent fuzzy inference system of Sugeno type largely relies on proper choice of input dimension and accurate estimation of structure parameters and rules. The first issue is addressed with a proposed method, based on δ-test, which can simultaneously determine input dimension and reduce noise level. In response to the second issue, two clustering techniques, based on nearest-neighbor clustering and Gaussian mixture models, are successively employed to determine the antecedent parameters and rules, and the estimation for the consequent parameters is achieved by the least square estimation technique. A number of experiments have been performed on the one-week data of traffic flow to evaluate the proposed approach in terms of denosing, prediction performances, overfitting, and so forth. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed prediction approach is effective in removing noise and constructing a competent and compact fuzzy inference system without significant overfitting.

  12. Flame resistant cellulosic substrate using banana pseudostem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardancy was imparted in cellulosic cotton textile using banana pseudostem sap (BPS, an eco-friendly natural product. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied in pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics. Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analysed in terms of limiting oxygen index (LOI, horizontal and vertical flammability. Fabrics treated with the non-diluted BPS were found to have good flame retardant property with LOI of 30 compared to the control fabric with LOI of 18, i.e., an increase of 1.6 times. In the vertical flammability test, the BPS treated fabric showed flame for a few seconds and then, got extinguished. In the horizontal flammability test, the treated fabric showed no flame, but was burning only with an afterglow with a propagation rate of 7.5 mm/min, which was almost 10 times lower than that noted with the control fabric. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the chemical composition by FTIR, SEM and EDX, besides the pure BPS being characterized by EDX and mass spectroscopy. The fabric after the treatment was found to produce stable natural khaki colour, and there was no significant degradation in mechanical strengths. Based on the results, the mechanism of imparting flame retardancy to cellulosic textile and the formation of natural colour on it using the proposed BPS treatment have been postulated.

  13. Banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S I Torgova; T A Geivandova; O Francescangeli; A Strigazzi

    2003-08-01

    3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a new type of liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with asymmetrical five-membered heterocycle as a central unit. They have a bent shape and are very convenient model-compounds for studying the dependence of the LC properties on the molecular design. We have also synthesized and investigated ‘banana-shaped’ 1,2,4-oxadiazoles using the ester groups as the linkage units. The new compounds exhibit spontaneous polarization in the smectic phase, even if there is no chiral group in the molecules. Preliminary experimental data suggest the presence of spontaneous polarization in the nematic phase as well. In order to study the structural properties of the LC phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on powder samples have been carried out. Based on the XRD data, a model of the structural arrangement of the bent molecules in the smectic phase is provided, which accounts for the macroscopic spontaneous polarization as well as the ferroelectric switching behavior.

  14. Learning-based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control to Improve Vision-based Mobile Robot Path Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Learning -based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control to Improve Vision-based Mobile Robot Path Tracking Chris J. Ostafew Institute for Aerospace Studies... learning from experience. Schoellig et al. (2012) and Ostafew et al. (2013) present ILC algorithms for quadrotors and mobile robots, respectively...presents a Learning -based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (LB-NMPC) algo- rithm for a path-repeating, mobile robot negotiating large-scale, GPS

  15. Ontology-Based Prediction and Prioritization of Gene Functional Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Davide; Masseroli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Genes and their protein products are essential molecular units of a living organism. The knowledge of their functions is key for the understanding of physiological and pathological biological processes, as well as in the development of new drugs and therapies. The association of a gene or protein with its functions, described by controlled terms of biomolecular terminologies or ontologies, is named gene functional annotation. Very many and valuable gene annotations expressed through terminologies and ontologies are available. Nevertheless, they might include some erroneous information, since only a subset of annotations are reviewed by curators. Furthermore, they are incomplete by definition, given the rapidly evolving pace of biomolecular knowledge. In this scenario, computational methods that are able to quicken the annotation curation process and reliably suggest new annotations are very important. Here, we first propose a computational pipeline that uses different semantic and machine learning methods to predict novel ontology-based gene functional annotations; then, we introduce a new semantic prioritization rule to categorize the predicted annotations by their likelihood of being correct. Our tests and validations proved the effectiveness of our pipeline and prioritization of predicted annotations, by selecting as most likely manifold predicted annotations that were later confirmed.

  16. Porosity prediction of calcium phosphate cements based on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhman, Caroline; Unosson, Johanna; Carlsson, Elin; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2015-07-01

    The porosity of calcium phosphate cements has an impact on several important parameters, such as strength, resorbability and bioactivity. A model to predict the porosity for biomedical cements would hence be a useful tool. At the moment such a model only exists for Portland cements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a first porosity prediction model for calcium phosphate cements. On the basis of chemical reaction, molar weight and density of components, a volume-based model was developed and validated using calcium phosphate cement as model material. 60 mol% β-tricalcium phosphate and 40 mol% monocalcium phosphate monohydrate were mixed with deionized water, at different liquid-to-powder ratios. Samples were set for 24 h at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Thereafter, samples were dried either under vacuum at room temperature for 24 h or in air at 37 °C for 7 days. Porosity and phase composition were determined. It was found that the two drying protocols led to the formation of brushite and monetite, respectively. The model was found to predict well the experimental values and also data reported in the literature for apatite cements, as deduced from the small absolute average residual errors (brushite, monetite and apatite cements. The model gives a good estimate of the final porosity and has the potential to be used as a porosity prediction tool in the biomedical cement field.

  17. Neural Network Based Model for Predicting Housing Market Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Khalafallah

    2008-01-01

    The United States real estate market is currently facing its worst hit in two decades due to the slowdown of housing sales. The most affected by this decline are real estate investors and home develop-ers who are currently struggling to break-even financially on their investments. For these investors, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the current status of the market and predict its performance over the short-term in order to make appropriate financial decisions. This paper presents the development of artificial neu-ral network based models to support real estate investors and home developers in this critical task. The pa-per describes the decision variables, design methodology, and the implementation of these models. The models utilize historical market performance data sets to train the artificial neural networks in order to pre-dict unforeseen future performances. An application example is analyzed to demonstrate the model capabili-ties in analyzing and predicting the market performance. The model testing and validation showed that the error in prediction is in the range between -2% and +2%.

  18. Reflectance Prediction Modelling for Residual-Based Hyperspectral Image Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Gao, Junbin; Bossomaier, Terry

    2016-01-01

    A Hyperspectral (HS) image provides observational powers beyond human vision capability but represents more than 100 times the data compared to a traditional image. To transmit and store the huge volume of an HS image, we argue that a fundamental shift is required from the existing “original pixel intensity”-based coding approaches using traditional image coders (e.g., JPEG2000) to the “residual”-based approaches using a video coder for better compression performance. A modified video coder is required to exploit spatial-spectral redundancy using pixel-level reflectance modelling due to the different characteristics of HS images in their spectral and shape domain of panchromatic imagery compared to traditional videos. In this paper a novel coding framework using Reflectance Prediction Modelling (RPM) in the latest video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) for HS images is proposed. An HS image presents a wealth of data where every pixel is considered a vector for different spectral bands. By quantitative comparison and analysis of pixel vector distribution along spectral bands, we conclude that modelling can predict the distribution and correlation of the pixel vectors for different bands. To exploit distribution of the known pixel vector, we estimate a predicted current spectral band from the previous bands using Gaussian mixture-based modelling. The predicted band is used as the additional reference band together with the immediate previous band when we apply the HEVC. Every spectral band of an HS image is treated like it is an individual frame of a video. In this paper, we compare the proposed method with mainstream encoders. The experimental results are fully justified by three types of HS dataset with different wavelength ranges. The proposed method outperforms the existing mainstream HS encoders in terms of rate-distortion performance of HS image compression. PMID:27695102

  19. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  20. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  1. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  2. Quality guaranteed aggregation based model predictive control and stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeWei; XI YuGeng

    2009-01-01

    The input aggregation strategy can reduce the online computational burden of the model predictive controller. But generally aggregation based MPC controller may lead to poor control quality. Therefore, a new concept, equivalent aggregation, is proposed to guarantee the control quality of aggregation based MPC. From the general framework of input linear aggregation, the design methods of equivalent aggregation are developed for unconstrained and terminal zero constrained MPC, which guarantee the actual control inputs exactly to be equal to that of the original MPC. For constrained MPC, quasi-equivalent aggregation strategies are also discussed, aiming to make the difference between the control inputs of aggregation based MPC and original MPC as small as possible. The stability conditions are given for the quasi-equivalent aggregation based MPC as well.

  3. Predicting the effective thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube based nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, N N Venkata; Bhunia, Avijit; Sundararajan, T; Das, Sarit K [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2008-02-06

    Adding a small volume fraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to a liquid enhances the thermal conductivity significantly. Recent experimental findings report an anomalously wide range of enhancement values that continue to perplex the research community and remain unexplained. In this paper we present a theoretical model based on three-dimensional CNT chain formation (percolation) in the base liquid and the corresponding thermal resistance network. The model considers random CNT orientation and CNT-CNT interaction forming the percolating chain. Predictions are in good agreement with almost all available experimental data. Results show that the enhancement critically depends on the CNT geometry (length), volume fraction, thermal conductivity of the base liquid and the nanofluid (CNT-liquid suspension) preparation technique. Based on the physical mechanism of heat conduction in the nanofluid, we introduce a new dimensionless parameter that alone characterizes the nanofluid thermal conductivity with reasonable accuracy ({approx} {+-} 5%)

  4. Predicting the effective thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube based nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Sastry, N N; Bhunia, Avijit; Sundararajan, T; Das, Sarit K

    2008-02-06

    Adding a small volume fraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to a liquid enhances the thermal conductivity significantly. Recent experimental findings report an anomalously wide range of enhancement values that continue to perplex the research community and remain unexplained. In this paper we present a theoretical model based on three-dimensional CNT chain formation (percolation) in the base liquid and the corresponding thermal resistance network. The model considers random CNT orientation and CNT-CNT interaction forming the percolating chain. Predictions are in good agreement with almost all available experimental data. Results show that the enhancement critically depends on the CNT geometry (length), volume fraction, thermal conductivity of the base liquid and the nanofluid (CNT-liquid suspension) preparation technique. Based on the physical mechanism of heat conduction in the nanofluid, we introduce a new dimensionless parameter that alone characterizes the nanofluid thermal conductivity with reasonable accuracy (∼ ± 5%).

  5. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Slamet Minardi; Sri Hartati1); Hery Widijanto; Defi Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 =...

  6. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  7. Imputation for transcription factor binding predictions based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the cell-specific binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to studying gene regulatory networks in biological systems, for which ChIP-seq not only provides valuable data but is also considered as the gold standard. Despite tremendous efforts from the scientific community to conduct TF ChIP-seq experiments, the available data represent only a limited percentage of ChIP-seq experiments, considering all possible combinations of TFs and cell lines. In this study, we demonstrate a method for accurately predicting cell-specific TF binding for TF-cell line combinations based on only a small fraction (4%) of the combinations using available ChIP-seq data. The proposed model, termed TFImpute, is based on a deep neural network with a multi-task learning setting to borrow information across transcription factors and cell lines. Compared with existing methods, TFImpute achieves comparable accuracy on TF-cell line combinations with ChIP-seq data; moreover, TFImpute achieves better accuracy on TF-cell line combinations without ChIP-seq data. This approach can predict cell line specific enhancer activities in K562 and HepG2 cell lines, as measured by massively parallel reporter assays, and predicts the impact of SNPs on TF binding. PMID:28234893

  8. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  9. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Prediction of speech intelligibility based on an auditory preprocessing model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Forup Corlin; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Classical speech intelligibility models, such as the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII) are based on calculations on the physical acoustic signals. The present study predicts speech intelligibility by combining a psychoacoustically validated model of auditory...... preprocessing [Dau et al., 1997. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905] with a simple central stage that describes the similarity of the test signal with the corresponding reference signal at a level of the internal representation of the signals. The model was compared with previous approaches, whereby a speech...... in noise experiment was used for training and an ideal binary mask experiment was used for evaluation. All three models were able to capture the trends in the speech in noise training data well, but the proposed model provides a better prediction of the binary mask test data, particularly when the binary...

  11. Fault prediction of fighter based on nonparametric density estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhengdao; Hu Shousong

    2005-01-01

    Fighters and other complex engineering systems have many characteristics such as difficult modeling and testing, multiple working situations, and high cost. Aim at these points, a new kind of real-time fault predictor is designed based on an improved k-nearest neighbor method, which needs neither the math model of system nor the training data and prior knowledge. It can study and predict while system's running, so that it can overcome the difficulty of data acquirement. Besides, this predictor has a fast prediction speed, and the false alarm rate and missing alarm rate can be adjusted randomly. The method is simple and universalizable. The result of simulation on fighter F-16 proved the efficiency.

  12. Yarn Properties Prediction Based on Machine Learning Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-guo; L(U) Zhi-jun; LI Bei-zhi

    2007-01-01

    Although many works have been done to constructprediction models on yarn processing quality, the relationbetween spinning variables and yam properties has not beenestablished conclusively so far. Support vector machines(SVMs), based on statistical learning theory, are gainingapplications in the areas of machine learning and patternrecognition because of the high accuracy and goodgeneralization capability. This study briefly introduces theSVM regression algorithms, and presents the SVM basedsystem architecture for predicting yam properties. Model.selection which amounts to search in hyper-parameter spaceis performed for study of suitable parameters with grid-research method. Experimental results have been comparedwith those of artificial neural network(ANN) models. Theinvestigation indicates that in the small data sets and real-life production, SVM models are capable of remaining thestability of predictive accuracy, and more suitable for noisyand dynamic spinning process.

  13. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... investigated, a scaling to the mean height and body mass may be sufficient, while other questions require subject-specific models. The movement is parameterized by means of time functions controlling selected degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Subsequently, the parameters of these functions, usually referred...

  14. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  15. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  16. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  17. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  18. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  19. Analysis of Sequence Based Classifier Prediction for HIV Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Santhosh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a lent virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The main drawback in HIV treatment process is its sub type prediction. The sub type and group classification of HIV is based on its genetic variability and location. HIV can be divided into two major types, HIV type 1 (HIV-1 and HIV type 2 (HIV-2. Many classifier approaches have been used to classify HIV subtypes based on their group, but some of cases are having two groups in one; in such cases the classification becomes more complex. The methodology used is this paper based on the HIV sequences. For this work several classifier approaches are used to classify the HIV1 and HIV2. For implementation of the work a real time patient database is taken and the patient records are experimented and the final best classifier is identified with quick response time and least error rate.

  20. LÉVY-BASED ERROR PREDICTION IN CIRCULAR SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjana Ýr Jónsdóttir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, Lévy-based error prediction in circular systematic sampling is developed. A model-based statistical setting as in Hobolth and Jensen (2002 is used, but the assumption that the measurement function is Gaussian is relaxed. The measurement function is represented as a periodic stationary stochastic process X obtained by a kernel smoothing of a Lévy basis. The process X may have an arbitrary covariance function. The distribution of the error predictor, based on measurements in n systematic directions is derived. Statistical inference is developed for the model parameters in the case where the covariance function follows the celebrated p-order covariance model.

  1. Solar drying system for tropical fruits and a model for drying bananas in a static column dryer; Sistema de secagem solar para frutos tropicais e modelagem da secagem de banana em um secador de coluna estatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Antonio Raimundo da Silva

    2008-01-15

    An electric solar dryer consisting of a solar collector, a drying chamber, an exhaust fan and a fan to promote forced hot air convection were projected, built and tested . Banana drying experiments were also carried out in a static column dryer to model the drying and to obtain parameters that can be used as a first approximation in the modeling of an electric solar dryer, depending on the similarity of the experimental conditions between the two drying systems. From the banana drying experiments conducted in the static column dryer, we obtained food weight data as a function of aqueous concentration and temperature. Simplified mathematical models of the banana drying were made, based on Fick's and Fourier's second equations, which were tested with the experimental data. We determined and/or modeled parameters such as banana moisture content, density, thin layer drying curves, equilibrium moisture content, molecular diffusivity of the water in banana D{sub AB}, extemal mass transfer coefficient k{sub M}, specific heat C{sub p}, thermal conductivity k, latent heat of water evaporation in the food L{sub food}, time to heat food, and minimum energy and power required to heat the food and evaporate the water. When we considered the shrinkage of radius R of a banana, the calculated values of D{sub AB} and k{sub M} generally better represent the phenomenon of water diffusion in a solid. The latent heat of water evaporation in the food L{sub food} calculated by modeling is higher than the latent heat of pure water evaporation L{sub water}. The values calculated for D{sub AB} and K{sub M} that best represent the drying were obtained with the analytical model of the present paper. These values had good agreement with those assessed with a numeric model described in the literature, in which convective boundary condition and food shrinkage are considered. Using parameters such as C{sub p}, D{sub AB}, k, k{sub M} and L{sub food}, one can elaborate the preliminary

  2. 海南香蕉产业风险及预警对策研究%Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕群; 曾小红; 方佳

    2011-01-01

    在概述海南香蕉产业现状的基础上,分析了海南香蕉产业面临的风险,具体包括市场风险、自然灾害、信息风险和生产风险4个方面.为了促进海南香蕉产业持续协调、高速发展,提出了相应的对策:一是加强香蕉产业预警工作的组织领导;二是构建香蕉产业预警机制,具体包括搭建海南香蕉产业预警分级系统、构建香蕉产业信息检测与收集系统、建立信息分析与决策系统以及建设预警信息发布与共享系统4个方面;三是加强香蕉产业应急处置能力建设;四是进一步完善香蕉产业风险防范保障体系;五是加快香蕉标准化生产,提高市场竞争力;六是加快发展中介组织提高产业组织化程度;七是大力开展香蕉创新技术培训,提高香蕉产业科技水平.%Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry, including four aspects. They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry; constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry; establishing information analysis and decision - making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems. The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry. The fourth is to further perfect the risk - defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan. The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence

  3. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods.

  4. Model Predictive Control-Based Fast Charging for Vehicular Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Battery fast charging is one of the most significant and difficult techniques affecting the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs. In this paper, we propose a fast charge framework based on model predictive control, with the aim of simultaneously reducing the charge duration, which represents the out-of-service time of vehicles, and the increase in temperature, which represents safety and energy efficiency during the charge process. The RC model is employed to predict the future State of Charge (SOC. A single mode lumped-parameter thermal model and a neural network trained by real experimental data are also applied to predict the future temperature in simulations and experiments respectively. A genetic algorithm is then applied to find the best charge sequence under a specified fitness function, which consists of two objectives: minimizing the charging duration and minimizing the increase in temperature. Both simulation and experiment demonstrate that the Pareto front of the proposed method dominates that of the most popular constant current constant voltage (CCCV charge method.

  5. Bathymetry Prediction Based on the Admittance Theory of Gravity Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OUYANG Mingda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the admittance theory of gravity anomalies, the method of bathymetry prediction was studied in detail in this paper. In frequency domains, the correlation between gravity anomalies and bathymetry was analyzed, which suggests that the wavelength band correlated strongly was in a range of 20—300 km, this band was appropriated to inverse bathymetry by gravity anomalies. Took the Emperor Chain as an example, the uncompensated admittance model and flexural isostatic admittance model were used for researching, respectively, the included parameter of crust thickness and effective elastic thickness were calculated by the isostatic response function. As the down continuation factor was unstable, a high-cut filter was proposed in the inversion procedure to ensure convergence of series. The results showed that, the admittance theory of gravity anomalies can be used effectively in the bathymetry prediction, the predicted result was real and reliable, the relative precision was approximately 6%, which was equal to ETOPO1 model, and the detailed feature of sea floor which was not showed in ETOPO1 model can also be depicted; the precisions were not so well in areas of ocean mountains intensively distributed because of the complexion of the sea floor.

  6. Time series prediction of mining subsidence based on a SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peixian; Tan Zhixiang; Yah Lili; Deng Kazhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to study dynamic laws of surface movements over coal mines due to mining activities,a dynamic prediction model of surface movements was established,based on the theory of support vector machines (SVM) and times-series analysis.An engineering application was used to verify the correctness of the model.Measurements from observation stations were analyzed and processed to obtain equal-time interval surface movement data and subjected to tests of stationary,zero means and normality.Then the data were used to train the SVM model.A time series model was established to predict mining subsidence by rational choices of embedding dimensions and SVM parameters.MAPE and WIA were used asindicators to evaluate the accuracy of the model and for generalization performance.In the end,the model was used to predict future surface movements.Data from observation stations in Huaibei coal mining area were used as an example.The results show that the maximum absolute error of subsidence is 9 mm,the maximum relative error 1.5%.the maximum absolute error of displacement 7 mm and the maximum relative error 1.8%.The accuracy and reliability of the model meet the requirements of on-site engineering.The results of the study provide a new approach to investigate the dynamics of surface movements.

  7. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date.

  8. Optimization of continuous and intermittent microwave extraction of pectin from banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Gabriela John; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2017-04-01

    Continuous and intermittent microwave-assisted extractions were used to extract pectin from banana peels. Extraction parameters which were employed in the continuous process were microwave power (300-900W), time (100-300s), pH (1-3) and in the intermittent process were microwave power (300-900W), pulse ratio (0.5-1), pH (1-3). The independent factors were optimized with the Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) (three factor three level) with the desirability function methodology. Results indicate that the independent factors have substantial effect on the pectin yield. Optimized solutions for highest pectin yield (2.18%) from banana peels were obtained with microwave power of 900W, time 100s and pH 3.00 in the continuous method while the intermittent process yielded the highest pectin content (2.58%) at microwave power of 900W, pulse ratio of 0.5 and pH of 3.00. The optimized conditions were validated and close agreement was observed with the validation experiment and predicted value.

  9. A general framework for multivariate multi-index drought prediction based on Multivariate Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (MESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-08-01

    Drought is among the costliest natural hazards worldwide and extreme drought events in recent years have caused huge losses to various sectors. Drought prediction is therefore critically important for providing early warning information to aid decision making to cope with drought. Due to the complicated nature of drought, it has been recognized that the univariate drought indicator may not be sufficient for drought characterization and hence multivariate drought indices have been developed for drought monitoring. Alongside the substantial effort in drought monitoring with multivariate drought indices, it is of equal importance to develop a drought prediction method with multivariate drought indices to integrate drought information from various sources. This study proposes a general framework for multivariate multi-index drought prediction that is capable of integrating complementary prediction skills from multiple drought indices. The Multivariate Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (MESP) is employed to sample from historical records for obtaining statistical prediction of multiple variables, which is then used as inputs to achieve multivariate prediction. The framework is illustrated with a linearly combined drought index (LDI), which is a commonly used multivariate drought index, based on climate division data in California and New York in the United States with different seasonality of precipitation. The predictive skill of LDI (represented with persistence) is assessed by comparison with the univariate drought index and results show that the LDI prediction skill is less affected by seasonality than the meteorological drought prediction based on SPI. Prediction results from the case study show that the proposed multivariate drought prediction outperforms the persistence prediction, implying a satisfactory performance of multivariate drought prediction. The proposed method would be useful for drought prediction to integrate drought information from various sources

  10. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida and/or such persons or agencies... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  11. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  12. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-guo Duan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  13. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ai-guo; Zhang, Jian-guo; Zhang, Xiong-qing; He, Cai-yun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM) or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM) were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM) and parameter recovery method (PRM) were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1) R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2) the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3) the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4) the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  14. Phosphate-based glasses: Prediction of acoustical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Moneim, Amin Abd, E-mail: aminabdelmoneim@hotmail.com

    2016-04-15

    In this work, a comprehensive study has been carried out to predict the composition dependence of bulk modulus and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in the phosphate-based glass systems PbO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Li{sub 2}O-TeO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped Na{sub 2}O-ZnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} at room temperature. The prediction is based on (i) Makishima-Mackenzie theory, which correlates the bulk modulus with packing density and dissociation energy per unit volume, and (ii) Our recently presented semi-empirical formulas, which correlate the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient with the oxygen density, mean atomic ring size, first-order stretching force constant and experimental bulk modulus. Results revealed that our recently presented semi-empirical formulas can be applied successfully to predict changes of ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in binary PbO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses at 10 MHz frequency and in quaternary Li{sub 2}O-TeO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-ZnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses at 5 MHz frequency. Also, Makishima-Mackenzie theory appears to be valid for the studied glasses if the effect of the basic structural units that present in the glass network is taken into account.

  15. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  16. Forbush Decrease Prediction Based on Remote Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbovic, Mateja; Vrsnak, Bojan; Calogovic, Jasa

    2016-04-01

    We study the relation between remote observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), their associated solar flares and short-term depressions in the galactic cosmic-ray flux (so called Forbush decreases). Statistical relations between Forbush decrease magnitude and several CME/flare parameters are examined. In general we find that Forbush decrease magnitude is larger for faster CMEs with larger apparent width, which is associated with stronger flares that originate close to the center of the solar disk and are (possibly) involved in a CME-CME interaction. The statistical relations are quantified and employed to forecast expected Forbush decrease magnitude range based on the selected remote solar observations of the CME and associated solar flare. Several verification measures are used to evaluate the forecast method. We find that the forecast is most reliable in predicting whether or not a CME will produce a Forbush decrease with a magnitude >3 %. The main advantage of the method is that it provides an early prediction, 1-4 days in advance. Based on the presented research, an online forecast tool was developed (Forbush Decrease Forecast Tool, FDFT) available at Hvar Observatory web page: http://oh.geof.unizg.hr/FDFT/fdft.php. We acknowledge the support of Croatian Science Foundation under the project 6212 „Solar and Stellar Variability" and of European social fond under the project "PoKRet".

  17. Protein Function Prediction Based on Sequence and Structure Information

    KAUST Repository

    Smaili, Fatima Z.

    2016-05-25

    The number of available protein sequences in public databases is increasing exponentially. However, a significant fraction of these sequences lack functional annotation which is essential to our understanding of how biological systems and processes operate. In this master thesis project, we worked on inferring protein functions based on the primary protein sequence. In the approach we follow, 3D models are first constructed using I-TASSER. Functions are then deduced by structurally matching these predicted models, using global and local similarities, through three independent enzyme commission (EC) and gene ontology (GO) function libraries. The method was tested on 250 “hard” proteins, which lack homologous templates in both structure and function libraries. The results show that this method outperforms the conventional prediction methods based on sequence similarity or threading. Additionally, our method could be improved even further by incorporating protein-protein interaction information. Overall, the method we use provides an efficient approach for automated functional annotation of non-homologous proteins, starting from their sequence.

  18. Analyst-to-Analyst Variability in Simulation-Based Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes findings from the culminating experiment of the LDRD project entitled, "Analyst-to-Analyst Variability in Simulation-Based Prediction". For this experiment, volunteer participants solving a given test problem in engineering and statistics were interviewed at different points in their solution process. These interviews are used to trace differing solutions to differing solution processes, and differing processes to differences in reasoning, assumptions, and judgments. The issue that the experiment was designed to illuminate -- our paucity of understanding of the ways in which humans themselves have an impact on predictions derived from complex computational simulations -- is a challenging and open one. Although solution of the test problem by analyst participants in this experiment has taken much more time than originally anticipated, and is continuing past the end of this LDRD, this project has provided a rare opportunity to explore analyst-to-analyst variability in significant depth, from which we derive evidence-based insights to guide further explorations in this important area.

  19. Prediction of RNA Secondary Structure Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan-ning; DONG Hao; ZHANG Hao; WANG Gang; LI Zhi; CHEN Hui-ling

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the prediction of RNA secondary structure was proposed based on the particle swarm optimization(PSO). PSO is known to be effective in solving many different types of optimization problems and known for being able to approximate the global optimal results in the solution space. We designed an efficient objective function according to the minimum free energy, the number of selected stems and the average length of selected stems. We calculated how many legal stems there were in the sequence, and selected some of them to obtain an optimal result using PSO in the right of the objective function. A method based on the improved particle swarm optimization(IPSO) was proposed to predict RNA secondary structure, which consisted of three stages. The first stage was applied to e ncoding the source sequences, and to exploring all the legal stems. Then, a set of encoded stems were created in order to prepare input data for the second stage. In the second stage, IPSO was responsible for structure selection. At last, the optimal result was obtained from the secondary structures selected via IPSO. Nine sequences from the comparative RNA website were selected for the evaluation of the proposed method. Compared with other six methods, the proposed method decreased the complexity and enhanced the sensitivity and specificity on the basis of the experiment results.

  20. Link prediction based on a semi-local similarity index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Meng; Hu Ke; Tang Yi

    2011-01-01

    Missing link prediction provides significant instruction for both analysis of network structure and mining of unknown links in incomplete networks.Recently,many algorithms have been proposed based on various node-similarity measures.Among these measures,the common neighbour index,the resource allocation index,and the local path index,stemming from different source,have been proved to have relatively high accuracy and low computational effort.In this paper,we propose a similarity index by combining the resource allocation index and the local path index.Simulation results on six unweighted networks show that the accuracy of the proposed index is higher than that of the local path one.Based on the same idea of the present index,we develop its corresponding weighted version and test it on several weighted networks.It is found that,except for the USAir network,the weighted variant also performs better than both the weighted resource allocation index and the weighted local path index.Due to the improved accuracy and the still low computational complexity,the indices may be useful for link prediction.

  1. Neural mechanisms of rhythm-based temporal prediction: Delta phase-locking reflects temporal predictability but not rhythmic entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deouell, Leon Y.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the timing of upcoming events enables efficient resource allocation and action preparation. Rhythmic streams, such as music, speech, and biological motion, constitute a pervasive source for temporal predictions. Widely accepted entrainment theories postulate that rhythm-based predictions are mediated by synchronizing low-frequency neural oscillations to the rhythm, as indicated by increased phase concentration (PC) of low-frequency neural activity for rhythmic compared to random streams. However, we show here that PC enhancement in scalp recordings is not specific to rhythms but is observed to the same extent in less periodic streams if they enable memory-based prediction. This is inconsistent with the predictions of a computational entrainment model of stronger PC for rhythmic streams. Anticipatory change in alpha activity and facilitation of electroencephalogram (EEG) manifestations of response selection are also comparable between rhythm- and memory-based predictions. However, rhythmic sequences uniquely result in obligatory depression of preparation-related premotor brain activity when an on-beat event is omitted, even when it is strategically beneficial to maintain preparation, leading to larger behavioral costs for violation of prediction. Thus, while our findings undermine the validity of PC as a sign of rhythmic entrainment, they constitute the first electrophysiological dissociation, to our knowledge, between mechanisms of rhythmic predictions and of memory-based predictions: the former obligatorily lead to resonance-like preparation patterns (that are in line with entrainment), while the latter allow flexible resource allocation in time regardless of periodicity in the input. Taken together, they delineate the neural mechanisms of three distinct modes of preparation: continuous vigilance, interval-timing-based prediction and rhythm-based prediction. PMID:28187128

  2. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  3. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species o

  4. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  5. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  6. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease dia

  7. Impact of Diseases on Export and Smallholder Production of Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ma, Li Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15 of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cu

  8. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  9. Integrating banana and ruminant production in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, Harry; Gourdine, Jean Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; Tournebize, Regis; Bassien-Capsa, Mylène; González-García, Eliel

    2012-08-01

    Using a mechanistic model, we compared five alternative farming systems with the purpose of transforming monoculture (MON) banana farms into mixed farming systems (MFS) with ruminants feeding banana by-products (leaves, pseudostems and nonmarketable fruits) and forage from the fallow land. The paper presents the main structure of the model (land surface changes, available biomass for animals, stocking rates, productive or reproductive indicators), and impact assessment (change in farm productivity) is discussed. Five MFS with typical local ruminant production systems were used to compare MON to the strategies using forage from fallow and/or integrating Creole cattle (CC), Creole goats (CG) or Martinik sheep (MS) into banana farming. One hectare MON shifted into an MFS allows a stocking rate of 1,184, 285, and 418 kg of live weight per hectare for CC, CG and MS, respectively. Banana by-products seem to be better valorized by the CC scenario. However, parameters such as length of the cycle, local prices for cattle, goat and sheep meat, work time and farmer's skills in ruminant management may have been taken into account by the farmer when choosing the ruminant species to rear.

  10. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  11. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  12. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1 (TEF-1) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, compri

  13. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group) a

  14. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  15. Distance matrix-based approach to protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L; Wu, Zhijun; Song, Guang; Yang, Lei; Kolinski, Andrzej; Pokarowski, Piotr

    2009-03-01

    Much structural information is encoded in the internal distances; a distance matrix-based approach can be used to predict protein structure and dynamics, and for structural refinement. Our approach is based on the square distance matrix D = [r(ij)(2)] containing all square distances between residues in proteins. This distance matrix contains more information than the contact matrix C, that has elements of either 0 or 1 depending on whether the distance r (ij) is greater or less than a cutoff value r (cutoff). We have performed spectral decomposition of the distance matrices D = sigma lambda(k)V(k)V(kT), in terms of eigenvalues lambda kappa and the corresponding eigenvectors v kappa and found that it contains at most five nonzero terms. A dominant eigenvector is proportional to r (2)--the square distance of points from the center of mass, with the next three being the principal components of the system of points. By predicting r (2) from the sequence we can approximate a distance matrix of a protein with an expected RMSD value of about 7.3 A, and by combining it with the prediction of the first principal component we can improve this approximation to 4.0 A. We can also explain the role of hydrophobic interactions for the protein structure, because r is highly correlated with the hydrophobic profile of the sequence. Moreover, r is highly correlated with several sequence profiles which are useful in protein structure prediction, such as contact number, the residue-wise contact order (RWCO) or mean square fluctuations (i.e. crystallographic temperature factors). We have also shown that the next three components are related to spatial directionality of the secondary structure elements, and they may be also predicted from the sequence, improving overall structure prediction. We have also shown that the large number of available HIV-1 protease structures provides a remarkable sampling of conformations, which can be viewed as direct structural information about the

  16. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa.

  17. Fertilizantes comerciais e polpa de banana no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae Commercial fertilizers and banana pulp for in vitro cultivation of a Phalaenopsis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação in vitro de orquídeas é bastante utilizada para a produção de mudas. A busca por meios de cultura alternativos para este fim vem sendo amplamente estudada devido à complexidade dos meios comumente utilizados, como o meio MS. Os híbridos de Phalaenopsis encontram-se dentre as orquídeas mais comercializadas no mundo devido à longevidade e à beleza peculiar de suas flores. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações de fertilizantes comerciais e adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' em meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (P. amabilis x P. equestris. Plântulas germinadas in vitro, em meio MS, foram subcultivadas em meios de cultura à base de fertilizantes comerciais e meio MS modificado com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Os meios de cultura foram avaliados com e sem a adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' (100 g L-1 no estádio de maturação quatro. A base dos meios de cultura foi composta por sacarose (30 g L-1, carvão ativado (1 g L-1 e ágar (9 g L-1. Aos 180 dias foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: área foliar, número de folhas e raízes, comprimento de raízes e massas de matérias secas de folhas e raízes. Conclui-se que o tratamento composto por Biofert® acrescido de polpa de banana apresentou os melhores resultados para o desenvolvimento in vitro do híbrido, inclusive apresentando resultados estatisticamente superiores em relação ao meio MS sem banana.The in vitro propagation of orchids is a largely used procedure for the production of seedlings. The search for alternative culture media with this purpose has been widely studied due to the complexity of the commonly used media, e.g. the MS medium. The hybrids of Phalaenopsis are among the most commercialized orchids in the world due to the longevity and distinct beauty of its flowers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fertilizers' formulations and the

  18. Biomass prediction model in maize based on satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Herbei; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of crops by satellite techniques is very useful in the context of precision agriculture, regarding crops management and agricultural production. The present study has evaluated the interrelationship between maize biomass production and satellite indices (NDVI and NDBR) during five development stages (BBCH code), highlighting different levels of correlation. Biomass production recorded was between 2.39±0.005 t ha-1 (12-13 BBCH code) and 51.92±0.028 t ha-1 (83-85 BBCH code), in relation to vegetation stages studied. Values of chlorophyll content ranged from 24.1±0.25 SPAD unit (12-13 BBCH code) to 58.63±0.47 SPAD unit (71-73 BBCH code), and the obtained satellite indices ranged from 0.035641±0.002 and 0.320839±0.002 for NDVI indices respectively 0.035095±0.034 and 0.491038±0.018 in the case of NDBR indices. By regression analysis it was possible to obtain predictive models of biomass in maize based on the satellite indices, in statistical accurate conditions. The most accurate prediction was possible based on NDBR index (R2 = 0.986, F = 144.23, p<0.001, RMSE = 1.446), then based on chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.834, F = 16.14, p = 0.012, RMSE = 6.927) and NDVI index (R2 = 0.682, F = 3.869, p = 0.116, RMSE = 12.178).

  19. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  20. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  1. Method of predicting Splice Sites based on signal interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogun Jitender S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting and proper ranking of canonical splice sites (SSs is a challenging problem in bioinformatics and machine learning communities. Any progress in SSs recognition will lead to better understanding of splicing mechanism. We introduce several new approaches of combining a priori knowledge for improved SS detection. First, we design our new Bayesian SS sensor based on oligonucleotide counting. To further enhance prediction quality, we applied our new de novo motif detection tool MHMMotif to intronic ends and exons. We combine elements found with sensor information using Naive Bayesian Network, as implemented in our new tool SpliceScan. Results According to our tests, the Bayesian sensor outperforms the contemporary Maximum Entropy sensor for 5' SS detection. We report a number of putative Exonic (ESE and Intronic (ISE Splicing Enhancers found by MHMMotif tool. T-test statistics on mouse/rat intronic alignments indicates, that detected elements are on average more conserved as compared to other oligos, which supports our assumption of their functional importance. The tool has been shown to outperform the SpliceView, GeneSplicer, NNSplice, Genio and NetUTR tools for the test set of human genes. SpliceScan outperforms all contemporary ab initio gene structural prediction tools on the set of 5' UTR gene fragments. Conclusion Designed methods have many attractive properties, compared to existing approaches. Bayesian sensor, MHMMotif program and SpliceScan tools are freely available on our web site. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Manyuan Long, Arcady Mushegian and Mikhail Gelfand.

  2. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  3. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Brink, van den Paul J.; Tedengren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and

  4. Sentiment Prediction Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan Basiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment prediction techniques are often used to assign numerical scores to free-text format reviews written by people in online review websites. In order to exploit the fine-grained structural information of textual content, a review may be considered as a collection of sentences, each with its own sentiment orientation and score. In this manner, a score aggregation method is needed to combine sentence-level scores into an overall review rating. While recent work has concentrated on designing effective sentence-level prediction methods, there remains the problem of finding efficient algorithms for score aggregation. In this study, we investigate different aggregation methods, as well as the cases in which they perform poorly. According to the analysis of existing methods, we propose a new score aggregation method based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. In the proposed method, we first detect the polarity of reviews using a machine learning approach and then, consider sentence scores as evidence for the overall review rating. The results from two public social web datasets show the higher performance of our method in comparison with existing score aggregation methods and state-of-the-art machine learning approaches.

  5. Neural Network Based Popularity Prediction For IPTV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet protocol television (IPTV, being an emerging Internet application, plays an important and indispensable role in our daily life. In order to maximize user experience and on the same time to minimize service cost, we must take into pay attention to how to reduce the storage and transport costs. A lot of previous work has been done before to do this. There is a challenging problem in this: how to predict the popularities of videos as accurate as possible. To solve the problem, this paper presents a Neural Network model for the popularity prediction of the programs in the IPTV system. And we use the actual historical logs to validate our method. The historical logs are divided to two parts, one is used to train the neural network by extract input/output vectors, and the other part is used to verify the model. The experimental results from our validation show the Neural Network based method can gain better accuracy than the comparative method.

  6. Predictive Model of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Electrical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, Asimina; Gresil, Matthieu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-04-01

    In this computational work, a new simulation tool on the graphene/polymer nanocomposites electrical response is developed based on the finite element method (FEM). This approach is built on the multi-scale multi-physics format, consisting of a unit cell and a representative volume element (RVE). The FE methodology is proven to be a reliable and flexible tool on the simulation of the electrical response without inducing the complexity of raw programming codes, while it is able to model any geometry, thus the response of any component. This characteristic is supported by its ability in preliminary stage to predict accurately the percolation threshold of experimental material structures and its sensitivity on the effect of different manufacturing methodologies. Especially, the percolation threshold of two material structures of the same constituents (PVDF/Graphene) prepared with different methods was predicted highlighting the effect of the material preparation on the filler distribution, percolation probability and percolation threshold. The assumption of the random filler distribution was proven to be efficient on modelling material structures obtained by solution methods, while the through-the -thickness normal particle distribution was more appropriate for nanocomposites constructed by film hot-pressing. Moreover, the parametrical analysis examine the effect of each parameter on the variables of the percolation law. These graphs could be used as a preliminary design tool for more effective material system manufacturing.

  7. A nonlinear regression model-based predictive control algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, R; Abu-Ayyad, M; Hernandez, J M

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a unique approach for designing a nonlinear regression model-based predictive controller (NRPC) for single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) processes that are common in industrial applications. The innovation of this strategy is that the controller structure allows nonlinear open-loop modeling to be conducted while closed-loop control is executed every sampling instant. Consequently, the system matrix is regenerated every sampling instant using a continuous function providing a more accurate prediction of the plant. Computer simulations are carried out on nonlinear plants, demonstrating that the new approach is easily implemented and provides tight control. Also, the proposed algorithm is implemented on two real time SISO applications; a DC motor, a plastic injection molding machine and a nonlinear MIMO thermal system comprising three temperature zones to be controlled with interacting effects. The experimental closed-loop responses of the proposed algorithm were compared to a multi-model dynamic matrix controller (MPC) with improved results for various set point trajectories. Good disturbance rejection was attained, resulting in improved tracking of multi-set point profiles in comparison to multi-model MPC.

  8. Impacts of Low Temperature in winter on Banana Production and Yield Losing Evaluation in Guangxi Province%冬季低温对广西香蕉生产及产量损失影响评估初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世业; 谭宗琨; 包辉昌

    2012-01-01

    通过对广西香蕉生产代表县1980—2008年产量与冬季低温关系分析.结合2008/2009—2010/2011年冬季香蕉大田生产灾情调查验证,结果表明:香蕉遭受辐射型、平流型寒冻害影响后表观症状差异明显,且导致产量损失的关键气象因子与天气类型有关。在此基础上,补充和完善了香蕉寒冻害等级指标。%Based on the low temperature data in winter and the banana yields of banana planting representative counties during 1980-2008 ,combined with the Banana cold disaster investigation in the winter of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011, the relationship between the banana yields and winter low temperature was analyzed. It shows that there is an obvious difference in freeze injury symptoms when bananas suffered radiation-type and advection-type cold damage. The key meteorological factors causing banana's yield losses are related to weather situation. And the banana cold damage indicators are supplement and improved.

  9. PCR multiplex para a detecção de BSV e CMV em bananeiras micropropagadas Multiplex PCR for detection of Banana streak virus and Cucumber mosaic virus from micropropagated banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vasquez Figueiredo

    2007-09-01

    sometimes unsuccessful. The methodology presented in this work overcomes this drawback because it is based on the detection of viral nucleic acids in banana leaf samples. Primers BADNA 1A and BADNA 4 were used to BSV detection, and primers "CMV sense" and "CMV antisense" were adopted to CMV detection. The simultaneous amplification of two different sized amplicons was obtained. Following electrophoresis, a 597 pb fragment correlated with BSV and a 488 fragment correlated with CMV were detected. This assay is an additional tool which should be used to confirm the virus-free status of the mother plants propagated through tissue culture.

  10. Precipitation Prediction in North Africa Based on Statistical Downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J. M.; Zaitchik, B.

    2013-12-01

    variability of the observed local process. Also, a split-window approach is used in the cross-validation stage for comparison purposes of the monthly regression schemes, and different pre-processing alternatives of the precipitation records are implemented to reduce the strong skewness observed in the periodic distribution functions. Preliminary results show that bootstrapping approaches like those based on K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NN) resampling improves the preservation of the historical variability, for which the GLM methods exhibit important limitations. It has been also observed the important role that plays both the teleconnections analysis and the normalization pre-processing in the prediction skill. It is expected that the methodologies from this research can be extrapolated to other regions and time scales for the study of climate change impact and water resources management.

  11. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  12. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  13. Provably Safe and Robust Learning-Based Model Predictive Control

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Sastry, S Shankar; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Controller design for systems typically faces a trade-off between robustness and performance, and the reliability of linear controllers has caused many control practitioners to focus on the former. However, there is a renewed interest in improving system performance to deal with growing energy and pollution constraints. This paper describes a learning-based model predictive control (MPC) scheme. The MPC provides deterministic guarantees on robustness and safety, and the learning is used to identify richer models of the system to improve controller performance. Our scheme uses a linear model with bounds on its uncertainty to construct invariant sets which help to provide the guarantees, and it can be generalized to other classes of models and to pseudo-spectral methods. This framework allows us to handle state and input constraints and optimize system performance with respect to a cost function. The learning occurs through the use of an oracle which returns the value and gradient of unmodeled dynamics at discr...

  14. Mining Behavior Based Safety Data to Predict Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2010-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a behavior based safety program called Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR). This peer-to-peer observation program encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other's work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of conducting these observations is that more serious accidents are prevented from occurring because lower level “at risk” behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted “unsafe” behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. Although the approach increases employee involvement in safety, the premise of the program has not been subject to sufficient empirical evaluation. The INL now has a significant amount of SOAR data on these lower level “at risk” behaviors. This paper describes the use of data mining techniques to analyze these data to determine whether they can predict if and when a more serious accident will occur.

  15. Prediction of Seismic Damage-Based Degradation in RC Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Gupta, Vinay K.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Estimation of structural damage from known increase in the fundamental period of a structure after an earthquake or prediction of degradation of stiffness and strength for known damage requires reliable correlations between these response functionals. This study proposes a modified Clough......-Johnston SDOF oscillator to establish these correlations in case of a simple elasto-plastic oscillator. It is assumed that the oscillator closely describes the response of a given multi-degree-of-freedom system in its fundamental mode throughout the duration of the excitation. The proposed model considers...... useful correlations of strength and stiffness degradation with damage wherein a simple damage parameter based on maximum and yield displacements and ductility supply ratio has been considered. The proposed model has also been used to demonstrate that ignoring aftershocks in case of impulsive ground...

  16. Demand Management Based on Model Predictive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand management (DM is the process that helps companies to sell the right product to the right customer, at the right time, and for the right price. Therefore the challenge for any company is to determine how much to sell, at what price, and to which market segment while maximizing its profits. DM also helps managers efficiently allocate undifferentiated units of capacity to the available demand with the goal of maximizing revenue. This paper introduces control system approach to demand management with dynamic pricing (DP using the model predictive control (MPC technique. In addition, we present a proper dynamical system analogy based on active suspension and a stability analysis is provided via the Lyapunov direct method.

  17. Traffic Prediction Based on Correlation of Road Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Road section data packet is very necessary for the estimation and prediction in short-time traffic condition. However, previous researches on this problem are lack of quantitative analysis. A section correlation analyzing method with traffic flow microwave data is proposed for this problem. It is based on the metric multidimensional scaling theory. With a dissimilarity matrix, scalar product matrix can be calculated. Subsequently, a reconstructing matrix of section traffic flow could be got with principal components factor analysis, which could display section groups in low dimension. It is verified that the new method is reliable and effective. After that, Auto Regressive Moving Average (A RMA model is used for forecasting traffic flow and lane occupancy. Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effective and exact. The theoretical analysis indicates that the forecasting model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.  

  18. Prediction-based association control scheme in dense femtocell networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc-Thai; Huynh, Thong; Hwang, Won-Joo; You, Ilsun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The deployment of large number of femtocell base stations allows us to extend the coverage and efficiently utilize resources in a low cost manner. However, the small cell size of femtocell networks can result in frequent handovers to the mobile user, and consequently throughput degradation. Thus, in this paper, we propose predictive association control schemes to improve the system’s effective throughput. Our design focuses on reducing handover frequency without impacting on throughput. The proposed schemes determine handover decisions that contribute most to the network throughput and are proper for distributed implementations. The simulation results show significant gains compared with existing methods in terms of handover frequency and network throughput perspective. PMID:28328992

  19. Fast rule-based bioactivity prediction using associative classification mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Pulan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Relating chemical features to bioactivities is critical in molecular design and is used extensively in the lead discovery and optimization process. A variety of techniques from statistics, data mining and machine learning have been applied to this process. In this study, we utilize a collection of methods, called associative classification mining (ACM, which are popular in the data mining community, but so far have not been applied widely in cheminformatics. More specifically, classification based on predictive association rules (CPAR, classification based on multiple association rules (CMAR and classification based on association rules (CBA are employed on three datasets using various descriptor sets. Experimental evaluations on anti-tuberculosis (antiTB, mutagenicity and hERG (the human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene blocker datasets show that these three methods are computationally scalable and appropriate for high speed mining. Additionally, they provide comparable accuracy and efficiency to the commonly used Bayesian and support vector machines (SVM methods, and produce highly interpretable models.

  20. Empirical modeling of the storm time innermost magnetosphere using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS data: Eastward and banana currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Roelof, E. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Le, G.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of storm time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4RE, is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at and the eastward ring current concentrated at resulting in a vortex current pattern. A similar pattern coined `banana current' was previously inferred from the pressure distributions based on the energetic neutral atom imaging and first-principles ring current simulations. The morphology of the equatorial currents is dependent on storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming banana currents. Near SYM-H minimum, the banana current is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.

  1. Influence of ginger and banana starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine phosphate tab-lets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.A.Odeku; M.A.Odeniyi; G.O.Ogunlowo

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The influence of two experimental starches -ginger starch obtained from Zingiber officinale and ba-nana starch from Musa sapientum -on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine tablets have been studied in comparison with the influence of official corn starch.Methods:Chloroquine tablets were for-mulated using various concentarions of the starches as binding agent.The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed in terms of crushing strength and friability and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR) while drug release properties were evaluated based on disintegration and the time of tablets.Results:The ranking for crushing strength and CSFR was corn >banana >ginger starch while the ranking was reverse for friability.The disintegration time increased with packing fraction and starch concentration in the rank order of formulations containing corn >banana >ginger starch.The CSFR/DT values increased with concentration of starch binder indicating an improved balance between binding and disintegrant properties of the starches.Sta-tistical analysis showed that there were significant (P <0.001)difference in the CSFR/DT for tablets contai-ning the various starch binders.Conclusion:The mechanical and disintegration properties of the experimental starches compared favorably with those of corn starch and ginger starch could be more useful when faster tablet disintegration is desired.

  2. Real time remaining useful life prediction based on nonlinear Wiener based degradation processes with measurement errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐圣金; 郭晓松; 于传强; 周志杰; 周召发; 张邦成

    2014-01-01

    Real time remaining useful life (RUL) prediction based on condition monitoring is an essential part in condition based maintenance (CBM). In the current methods about the real time RUL prediction of the nonlinear degradation process, the measurement error is not considered and forecasting uncertainty is large. Therefore, an approximate analytical RUL distribution in a closed-form of a nonlinear Wiener based degradation process with measurement errors was proposed. The maximum likelihood estimation approach was used to estimate the unknown fixed parameters in the proposed model. When the newly observed data are available, the random parameter is updated by the Bayesian method to make the estimation adapt to the item’s individual characteristic and reduce the uncertainty of the estimation. The simulation results show that considering measurement errors in the degradation process can significantly improve the accuracy of real time RUL prediction.

  3. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  4. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models.

  5. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  6. Rainfall events prediction using rule-based fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asklany, Somia A.; Elhelow, Khaled; Youssef, I. K.; Abd El-wahab, M.

    2011-07-01

    We are interested in rainfall events prediction by applying rule-based reasoning and fuzzy logic. Five parameters: relative humidity, total cloud cover, wind direction, temperature and surface pressure are the input variables for our model, each has three membership functions. The data used is twenty years METAR data for Cairo airport station (HECA) [1972-1992] 30° 3' 29″ N, 31° 13' 44″ E. and five years METAR data for Mersa Matruh station (HEMM) 31° 20' 0″ N, 27° 13' 0″ E. Different models for each station were constructed depending on the available data sets. Among the overall 243 possibilities we have based our models on one hundred eighteen fuzzy IF-THEN rules and fuzzy reasoning. The output variable which has four membership functions, takes values from zero to one hundred corresponding to the percentage for rainfall events given for every hourly data. We used two skill scores to verify our results, the Brier score and the Friction score. The results are in high agreements with the recorded data for the stations with increasing in output values towards the real time rain events. All implementation are done with MATLAB 7.9.

  7. Grey Theory Based Vibration Prediction for Steam Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; SU Leitao; FENG Yongxin; JIANG Dongxiang

    2012-01-01

    The Mechanism of grey prediction method and its application advantages in safety prediction were described.This method was used to predict the vibration amplitude within the coming 6 hours for a steam turbine.Moreover,the prediction results were examined using correlation degree and posterior error.Results indicated that,this grey prediction method had small posterior error and got a grade Ⅰ accuracy.We can foreknow the variation trend of vibration amplitude of the steam turbine through this method,so as to take timely countermeasures.Therefore,the operation safety of the power unit was improved.

  8. Predicting the reference evapotranspiration based on tensor decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaghian, Negin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Gocic, Milan; Mohammadi, Kasra

    2016-09-01

    Most of the available models for reference evapotranspiration (ET0) estimation are based upon only an empirical equation for ET0. Thus, one of the main issues in ET0 estimation is the appropriate integration of time information and different empirical ET0 equations to determine ET0 and boost the precision. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, adjusted Hargreaves, Blaney-Criddle, Priestley-Taylor, and Jensen-Haise equations were utilized in this study for estimating ET0 for two stations of Belgrade and Nis in Serbia using collected data for the period of 1980 to 2010. Three-order tensor is used to capture three-way correlations among months, years, and ET0 information. Afterward, the latent correlations among ET0 parameters were found by the multiway analysis to enhance the quality of the prediction. The suggested method is valuable as it takes into account simultaneous relations between elements, boosts the prediction precision, and determines latent associations. Models are compared with respect to coefficient of determination (R 2), mean absolute error (MAE), and root-mean-square error (RMSE). The proposed tensor approach has a R 2 value of greater than 0.9 for all selected ET0 methods at both selected stations, which is acceptable for the ET0 prediction. RMSE is ranged between 0.247 and 0.485 mm day-1 at Nis station and between 0.277 and 0.451 mm day-1 at Belgrade station, while MAE is between 0.140 and 0.337 mm day-1 at Nis and between 0.208 and 0.360 mm day-1 at Belgrade station. The best performances are achieved by Priestley-Taylor model at Nis station (R 2 = 0.985, MAE = 0.140 mm day-1, RMSE = 0.247 mm day-1) and FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model at Belgrade station (MAE = 0.208 mm day-1, RMSE = 0.277 mm day-1, R 2 = 0.975).

  9. Foundation Settlement Prediction Based on a Novel NGM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of foundation or subgrade settlement is very important during engineering construction. According to the fact that there are lots of settlement-time sequences with a nonhomogeneous index trend, a novel grey forecasting model called NGM (1,1,k,c model is proposed in this paper. With an optimized whitenization differential equation, the proposed NGM (1,1,k,c model has the property of white exponential law coincidence and can predict a pure nonhomogeneous index sequence precisely. We used two case studies to verify the predictive effect of NGM (1,1,k,c model for settlement prediction. The results show that this model can achieve excellent prediction accuracy; thus, the model is quite suitable for simulation and prediction of approximate nonhomogeneous index sequence and has excellent application value in settlement prediction.

  10. Hadoop-Based Distributed System for Online Prediction of Air Pollution Based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Z.; Farnaghi, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The critical impact of air pollution on human health and environment in one hand and the complexity of pollutant concentration behavior in the other hand lead the scientists to look for advance techniques for monitoring and predicting the urban air quality. Additionally, recent developments in data measurement techniques have led to collection of various types of data about air quality. Such data is extremely voluminous and to be useful it must be processed at high velocity. Due to the complexity of big data analysis especially for dynamic applications, online forecasting of pollutant concentration trends within a reasonable processing time is still an open problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an online forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the air quality one day in advance. In order to overcome the computational requirements for large-scale data analysis, distributed computing based on the Hadoop platform has been employed to leverage the processing power of multiple processing units. The MapReduce programming model is adopted for massive parallel processing in this study. Based on the online algorithm and Hadoop framework, an online forecasting system is designed to predict the air pollution of Tehran for the next 24 hours. The results have been assessed on the basis of Processing Time and Efficiency. Quite accurate predictions of air pollutant indicator levels within an acceptable processing time prove that the presented approach is very suitable to tackle large scale air pollution prediction problems.

  11. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  12. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  13. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  14. Star-sensor-based predictive Kalman filter for satelliteattitude estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉荣; 邓正隆

    2002-01-01

    A real-time attitude estimation algorithm, namely the predictive Kalman filter, is presented. This algorithm can accurately estimate the three-axis attitude of a satellite using only star sensor measurements. The implementation of the filter includes two steps: first, predicting the torque modeling error, and then estimating the attitude. Simulation results indicate that the predictive Kalman filter provides robust performance in the presence of both significant errors in the assumed model and in the initial conditions.

  15. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  16. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  17. Identification of Potential for Banana in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. MANTEL; ZHANG XUELEI; ZHANG GANLIN

    2003-01-01

    Land use alternatives are sought to boost agricultural income and productivity in Hainan Island, China.Regional differences exist in crop limitations, such as typhoon risk, low temperatures, poor soil fertility, and drought. In this study a crop zonation was made for a range of crops, among which is banana, as a way to: 1)establish areas for potential expansion for banana, and 2) identify limitations and options for crop and land management. A spatial soil and terrain database of Hainan Island (1:250 000) was linked to the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The qualitative models were verified by comparing suitability maps with actual land use. The results may support policy formulation on issues such as alternatives to current land use, assessment of best management practices, and the need for fertilizer programmes.

  18. 从a hand of bananas 说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞洛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 英语怎么说“一串香蕉”?我们可以说a bunch of bananas,也可以说a handof bananas.但是,后者更趋形象生动.名词hand在此起双重作用,它既表示“串”(bunch),相当汉语“量词”,又含有一种巧妙的比喻,bananas为本体,而hand则成了喻体.类似a hand of bananas的表达在英语中不为鲜见.如hand这样起双重作用的名词可作以下分类.

  19. Investigating hydropedological relations using quantified morphological data under banana plants on a transect in Guadeloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeau, Martin; Weynants, Mélanie; Cattan, Philippe; Dorel, Marc; Javaux, Mathieu

    2010-05-01

    Due to its limited surface and contamination through chemicals, subsurface water resources in Guadeloupe are under pressure. Banana plantations on highly conductive soils, in particular Andisols represent a large source of nonpoint-source pollution. The proper characterization of the soil transfer properties are therefore needed to sustainably manage groundwater. Hydropedology can help understand the links between the soil hydraulic behaviour and its pedology. The aim of this study was to assess the key parameters controlling the hydraulic properties of these soils. Fifteen sites were chosen along a climatic transect in the South East of Guadeloupe, going from lower to higher altitudes associated with a rainfall gradient and with a pedological differentiation, to investigate the effects of soil type and soil structure on the hydraulic properties. At each site, a structural description of the profile (Manichon technique) was realised and samples were taken for chemical and mineral characterization. The root density was also assessed. In situ suction infitrometer measurements were realised at the soil surface. Undisturbed 1 L soil cores were extracted in the A (10-20 cm) and B (40-60 cm) horizons for Multistep outflow (MSO) measurements. The experiments were simulated with Hydrus-1D parameterised with the Mualem-van Genuchten (MV) model for which the parameters were optimised with the inversion algorithm AMALGAM-SO. Links between the hydraulic characteristics (infiltration rates and MV parameters) and soil profile information were obtained using a stepwise procedure. Infiltration rates at -1 and 0 cm of pressure head were satisfactorily described based on the root density, the contents of fine earth and easily discernible clods. All these explanatory variables contain information on the structural state of the soil. The MV parameters optimised from the MSO experiments were not well described with the available predictors. However, points of the hydraulic conductivity

  20. 香蕉产地初加工技术分类及集成%Classification, integration of preliminary processing technology in banana producing areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贞贞; 孙洁; 赵靓; 沈瑾; 朱明; 廖小军

    2015-01-01

    Banana is the worldwide 2nd fruit with the biggest trade,it is also the only one of top five fruits with trade deficit compared with the other four, like apple, citrus, pear and peach, having great contributions to fruits export business in China. The import quantity of banana is continuing to rise even as the increasing production recent years, meanwhile the loss of banana in its producing area is approaching one million, almost two times of its export quantity in China, which suggests that loss reduction will contribute to shrink the trade deficit. Based on the statistics, more than 700 projects about banana research were approved by the Chinese governments and almost 500 scientific research institutions and universities were involved. However, few of them were about loss reduction in producing areas. Further researches about the exiting preliminary processing technologies may reduce banana loss in its producing area, then trying a new way to break through the bottleneck problem of banana industries and improve banana industry in China. This study has collected all harvesting, plantation transportation, commercialization, storage and transport technologies used currently in banana producing area, do further classification for all those preliminary processing technologies, and integrated four principal technology chains, then gave more information about the current Chinese banana production industry. Compared with other well-developed banana producers in the world, the gaps about large-scale production, market internationalization, technology integration, equipment serialization, facilities supporting and logistics professionalization of Chinese banana production industry are still obvious, which directly induced Chinese banana products showing no international competitiveness, no high-end brands, and only sharing the lower and middle markets. However, large-scale banana plantations are not fully accords with the retails-dominated condition in China, and it is

  1. Prediction of Silicon-Based Layered Structures for Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Ma, Yanming; Gong, Xingao; Xiang, Hongjun; CCMG Team

    2015-03-01

    A method based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented to design quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) materials. With this development, various single-layer and bi-layer materials in C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb were predicted. A new Si bi-layer structure is found to have a much-favored energy than the previously widely accepted configuration. Both single-layer and bi-layer Si materials have small band gaps, limiting their usages in optoelectronic applications. Hydrogenation has therefore been used to tune the electronic and optical properties of Si layers. We discover two hydrogenated materials of layered Si8H2andSi6H2 possessing quasi-direct band gaps of 0.75 eV and 1.59 eV, respectively. Their potential applications for light emitting diode and photovoltaics are proposed and discussed. Our study opened up the possibility of hydrogenated Si layered materials as next-generation optoelectronic devices.

  2. Coal Calorific Value Prediction Based on Projection Pursuit Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QI Minfang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The calorific value of coal is an important factor for the economic operation of coal-fired power plant. However, calorific value is tremendous difference between the different coal, and even if coal is from the same mine. Restricted by the coal market, most of coal fired power plants can not burn the designed-coal by now in China. The properties of coal as received are changing so frequently that pulverized coal firing is always with the unexpected condition. Therefore, the researches on the prediction of calorific value of coal have a profound significance for the economic operation of power plants. Aiming at the problem of uncertainty of coal calorific value, establish a soft measurement model for calorific value of coal based on projection pursuit principle combined with genetic algorithm to optimize parameters, and support vector machine algorithm. It is shown by an example that the model has a stronger objectivity, effective and feasible for avoiding the disadvantage of the artificially decided weights of feature indexes. The model could provide a good guidance for the calculation of the coal calorific value and optimization operation of coal-fired power plants.  

  3. Gene function prediction based on the Gene Ontology hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liangxi; Lin, Hongfei; Hu, Yuncui; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao

    2014-01-01

    The information of the Gene Ontology annotation is helpful in the explanation of life science phenomena, and can provide great support for the research of the biomedical field. The use of the Gene Ontology is gradually affecting the way people store and understand bioinformatic data. To facilitate the prediction of gene functions with the aid of text mining methods and existing resources, we transform it into a multi-label top-down classification problem and develop a method that uses the hierarchical relationships in the Gene Ontology structure to relieve the quantitative imbalance of positive and negative training samples. Meanwhile the method enhances the discriminating ability of classifiers by retaining and highlighting the key training samples. Additionally, the top-down classifier based on a tree structure takes the relationship of target classes into consideration and thus solves the incompatibility between the classification results and the Gene Ontology structure. Our experiment on the Gene Ontology annotation corpus achieves an F-value performance of 50.7% (precision: 52.7% recall: 48.9%). The experimental results demonstrate that when the size of training set is small, it can be expanded via topological propagation of associated documents between the parent and child nodes in the tree structure. The top-down classification model applies to the set of texts in an ontology structure or with a hierarchical relationship.

  4. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  5. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M. [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  6. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  7. Optimization of condition-based asset management using a predictive health model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, G.; Koltunowicz, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Papp, Z.; Djairam, D.; De Schutter, B.; Smit, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a model predictive framework is used to optimize the operation and maintenance actions of power system equipment based on the predicted health sate of this equipment. In particular, this framework is used to predict the health state of transformers based on their usage. The health sta

  8. Pós colheita de bananas-maçã submetidas ao 1-MCP e armazenadas á temperatura ambiente Postharvest of 'apple' banana submetted to 1-MCP and storage in room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Marque Pinheiro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Bananas da cultivar Maçã foram adquiridas no estádio dois de coloração da casca (verde maturos e submetidas à ação de 1-MCP. O 1-MCP foi aplicado por 12 horas nas seguintes concentrações: 0 (controle, 50, 100, 150, 200 hL.L-1. Após aplicação, os frutos foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente (temperatura média 20ºC ± 1 e umidade relativa 80% ± 5 e avaliados à medida que atingiam os graus 3, 5 e 7 de coloração da casca. O tratamento com 1-MCP atrasou o início do amadurecimento de bananas-maçã armazenadas sob temperatura ambiente, baseado nas primeiras mudanças de coloração da casca. A aplicação de 1-MCP em bananas-maçã, ditou maiores valores de perda de massa e relação polpa/casca (nos graus 5 e 7 de coloração da casca. O 1-MCP, nas doses 100, 150 e 200 hL.L-1 de 1-MCP promoveu desverdecimento desuniforme e tonalidade avermelhada na casca. O tratamento 50 hL.L-1 de 1-MCP é o mais adequado, por promover a extensão da vida pós-colheita de bananas-maçã da cultivar armazenadas sob temperatura ambiente sem afetar a coloração da casca dos frutos, apresentando qualidade, baseando-se na cor da casca, firmeza, acidez titulável, pH e sólidos solúveis, semelhante ao controle.Mature green 'Apple' bananas were submitted to five concentrations of 1-MCP (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 hL.L-1 for 12 hours. After treatment, the fruits were stored at room temperature (20ºC ± 1 and 80% ± 5 RH and analyzed at 3,5 and 7 color degree of peel. The treatment with 1-MCP delayed the start of the ripening based in the first changes of peel color. The treatment of 'Apple' bananas with 1-MCP promoted higher values of mass loss and pulp/peel ratio (5 and 7 degrees of color peel. The fruits treated with 100, 150 and 200 nL.L-1 of 1-MCP showed heterogeneous degreening and development of red color on the peel. 1-MCP at 50 nL.L-1 was the most appropriated treatment for promoting the extension of postharvest life of 'Apple' bananas stored

  9. Seleção de híbridos diplóides (AA de bananeira com base em três índices não paramétricos Selection of (AA diploid banana hybrids using three non-parametric indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Saraiva Lessa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se selecionar híbridos diplóides (AA de bananeira com base em três índices não paramétricos, a fim de orientar a seleção e aumentar o aproveitamento da variabilidade existente no Banco de Germoplasma de Bananeira da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Foram avaliados 11 híbridos, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As parcelas constituíram-se de seis plantas, espaçadas de 2,5 m x 2,5 m, tendo na bordadura plantas da cultivar Pacovan. Tomaram-se dados dos seguintes caracteres: altura da planta, diâmetro do pseudocaule, número de filhos na floração, número de folhas na floração, ciclo da planta do plantio à emissão do cacho, presença de pólen, número de pencas, número de frutos, comprimento do fruto e resistência à Sigatoka-amarela. As médias desses 10 caracteres foram empregadas no cálculo dos índices multiplicativos, de soma de classificação e da distância genótipo-ideótipo. Os dois híbridos de melhor desempenho geral, o SH3263 e o 1318-01, foram classificados, respectivamente, em primeiro e segundo lugares pelos índices multiplicativos e de soma de classificação, enquanto o índice da distância genótipo-ideótipo os classificou em primeiro e quarto lugares respectivamente. Embora os três índices tenham demonstrado uma boa correspondência entre o desempenho geral dos híbridos e a sua classificação, os índices multiplicativo e de soma de classificação propiciaram classificação mais adequada desses híbridos.The objective of the present study was to select diploids (AA hybrids of banana based on three non-parametric indices as to guide the selection and increase the use of the variability present in the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. Eleven hybrids were evaluated in random blocks with four replicates. The plots consisted of six plants spaced 2.5 m x 2.5 m whereas the border rows were from the Pacovan cultivar. The following

  10. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  11. Annotation-Based Whole Genomic Prediction and Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc; Janss, Luc;

    in their contribution to estimated genomic variances and in prediction of genomic breeding values by applying SNP annotation approaches to feed efficiency. Ensembl Variant Predictor (EVP) and Pig QTL database were used as the source of genomic annotation for 60K chip. Genomic prediction was performed using the Bayes...... prove useful for less heritable traits such as diseases and fertility...

  12. Viscosity Prediction of Hydrocarbon Mixtures Based on the Friction Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    The application and capability of the friction theory (f-theory) for viscosity predictions of hydrocarbon fluids is further illustrated by predicting the viscosity of binary and ternary liquid mixtures composed of n-alkanes ranging from n-pentane to n-decane for wide ranges of temperature and fro...

  13. On the distribution of scaling hydraulic parameters in a spatially anisotropic banana field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Carlos M.

    2005-06-01

    When modeling soil hydraulic properties at field scale it is desirable to approximate the variability in a given area by means of some scaling transformations which relate spatially variable local hydraulic properties to global reference characteristics. Seventy soil cores were sampled within a drip irrigated banana plantation greenhouse on a 14×5 array of 2.5 m×5 m rectangles at 15 cm depth, to represent the field scale variability of flow related properties. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention characteristics were measured in these 70 soil cores. van Genuchten water retention curves (WRC) with optimized m ( m≠1-1/ n) were fitted to the WR data and a general Mualem-van Genuchten model was used to predict hydraulic conductivity functions for each soil core. A scaling law, of the form ν=ανi*, was fitted to soil hydraulic data, such that the original hydraulic parameters νi were scaled down to a reference curve with parameters νi*. An analytical expression, in terms of Beta functions, for the average suction value, hc, necessary to apply the above scaling method, was obtained. A robust optimization procedure with fast convergence to the global minimum is used to find the optimum hc, such that dispersion is minimized in the scaled data set. Via the Box-Cox transformation P(τ)=(αiτ-1)/τ, Box-Cox normality plots showed that scaling factors for the suction ( αh) and hydraulic conductivity ( αk) were approximately log-normally distributed (i.e. τ=0), as it would be expected for such dynamic properties involving flow. By contrast static soil related properties as αθ were found closely Gaussian, although a power τ=3/4 was best for approaching normality. Application of four different normality tests (Anderson-Darling, Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and χ2 goodness-of-fit tests) rendered some contradictory results among them, thus suggesting that this widely extended practice is not recommended for providing a suitable probability

  14. SHM-Based Probabilistic Fatigue Life Prediction for Bridges Based on FE Model Updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Cho, Soojin

    2016-03-02

    Fatigue life prediction for a bridge should be based on the current condition of the bridge, and various sources of uncertainty, such as material properties, anticipated vehicle loads and environmental conditions, make the prediction very challenging. This paper presents a new approach for probabilistic fatigue life prediction for bridges using finite element (FE) model updating based on structural health monitoring (SHM) data. Recently, various types of SHM systems have been used to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges. For example, SHM data can be used to estimate the degradation of an in-service bridge, which makes it possible to update the initial FE model. The proposed method consists of three steps: (1) identifying the modal properties of a bridge, such as mode shapes and natural frequencies, based on the ambient vibration under passing vehicles; (2) updating the structural parameters of an initial FE model using the identified modal properties; and (3) predicting the probabilistic fatigue life using the updated FE model. The proposed method is demonstrated by application to a numerical model of a bridge, and the impact of FE model updating on the bridge fatigue life is discussed.

  15. Research on road topology based mobility prediction schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lin; Chen Hongzhong; Jiang Changjun

    2007-01-01

    Geographic routing has been introduced in mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks . But its performance suffers greatly from mobility- induced location errors that can cause Lost Link (LLNK) and LOOP problems. Thus various mobility prediction algorithms have been proposed to mitigate the errors, but sometimes their prediction errors are substantial . A novel mobility prediction technique that incorporates both mobile positioning information and road topology knowledge was presented. Furthermore, the performance of the scheme was evaluated via simulations , along with two other schemes , namely , Linear Velocity Prediction ( LVP) and Weighted Velocity Prediction ( WVP) for comparison purpose . The results of simulation under Manhattan mobility model show that the proposed scheme could track the movement of a node well and hence provide noticeable improvement over LVP and MVP.

  16. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  17. Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwa Fama Tongo, Lyna; Muengula, Marcel; Zinga, I; Kalonji, Adrien; Iskra-Caruana, M.L.; Bragard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting produc- tion and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiol- ogical survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers’ fields for two consecutive sea- sons coverin...

  18. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  19. Risk zoning of cold damage to banana in Hainan Island%海南岛香蕉寒害风险区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海平; 王春乙; 张京红; 蔡大鑫; 刘少军; 车秀芬

    2013-01-01

    依据自然灾害风险分析理论和海南岛历年气候、DEM、耕地面积、香蕉种植面积和产量资料,借助GIS技术,对海南岛香蕉寒害的致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境敏感性、易损性和防寒抗灾能力进行了分析和区划,在此基础上建立了综合的香蕉寒害风险指数,并将该指数应用于海南岛香蕉寒害的风险区划.结果表明,海南岛中部为香蕉寒害高和次高风险区,东部和南部为香蕉寒害次低和低风险区,其余地区为中等风险区.%Based on risk analysis theory of natural disasters and data of climate,DEM,cultivated area,banana planting area and yield of Hainan Island over years and GIS technology,the hazard of disaster-causing factors,sensitivity of disaster-pregnant environments and vulnerability and disaster prevention ability against cold damage to banana in Hainan Island were analyzed and zoned.Furthermore,a comprehensive risk index model of cold damage to banana was constructed to divide the risk zone of cold damage to banana in Hainan Island.Results show that the highest and second-highest risk zones of cold damage to banana are located in the middle areas of Hainan Island,while the lowest and second-lowest risk zones are located in the eastern and southern areas.

  20. Application of Nonlinear Predictive Control Based on RBF Network Predictive Model in MCFC Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yue-hua; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    This paper described a nonlinear model predictive controller for regulating a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). A detailed mechanism model of output voltage of a MCFC was presented at first. However, this model was too complicated to be used in a control system. Consequently, an off line radial basis function (RBF) network was introduced to build a nonlinear predictive model. And then, the optimal control sequences were obtained by applying golden mean method. The models and controller have been realized in the MATLAB environment. Simulation results indicate the proposed algorithm exhibits satisfying control effect even when the current densities vary largely.

  1. High Precision Prediction of Rolling Force Based on Fuzzy and Nerve Method for Cold Tandem Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-yu; SHAN Xiu-ying; NIU Zhao-ping

    2008-01-01

    The rolling force model for cold tandem mill was put forward by using the Elman dynamic recursive network method, based on the actual measured data. Furthermore, a good assumption is put forward, which brings a full universe of discourse self-adjusting factor fuzzy control, closed-loop adjusting, based on error feedback and expertise into a rolling force prediction model, to modify prediction outputs and improve prediction precision and robustness. The simulated results indicate that the method is highly effective and the prediction precision is better than that of the traditional method. Predicted relative error is less than ±4%, so the prediction is high precise for the cold tandem mill.

  2. Predictability of Shanghai Stock Market by Agent-based Mix-game Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the effort of using agent-based mix-game model to predict financial time series. It introduces the prediction methodology by means of mix-game model and gives an example of its application to forecasting Shanghai Index. The results show that this prediction methodology is effective and agent-based mix-game model is a potential good model to predict time series of financial markets.

  3. Wavelet Neural Network Based Traffic Prediction for Next Generation Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qigang; Li Qunzhan; He Zhengyou

    2005-01-01

    By using netflow traffic collecting technology, some traffic data for analysis are collected from a next generation network (NGN) operator. To build a wavelet basis neural network (NN), the Sigmoid function is replaced with the wavelet in NN. Then the wavelet multiresolution analysis method is used to decompose the traffic signal, and the decomposed component sequences are employed to train the NN. By using the methods, an NGN traffic prediction model is built to predict one day's traffic. The experimental results show that the traffic prediction method of wavelet NN is more accurate than that without using wavelet in the NGN traffic forecasting.

  4. Action prediction based on anticipatory brain potentials during simulated driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Gheorghe, Lucian Andrei; Millán, José del R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The ability of an automobile to infer the driver’s upcoming actions directly from neural signals could enrich the interaction of the car with its driver. Intelligent vehicles fitted with an on-board brain-computer interface able to decode the driver’s intentions can use this information to improve the driving experience. In this study we investigate the neural signatures of anticipation of specific actions, namely braking and accelerating. Approach. We investigated anticipatory slow cortical potentials in electroencephalogram recorded from 18 healthy participants in a driving simulator using a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions: count-down numbers followed by ‘Start’/‘Stop’ cue. We report decoding performance before the action onset using a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier based on temporal features. Main results. (i) Despite the visual and driving related cognitive distractions, we show the presence of anticipatory event related potentials locked to the stimuli onset similar to the widely reported CNV signal (with an average peak value of -8 μV at electrode Cz). (ii) We demonstrate the discrimination between cases requiring to perform an action upon imperative subsequent stimulus (Go condition, e.g. a ‘Red’ traffic light) versus events that do not require such action (No-go condition; e.g. a ‘Yellow’ light); with an average single trial classification performance of 0.83 ± 0.13 for braking and 0.79 ± 0.12 for accelerating (area under the curve). (iii) We show that the centro-medial anticipatory potentials are observed as early as 320 ± 200 ms before the action with a detection rate of 0.77 ± 0.12 in offline analysis. Significance. We show for the first time the feasibility of predicting the driver’s intention through decoding anticipatory related potentials during simulated car driving with high recognition rates.

  5. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  6. Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address

  7. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  8. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  9. The Structure Design and Spatial Analysis of the New Banana Planting Open Pit Machine%新型香蕉种植开坑机的结构设计与空间分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉印; 黄伟; 刘光浩; 王莎莎; 毕伟

    2017-01-01

    基于目前香蕉种植作业方式落后及种植开坑机研制缺乏的现状,研发了一种连杆式可控三自由度香蕉种植开坑机。首先,介绍了新型香蕉种植开坑机的机构原理和结构特点;其次,根据新型香蕉种植开坑机的雅可比矩阵进行奇异性分析,并得出其结构奇异位型;再次,根据数学理论隐含数存在的条件,分析计算新型香蕉种植机结构工作空间的边界条件,得出香蕉开坑机的工作空间;最后,运用 MatLab 软件仿真模拟仿真,得出香蕉开坑机输出点的空间图形。该分析验证了香蕉种植开坑机的可行性和可靠性,具有一定的推广价值。%Based on the banana cultivation practices , banana planting machine development the present situation of the lack of open pit , thie paper developed a connecting rod type controlled three degrees of freedom banana planting machine open pit .First , this paper introduces the new banana planting mechanism principle and structure characteristics of open pit machine , Secondly , according to a new type of banana planting machine open pit singularity of the jacobian matrix and the singular type structure , analysis is made .Again, according to the mathematical theory of several existing condi-tions, calculation of new banana planting machine structure workspace boundary condition , it is concluded that the ba-nana open pit machine workspace .Simulation by using the software of matlab simulation , it is concluded that the banana open pit machine output points of space pattern .The analysis proves the feasibility of banana planting open pit machine and by sex , has certain promotion value .

  10. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  11. Avaliação de clones de banana Cavendish Evaluation of cavendish banana clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Na bananeira ocorrem variações somaclonais em taxa muito superior ao que se observa na maioria das outras culturas, provavelmente em função da instabilidade mitótica. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar clones de bananeira Cavendish coletados em diferentes locais. Os clones Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063 coletados em São Paulo, Santa Catarina e Bahia foram avaliados no Lote 54-P da Thelo Produção Agropecuária (Grupo Plena, no Projeto Jaíba, Etapa 1, no município de Matias Cardoso-MG. Avaliaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de brotos, peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos e de pencas por cacho, comprimento e circunferência do fruto e número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita. Observou-se grande similaridade nas características dos clones. No entanto, os resultados obtidos permitem a recomendação dos clones N. IAC Abóbora Verde e G.N. Williams.Somaclonal variations occur in bananas at greater rates compared to other crops, probably due to mitotic instability. The objective of the present research was to evaluate Cavendish banana clones collected from different sites. The 'Grand Naine' clones (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 and 'Nanicão' (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 and N. SC-063 collected from the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Bahia, were evaluated at the Station 54-P of the Thelo Agricultural Production (Plena Group, in the Jaíba Project, Stage 1, in the city of Matias Cardoso-MG. The characteristics of the plant as height and pseudostem circumference, number of live leaves at flowering and harvesting, number of shoots, weight of bunch and hand, number of fruits and hands per bunch, fruit length and

  12. Recurrent neural networks-based multivariable system PID predictive control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; WANG Fanzhen; SONG Ying; CHEN Zengqiang; YUAN Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller is proposed on the basis of recurrent neural networks,due to the difficulty of tuning the parameters of conventional PID controller.In the control process of nonlinear multivariable system,a decoupling controller was constructed,which took advantage of multi-nonlinear PID controllers in parallel.With the idea of predictive control,two multivariable predictive control strategies were established.One strategy involved the use of the general minimum variance control function on the basis of recursive multi-step predictive method.The other involved the adoption of multistep predictive cost energy to train the weights of the decoupling controller.Simulation studies have shown the efficiency of these strategies.

  13. Grammar-based feature generation for time-series prediction

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, Anthony Mihirana

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes a novel approach for time-series prediction using machine learning techniques with automatic feature generation. Application of machine learning techniques to predict time-series continues to attract considerable attention due to the difficulty of the prediction problems compounded by the non-linear and non-stationary nature of the real world time-series. The performance of machine learning techniques, among other things, depends on suitable engineering of features. This book proposes a systematic way for generating suitable features using context-free grammar. A number of feature selection criteria are investigated and a hybrid feature generation and selection algorithm using grammatical evolution is proposed. The book contains graphical illustrations to explain the feature generation process. The proposed approaches are demonstrated by predicting the closing price of major stock market indices, peak electricity load and net hourly foreign exchange client trade volume. The proposed method ...

  14. An Efficient Deterministic Approach to Model-based Prediction Uncertainty

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics deals with the prediction of the end of life (EOL) of a system. EOL is a random variable, due to the presence of process noise and uncertainty in the...

  15. SVM with Quadratic Polynomial Kernel Function Based Nonlinear Model One-step-ahead Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟民; 何国龙; 皮道映; 孙优贤

    2005-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM) with quadratic polynomial kernel function based nonlinear model one-step-ahead predictive controller is presented. The SVM based predictive model is established with black-box identification method. By solving a cubic equation in the feature space, an explicit predictive control law is obtained through the predictive control mechanism. The effect of controller is demonstrated on a recognized benchmark problem and on the control of continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Simulation results show that SVM with quadratic polynomial kernel function based predictive controller can be well applied to nonlinear systems, with good performance in following reference trajectory as well as in disturbance-rejection.

  16. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  17. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  18. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  19. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl

  20. Detecting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil and symptomless banana tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana produc

  1. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for...; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing season; Harvesting only of hard green...

  2. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), m

  3. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single satisfa

  4. Embryo quality predictive models based on cumulus cells gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devjak R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of in vitro fertilization (IVF in clinical practice of infertility treatment, the indicators for high quality embryos were investigated. Cumulus cells (CC have a specific gene expression profile according to the developmental potential of the oocyte they are surrounding, and therefore, specific gene expression could be used as a biomarker. The aim of our study was to combine more than one biomarker to observe improvement in prediction value of embryo development. In this study, 58 CC samples from 17 IVF patients were analyzed. This study was approved by the Republic of Slovenia National Medical Ethics Committee. Gene expression analysis [quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR] for five genes, analyzed according to embryo quality level, was performed. Two prediction models were tested for embryo quality prediction: a binary logistic and a decision tree model. As the main outcome, gene expression levels for five genes were taken and the area under the curve (AUC for two prediction models were calculated. Among tested genes, AMHR2 and LIF showed significant expression difference between high quality and low quality embryos. These two genes were used for the construction of two prediction models: the binary logistic model yielded an AUC of 0.72 ± 0.08 and the decision tree model yielded an AUC of 0.73 ± 0.03. Two different prediction models yielded similar predictive power to differentiate high and low quality embryos. In terms of eventual clinical decision making, the decision tree model resulted in easy-to-interpret rules that are highly applicable in clinical practice.

  5. A Comprehensive Propagation Prediction Model Comprising Microfacet Based Scattering and Probability Based Coverage Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. M. Zahid Kausar; Ahmed Wasif Reza; Lau Chun Wo; Harikrishnan Ramiah

    2014-01-01

    Although ray tracing based propagation prediction models are popular for indoor radio wave propagation characterization, most of them do not provide an integrated approach for achieving the goal of optimum coverage, which is a key part in designing wireless network. In this paper, an accelerated technique of three-dimensional ray tracing is presented, where rough surface scattering is included for making a more accurate ray tracing technique. Here, the rough surface scattering is represented...

  6. A Comprehensive Propagation Prediction Model Comprising Microfacet Based Scattering and Probability Based Coverage Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kausar, A. S. M. Zahid; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Wo, Lau Chun; Ramiah, Harikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Although ray tracing based propagation prediction models are popular for indoor radio wave propagation characterization, most of them do not provide an integrated approach for achieving the goal of optimum coverage, which is a key part in designing wireless network. In this paper, an accelerated technique of three-dimensional ray tracing is presented, where rough surface scattering is included for making a more accurate ray tracing technique. Here, the rough surface scattering is represented ...

  7. Network-based gene prediction for Plasmodium falciparum malaria towards genetics-based drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yang; Xu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is the most deadly parasitic infectious disease. Existing drug treatments have limited efficacy in malaria elimination, and the complex pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. Detecting novel malaria-associated genes not only contributes in revealing the disease pathogenesis, but also facilitates discovering new targets for anti-malaria drugs. Methods In this study, we developed a network-based approach to predict malaria-associated genes. We constructed a cros...

  8. First report of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  9. Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Predictive-Hashing Based Multicast Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonho Choi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A predictive-hashing based Denial-of-Service (DoS resistant multicast authentication protocol was proposed based upon predictive-hashing, one-way key chain, erasure codes, and distillation codes techniques [4, 5]. It was claimed that this new scheme should be more resistant to various types of DoS attacks, and its worst-case resource requirements were derived in terms of coarse-level system parameters including CPU times for signature verification and erasure/distillation decoding operations, attack levels, etc. To show the effectiveness of our approach and to analyze exact resource requirements in various attack scenarios with different parameter settings, we designed and implemented an attack simulator which is platformindependent. Various attack scenarios may be created with different attack types and parameters against a receiver equipped with the predictive-hashing based protocol. The design of the simulator is explained, and the simulation results are presented with detailed resource usage statistics. In addition, resistance level to various types of DoS attacks is formulated with a newly defined resistance metric. By comparing these results to those from another approach, PRABS [8], we show that the resistance level of our protocol is greatly enhanced even in the presence of many attack streams.

  10. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  11. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  12. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Banana (AA Diploids with Contrasting Levels of Black and Yellow Sigatoka Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most banana cultivars are susceptible to many diseases, whereas Sigatoka leads to greatest yield losses. One of the strategies to overcome this disease is thorough banana genetic breeding which consists in the obtainment of improved (AA diploids which are then crossed with triploids obtaining (AAAB tetraploid disease resistant bananas also presenting other important agronomic characteristics. The prior knowledge of the genetic diversity of (AA diploids, is therefore considered indispensable in order to direct the crosses being made. The objective of the present work was to analyze the genetic diversity of 20 (AA banana diploids with contrasting levels of reaction to yellow and black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella musicola and M. fijensis, respectively, using molecular markers. From the dendrogram data it is shown that a great number of experimental hybrids can be obtained from the combination of genetically different diploids, therefore making the banana genetic breeding program more efficient regarding its objectives.

  14. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  15. Efficient prediction of co-complexed proteins based on coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien M de Vienne

    Full Text Available The prediction of the network of protein-protein interactions (PPI of an organism is crucial for the understanding of biological processes and for the development of new drugs. Machine learning methods have been successfully applied to the prediction of PPI in yeast by the integration of multiple direct and indirect biological data sources. However, experimental data are not available for most organisms. We propose here an ensemble machine learning approach for the prediction of PPI that depends solely on features independent from experimental data. We developed new estimators of the coevolution between proteins and combined them in an ensemble learning procedure.We applied this method to a dataset of known co-complexed proteins in Escherichia coli and compared it to previously published methods. We show that our method allows prediction of PPI with an unprecedented precision of 95.5% for the first 200 sorted pairs of proteins compared to 28.5% on the same dataset with the previous best method.A close inspection of the best predicted pairs allowed us to detect new or recently discovered interactions between chemotactic components, the flagellar apparatus and RNA polymerase complexes in E. coli.

  16. A CHAID Based Performance Prediction Model in Educational Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance in higher secondary school education in India is a turning point in the academic lives of all students. As this academic performance is influenced by many factors, it is essential to develop predictive data mining model for students' performance so as to identify the slow learners and study the influence of the dominant factors on their academic performance. In the present investigation, a survey cum experimental methodology was adopted to generate a database and it was constructed from a primary and a secondary source. While the primary data was collected from the regular students, the secondary data was gathered from the school and office of the Chief Educational Officer (CEO. A total of 1000 datasets of the year 2006 from five different schools in three different districts of Tamilnadu were collected. The raw data was preprocessed in terms of filling up missing values, transforming values in one form into another and relevant attribute/ variable selection. As a result, we had 772 student records, which were used for CHAID prediction model construction. A set of prediction rules were extracted from CHIAD prediction model and the efficiency of the generated CHIAD prediction model was found. The accuracy of the present model was compared with other model and it has been found to be satisfactory.

  17. Prediction of solar cycle based on the invariant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shijun; YU Xiaoding; CHEN Yongyi

    2003-01-01

    A new method of predicting solar activities has been introduced in this paper. The method can predict both the occurrence time and the maximum number of sunspot at the same time. By studying the variation of sunspot, we find that the combination of the several variables was nearly invariable during the entire solar cycles, as called invariant. And just only by determining the start time of a cycle, we can predict the occurrence time of cycle's peak value accurately. Furthermore, according to observational data of the sunspot cycles, it showed that the sunspot maximum number has correlation not only with the prophase variety of the number in the cycle but also with the anaphase of the previous period. So we can introduce an equivalent regression coefficient, which can dynamically self-adapt to different cycle lengths, and effectively solve the inconsistency between the accuracy and the lead-time of the forecast. It can guarantee the satisfied accuracy and effectively increases the lead-time of the forecast. This method can predict the maximum sunspot number for solar cycle at the approximate half rise of the period. This method predicts that the occurrence time of the maximum sunspot number for cycle 24 will be in January 2011.

  18. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  19. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Condition-based prediction of time-dependent reliability in composites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a reliability-based prediction methodology to obtain the remaining useful life of composite materials subjected to fatigue degradation....

  1. Traffic Prediction Based on SVM Training Sample Divided by Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the volume of traffic is rapidly increasing. When vehicles running through the tunnel are more intensive or move slowly, the tunnel environment occurs deteriorated sharply, which affects the normal operation of the vehicle in the tunnel. This paper uses the result of previous mining association rules to select feature items and to establish four training samples divided by time. Then the training samples are utilized to create the SVM classification model. Finally the trained SVM model is used to prediction the tunnel traffic situation. Through traffic situation prediction, effective decisions can be made before traffic jams, and ensure that the tunnel traffic is normal.  

  2. Theoretical Explanation of Return Predictability Based on Stock Price Formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lei; Wu Chongfeng; Wang Xinrong

    2006-01-01

    To find out which factors determine stock return and to give rational explanation of return predictability, according to the principle of stock price formulation, the trend of stock price is obtained by use of option pricing method. The trend of stock price is put into reconstructing CAPM (capital asset pricing model) beta; it is concluded that the firm-specific biases and the scale biases potentially induce return predictability. In addition, through the relation between the biases structure and the intrinsic value, an appropriate theoretic explanation is supplied for three-factor pricing model proposed by Fama and French.

  3. Predictive functional control of integrating process based on impulse response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHANG; Ping LI; Weidong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The predictive model is built according to the characteristics of the impulse response of integrating process. In order to eliminate the permanent offset between the setpoint and the process output in the presence of the load disturbance, a novel error compensation method is proposed. Then predictive functional control of integrating process is designed. The method given generates a simple control structure, which can significantly reduce online computation. Furthermore, the tuning of the controller is fairly straightforward. Simulation results indicate that the designed control system is relatively robust to the parameters variation of the process.

  4. Distributed estimation based on observations prediction in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-03-19

    We consider wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used for distributed estimation of unknown parameters. Due to the limited bandwidth, sensor nodes quantize their noisy observations before transmission to a fusion center (FC) for the estimation process. In this letter, the correlation between observations is exploited to reduce the mean-square error (MSE) of the distributed estimation. Specifically, sensor nodes generate local predictions of their observations and then transmit the quantized prediction errors (innovations) to the FC rather than the quantized observations. The analytic and numerical results show that transmitting the innovations rather than the observations mitigates the effect of quantization noise and hence reduces the MSE. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Predictive Models of Alcohol Use Based on Attitudes and Individual Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…

  6. Secagem de bananas prata e d'água por convecção forçada Drying of banana prata and banana d'água by forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de variáveis como cultivar, formato (cilindro e disco, branqueamento e condições do ar aquecido (temperatura: 50 e 70 ºC e velocidade: 0,14 e 0,42 m/s sobre o comportamento de secagem convectiva de bananas com uso de modelagem matemática. As bananas foram desidratadas em secador de bandejas e pesada em intervalos pré-determinados. O modelo exponencial foi bem ajustado às curvas de secagem (R²: 0,98-0,99, mostrando que os fatores mais influentes sobre a taxa de secagem foram a temperatura, a velocidade do ar e o branqueamento. De acordo com as constantes cinéticas apresentadas pelo modelo recomenda-se a secagem de banana, em qualquer dos formatos estudados, nas seguintes condições: para banana-prata, uso de branqueamento e secagem a 50 ºC/0,42 m/s; e para banana-d'água, sem uso de branqueamento e secagem a 70 ºC/0,42 m/s.The influence of variables such as cultivar, shape (cylinder and disc, blanching, and heated air conditions (temperatures of 50 and 70 ºC and velocities of 0.14 and 0.42 m/s on convective drying behavior of bananas using mathematical modeling. The bananas were dehydrated in a tray dryer and were weighed in predetermined periods of time. The exponential model showed good agreement with the drying curves (R²: 0.98-0.99 indicating that the factors that influenced the drying rate the most were temperature, air velocity, and blanching. According to the kinetics constants obtained with the model, the drying of bananas is recommended, including all shapes investigated under the following conditions: banana prata, blanching and drying at 50 ºC/0.42 m/s; and banana d'água, no blanching and drying at 70 ºC/0.42 m/s.

  7. Scanpath Based N-Gram Models for Predicting Reading Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Predicting reading behavior is a difficult task. Reading behavior depends on various linguistic factors (e.g. sentence length, structural complexity etc.) and other factors (e.g individual's reading style, age etc.). Ideally, a reading model should be similar to a language model where the model i...

  8. Bayesian model-based cluster analysis for predicting macrofaunal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Hoijtink, H.; Akkermans, W.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    To predict macrofaunal community composition from environmental data a two-step approach is often followed: (1) the water samples are clustered into groups on the basis of the macrofauna data and (2) the groups are related to the environmental data, e.g. by discriminant analysis. For the cluster ana

  9. Stability analysis of generalized predictive control based on Kleinman's controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Baocang; XI Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    With Kleinman's controller, its extended form and Riccati iteration as analyzing tools, the stability of GPC under various parameter cases is discussed. The overall closed-loop stability conclusions of GPC in equivalence with Kleinman's controller are obtained, which cover some existing results and provide the theoretical foundation for stable design of predictive control.

  10. Binaural intelligibility prediction based on the speech transmission index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Drullman, R.

    2008-01-01

    Although the speech transmission index STI is a well-accepted and standardized method for objective prediction of speech intelligibility in a wide range of environments and applications, it is essentially a monaural model. Advantages of binaural hearing in speech intelligibility are disregarded. In

  11. Flexible nurse staffing based on hourly bed census predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortbeek, N.; Braaksma, A.; Burger, C.A.J.; Bakker, P.J.M.; Boucherie, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Workload on nursing wards depends highly on patient arrivals and patient lengths of stay, which are both inherently variable. Predicting this workload and staffing nurses accordingly is essential for guaranteeing quality of care in a cost effective manner. This paper introduces a stochastic method t

  12. Flexible nurse staffing based on hourly bed census predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortbeek, N.; Braaksma, A.; Burger, C.A.J.; Bakker, P.J.M.; Boucherie, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Workloads in nursing wards depend highly on patient arrivals and lengths of stay, both of which are inherently variable. Predicting these workloads and staffing nurses accordingly are essential for guaranteeing quality of care in a cost-effective manner. This paper introduces a stochastic method tha

  13. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  14. Experience-based model predictive control using reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.; Wiering, M.A.; Hellendoorn, J.

    2004-01-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is becoming an increasingly popular method to select actions for controlling dynamic systems. TraditionallyMPC uses a model of the system to be controlled and a performance function to characterize the desired behavior of the system. The MPC agent finds actions over a

  15. UAV Formation Flight Based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a distributed collision-free formation flight control law in the framework of nonlinear model predictive control. Formation configuration is determined in the virtual reference point coordinate system. Obstacle avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty, and intervehicle collision avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty combined with a new priority strategy.

  16. State-based Communication on Time-predictable Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    of tasks on other cores. Assuming a specific time-predictable multicore processor, we evaluate how the read and write primitives of the five algorithms contribute to the worst-case execution time of the communicating tasks. Each of the five algorithms has specific capabilities that make them suitable...

  17. Example-Based Human Pose Recovery under Predicted Partial Occlusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Babuska, Robert; Groen, Frans C A.

    2010-01-01

    For human pose recovery, the presence of occlusions due to objects or other persons in the scene remains a difficult problem to cope with. However, recent advances in the area of human detection allow for simultaneous segmentation of humans and the prediction of occluded regions. In this chapter, we

  18. Well-log based prediction of thermal conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

    Rock thermal conductivity (TC) is paramount for the determination of heat flow and the calculation of temperature profiles. Due to the scarcity of drill cores compared to the availability of petrophysical well logs, methods are desired to indirectly predict TC in sedimentary basins. Most...

  19. Behavior-Based Budget Management Using Predictive Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2013-03-01

    Historically, the mechanisms to perform forecasting have primarily used two common factors as a basis for future predictions: time and money. While time and money are very important aspects of determining future budgetary spend patterns, organizations represent a complex system of unique individuals with a myriad of associated behaviors and all of these behaviors have bearing on how budget is utilized. When looking to forecasted budgets, it becomes a guessing game about how budget managers will behave under a given set of conditions. This becomes relatively messy when human nature is introduced, as different managers will react very differently under similar circumstances. While one manager becomes ultra conservative during periods of financial austerity, another might be un-phased and continue to spend as they have in the past. Both might revert into a state of budgetary protectionism masking what is truly happening at a budget holder level, in order to keep as much budget and influence as possible while at the same time sacrificing the greater good of the organization. To more accurately predict future outcomes, the models should consider both time and money and other behavioral patterns that have been observed across the organization. The field of predictive analytics is poised to provide the tools and methodologies needed for organizations to do just this: capture and leverage behaviors of the past to predict the future.

  20. Predicting Academic Performance Based on Students' Blog and Microblog Posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Popescu, Elvira; Becheru, Alexandru; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which textual complexity indices applied on students’ online contributions, corroborated with a longitudinal analysis performed on their weekly posts, predict academic performance. The source of student writing consists of blog and microblog posts, created in th

  1. A strip thickness prediction method of hot rolling based on D_S information reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽杰; 邵诚; 张利

    2015-01-01

    To improve prediction accuracy of strip thickness in hot rolling, a kind of Dempster/Shafer(D_S) information reconstitution prediction method (DSIRPM) was presented. DSIRPM basically consisted of three steps to implement the prediction of strip thickness. Firstly, ibaAnalyzer was employed to analyze the periodicity of hot rolling and find three sensitive parameters to strip thickness, which were used to undertake polynomial curve fitting prediction based on least square respectively, and preliminary prediction results were obtained. Then, D_S evidence theory was used to reconstruct the prediction results under different parameters, in which basic probability assignment (BPA) was the key and the proposed contribution rate calculated using grey relational degree was regarded as BPA, which realizes BPA selection objectively. Finally, from this distribution, future strip thickness trend was inferred. Experimental results clearly show the improved prediction accuracy and stability compared with other prediction models, such as GM(1,1) and the weighted average prediction model.

  2. Increasing the Target Prediction Accuracy of MicroRNA Based on Combination of Prediction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Q. Shatnawi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA is an oligonucleotide that plays a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases (mentioning Cancer. It is a non-coding RNA that is involved in the control of gene expression through the binding and inhibition of mRNA. In this study, three algorithms were implemented in WEKA software using two testing modes to analyze five datasets of miRNA families. The data mining techniques are used to compare the interactions of miRNA-mRNA that it either belongs to the same gene-family or to different families, and to establish a biological scheme that explains how the biological parameters are involved or less involved in miRNA-mRNA prediction. The factors that were involved in the prediction process includs match, mismatch, bulge, loop, and score to represent the binding characteristics, while the position, 3’UTR length, and chromosomal location and chromosomal categorizations represent the characteristics of the target mRNA. These attributes can provide an empirical guidance for study of specific miRNA family to scan the whole human genome for novel targets. This research provides promising results that can be utilized for current and future research in this field.

  3. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. Results An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin. Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7% deviated (p Conclusions We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker

  4. Prediction of ventricular fibrillation based on nonlinear multi-parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Junfeng; NING Xinbao; ZHOU Lingling; ZHANG Song

    2003-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) caused by myocardial ischemia is one of the leading factors of death attributed to cardiovascular diseases. It is particularly significant to predict VF and gain valuable time for clinic therapy. Fivedogs are taken as the research objects and a VF model is introduced. The nonlinear characteristics of the ECGs before and after VF are investigated with nonlinear multi-parame- ter analysis methods, Gaussian kernel (GK) correlation estimation algorithm and Lyapunov exponent estimation algorithm. Correlation entropy h2is also presented. The results indicate that there are three parameters which will change at the same time with the conditions of myocardial ischemia, and any changes of a single parameter may be caused by other factors and mislead the judgment. Multi-parameter analysis is more reliable to reveal the heart conditions,and to predict VF without misjudgments.

  5. Feature Fusion Based SVM Classifier for Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Julia; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Islam, Md Khaled Ben; Hasan, Md Al Mehedi

    2016-12-18

    For the importance of protein subcellular localization in different branches of life science and drug discovery, researchers have focused their attentions on protein subcellular localization prediction. Effective representation of features from protein sequences plays a most vital role in protein subcellular localization prediction specially in case of machine learning techniques. Single feature representation-like pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), physiochemical property models (PPM), and amino acid index distribution (AAID) contains insufficient information from protein sequences. To deal with such problems, we have proposed two feature fusion representations, AAIDPAAC and PPMPAAC, to work with Support Vector Machine classifiers, which fused PseAAC with PPM and AAID accordingly. We have evaluated the performance for both single and fused feature representation of a Gram-negative bacterial dataset. We have got at least 3% more actual accuracy by AAIDPAAC and 2% more locative accuracy by PPMPAAC than single feature representation.

  6. Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach.

  7. Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Artem; Carlin, Daniel E.; Paull, Evan O.; Baertsch, Robert; Stuart, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet) that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach. PMID:26960204

  8. Structure-based prediction of protein-folding transition paths

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, William M

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general theory to describe the distribution of protein-folding transition paths. We show that transition paths follow a predictable sequence of high-free-energy transient states that are separated by free-energy barriers. Each transient state corresponds to the assembly of one or more discrete, cooperative units, which are determined directly from the native structure. We show that the transition state on a folding pathway is reached when a small number of critical contacts are formed between a specific set of substructures, after which folding proceeds downhill in free energy. This approach suggests a natural resolution for distinguishing parallel folding pathways and provides a simple means to predict the rate-limiting step in a folding reaction. Our theory identifies a common folding mechanism for proteins with diverse native structures and establishes general principles for the self-assembly of polymers with specific interactions.

  9. Optimality principles for model-based prediction of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Marko; van den Bogert, Antonie J

    2010-04-19

    Although humans have a large repertoire of potential movements, gait patterns tend to be stereotypical and appear to be selected according to optimality principles such as minimal energy. When applied to dynamic musculoskeletal models such optimality principles might be used to predict how a patient's gait adapts to mechanical interventions such as prosthetic devices or surgery. In this paper we study the effects of different performance criteria on predicted gait patterns using a 2D musculoskeletal model. The associated optimal control problem for a family of different cost functions was solved utilizing the direct collocation method. It was found that fatigue-like cost functions produced realistic gait, with stance phase knee flexion, as opposed to energy-related cost functions which avoided knee flexion during the stance phase. We conclude that fatigue minimization may be one of the primary optimality principles governing human gait.

  10. Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Artem; Carlin, Daniel E; Paull, Evan O; Baertsch, Robert; Stuart, Joshua M

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet) that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach.

  11. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  12. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  13. An Electrostatic Lens to Reduce Parallax in Banana Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Esch, P; Medjoubi, K; Esch, Patrick Van; Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Medjoubi, Kadda

    2005-01-01

    Cylindrical "banana" gas detectors are often used in fixed-target experiments, because they are free of parallax effects in the equatorial plane. However, there is a growing demand to increase the height of these detectors in order to be more efficient or to cover more solid angle, and hence a parallax effect starts to limit the resolution in that direction. In this paper we propose a hardware correction for this problem which reduces the parallax error thanks to an applied potential on the front window that makes the electrostatic field lines radially pointing to the interaction point at the entrance window. A detailed analytical analysis of the solution is also presented.

  14. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−26 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Uganda, 21−43 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Burundi and 25−53 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Rwanda). The major causes of poor yields are declining soil fertility and soil moisture stress. In order to ...

  15. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  16. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  17. Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert NG

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequence analysis of complex loci such as resistance gene analog clusters allows estimating the degree of sequence conservation and mechanisms of divergence at the intraspecies level. In banana (Musa sp., two diploid wild species Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome contribute to the polyploid genome of many cultivars. The M. balbisiana species is associated with vigour and tolerance to pests and disease and little is known on the genome structure and haplotype diversity within this species. Here, we compare two genomic sequences of 253 and 223 kb corresponding to two haplotypes of the RGA08 resistance gene analog locus in M. balbisiana "Pisang Klutuk Wulung" (PKW. Results Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year

  18. Validation of Biomarker-based risk prediction models

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Ankerst, Donna P.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing availability and use of predictive models to facilitate informed decision making highlights the need for careful assessment of the validity of these models. In particular, models involving biomarkers require careful validation for two reasons: issues with overfitting when complex models involve a large number of biomarkers, and inter-laboratory variation in assays used to measure biomarkers. In this paper we distinguish between internal and external statistical validation. Inte...

  19. Tensor-Based Link Prediction in Intermittently Connected Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zayani, Mohamed-Haykel; Slama, Ines; Zeghlache, Djamal

    2011-01-01

    Through several studies, it has been highlighted that mobility patterns in mobile networks are driven by human behaviors. This effect has been particularly observed in intermittently connected networks like DTN (Delay Tolerant Networks). Given that common social intentions generate similar human behavior, it is relevant to exploit this knowledge in the network protocols design, e.g. to identify the closeness degree between two nodes. In this paper, we propose a temporal link prediction technique for DTN which quantifies the behavior similarity between each pair of nodes and makes use of it to predict future links. Our prediction method keeps track of the spatio-temporal aspects of nodes behaviors organized as a third-order tensor that aims to records the evolution of the network topology. After collapsing the tensor information, we compute the degree of similarity for each pair of nodes using the Katz measure. This metric gives us an indication on the link occurrence between two nodes relying on their closene...

  20. Time Series Outlier Detection Based on Sliding Window Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect outliers in hydrological time series data for improving data quality and decision-making quality related to design, operation, and management of water resources, this research develops a time series outlier detection method for hydrologic data that can be used to identify data that deviate from historical patterns. The method first built a forecasting model on the history data and then used it to predict future values. Anomalies are assumed to take place if the observed values fall outside a given prediction confidence interval (PCI, which can be calculated by the predicted value and confidence coefficient. The use of PCI as threshold is mainly on the fact that it considers the uncertainty in the data series parameters in the forecasting model to address the suitable threshold selection problem. The method performs fast, incremental evaluation of data as it becomes available, scales to large quantities of data, and requires no preclassification of anomalies. Experiments with different hydrologic real-world time series showed that the proposed methods are fast and correctly identify abnormal data and can be used for hydrologic time series analysis.