WorldWideScience

Sample records for banana plants

  1. Household uses of the banana plant in eastern Democratic Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Banana is ranked first among staple crops in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DR. Congo). Depending on the agro-ecological conditions, cultivars grown, cultural and socio-economic factors, the use of other banana plant parts other than the fruit pulp, has been widely ...

  2. Household uses of the banana plant in eastern Democratic Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... (Rieger, 2006).The cord roots are initiated from the corm and they range from 50 to 100 cm in length; occasionally reaching 3 m (Blomme & Ortiz, 2000). In addition to the use of banana fruit pulp for food and income, the use of other plant parts has been reported by Mohapatra et al. (2010).The banana peel.

  3. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spectral light quality on different anatomical features of banana tree plantlets grown under coloured shade nets. Banana plants of five genotypes obtained from micropropagation, were grown under white, blue, red and black nets, with shade of 50%, in a completely randomized ...

  4. First Characterisation of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Banana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhal, Chadi; De Clerck, Caroline; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Levicek, Carolina; Boullis, Antoine; Kaddes, Amine; Jijakli, Haïssam M; Verheggen, François; Massart, Sébastien

    2017-05-16

    Banana (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in term of worldwide fruit production, and has economical and nutritional key values. The Cavendish cultivars correspond to more than 90% of the production of dessert banana while cooking cultivars are widely consumed locally around the banana belt production area. Many plants, if not all, produce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) as a means of communication with their environment. Although flower and fruit VOCs have been studied for banana, the VOCs produced by the plant have never been identified despite their importance in plant health and development. A volatile collection methodology was optimized to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of VOCs analysis from banana plants. We have identified 11 VOCs for the Cavendish, mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene (87.90 ± 11.28 ng/μl), methyl salicylate (33.82 ± 14.29) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (29.60 ± 11.66), and 14 VOCs for the Pacific Plantain cultivar, mainly (Z,E)-α-farnesene (799.64 ± 503.15), (E,E)-α-farnesene (571.24 ± 381.70) and (E) β ocimene (241.76 ± 158.49). This exploratory study paves the way for an in-depth characterisation of VOCs emitted by Musa plants.

  5. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  6. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi. T. Dubois, C. S. Gold, D. Coyne, P. Paparu, E. Mukwaba, S. Athman, S. Kapinduand E. Adipala1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Southern and Eastern Africa Regional Centre, Namulonge. P.O. Box ...

  7. Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-07-04

    In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. Published by Oxford University Press

  8. Treatment of banana and potato plants with a new antifungal composition (European patent specification)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.; Rijn, van F.T.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.; Stevens, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    International publication number: WO 2009/077613 (25.06.2009 Gazette 2009/26) The present invention relates to the treatment of banana and potato plants with a composition containing natamycin and at least one phosphite containing compound

  9. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  10. A study of type and intensity of disease infecting banana plants Musa sp at Tegalagung village Semanding subdistrict

    OpenAIRE

    Supiana Dian Nurtjahyani; Devi Shyntya Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Diseases affecting banana plants are very detrimental to farmers as these can lower production and economic income. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and intensity of the disease affecting banana plants. This research was an observational analytic study that observe and analyze condition or symptoms of diseases affecting banana plants in Tegalagung village, Semanding subdistrict, Tuban as many as 38 samples. Parameters observed were type of disease and measure intensity of t...

  11. Estimation of whole-plant transpiration of bananas using sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Woo, Kam-Chau; Liu, Zhu-Tian

    2002-08-01

    Banana, one of the largest rhizomatous herbs in the world, is the fourth most important global food crop. It has a high water requirement, but the whole-plant water use in the field has not been determined satisfactorily. In this study, whole-plant water use in potted and field-grown banana plants (Musa 'Cavendish' cv. Williams) was successfully determined using a xylem sap flow method. This was achieved using Granier sensor probes implanted into the central cylinder of the banana corm. The whole-plant water use in field-grown bananas was 9-10 l plant(-1) d(-1). The values of daily total sap flow in potted plants correlated closely with gravimetric measurements (r(2)=0.92) and with changes in soil water status (r(2)=0.77). In well-watered, mature, field-grown plants, hourly sap flow also closely correlated with changes in solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and evapotranspiration. The study indicates that sap flow measurement is a sensitive and accurate method for determining whole-plant water use in bananas under potted as well as field conditions.

  12. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.J; Berton, R.S.B; Coscione, A.R; Saes, L.A

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  13. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    H?lscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  14. Production of transgenic banana plants conferring tolerance to salt stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.; Salama, M.; Hamid, A.A.; Sadiq, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Production of bananas is limited in areas that have soils with excess sodium. In this study, a transformation system in banana Grand Nain cultivar was established using the apical meristem explant and plasmid pAB6 containing the herbicide-resistant gene (bar) as a selectable marker and gus reporter gene. The micro projectile bombardment transformation system using 650 psi was successfully used for introducing the studied genes in banana explants. The expression of the introduced genes was detected using leaf painting and GUS histochemical tests, respectively. The present results showed that among the selection stage, 36.5% of the bombarded explants survived on the BI3 medium supplemented with 3 mg/L bialaphos, while, 26.6% of the tested explants showed a positive reaction in the GUS assay. To detect the presence of bar and gus genes the PCR was successfully used. These results encourage the idea of possibility of banana crop improvement using in vitro technique through micro projectile bombardment. Therefore, the plasmid pNM1 that carries the bar and P5CS (delta 1 l-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase for proline accumulation) genes was introduced in banana Grand Nain cultivar to produce transgenic plants expressing the salt tolerance gene. Results showed that the majority of herbicide-resistant banana plaptlets were successfully acclimatized. In studying the effects of different salt concentrations on the produced transgenic banana plants, results showed lower decrease in the percentage of survived plants, pseudostem diameter and leaf area with an increase of salt concentrations in case of transgenic plants compared with the controls. (author)

  15. Anthelmintic effects of dried ground banana plant leaves ( Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helminths is a endoparasites that cause the major losses for profitable sheep production in Brazil. The increased development of resistant strains of endoparasites have enforced the search for sustainable alternatives. The aim of this paper was to provide information about endoparasites control with banana ...

  16. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines.

  18. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-07

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  19. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-09

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  20. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Tardy

    Full Text Available Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of

  1. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  2. Structural characterization of lignin from leaf sheaths of "dwarf cavendish" banana plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Cordeiro, Nereida; Silvestre, Armando J D; Silva, Artur M S; Torres, Isabel C

    2006-04-05

    Dioxane lignin (DL) isolated from leaf sheaths of banana plant (Musa acuminata Colla var. cavendish) and in situ lignin were submitted to a comprehensive structural characterization employing spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, solid state 13C CP-MAS NMR, liquid state 13C and 1H NMR) and chemical degradation techniques (permanganate and nitrobenzene oxidation). Results obtained showed that banana plant leaf sheath lignin is of HGS type with a molar proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (H)/guaiacyl (G)/syringyl (S) units of 12:25:63. Most of the H units in DL are terminal phenolic coumarates linked to other lignin substructures by benzyl and Cgamma-ester bonds in contrast to ferulates that are mainly ether linked to bulk lignin. It is proposed that banana plant leaf sheath lignin is chemically bonded to suberin-like components of cell tissues by ester linkages via essentially hydroxycinnamic acid residues. beta-O-4 structures (0.31/C6), the most abundant in DL, comprise mainly S units, whereas a significant proportion of G units is bonded by beta-5, 5-5', and 4-O-5' linkages contributing to ca. 80% of condensed structures in DL.

  3. Effect of fertilizer insertion in the harvested mother banana plant pseudostem (Musa AAA Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Galvis R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for more efficient nutrient use in adverse conditions, such as droughts, facilitated the development of new alternatives for fertilizer application, such as direct insertion into the vascular system of the pseudostem of harvested banana plants (Musa AAA Simmonds, considering the plant interconnection between the mother plant and the sucker in succession. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilizer insertion into the pseudostem of banana plants compared to the conventional soil fertilization system. The study was conducted at two locations (north and center of Urabá region, setting different rates of fertilizer treatments (75, 100 and 125% of the commercial rate inserted at different heights (0.6 m and 0.9 m with a soil application of fertilizers as a control treatment. Biometric (height, pseudostem diameter, number of leaves, physiological (specific leaf area and specific leaf weight, and production variables were evaluated in the plants. According to the results, it was evident that the 0.9 m insertion height of the fertilizer was better than 0.6 m and the soil application. Although no significant differences were found between doses of fertilizer, we observed a trend of better performance for plants in treatments of 75% and 100% fertilizer dose inserted at 0.9 m

  4. A study of type and intensity of disease infecting banana plants Musa sp at Tegalagung village Semanding subdistrict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supiana Dian Nurtjahyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases affecting banana plants are very detrimental to farmers as these can lower production and economic income. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and intensity of the disease affecting banana plants. This research was an observational analytic study that observe and analyze condition or symptoms of diseases affecting banana plants in Tegalagung village, Semanding subdistrict, Tuban as many as 38 samples. Parameters observed were type of disease and measure intensity of the disease, data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Based on the symptoms that occurred on the leaves, the study found four disease types affecting banana plant that were fusarium wilt, bacterial wilt (Blood, Sigatoka leaf spot and stunting disease. The diseases intensity were 50% of Fusarium wilt; 26,66% of bacterial wilt (Blood; 26.32% of Sigatoka leaf spot and 15.38% of stunting disease. Conclusion of the study, the highest intensity of the disease that attacks banana plants is Fusarium wilt as high as 50%.

  5. Phenylphenalenones protect banana plants from infection by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and are deactivated by metabolic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, William; Chandran, Jima N; Menezes, Riya C; Otálvaro, Felipe; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Phenylphenalenones, polycyclic aromatic natural products from some monocotyledonous plants, are known as phytoalexins in banana (Musa spp.). In this study, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics along with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to explore the chemical responses of the susceptible 'Williams' and the resistant 'Khai Thong Ruang' Musa varieties to the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the agent of the black leaf Sigatoka disease. Principal component analysis discriminated strongly between infected and non-infected plant tissue, mainly because of specialized metabolism induced in response to the fungus. Phenylphenalenones are among the major induced compounds, and the resistance level of the plants was correlated with the progress of the disease. However, a virulent strain of M. fijiensis was able to overcome plant resistance by converting phenylphenalenones to sulfate conjugates. Here, we report the first metabolic detoxification of fungitoxic phenylphenalenones to evade the chemical defence of Musa plants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  7. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... contributes to improving the adaptability of plants in different environments (Silva and Nogueira, 2012). The use of coloured shade nets is a way to modify the natural radiation providing an increase in the amount of diffuse light, by combining physical protection with differential refraction of the solar radiation ...

  8. Nutritional quality and ruminal degradability of banana (Musa AAA plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chacón-Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional value of a Musa AAA fodder bank. The study was conducted at the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station of the University of Costa Rica. It took place from May to November 2013 using a complete random block design. Mean values for the whole plant were of 5.67% of dry matter, 6.50% of crude protein, 53.91% of neutral detergent fiber, 35.67% of acid detergent fiber, 7.61% of lignin, 28.07% of cellulose, 18.23% of hemicellulose, 1.95% of ether extract, 19,30% of ash, 4.63% of crude protein attached to the neutral detergent fiber, and 25.32% of non- fibrous carbohydrates. Besides, statistical differences were found (p<0.05 for all bromatological components, according to the sampled plant part. The analysis of ruminal degradability showed values ranging from 18.38% to 47.43% for the soluble fraction, from 33.45% to 45.76% for the degradable fraction, from 1.65%/h to 7.51%/h for the degradation speed, and from 64.14% to 82.86% the potentially degradable percentage, depending on the part of the plant sampled. According to analyzed data, Musa AAA plants could be used for feeding ruminants where available.

  9. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND NUTRITION IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF THE BANANA ‘PRATA CATARINA’ UNDER BIOFERTILISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDER DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana farming is an activity of great economic and social importance, and is carried out in most tropical countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biomass accumulation and levels of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg in micropropagated plants of the banana “Prata Catarina” during the acclimatization phase, under different types and doses of biofertilisers. The experimental design included randomised blocks in a 2 × 5 + (2 factorial scheme, with two types of liquid biofertilisers (bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic and aerobic fermentation and five biofertiliser doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 L plant-1 week-1, as well as two additional treatments (control and recommended mineral fertilisation. The following variables were analysed: dry weight of the leaves and roots, and mineral element content (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in different parts of the plant (leaf and root. During 90 days of acclimatization, the nutritional contribution of bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation was greater in comparison with the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation and the control, but lower in comparison with mineral fertilisation. The 1000-mL dose of the biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted greater dry weight accumulation in the leaves and roots of the banana “Prata Catarina”. The biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of N, K, and Ca in the leaves, whereas the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of P in the leaves and roots.

  10. A promoter derived from taro bacilliform badnavirus drives strong expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I C; Iommarini, J P; Becker, D K; Hafner, G J; Dale, J L; Harding, R M

    2003-08-01

    Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which infects the monocotyledonous plant, taro ( Colocasia esculenta). A region of the TaBV genome spanning nucleotides 6,281 to 12 (T1200), including the 3' end of open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) and the intergenic region to the end of the tRNA(met)-binding site, was tested for promoter activity along with four different 5' deletion fragments (T600, T500, T250 and T100). In transient assays, only the T1200, T600, T500 fragments were shown to have promoter activity in taro leaf, banana suspension cells and tobacco callus. When these three promoters were evaluated in stably transformed, in vitro-grown transgenic banana and tobacco plants, all were found to drive near-constitutive expression of either the green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the stem (or pseudostem), leaves and roots, with strongest expression observed in the vascular tissue. In transgenic banana leaves, the T600 promoter directed four-fold greater GUS activity than that of the T1200, T500 and the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoters. In transgenic tobacco leaves, the levels of GUS expression directed by the three promoters was between four- and ten-fold lower than that of the double Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. These results indicate that the TaBV-derived promoters may be useful for the high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in either monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous species.

  11. Bananas and plantains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The film shows the germplasm diversity within the Genus Musa and the evolution of cultivated forms of bananas and plantains. Cultivation history and geographical distribution are depicted; features of plant morphology and the floral biology are demonstrated. Economic and nutritional impact and importance of bananas and plantains for developing countries are briefly discussed. The second part of the film surveys problems in the propagation and genetic improvement of bananas and plantains: fruits of these vegetatively propagated plants are usually seedless which complicate the application of conventional plant breeding methods. In-vitro techniques are shown to be useful for plant propagation and germplasm conservation. Cross breeding with some semi-sterile clones of bananas has not led so far to lines which are resistant to the most harmful diseases, e.g. panama disease, black sigatoka. The Joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated an in-vitro mutation breeding programme to improve disease resistance in bananas

  12. Bottlenecks in the generation and maintenance of morphogenic banana cell suspensions and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis therefrom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schoofs, H.; Panis, B.; Strosse, H.; Mosqueda, A. M.; Torres, J. L.; Roux, N.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2001), s. 3-7 ISSN 0989-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : banana cell suspensions * plant regeneration Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  13. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the resistance of banana plants to Fusarium wilt potentiated by silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antonio; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; do Nascimento, Kelly Juliane Teles

    2012-10-01

    Silicon amendments to soil have resulted in a decrease of diseases caused by several soilborne pathogens affecting a wide number of crops. This study evaluated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that may have increased resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, after treatment with silicon (Si) amendment. Plants from the Grand Nain (resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and "Maçã" (susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) were grown in plastic pots amended with Si at 0 or 0.39 g/kg of soil (-Si or +Si, respectively) and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Relative lesion length (RLL) and asymptomatic fungal colonization in tissue (AFCT) were evaluated at 40 days after inoculation. Root samples were collected at different times after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to determine the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed as equivalents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids), total soluble phenolics (TSP), and lignin-thioglycolic acid (LTGA) derivatives; the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyases glucanases (PALs), peroxidases (POXs), polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), β-1,3-glucanases (GLUs), and chitinases (CHIs); and Si concentration in roots. Root Si concentration was significantly increased by 35.3% for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. For Grand Nain, the root Si concentration was significantly increased by 12.8% compared with "Maçã." Plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" in the +Si treatment showed significant reductions of 40.0 and 57.2%, respectively, for RLL compared with the -Si treatment. For the AFCT, there was a significant reduction of 18.5% in the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The concentration of MDA significantly decreased for plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" supplied with Si compared with the -Si treatment while the

  15. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hont, D' A.; Denoeud, F.; Aury, J.M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit

  16. Worse comes to worst: bananas and Panama disease—when plant and pathogen clones meet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez Roman, N.I.; Seidl, M.F.; Waalwijk, C.; Drenth, A.; Kilian, A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with: Bananas: their origin and global rollout; genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, the causal agent of Panama Disease; Panama Disease: history repeats itself; tropical race 4, a single pathogen clone, threatens global banana production; strategies for

  17. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p  0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  18. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    The content of 40 K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel

  19. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  20. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Yusuf Munim

    1996-01-01

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N 19 , P 19 , K 19 fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers was

  1. AGRONOMIC EVALUATION OF BANANA PLANTS IN THREE PRODUCTION CYCLES IN SOUTHWESTERN STATE OF BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO DE MAGALHÃES ARANTES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This assay was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal Institute of Bahia, Campus Guanambi, BA, and aimed to evaluate agronomic traits of Prata, Cavendish, Gros Michel and Maçã banana cultivars three production cycles. The 72 treatments, 24 cultivars and three production cycles were arranged in a split plot scheme in time, in a completely randomized design with five replications and four plants per plot. Plots were arranged in 24 cultivars, Prata-Anã, Maravilha, FHIA-18, FHIA-18 BRS, BRS Platina, JV42-135, Pacovan, Japira, PV79-34, Pacovan-Ken, Preciosa, Guarantida, Maçã, Caipira, BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa, YB42-03, YB42-07, YB42-47, Grande-Naine, Calypso, Buccaneiro, FHIA-23 and FHIA-17; and subplots consisted of three production cycles. Data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance. The average of the cultivars were grouped by Scott-Knott criterion (p<0.05 and production cycles compared by Tukey test (p<0.05. ‘JV42-235’, ‘Japira’ and ‘Pacovan-Ken’ cultivars had larger size and ‘Grande Naine’ had smaller size. ‘Prata-Anã’ cultivar had higher number of leaves at harvest, with leaf area index similar to the others. ‘BRS Platina’ cultivar is earlier at flowering and harvest. ‘Maravilha’, ‘BRS Platina’, ‘FHIA-23’, ‘BRS Tropical and BRS Princesa’ cultivars presented greater potential for use by farmers.

  2. Rhizobacteria in mycorrhizosphere improved plant health and yield of banana by offering proper nourishment and protection against diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phirke, Niteen V; Kothari, Raman M; Chincholkar, Sudhir B

    2008-12-01

    The corporate R&D banana orchards of Musa paradisiaca (dwarf Cavendish AAA, var. shrimanti) on a medium black alluvial soil with low nutrients harboured diversified species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. These fungi infected the roots severely (69.2%), showed elevated (69.8 g(-1) soil) spore density, increased soil bacterial density (245 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)), produced siderophores (58.2%) and reduced nematode population (2.3 g(-1)) in the mycorrhizosphere of plants for integrated plant nutrition management (IPNM) system as compared to traditional treatment of applying chemical fertilisers alone and other test treatments. The interactions of plant roots with native VAM and local and applied rhizobacteria in the matrix of soil conditioner enabled proper nourishment and protection of crop in IPNM treatment as compared to traditional way. Hence, exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria through judiciously designed IPNM system revealed the (a) relatively increased banana productivity (21.6%, 76 MT ha(-1)), (b) least occurrence of fusarial wilt and negligible evidence of Sigatoka, (c) saving of 50% chemical fertilisers and (d) permitted control over soil fertility in producer's favour over traditional cultivation practices. These findings are discussed in detail.

  3. Functional characterization of secondary wall deposition regulating transcription factors MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 in transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2016-03-01

    NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) domain-containing proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in stress responses and developmental regulation. MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are vascular-related NAC domain-containing genes encoding for nuclear-localized proteins. The transcript level of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are gradually induced after induction of lignification conditions in banana embryogenic cells. Banana embryogenic cells differentiated to tracheary element-like cells after overexpression of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 with a differentiation frequency of 63.5 and 23.4 %, respectively, after ninth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing either of MusaVND2 or MusaVND3 showed ectopic secondary wall deposition as well as transdifferentiation of cells into tracheary elements. Transdifferentiation to tracheary element-like cells was observed in cortical cells of corm and in epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves of transgenic plants. Elevated levels of lignin and crystalline cellulose were detected in the transgenic banana lines than control plants. The results obtained are useful for understanding the molecular regulation of secondary wall development in banana.

  4. Let's Go Bananas! Gren Bananas and their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Antonipillai, Juliana; Tangalakis, Kathy; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

    2017-09-01

    Bananas have enormous health benefits as a food for both animals and humans. They have been used as a complimentary medicine to treat pathological conditions since ancient times. Recently, there has been increased interest in the scientific validity of the beneficial effects of bananas in alleviating and treating disease conditions including, ulcers, infections, diabetes, diarrhea, colitis and blood pressure. Herein, we write on the potential therapeutic and functional benefits of certain species of bananas when consumed green as well as considering the properties of extracts from the non-fruit parts of the plant. We conclude that green bananas appear to deliver an array of health and therapeutic benefits.

  5. Better bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of bananas and plantains. These fruit and food crops have a large economic and nutritional value for tropical regions. The vulnerability of bananas to disease epidemics urgently requires breeding for resistance to black Sigatoka (leaf spot disease). The joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated a programme and developed a biotechnological strategy for genetic improvement of bananas and plantains

  6. A screening method for banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against the banana ...

  7. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  8. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedadi, C.; Rahimi, M.; Naserian, B.; Rahmani, E.; Neshan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg. l- 1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l -1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  9. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  10. Potential of Bacillus spp produces siderophores insuppressing thewilt disease of banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaulya, H.; Hasinu, J. V.; Tuhumury, G. NC

    2018-01-01

    In nature, different types of siderophore such as hydroxymate, catecholets and carboxylate, are produced by different bacteria. Bacillus spp were isolated from potato rhizospheric soil can produce siderophore of both catecholets and salicylate type with different concentrations. Various strains of Bacillus spp were tested for pathogen inhibition capability in a dual culture manner. The test results showed the ability of inhibition of pathogen isolated from banana wilt disease. From the result tested were found Bacillus niabensis Strain PT-32-1, Bacillus subtilis Strain SWI16b, Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC21, Bacillus mojavensis Strain JCEN3, and Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC24 showed different capabilities in suppressing pathogen.

  11. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  12. ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF DRIED GROUND BANANA PLANT LEAVES (MUSA SPP.) FED TO SHEEP ARTIFICIALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS AND TRICHOSTRONGYLUS COLUBRIFORMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Yoshihara, Eidi; Silva, Leandro Kataoaka Fernandes; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo Mendonça; de Souza Meira, Enoch Brandão; Rossi, Rodolfo Santos; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; Hasegawa, Marjorie Yumi

    2017-01-01

    Helminths is a endoparasites that cause the major losses for profitable sheep production in Brazil. The increased development of resistant strains of endoparasites have enforced the search for sustainable alternatives. The aim of this paper was to provide information about endoparasites control with banana leaves in infected sheep as alternative control strategies and see its viability. In this study, we performed two trials to investigate the anthelmintic properties of banana leaves on endoparasites in sheep. In Trial 1, twelve sheep were artificially infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis ; in Trial 2, eleven sheep were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus . Clinical examinations, packed cell volume, total protein, faecal egg counts (FECs) and egg hatchability tests (EHTs) were performed. At the end of the trials, the sheep were humanely slaughtered, and total worm counts were performed. In Trial 1 and 2, no significant FEC decreases were note but significant diference in EHTs were observed. Total worm counts, clinical and haematological parameters did not reveal significant changes between the treatment and control groups. These results suggest that feeding dried ground banana plant leaves to sheep may reduce the viability of Trichostrongylus colubriformis eggs, and this anthelmintic activity is potentially exploitable as part of an integrated parasite management programme. However, further investigation is needed to establish the optimal dosage, develop a convenient delivery form and confirm the economic feasibility of using banana plantation byproducts as feed for ruminant species. Abbreviations: Coproculture test (CT)., Faecal egg count (FEC)., Egg hatchability test (EHT).

  13. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K.S.; Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2014-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  14. An assessment of software for flow cytometry analysis in banana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alves Lara Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is a technique that yields rapid results in analyses of cell properties such as volume, morphological complexity and quantitative DNA content, and it is considered more convenient than other techniques. However, the analysis usually generates histograms marked by variations that can be produced by many factors, including differences between the software packages that capture the data generated by the flow cytometer. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the performance of four software products commonly used in flow cytometry based on quantifications of DNA content and analyses of the coefficients of variation associated with the software outputs. Readings were obtained from 25 ‘NBA’ (AA banana leaf samples using the FACSCalibur (BD flow cytometer, and 25 histograms from each software product (CellQuest™, WinMDI™, FlowJo™ and FCS Express™ were analyzed to obtain the estimated DNA content and the coefficient of variation (CV of the estimates. The values of DNA content obtained from the software did not differ significantly. However, the CV analysis showed that the precision of the WinMDI™ software was low and that the CV values were underestimated, whereas the remaining software showed CV values that were in relatively close agreement with those found in the literature. The CellQuest™ software is recommended because it was developed by the same company that produces the flow cytometer used in the present study.

  15. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  16. Determinants of market production of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. ... banana, as well as the presence of middlemen in the marketing chain were the most important determinants of the proportion of cooking banana planted for market.

  17. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  18. Weed management in banana production: The use of Nelsonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a survey of weeds in the Tiko banana plantations, the plant Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng was found to have invaded large areas of the plantation with no visible adverse effects on the banana crop. The effects of this Acanthaceae on banana yield parameters, snails' population and weed species diversity and ...

  19. Analysis of genetic variation in different banana ( Musa species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa acuminata Colla) is considered as an important crop plant due to its high economic value as good dietary source. Here, we analyze the genetic relationship of four different banana varieties that are cultivated in south India. Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) fingerprinting of these banana ...

  20. A workflow for peptide-based proteomics in a poorly sequenced plant: A case study on the plasma membrane proteome of banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertommen, A.; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Cordewener, J. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    for membrane proteomics. However, their application in non-model plants demands special precautions to prevent false positive identification of proteins.In the current paper, a workflow for membrane proteomics in banana, a poorly sequenced plant, is proposed. The main steps of this workflow are (i......) optimization of the peptide separation, (ii) performing de novo sequencing to allow a sequence homology search and (iii) visualization of identified peptide–protein associations using Cytoscape to remove redundancy and wrongly assigned peptides, based on species-specific information. By applying this workflow...

  1. Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1–14 mg L−1 with or without 0.2 mg L−1 IAA, or BAP at 7–14 mg L−1 with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L−1 (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L−1 (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L−1 (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. BAP at 11 mg L−1 with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. PMID:24575235

  2. Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Azri K; Ishak

    1998-01-01

    Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon Kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source. Female organ was taken from heart of banana stem, while shoot-tip taken from sucker in banana plantation at Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Those explants were cultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IAA and supplemented by 100 tyrosin and 80 mg/l adenin hemisulphate. Observation showed that 180 and 42 buds were obtained from JBR 02 mutant lines respectively, while 84 and 79 buds for JAK 01 and JAK 02 respectively. The highest shoot formation was 1.013 shoots were obtained from BRC variety and lowest one was JBR 01 mutant line. statistical data analysis indicated that shoot formation between BRC variety and another mutant lines were significant difference using LSD test at level 0.05. Plantlet formation derived from female organ as well as shoot-tip showed that BRC variety produced number of plantlets per bottle was higher that another one. (author)

  3. Phenylpropanoid pathway is potentiated by silicon in the roots of banana plants during the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçã, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in

  4. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Alwi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SSs, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages by banana stem juice were 80.1%, 88.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, observed for effluent at pH 7 using 90 mL dosage. The inulin concentration in the banana stem was examined to be 1.22016 mg/mL. It could be concluded that banana stem juice showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes and could be applied in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian spent coolant wastewater prior to secondary treatment.

  5. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    OpenAIRE

    Renny Futeri; Pharmayeni Pharmayeni

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel ) . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibil...

  6. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  7. Seasonal variation of nutrients leaves concentration of banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SPVariação sazonal da concentração de nutrientes em folhas de bananeiras, no Vale do Ribeira-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Mendonça

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Vale do Ribeira, SP, main agricultural activity is the banana crop, which accounts for most of this fruit production in the State of São Paulo. The nutritional balance of the plant is one of the most important factors for the banana plant can complete the cycle and achieve high productivity. Aiming to evaluate the seasonal variation of leaf nutrient concentration in banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SP, we used the results of 252 chemical analyses of plant tissue, collected from August 2009 to September 2010, in the 18 representative properties for the region, ten cultivated with subgroup Cavendish banana plant and eight of subgroup Prata banana plant. The largest variation between the macronutrient occurred for K and S, and among the micronutrients, especially for Fe and B. In some dates of evaluation, there was a higher leaf concentration of P, K, Ca and Zn, in subgroup Cavendish banana plants, while the subgroup Prata banana plants showed higher leaf concentration, especially of Mn, B and N. Climatic conditions, especially rain, influenced the leaf nutrient content, especially for K, N, S, B and Fe. O Vale do Ribeira, SP, tem como principal atividade agropecuária o cultivo da bananeira, sendo responsável pela maior parte da produção dessa frutífera no estado de São Paulo. O equilíbrio nutricional da planta é um dos fatores mais importantes para que esta consiga completar o ciclo e alcançar alta produtividade. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação sazonal da concentração foliar de nutrientes em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Ribeira-SP, foram utilizados 252 resultados de análise química de nutrientes do tecido vegetal, coletados no período de agosto de 2009 a setembro de 2010, de 18 propriedades representativas na região, dez cultivadas com bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish e oito do subgrupo Prata. A maior variação entre os macronutrientes ocorreu para o K e o S e entre os micronutrientes, principalmente, para o Fe e o B

  8. Relative susceptibility of Musa genotypes to banana bunchy top disease in Cameroon and implication for disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) is a serious threat to banana and plantain (Musa spp.) production. BBTD is caused by the Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus) which is spread through infected plant propagules and banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa. A high level of resistance to BBTD in...

  9. Variability in the root system of East African banana genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa spp.) root system is important for plant anchorage and the uptake of nutrients and water and thus, strongly influences plant growth and subsequent yields. Previous research studies on the Musa spp. root system have predominantly focused on high value export dessert bananas (AAA group) and ...

  10. Behavior of occurrence of Banana Streak virus in in vitro propagated plants from cultivars of Musa hybrids FHIA-20 and FHIA-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Portal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The losses taken place by the black and yellow Sigatoka have impelled the introduction to the country of the tetraploid hybrids from FHIA, however, at the present time, the high incidence of Banana Streak Virus in these hybrids is well known. To evaluate the effect of the micropropagatión process, on the fluctuations of the viral concentration in the tissue, they were introduced to the in vitro propagation positive and negative plants serologically tested of the cultivars FHIA 20 and 21, previously indexed in field (DAS-ELISA, later on they passed to phase of adaptation to evaluate the derived results of the diagnosis tests carried out after 3-6 months of transplanted. As a result of the DAS-ELISA carried out to the plants in phase of adaptation (37 22.2 % of the negative plants, indexed in field, was positive, while 68.4 % of the positive plants, indexed in field, was negative, in both cases all the plants were positive to the diagnosis for PCR. In some cases, given the implication of the obtained results, was used the ISEM as technique of diagnostic, for the corroboration of the same ones. Key Words: badnavirus, diagnostic, in vitro culture, Musa

  11. Identification, transcriptional and functional analysis of heat-shock protein 90s in banana (Musa acuminata L.) highlight their novel role in melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Wang, Qiannan; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    As one popular fresh fruit, banana (Musa acuminata) is cultivated in the world's subtropical and tropical areas. In recent years, pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) has been widely and rapidly spread to banana cultivated areas, causing substantial yield loss. However, the molecular mechanism of banana response to Foc remains unclear, and functional identification of disease-related genes is also very limited. In this study, nine 90 kDa heat-shock proteins (HSP90s) were genomewide identified. Moreover, the expression profile of them in different organs, developmental stages, and in response to abiotic and fungal pathogen Foc were systematically analyzed. Notably, we found that the transcripts of 9 MaHSP90s were commonly regulated by melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) and Foc infection. Further studies showed that exogenous application of melatonin improved banana resistance to Fusarium wilt, but the effect was lost when cotreated with HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin, GDA). Moreover, melatonin and GDA had opposite effect on auxin level in response to Foc4, while melatonin and GDA cotreated plants had no significant effect, suggesting the involvement of MaHSP90s in the cross talk of melatonin and auxin in response to fungal infection. Taken together, this study demonstrated that MaHSP90s are essential for melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt, which extends our understanding the putative roles of MaHSP90s as well as melatonin in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inflorescence proliferation for somatic embryogenesis induction and suspension-derived plant regeneration from banana (Musa AAA, cv. 'Dwarf Cavendish') male flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Juan Bernardo; Rosell-García, Purificación

    2008-06-01

    Availability of explants with adequate embryogenic competence is one of the most important limitations for the development of regenerable cell suspensions in banana. To increase the number and ease of accessibility to potentially embryogenic explants, a novel methodology is described by which young male flower clusters isolated from adult plants are induced to form new flower buds and proliferate in vitro. Different concentrations of the plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) induced inflorescence proliferation, which could be maintained over time as a continuous source of young flower buds. Intensity of proliferation was evaluated during successive subcultures. At the third cycle of proliferation, the highest multiplication rate (2.89) was obtained on the medium containing 5 microM TDZ. Newly generated floral tissues were assessed for embryogenic competence, resulting in an average embryogenic frequency of 12.5%. The observed embryogenic capacity, together with the recurrent availability of immature flowers, allowed for the direct initiation of cell suspensions from bulked explant cultures. Regular observation and regeneration tests during the development of suspended cell cultures confirmed their embryogenic condition. Produced embryos successfully matured and germinated to regenerate hundreds of somatic in vitro plants.

  13. Small scale banana farmers' awareness level and adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and binary logit regression were employed for data analyses. The results show that although majority of the farmers (96.67%) were aware of and had access to improved banana varieties, only 15.83% of them adopted the use of improved planting materials. Gros mitchel, Cavendish and sweet bananas ...

  14. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is obvious that any system associating both organisms under strict controlled in vitro culture conditions may help to comprehend the role of AM fungi in banana physiology. Here we developed an in vitro culture system associating autotrophic micropropagated banana plants with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices).

  15. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack | Kiggundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Highland Bananas (EAHB) (Musa AAA, 'Matooke' group) are a major staple food in the East African region. However, banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorllidus) is a major production constraint to bananas and may cause damage levels of up to 100%. Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are ...

  16. Bananas go paraelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P

    2008-01-01

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  17. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Acclimatization of young banana plants under different conditions of luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de mudas de bananeira micropropagadas, sob diferentes condições de aclimatização. Mudas de bananeira "Prata-Anã', obtidas por micropropagação, com 2-3 cm de comprimento, foram plantadas em bandejas contendo substrato comercial Plantmax. As bandejas contendo os tubetes foram colocadas sob estufins com cobertura plástica transparente, para aclimatização em diferentes condições de luminosidade. Os tratamentos foram compostos de: T1- Câmara de aclimatização sob cobertura em telhado de amianto; T2- Câmara de aclimatização sob telado, com 50 % de sombreamento, e T3- Câmara de aclimatização coberta com papel tipo Kraft e sob telado, com 50 % de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e setenta repetições. As plantas permaneceram por 15 dias nos referidos tratamentos, quando foi realizada a primeira avaliação. Aos 30 dias após o plantio, foi realizada a segunda avaliação. Foram avaliadas as características comprimento da muda, diâmetro do coleto, número de folhas completamente expandidas e porcentagem de pegamento. As características avaliadas foram submetidas à análise de variância, sendo os efeitos dos tratamentos comparados pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Na primeira avaliação, observaram-se 100 % de sobrevivência das plântulas nas três condições de luminosidade testadas. Aos trinta dias após o plantio em tubete, as plantas aclimatizadas em estufin sob telado com 50% de sombreamento apresentaram as maiores médias de comprimento, diâmetro e número de folhas, com 4,6 cm, 0,64 cm e 5,5 folhas, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating the rate of survival of micro propagated young plants of banana under different acclimatization conditions. Young banana plants 'Prata Anã', from micro propagation, with 2-3 cm of length were planted in little tubes filled with the

  18. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents.

  19. Oxidative stress response of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease in banana plants, to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Manzo-Sanchez, Gilberto; Guzmán-González, Salvador; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Avila-Miranda, Martin; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2009-07-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease in banana and plantain. This fungus is usually attacked by reactive oxygen species secreted by the plant or during exposure to fungicide, however, little is known about the antioxidant response of the fungus. In this study, mycelia were observed to totally decompose 30 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) within 120 min, liberating oxygen bubbles, and also to survive in concentrations as high as 100 mmol/L H2O2. The oxidative stress responses to H2O2, paraquat, and hydroquinone were characterized in terms of the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Two active catalase bands were seen in native PAGE induced by H2O2. Band I had monofunctional activity and band II had bifunctional catalase-peroxidase activity. Two isozymes of SOD, distinguishable by their cyanide sensitivity, were found; CuZnSOD was the main one. The combination of H2O2 and 3-aminotriazole reduced the accumulation of biomass up to 40% compared with exposure to H2O2 alone, suggesting that catalase is important for the rapid decomposition of H2O2 and has a direct bearing on cell viability. The results also suggest that the superoxide anion formed through the redox of paraquat and hydroquinone has a greater effect than H2O2 on the cellular viability of M. fijiensis.

  20. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV: Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gabriel Fuentes

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled, but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2% on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3% than in open-field sites (1.4%. The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  1. The Banana Genome Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  2. Expression Study of Banana Pathogenic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny M. Dwivany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the world's most important trade commodities. However, infection of banana pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum race 4 is one of the major causes of decreasing production in Indonesia. Genetic engineering has become an alternative way to control this problem by isolating genes that involved in plant defense mechanism against pathogens. Two of the important genes are API5 and ChiI1, each gene encodes apoptosis inhibitory protein and chitinase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to study the expression of API5 and ChiI1 genes as candidate pathogenic resistance genes. The amplified fragments were then cloned, sequenced, and confirmed with in silico studies. Based on sequence analysis, it is showed that partial API5 gene has putative transactivation domain and ChiI1 has 9 chitinase family GH19 protein motifs. Data obtained from this study will contribute in banana genetic improvement.

  3. Contamination of bananas with beauvericin and fusaric acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyu; Zuo, Cunwu; Deng, Guiming; Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak 'Guangfen #1' and 10 Cavendish 'Brazilian' plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.

  4. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  5. Avaliações fenológicas e agronômicas em café arábica cultivado a pleno sol e consorciado com banana 'Prata Anã' Phenological and agronomic evaluations in a coffee crop grown under unshaded and shaded by 'Prata Anã' banana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, cultivados a pleno sol e consorciados com banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, em Mococa (SP, em Latitude 21º 28' S, Longitude 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m. Entre julho de 2001 e junho de 2004 foi acompanhado o desenvolvimento fenológico dos cultivos, além de se avaliar, o crescimento das plantas em altura e diâmetro da copa. Nas safras de 2002, 2003 e 2004 foram avaliados os parâmetros de produção nos dois sistemas de cultivo, além de sua variabilidade nas parcelas do cultivo consorciado. Nos sistemas de cultivo avaliados, o crescimento vegetativo em altura e diâmetro foi maior no período primavera-verão em relação ao período outono-inverno, não tendo sido encontradas diferenças significativas das taxas de crescimento, de desenvolvimento fenológico e dos índices de produção entre os cultivos. No cultivo consorciado, no ponto próximo às bananeiras observaram-se diferenças em relação aos demais pontos amostrados no crescimento vegetativo e desenvolvimento fenológico para algumas épocas do ano, além de apresentar menor produção por planta.A study was carried out in coffee crop (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, unshade and shaded by banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, in Mococa, São Paulo State, Brazil (Latitude South 21º 28 ', Longitude West 47º 01 ', altitude 665m. Phenological data for the coffee crops were taken, from July, 2001 to June, 2004. The growth of the plants concerning height and diameter was also evaluated. The harvests of 2002, 2003 and, 2004 were appraised by the production parameters, and their variability for different positions in shaded coffee crop. The vegetative growth in height and diameter showed higher activity during the spring-summer period in relation to the autumn-winter period, in both in the cultivation systems evaluated. No significant differences of the growth taxes, of phenological development

  6. Utilização de Gigaspora margarita em plantas micropropagadas de bananeira em diferentes estádios de enraizamento The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora margarita in micropropagated bananas plants in differents stages of rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gêlva Maria de Lima Lins

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando a avaliar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na diminuição do tempo de formação de mudas de bananeira micropropagadas, foi conduzido um experimento em estufa de aclimatação da Biofábrica CAMPO - CPA/Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Foram testadas plântulas em três diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento do sistema radicular, inoculadas ou não com o fungo Gigaspora margarita e cultivadas em dois diferentes substratos à base de turfa, vermiculita e esterco. A inoculação foi realizada no momento do transplantio para a estufa e as plantas, cultivadas por 55 dias, quando foram coletadas para obtenção dos dados de avaliação. O fungo Gigaspora margarita colonizou intensamente e mostrou- se benéfico para o desenvolvimento das mudas de bananeira, sendo seu efeito modulado pelo substrato de crescimento; o substrato turfa + vermiculita + 5% de esterco, quando associado à inoculação do FMA, promoveu a formação de mudas normais e sadias; o início da fase de aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira pode ser antecipado pelo uso da inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, em substrato adequado.With the aim of evaluate de use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora margarita to reduce the time of formation of micropropagated banana plants it was conducted an experiment under greenhouse conditions at the CAMPO-CPA (micropropagating plant/Embrapa-Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, in the city of Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia. Plants were tested at three different stages of formation: unrooted, half-rooted and completed rooted being cultivated on two substrates composed from mistures of turfgrass, vermiculite and manure. The plants were inoculated at the time of transplanting to the different substrates and were harvested after the acclimatization period of 55 days, for evaluation of its growth, mineral nutrition and mycorrhizal colonization. Gigaspora

  7. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  8. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  9. Radiação solar e saldo de radiação em cultivo de café a pleno sol e consorciado com banana 'Prata Anã Solar and net radiation in a coffee crop grown unshaded and shaded by 'Prata Anã' banana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Medições da radiação solar global e do saldo de radiação foram realizadas em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, cultivados a pleno sol e consorciados com bananeira (Musa AAB 'Prata Anã', no município de Mococa - SP (21º 28' S, 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m, durante o período de outubro de 2001 a setembro de 2002, com o objetivo de quantificar a atenuação da radiação solar e do saldo de radiação em sistema de produção de café consorciado. Os resultados obtidos mostraram diferenças nos elementos medidos nos dois sistemas de cultivo. Houve atenuação média dos valores de radiação solar global em cultivo de café consorciado com banana 'Prata Anã' da ordem de 21%, com variação mensal de 16% a 27%, tendo sido verificadas diferenças de atenuação da radiação solar nos diferentes pontos amostrais do sistema consorciado. Em relação ao saldo de radiação, verificou-se redução média de 16% nos valores diários no cultivo consorciado em comparação ao cultivo a pleno sol. O saldo de radiação representou 50% da radiação solar global no cultivo a pleno sol, com variação mensal de 34% a 62%, e no cultivo consorciado o saldo de radiação representou 53% da radiação solar global, com variação de 35 a 38%.Microclimatic measurements (incoming solar radiation and net radiation were taken from October, 2001 to September, 2002 in a coffee crop (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, shaded by banana plants (Musa AAB 'Prata Anã ' and unshaded at Mococa, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 28' S, 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m, aiming at evaluating the reduction of the solar and net radiation for the different crop conditions. The obtained results showed differences for the different crop conditions. The banana plants reduced the incoming solar radiation to the coffee crop by 21%, with monthly variation from 16% to 27%. Differences were also found concerning the reduction of the incoming solar

  10. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  12. Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... Mzuzu underscore the need for further studies to determine alternative best cytokine-based growth regulators. Key words: Thidiazuron, in vivo proliferation, Sucker growth, Banana. INTRODUCTION. In vivo macropropagation is an alternative technique for mass production of banana planting materials.

  13. Quarantine security of bananas at harvest maturity against Mediterranean and Oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J W

    2001-02-01

    Culled bananas (dwarf 'Brazilian', 'Grand Nain', 'Valery', and 'Williams') sampled from packing houses on the islands of Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu identified specific "faults" that were at risk from oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), infestation. Faults at risk included bunches with precociously ripened bananas, or bananas with tip rot, fused fingers, or damage that compromised skin integrity to permit fruit fly oviposition into fruit flesh. No Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), infestations were found in culled banana samples. Field infestation tests indicated that mature green bananas were not susceptible to fruit fly infestation for up to 1 wk past the scheduled harvest date when attached to the plant or within 24 h after harvest. Recommendations for exporting mature green bananas from Hawaii without risk of fruit fly infestation are provided. The research reported herein resulted in a USDA-APHIS protocol for exporting mature green bananas from Hawaii.

  14. Elucidating the resistance response of irradiated banana cv. Lakatan to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cueva, F.M.; Sison, M.L.J.; Dinglasan, E.G.; Damasco, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Development of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-resistant banana variety Lakatan through gamma-irradiation had been successfully done as part of integrated management strategies against the disease. Ten irradiated Lakatan lines exhibited resistance to BBTV. Resistance of these lines was evaluated based on symptomatology and host-virus relationship. Insect colony development on Lakatan banana irradiated lines was monitored by artificially inoculating viruliferous banana aphids, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and counting the resulting number of aphids per plant at weekly intervals. Resistance to virus multiplication of Lakatan irradiated lines was characterized by quantifying the virus titer through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that not all lines were suitable as hosts in establishing aphid population. The reaction of the mutant lines to the vector and the pathogen varied to some extent. Disease incidence in some cases was correlated with aphid preference. Disease incidence was significantly higher (50%) on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower (50%) in those that were not colonized. Some mutant lines with very low aphid colony count, however showed high BBTV incidence. Variability in the results could be affected by other factors such as the developmental stage of the plant and prevailing environmental conditions during the conduct of the experiment. Virus titer was also reduced on these mutant lines, thus reduced virus multiplication. Non-irradiated (control) Lakatan banana had comparably high population of aphids, high disease incidence, and high virus titer

  15. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  16. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Blood Disease Bacterium A2 HR-MARDI, a Pathogen Causing Banana Bacterial Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrun, Rafidah; Abu Bakar, Norliza; Laboh, Rozeita; Redzuan, Rohaiza; Bala Jaganath, Indu

    2017-06-01

    Blood disease bacterium A2 HR-MARDI was isolated from banana plants infected with banana blood disease and which were planted in Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of blood disease bacterium A2 HR-MARDI, which could provide important information on the virulence mechanism of this pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Badrun et al.

  18. Combating the Sigatoka disease complex on banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is the fourth most important staple food in the world behind rice, wheat and maize, with more than 100 million tons produced annually. Although the majority of bananas produced are consumed locally, banana export is a multi-billion dollar business. Bananas are grown in more than 100 countri...

  19. Enhancing banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ) resistance by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana weevil is a serious pest of bananas and plantains in Africa. The development of resistant cultivars is seen as the long term and more sustainable control strategy. The difficulty in conventional breeding of bananas and plantains has prompted efforts towards the use of genetic transformation for banana and plantain ...

  20. Relative susceptibility of banana cultivars to Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    short time making the disease one of the most dreaded in banana. The disease affects almost all varieties of commonly grown banana cultivars. Some knowledge of the relative susceptibility of banana cultivars would be extremely useful and could be a basis for management strategies for BXW. Ten banana cultivars were ...

  1. Contamination of bananas with beauvericin and fusaric acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc, is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA and beauvericin (BEA. Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak 'Guangfen #1' and 10 Cavendish 'Brazilian' plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNFICANCE: The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.

  2. Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, W J; Zhang, W; Barre, A; Houlès Astoul, C; Balint-Kurti, P J; Rovira, P; Rougé, P; May, G D; Van Leuven, F; Truffa-Bachi, P; Van Damme, E J

    2000-09-01

    One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The banana and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The banana lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the banana lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety.

  3. Densidade de plantio na produtividade e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas e frutos da bananeira cv. Thap Maeo Plants density on yield and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de plantio na produtividade, tempo de colheita e teores dos nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos de bananeira cv. Thap Maeo (AAB cultivada em Manaus (AM. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos fatores: três densidades de plantio (1.111; 1.667 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e duas épocas de colheita (primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os resultados do primeiro e segundo ciclos mostraram incremento significativo da produtividade, com aumento da densidade de plantio. O tempo médio para colheita dos cachos foi menor na densidade de 1.111 plantas ha-1 (1º ciclo, 338 e 2º ciclo, 401 dias. Na média das densidades e independentemente do ciclo, os teores de macronutrientes nos frutos apresentaram a ordem de: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, enquanto a dos micronutrientes foi: 1º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu e 2º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants density on yield, period of harvest and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo (AAB, cultivated in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment was conduced in a randomized blocks, with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of planting density (1,111; 1,667 and 3,333 plants ha-1, and two cycles of harvest (sub treatments. The results obtained from 1st cycle and 2nd cycle showed significant increase in the yield per unit area as the employed plant density increased. The shortest average period to harvest banana bunches (1st cycle, 338 days and 2nd cycle, 401 days was observed for the lower density (1,111 plants ha-1. Pooled data of density and cycles showed that exportation of macronutrients through the fruits was, in order: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, while in micronutrients was: 1st cycle - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu, and 2nd cycle - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.

  4. Soluble Starch Synthase III-1 in Amylopectin Metabolism of Banana Fruit: Characterization, Expression, Enzyme Activity, and Functional Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Hongxia; Sun, Peiguang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang; Xu, Biyu

    2017-01-01

    Soluble starch synthase (SS) is one of the key enzymes involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in the important fruit crop banana. Herein, we characterized the function of MaSSIII-1 in amylopectin metabolism of banana fruit and described the putative role of the other MaSS family members. Firstly, starch granules, starch and amylopectin content were found to increase during banana fruit development, but decline duri...

  5. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  6. Ultrastructural changes associated with cryopreservation of banana ( Musa spp.) highly proliferating meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliot, B; Swennen, R; Poumay, Y; Frison, E; Lepoivre, P; Panis, B

    2003-03-01

    Cryopreservation has been shown to improve the frequency of virus elimination - specifically cucumber mosaic virus and banana streak virus - from banana ( Musa spp.) plants. To understand the mode of action of cryopreservation for the eradication of viral particles, we examined the ultrastructure of meristem tips at each step of the cryopreservation process. Excised meristematic clumps produced from infected banana plants belonging to cv. Williams (AAA, Cavendish subgroup) were cryopreserved through vitrification using the PVS-2 solution. We demonstrated that the cryopreservation method used only allowed survival of small areas of cells in the meristematic dome and at the base of the primordia. Cellular and subcellular changes occurring during the cryopreservation process are discussed.

  7. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  8. Optimization of in vitro multiplication for exotic banana (Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam. Data collected for in vitro shoot consists .... Experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design. (CRD) with four replications per ..... some Malaysian banana and plantain (Musa sp.) cultivars using male flowers.

  9. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  10. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species

  11. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... ary and tertiary roots, and clumps of secondary roots. The architecture of the root system was comparable to the results of Banerjee and de Langhe (1985) and Buah et al. (1998). Feeder and pioneer roots of banana plants were described for the first time under hydroponics conditions by Swennen (1986).

  12. Micropropagation of Banana Varieties (Musa spp.) Using Shoot-Tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Melkassa Agricultural. Research Centre, Ethiopian ... Oselebe et al., 2006). Bananas are originated from Southeast Asia where a region considered as the ... micropropagation through shoot tip culture, plants could exhibit great variation under in vitro conditions in.

  13. DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE LEAF DISEASES OF BANANA IN SEVERAL BANANA PRODUCTION CENTERS IN NORTH SUMATRA, WEST SUMATRA BENGKULU AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra, Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra, Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu, Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.

  14. Lineage-specific Evolutionary Histories and Regulation of Major Starch Metabolism Genes during Banana Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Jourda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. It is also a major feature of cultivated bananas as it accumulates to large amounts during banana fruit development before almost complete conversion to soluble sugars during ripening. Little is known about the structure of major gene families involved in banana starch metabolism and their evolution compared to other species. To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases, starch synthases (SS, starch branching enzymes (SBE, debranching enzymes (DBE, -amylases (AMY and -amylases (BAM. Using comparative genomics and phylogenetic approaches, these genes were classified into families and sub-families and orthology relationships with functional genes in Eudicots and in grasses were identified. In addition to known ancestral duplications shaping starch metabolism gene families, independent evolution in banana and grasses also occurred through lineage-specific whole genome duplications for specific sub-families of AGPases, SS, SBE and BAM genes; and through gene-scale duplications for AMY genes. In particular, banana lineage duplications yielded a set of AGPases, SBE and BAM genes that were highly or specifically expressed in banana fruits. Gene expression analysis highlighted a complex transcriptional reprogramming of starch metabolism genes during ripening of banana fruits. A differential regulation of expression between banana gene duplicates was identified for SBE and BAM genes, suggesting that part of starch metabolism regulation in the fruit evolved in the banana lineage

  15. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be

  16. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  18. Increasing Soil Suppressivity to Fusarium Wilt Of Banana Through Banana Intercropping with Allium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, is one of the most destructive diseases of banana and has spread in many plantation areas in Indonesia. Until today, the effective ways to control banana fusarium wilt disease have not yet been found. Some studies indicated thatAllium spp. could be used to suppress plant diseases caused by Fusarium. Allium spp. are important horticultural crops which are generally cultivated in some areas in Indonesia. This research was conducted to determine the effect of several species ofAllium spp. intercropped with banana to improve soil suppressiveness against banana fusarium wilt disease. The results showed that up to 12 months after planting, from 3 species ofAllium spp. (A. tuberosum/ Chinese leek, A. fistulosum/ bunching onion, and A. cepa var. aggregatum/ shallot intercropped with banana Ambon Kuning (AAA cultivar, Chinese leek and shallot were able to suppress the incidence of fusarium wilt disease of banana by 46 and 33% respectively. Soil analysis on the rhizosphere of banana intercropped with Chinese leek and shallot had lower population of total Fusarium compared to the other treatments. Analysis of fluorescein diacetate (3’.6’-diacetylfluoerescein or FDA also showed that total microbial activity in the rhizosphere of banana intercropped withAllium spp. was also lower compared to control treatment (without intercropping. The observation of the effect ofAllium spp. extracts on Foc showed that Allium spp. extracts were able to suppress the development of the colony and spore germination of Foc in vitro.   INTISARI Layu Fusarium, yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, merupakan salah satu penyakit tanaman pisang yang paling merusak dan telah tersebar di berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Sampai saat ini cara yang efektif untuk mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium pisang belum ditemukan. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Allium spp. dapat dipergunakan

  19. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Alegre, María Luisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; García López, María Concepción

    2015-01-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The firs...

  20. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  1. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  2. Root activity pattern of banana under irrigated and rain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhana, A.; Aravindakshan, M.; Wahid, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Root morphology by excavation method and root activity pattern by 32 P soil-injection technique have been studied in banana var., Nendran under rainfed/irrigated conditions. The number of roots, length and diameter of roots and dry weight of roots were found to be more for the rainfed banana crop compared to the irrigated. The results of the radiotracer studies indicated that about 60 per cent of the active roots of irrigated banana lie within 20 cm distance and about 90 per cent of the total root activity is found within 40 cm distance from the plant. In the case of rainfed crop about 85 per cent of the active roots were found within a radius of 40 cm around the plant. Active roots were found to be more concentrated at 15 to 30 cm depth under rainfed conditions while the density of active roots was more or less uniform along the profile upto a dpeth of 60 cm in irrigated banana. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  3. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  4. Fusarium wilt resistant bananas considered appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be tried in areas witbout black Sigatoka while KMS appears a suitable replacement for the juice bananas ( Kisubi and. Kayinja). Key words: Fusarium wilt, Exotic bananas, Resistance, acceptability ·. Introduction. Fusarium wilt of bananas (Panama disease), caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.f.sp ...

  5. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  6. Morphological, Serological and Molecular Analyses of Anthracnose-Causing Agent on Banana Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Colletotrichum, C. musae and C. gloeosporoides, occur as infecting species of banana. The study focused on examining the etiology of anthracnose on banana fruits sold on the domestic market. An isolate was obtained from a deseased banana fruit on PDA medium, forming a white colony with intensive and uniformed growth. It was not possible to identify the isolated fungus based on its morphological characteristics. Positive serological reaction in an ELISA test with monoclonal antibodies for C. acutatum indicated an antigen site for the used monoclonal antibodies. Positive reaction when C. gloeosporioides-specific primers were applied indicated a similarity in the ITS sequence ofthe fungus and the examined isolate from banana fruit. Although there are no available data in literature that C. gloeosporioides-specific CgInt primer can be used for amplification of the phylogenetically related C. musae, our results do not exclude that the isolate could be C. musae. The host plant, symptoms observed and colony characteristics of the fungus isolated from the banana fruit mostly correspond to C. musae. Based on morphological, antigenand gentic characteristics, the isolate from banana was determined as Colletotrichum sp., while species identification of the anthracnose-causing agent on banana requires additional analysis.

  7. Caracteres da planta e do cacho de genótipos de bananeira, em quatro ciclos de produção, em Belmonte, Bahia Plant and branch characteristics of banana genotypes in four production cycles in Belmonte, Bahia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Basilio Vieira Leite

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, no ecossistema de Mata Atlântica, em condições de sequeiro de Belmonte - BA, 15 genótipos de bananeira, contemplando variedades e híbridos obtidos no programa de melhoramento genético de bananeira da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Os genótipos foram: 'Mysore', 'Thap Maeo', 'Caipira', 'Nam', PV03-76, PV03-44, JV03-15, PA03-22, 'Pioneira', 'Prata Anã', 'Ouro da Mata', 'Prata, 'Pacovan', 'Maçã' e 'Grande Naine'. Os caracteres avaliados foram: altura da planta (cm na roseta foliar e diâmetro do pseudocaule (cm a 30 cm do solo, no florescimento; número de dias do plantio à colheita; peso do cacho em kg; número de frutos por cacho e comprimento do fruto em cm. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 3,0 m x 2,0 m. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo cada parcela constituída de 49 plantas com 25 úteis em três repetições. Os tratos culturais foram os preconizados para a cultura. Não foi realizado controle da Sigatoca-amarela. A análise revelou que a avaliação de genótipos permite a identificação de variedades e cultivares promissoras para recomendação aos produtores, tendo se destacado, no cômputo das características avaliadas: 'Thap Maeo', 'Caipira', 'Nam' e PV03-76.Fifteen genotypes of banana were evaluated for their performance in the Mata Atlântica ecosystem, at Belmonte city, BA, with no irrigation system. The genotypes, including varieties and hybrids from Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Banana Breeding Program, were as follow: Mysore, Thap Maeo, Caipira, Nam, PV03-76, PV03-44, JV03-15, PA03-22, Pioneira, Prata Anã, Ouro da Mata, Prata, Pacovan, Maçã and Grande Naine. The agronomic traits evaluated in the experiments were: plant height (cm and diameter of pseudostem (measure at 30 cm above ground during flowering; number of days from planting to harvest, weight of bunch (kg, number of hands and fingers to bunch and fingers length (cm. The plant spacing was 3,0 m between rows and 2

  8. Alterações em propriedades de solo adubado com doses de composto orgânico sob cultivo de bananeira Changes in soil properties managed with organic compost rates, under banana plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de composto orgânico nas propriedades químicas do solo cultivado com bananeira 'Prata-anã' (Musa AAB, foi desenvolvido o presente trabalho na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP, Botucatu-SP. O plantio foi realizado no mês de novembro de 2002, com mudas convencionais, adotando-se o espaçamento de 2,5 x 2,5 m. O composto orgânico foi produzido com serragem de madeira e esterco de bovino, sendo os tratamentos empregados constituídos das seguintes doses de composto: T1 = 0 g planta-1 de K2O (dose zero do composto - Testemunha; T2 = 98,5 g planta-1 de K2O (43 kg planta-1 de composto; T3 = 197,0 g planta-1 de K2O (86 kg planta-1 de composto; T4 = 290,5 g planta-1 de K2O (129 kg planta-1 de composto; T5 = 394,0 g planta-1 de K2O (172 kg planta-1 de composto, sendo essas doses calculadas de acordo com o teor de potássio presente no mesmo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos, 5 repetições e 2 plantas por parcela. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e à análise de regressão. Aos quatro meses após a aplicação da última parcela da adubação com composto orgânico, realizou-se amostragem de solo da camada de 0 a 20 cm e foram avaliadas as propriedades químicas do solo. A adubação orgânica promoveu incrementos no pH, matéria orgânica, fósforo, cálcio, soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases do solo.Aiming to evaluate the effects of different organic compost rates in chemical properties of soil cultivated with banana plants 'Prata-anã' (Musa AAB, this present work was carried out at "Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP", Botucatu-SP. Plants were placed in the prepared area in November 2002, at 2,5 x 2,5 m spacing between plants. The organic compost was produced using wood residue and bovine manure and the treatments were constituted by different compost rates: T1 = 0 g plant-1 of K2O (zero of

  9. Digestion of waste bananas to generate energy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, W P; Radnidge, P; Lai, T E; Jensen, P D; Hardin, M T

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from laboratory studies to measure the methane yield and rate of digestion of reject bananas. These parameters were determined in experiments that took into account the likely configuration of a full-scale plant in the banana growing region of north Queensland. The digestion was conducted in a 200-l reactor using fed-batch operation, relying entirely on the natural microbial consortia on the reject bananas to avoid reliance on external inocula such as sludge, an undesirable material around food packaging facilities. An enrichment culture was first established in a highly buffered 200-l batch digestion unit. The fed-batch digester was then started by exchanging leachate with the mature batch reactor. Under loading conditions of 0.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) over 70 days where the average working volume was 160 l, the digester produced 398+/-20 l CH4 kg VS(-1). Increasing the loading rate to 1.6 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) resulted in a reduced methane yield of 210 l CH4 kg VS(-1) over 23 days of operation, with a concomitant accumulation of banana waste in the digester. The leachate at the end of digestion contained over 4000 mg l(-1)K, 200 mg l(-1) N and 75 mg l(-1), levels that exceed acceptable limits for general agricultural irrigation.

  10. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  11. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  12. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performance of Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study described the structure, conduct and performance of banana market in Anambra State of Nigeria. The specific objectives are to describe the structure of the banana market; analyze the conduct of the banana market; determine banana market performance; and examine the major problems of banana marketing in ...

  13. Produção da bananeira 'Nanicão' em diferentes densidades de plantas e sistemas de espaçamento Yield of 'nanicão' banana at different plant densities and spacing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexio Scarpare Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes densidades de plantio e sistemas de espaçamento sobre a produção da bananeira 'Nanicão', avaliando-se os primeiros quatro ciclos. Quatro densidades (3.333, 2.222, 1.666 e 1.333 plantas ha-1 e dois sistemas de espaçamento (retângulo e triângulo foram testados para as condições de Piracicaba,SP. O aumento da densidade de 1.333 para 3.333 plantas ha-1 diminuiu a massa do cacho em 15% a 20%, em decorrência do menor número de frutos por cacho, massa e tamanho do fruto. A produção foi sempre maior com o aumento da densidade, porém não ocorreu o mesmo quanto à produtividade. Até o terceiro ciclo, a produtividade das plantas no tratamento de maior densidade superou a das demais. No quarto ciclo, não houve diferença de produtividade entre as plantas, nas densidades testadas, em razão do aumento na duração do ciclo de produção do plantio mais denso. Comparado com o retângulo, o sistema de espaçamento em triângulo promoveu maior massa do cacho no primeiro ciclo e produtividade levemente superior ao longo dos quatro ciclos.The objective of this research was to study the effect of different planting densities and spacing systems on the yield of the 'Nanicão' banana, evaluating the first four cycles. Four density (3,333; 2,222; 1,666 and 1,333plants ha-1 and two spacing systems (rectangle and triangle were tested for the conditions of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The increase of the density of 1,333 to 3,333 plants ha-1 decreased bunch weight in 15% to 20%, due to reduction in number of fruit by bunch and fruit size. The yield was always higher as the density increased; however, there was not the same behavior for the productivity. Until the third cycle, the highest plant density overcame the productivity of the others. In the fourth cycle there was no difference in productivity among the densities, due to the increase in the duration of crop cycle in the highest

  14. Resistance selection on banana CV. Ambon Kuning Against Fusarium Wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ismiyarti; Meldia, Yeni; Jumjunidang

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to study the occurrence of mutation on irradiated plantlets and their resistance of plants of banana cv. Ambon Kuning against Fusarium wilt. Plantlets of banana cv. Ambon Kuning sized 5 cm were exposed to gamma rays at the doses 5 - 35 Gy intervals, then were subcultured for obtained M 1 V 5 plantlets. More over, the planlets were acclimatized and were planted in the field was already infected by Fasarium (f).culbense (FOC). The result indicated that irradiated plantlets of the doses 20 - 35 Gy were not able to survive up to 6 months after exposing to gamma rays. Abnormalities of M 1 V 5 plantlets originated from irradiated plantlets at the doses 10 and 15 Gy were shown on rossette plantlets with rigid and dark green leaves, and the formation of smooth mass morphologically shaped like calculus. The appearance of plant height and number of suckers of suckers of M 1 V 5 plants in the field was quite various. The number of survival plants after 8 moths planting was 8, 7, 15, and 28, respectively originated from untreated plants and irradiated plantlets at the doses 5, 10, and 15 Gy. After one year planting , only 2 plants were able to survive from irradiated plantlet at the dose 15 Gy. The plants could produce 27 plantlets obtained from culturing their shoot tips. Further study of these plantlets was needed in order create the stability of their resistance to FOC. (author)

  15. Avaliação de diploides de bananeira (Musa spp. quanto à tolerância a salinidade Evaluation of banana diploids plants (Musa spp. to salinity tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lane de Oliveira Silva

    2009-12-01

    genotypes, which allows parental identification for crossings. This research aimed to identify the salinity tolerance among banana diploid genotypes to be used in future works of genetic improvement to saline soils of Brazilian northeast region. Nine banana diploid genotypes (AA were evaluated for growth variables as leaf area, height, diameter of pseudostem, leaves number, weight of fresh and dry matter. During 21 days, the plants were treated with 0 and 100 mM of NaCl, in an entirely randomized experimental delineation with three repetitions. After 21 days, the determination of fresh matter weight was released using analytic balance. The attainment of the each plant dry matter weight from foliar limbo, pseudostem and root+rizome was carried out through drying in greenhouse at 65ºC until constant weight. The Tjau Lagada genotype, which suffered minor reduction of leaf area, can possibly show a higher production despite other genotypes analyzed in this study. The genotype 0116-01, presenting a greater salinity tolerance, could be used in future crossings providing genes to be incorporated in productive cultivars by improvement programs which aims the adaptive cultivars to Brazilian northeast saline soils.

  16. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  17. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  18. Soluble Starch Synthase III-1 in Amylopectin Metabolism of Banana Fruit: Characterization, Expression, Enzyme Activity, and Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongxia; Sun, Peiguang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang; Xu, Biyu

    2017-01-01

    Soluble starch synthase (SS) is one of the key enzymes involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in the important fruit crop banana. Herein, we characterized the function of MaSSIII-1 in amylopectin metabolism of banana fruit and described the putative role of the other MaSS family members. Firstly, starch granules, starch and amylopectin content were found to increase during banana fruit development, but decline during storage. The SS activity started to increase later than amylopectin and starch content. Secondly, four putative SS genes were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among them, MaSSIII-1 showed the highest expression in banana pulp during fruit development at transcriptional levels. Further Western blot analysis suggested that the protein was gradually increased during banana fruit development, but drastically reduced during storage. This expression pattern was highly consistent with changes in starch granules, amylopectin content, and SS activity at the late phase of banana fruit development. Lastly, overexpression of MaSSIII-1 in tomato plants distinctly changed the morphology of starch granules and significantly increased the total starch accumulation, amylopectin content, and SS activity at mature-green stage in comparison to wild-type. The findings demonstrated that MaSSIII-1 is a key gene expressed in banana fruit and responsible for the active amylopectin biosynthesis, this is the first report in a fresh fruit species. Such a finding may enable the development of molecular markers for banana breeding and genetic improvement of nutritional value and functional properties of banana fruit. PMID:28424724

  19. Soluble Starch Synthase III-1 in Amylopectin Metabolism of Banana Fruit: Characterization, Expression, Enzyme Activity, and Functional Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongxia; Sun, Peiguang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang; Xu, Biyu

    2017-01-01

    Soluble starch synthase (SS) is one of the key enzymes involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in plants. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in the important fruit crop banana. Herein, we characterized the function of MaSSIII-1 in amylopectin metabolism of banana fruit and described the putative role of the other MaSS family members. Firstly, starch granules, starch and amylopectin content were found to increase during banana fruit development, but decline during storage. The SS activity started to increase later than amylopectin and starch content. Secondly, four putative SS genes were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among them, MaSSIII-1 showed the highest expression in banana pulp during fruit development at transcriptional levels. Further Western blot analysis suggested that the protein was gradually increased during banana fruit development, but drastically reduced during storage. This expression pattern was highly consistent with changes in starch granules, amylopectin content, and SS activity at the late phase of banana fruit development. Lastly, overexpression of MaSSIII-1 in tomato plants distinctly changed the morphology of starch granules and significantly increased the total starch accumulation, amylopectin content, and SS activity at mature-green stage in comparison to wild-type. The findings demonstrated that MaSSIII-1 is a key gene expressed in banana fruit and responsible for the active amylopectin biosynthesis, this is the first report in a fresh fruit species. Such a finding may enable the development of molecular markers for banana breeding and genetic improvement of nutritional value and functional properties of banana fruit.

  20. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Yani, Alvi; Wylis Arief, Ratna; Mulyanti, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value) in the process into banana flour (BF). Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a). Janten, b). Kepok Manado, c). Muli and d), Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on...

  1. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  2. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, S.A.L.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Ferreira, C.F.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Zapater, M.F.; Goodwin, S.B.; Guzmán, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Souza, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas

  3. Modifying Bananas: From Transgenics to Organics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas are one of the top ten world food crops. Unlike most other major food crops, bananas are difficult to genetically improve. The challenge is that nearly all banana cultivars and landraces are triploids, with high levels of male and female infertility. There are a number of international conventional breeding programs and many of these are developing new cultivars. However, it is virtually impossible to backcross bananas, thus excluding the possibility of introgressing new traits into a current cultivar. The alternative strategy is to “modify” the cultivar itself. We have been developing the capacity to modify Cavendish bananas and other cultivars for both disease resistance and enhanced fruit quality. Initially, we were using transgenes; genes that were derived from species outside of the Musa or banana genus. However, we have recently incorporated two banana genes (cisgenes into Cavendish; one to enhance the level of pro-vitamin A and the other to increase the resistance to Panama disease. Modified Cavendish with these cisgenes have been employed in a field trial. Almost certainly, the next advance will be to edit the Cavendish genome, to generate the desired traits. As these banana cultivars are essentially sterile, transgene flow and the outcrossing of modified genes into wild Musa species. are highly unlikely and virtually impossible in other triploid cultivars. Therefore, genetic changes in bananas may be compatible with organic farming.

  4. The Effects of Treatments on Batu Banana Flour and Percentage of Wheat Substitution on The Resistant Starch, In Vitro Starch Digestibility Content and Palatability of Cookies Made with Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Rustanti, N.; Arifan, F.; Afifah, DN

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease worldwide. Resistant starch is polysaccharide that is recommended for DM patient diets. One of the staple crops containing resistant starch is banana. It is the fourth most important staple crop in the world and critical for food security, best suited plant in warm, frost-free, and coastal climates area. Among banana varieties, Batu bananas (Musa balbisiana Colla) had the highest content of resistant starch (~39%), but its use as a food ingredient is limited. Inclusion of Batu banana flour into cookies manufacturing would both increase the economic value of Batu bananas and provide alternative snacks for DM patients. Here we sought to examine whether cookies made with modified Batu banana flour would be a suitable snack for DM patients. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors: substitution of Batu banana flour (25%, 50%,75%) for wheat-based flour and Batu banana flour treatment methods (no treatment, autoclaving-cooling, autoclaving-cooling-spontaneous fermentation). The resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility levels were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test, whereas the acceptance level was analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The content of resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of the different treatments ranged from 3.10 to 15.79% and 16.03 to 52.59%, respectively. Both factors differed significantly (p0.05). Meanwhile, palatability in terms of color, aroma, texture, and flavor differed significantly among the different treatments and starch contents (p<0.05). Together these results show that Batu banana flour could be a promising ingredient for the production of snacks suitable for consumption by DM patients. Keywords: Batu banana, cookies, resistant starch, in vitro starch digestibility

  5. Standardization of a molecular diagnostic method for Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv in Ecuadorian bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Liseth Buitrón-Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several pests and diseases affect banana crop in Ecuador and Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv is one of the most important pathogens. The aim of this research was to standardize a new molecular approach to achieve a sensitive and highly specific detection of cmv in Ecuadorian bananas. Specific primers were designed from the sequence encodingResumoA cultura da banana no Equador vê-se afetada por uma série de doenças, das quais o cucumber mosaic vírus(cmv é um dos fitopatógenos mais impor-tantes. Com este estudo procurou-se padronizar uma técnica molecular para a detecção sensível e altamente específica deste agente viral na banana equatoriana. Para este fim, realizou-se o desenho de primers específicos, a partir da sequência que se codifica para a proteína da cápside do vírus. for the virus capsid protein. PC-F1, PC-R D1 and K-F primers, obtained from cDNA replicated from R NA of infected banana, allowed accurate virus detection by Reverse transcription and Hemi-nested PCR. Virus detection was possible even in asymptomatic plants, providing a tech-nology with potential use for the Ecuadorian banana producers.

  6. Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Martínez, Eduardo; Ruepert, Clemens; Savage, Candida; Gilek, Michael; Pinnock, Margareth; Solis, Efrain

    2006-08-15

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufos

  7. Apoptosis-related genes confer resistance to Fusarium wilt in transgenic 'Lady Finger' bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Becker, Douglas K; Dickman, Martin B; Harding, Robert M; Khanna, Harjeet K; Dale, James L

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Apart from resistant cultivars, there are no effective control measures for the disease. We investigated whether the transgenic expression of apoptosis-inhibition-related genes in banana could be used to confer disease resistance. Embryogenic cell suspensions of the banana cultivar, 'Lady Finger', were stably transformed with animal genes that negatively regulate apoptosis, namely Bcl-xL, Ced-9 and Bcl-2 3' UTR, and independently transformed plant lines were regenerated for testing. Following a 12-week exposure to Foc race 1 in small-plant glasshouse bioassays, seven transgenic lines (2 × Bcl-xL, 3 × Ced-9 and 2 × Bcl-2 3' UTR) showed significantly less internal and external disease symptoms than the wild-type susceptible 'Lady Finger' banana plants used as positive controls. Of these, one Bcl-2 3' UTR line showed resistance that was equivalent to that of wild-type Cavendish bananas that were included as resistant negative controls. Further, the resistance of this line continued for 23-week postinoculation at which time the experiment was terminated. Using TUNEL assays, Foc race 1 was shown to induce apoptosis-like features in the roots of wild-type 'Lady Finger' plants consistent with a necrotrophic phase in the life cycle of this pathogen. This was further supported by the observed reduction in these effects in the roots of the resistant Bcl-2 3' UTR-transgenic line. This is the first report on the generation of transgenic banana plants with resistance to Fusarium wilt. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Azadirachta indica reduces black sigatoka in east african highland banana by direct antimicrobial effects against Mycosphaerella fijiensis without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakech, Alfred; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Black Sigatoka is a major disease of East African highland cooking bananas in Uganda. Aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Capsicum annuum have shown the potential to reduce Black Sigatoka in banana plantlets. The mechanisms by which plant extracts confer protection...... expression was compared in susceptible (cv. Musakala, genomic group AAA-EA) and resistant (cv. Kayinja, genomic group ABB) banana cultivars. Additionally, Musakala treated with A indica extract at 1 day before inoculation (DBI) was tested for induction of defence-related genes at 0, 10 and 20 days after...

  9. Golden bananas in the field: elevated fruit pro-vitamin A from the expression of a single banana transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Kleidon, Jennifer; Hoang, Phuong; Geijskes, Jason; Daniells, Jeff; Zaplin, Ella; Rosenberg, Yvonne; James, Anthony; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Deo, Pradeep; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Namanya, Priver; Becker, Douglas; Tindamanyire, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Harding, Robert; Dale, James

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro-vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA-biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20 μg/g of dry weight (dw) β-carotene equivalent (β-CE) in the fruit. Expression of a Fe'i banana-derived phytoene synthase 2a (MtPsy2a) gene resulted in the generation of lines with PVA levels exceeding the target level with one line reaching 55 μg/g dw β-CE. Expression of the maize phytoene synthase 1 (ZmPsy1) gene, used to develop 'Golden Rice 2', also resulted in increased fruit PVA levels although many lines displayed undesirable phenotypes. Constitutive expression of either transgene with the maize polyubiquitin promoter increased PVA accumulation from the earliest stage of fruit development. In contrast, PVA accumulation was restricted to the late stages of fruit development when either the banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase or the expansin 1 promoters were used to drive the same transgenes. Wild-type plants with the longest fruit development time had also the highest fruit PVA concentrations. The results from this study suggest that early activation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and extended fruit maturation time are essential factors to achieve optimal PVA concentrations in banana fruit. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relative susceptibility of banana cultivars to Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... The banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) is the most devastating disease of banana in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen ... millions of farmers in the Great Lakes region of Eastern and Central Africa. ... High levels of cell-mediated resistance to X. campestris pv. musacearum have not ...

  11. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  12. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers (SR...

  13. MALE F ERTILITY IN UGANDA BANANA GERMPLASM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cultivars in Kabanyolo banana germplasm. Infloreseence Mean character rank Cited from. Cultivar (1-4) Total Viable %viable Literalturea. Gros Michelb 4 11250 5351 47.55 10500. Red bananaC 3 10100 4808 47.61 7500. Kizungu red 3 10033 4800 47.80. Kizungu white 3 9933 4642 46.72. Dwarf Cavendish 2 5851 1 146 ...

  14. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  15. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimum Tahir; Azhar Mohamad; Rozeita Laboh; Umikalsum Mohd Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  16. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  17. Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick and reliable method for evaluating pollen quality is essential in a breeding program, especially in a crop such as banana that is characterized by high male and female sterility. In this study the germination and viability of banana pollen was evaluated in a sucrose solution and diluted banana nectar. Twenty banana ...

  18. Increasing sustainability through the use of organic matters/manures in banana production. cv. harichal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, T.F.; Baloch, M.A.; Baloch, A.F.; Miano, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    A banana experiment was carried out with cv. Harichal under the ecological conditions of Tando Jam to study the effect of organic manures/matter on the growth and bunch weight (yield) of banana. The treatments applied were ; FYM, Dry leaves, Stalk of the banana bunch and control with constant doses of NPK (136g + 57g + 148g per plant). Minimum days (490.33) from planting to harvest were observed under the treatment of FYM followed by stalk of the bunch and dried leaves. The highest single fruit weight (107 g), fruit length( 18.30 cm) bunch weight (25.46 kg) and calculated yield per hectare (33.80 tons) were observed under FYM with NPK fertilizer followed by stalk of the bunch and dried leaves. (author)

  19. Assessment of RNAi-induced silencing in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tuong Vi T; Windelinckx, Saskia; Henry, Isabelle M; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2014-09-18

    In plants, RNA- based gene silencing mediated by small RNAs functions at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level to negatively regulate target genes, repetitive sequences, viral RNAs and/or transposon elements. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or the RNA interference (RNAi) approach has been achieved in a wide range of plant species for inhibiting the expression of target genes by generating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, to our knowledge, successful RNAi-application to knock-down endogenous genes has not been reported in the important staple food crop banana. Using embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) transformed with ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a model system, we assessed silencing of gusAINT using three intron-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) constructs containing gusAINT sequences of 299-nt, 26-nt and 19-nt, respectively. Their silencing potential was analysed in 2 different experimental set-ups. In the first, Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation of banana ECS with a gusAINT containing vector and an ihpRNA construct resulted in a significantly reduced GUS enzyme activity 6-8 days after co-cultivation with either the 299-nt and 19-nt ihpRNA vectors. In the second approach, these ihpRNA constructs were transferred to stable GUS-expressing ECS and their silencing potential was evaluated in the regenerated in vitro plants. In comparison to control plants, transgenic plants transformed with the 299-nt gusAINT targeting sequence showed a 4.5 fold down-regulated gusA mRNA expression level, while GUS enzyme activity was reduced by 9 fold. Histochemical staining of plant tissues confirmed these findings. Northern blotting used to detect the expression of siRNA in the 299-nt ihpRNA vector transgenic in vitro plants revealed a negative relationship between siRNA expression and GUS enzyme activity. In contrast, no reduction in GUS activity or GUS mRNA expression occurred in the regenerated lines transformed with either of the two gusAINT oligo target

  20. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays.

  1. Predicting the benefits of banana bunchy top virus exclusion from commercial plantations in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Cook

    Full Text Available Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response.

  2. Cultivo de bananas em diferentes áreas na ilha de Tenerife Banana production under different conditions in Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar a produção e a qualidade de bananas produzidas em diferentes condições de cultivo na ilha de Tenerife, foram estudadas três regiões da ilha (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal, onde se produzem bananas ao ar livre das cultivares Gruesa, Gran Enana e Laja. Nas áreas de Cueva del Polvo e Hoya Melleque, emprega-se o cultivo convencional e, na propriedade Canaria Forestal, pratica-se o orgânico. Os espaçamentos adotados foram de 1,67 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova; 1,3 x 3,0 m, com uma planta por cova, e 2,0 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova, respectivamente, para as propriedades em Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal. Diante dos dados observados, é possível verificar que as plantas da cv. Gran Enana apresentam maior altura e as da cv. Gruesa, maior espessura de pseudocaule. Também se pode inferir que, dentre as áreas e cultivares estudadas, não houve grande variabilidade nas características físicas dos frutos. A produtividade média encontrada foi de 99,8 t.ha-1, valor considerado adequado.Aiming to characterize the production and the banana quality produced in different plantation conditions of Tenerife Island, three regions of the island were studied (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal where bananas of Gruesa, Gran Enana and Laja cultivars are produced in open-air conditions. In Cueva del Polvo and Hoya Melleque the production was carried out in conventional management, while in Canaria Forestal the plants were carried out under organic system. Plants spacing was 1.67 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole; 1.3 x 3.0 m, with one plant per hole and; 2.0 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole, respectivitly to Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal. Our data show that plants of Gran Enana are higher and Gruesa plants have the thickest pseudostem. Differences were not found regarding the physical fruit characteristics and the average yield was 99.8 t.ha-1.

  3. A high-throughput regeneration and transformation platform for production of genetically modified banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaindra Nath Tripathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Banana (Musa spp. is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties ‘Cavendish Williams’ and ‘Gros Michel’ were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of ‘Sukali Ndiizi’ was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS in Africa.

  4. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  5. Radiation enhances shelf life of Nendra bananas without changing the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Neil Renault; Nivas, Shashikiran; D'Souza, L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study shows that the shelf life of bananas is increased with low doses of radiation (300 Gy, 400 Gy, 500 Gy). However, there is no decrease in the lectin content. This improves the keeping quality of nendra bananas without affecting their lectin content. Hence, radiation can be used safely for the bananas distributed to HIV children. The present study was also to compare the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra bananas with the gamma irradiated bananas

  6. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  7. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources.

  8. Expression analysis of banana MaECHI1 during fruit ripening with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... The main function of endochitinase is believed to be pathogenesis related protein. However, more and more scientists reported the roles of endochitinase in plant growth and development. In order to investigate the role of endochitinase in postharvest banana fruit ripening, an endochitinase gene known.

  9. Effect of collection time on the viability of banana pollen grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the pollen viability of six improved diploid banana plants (AA) collected in different periods of the day, in two seasons of the year (winter and summer), using in vitro germination test and staining. Pollen grains collected at 8 am (anthesis), 10 am, 12 pm, 2 pm and 4 pm were evaluated ...

  10. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of preserving fresh-cut banana immersed in sweetened fruit juice for relatively longer periods, favoring commercialization. This type of conservation, although widely used in Brazil for fruit salads, consists of a more complex system in a physiological basis, requiring adjustment of the solution parameters, such as sugar concentration, pH and acidity, considering the viability and freshness of the plant tissue. In this short review, we discuss some experimental data and present a new method for preserving fresh-cut banana. Reduction of enzymatic activity, either in temporary dipping treatment or permanent immersion of banana slices is regarded as a key factor for maintaining its quality during cold storage.

  11. Antioxidant capacity of crude extracts from clones of banana and plane species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Padilla, Nayalet; Medina-Ramírez, Gerardo; Dávila, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Banana and plane are the most important fruits in world trade, behind citric plants. In this work we studied the antioxidant capacity of banana and plane varieties of fruits obtained from interspecies crossed varieties of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, named Harton plane, Cavendish banana, and Manzano banana. With this purpose we evaluated banana and plane crude extracts using the ferrous ion oxidation with xylenol orange method, the thiobarbituric acid method, determination of antioxidant activity, and effect on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and the radicals generated by ultraviolet light. The experiments showed that all extracts have the capacity to decrease the concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde, produced in the lipid peroxidation process, in a manner comparable to that of other widely studied antioxidants like melatonin and vitamin E. Moreover, all extracts had the capacity to inhibit the generation of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and the radicals generated by ultraviolet light. When antioxidant activity was calculated, a value was found that was equivalent to a concentration of uric acid between 0.20 and 0.30 mM at the highest concentration of extract used, with uric acid being a potent antioxidant at 1 mM.

  12. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  13. Boron toxicity in banana (Musa AAA) plantations of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Alfonso; Serrano, Edgardo; Arias, Fulvio; Arias M, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    A marginal, irregular and continuous necrosis was observed in the leaves of in banana plants (Musa AAA, cvs. Grande Naine and Valery), This necrosis was developed from an irregular chlorotic area, from the edge towards the internal part of the leaf blade. The central portion of the leaf kept the original green color. Soil and foliar analyses showed that symptoms were caused by high boron concentrations, probably due to excessive soil or foliage applications of the nutriment, or to the effect of very frequent applications of boron during fertigation, combined with a decrease of calcium in the leaf. (author) [es

  14. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jheng, G.; Jiang, Y.; Ghen, Y.; Yang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  15. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. © 2014 CIRAD New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Variable content and distribution of arabinogalactan proteins in banana (Musa spp.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yonglian; Takáč, Tomáš; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Enfeng; Xie, Ling; Su, Zhaohua; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in plant organs and tissues during plant reactions to low temperature (LT) is limited. In this study, the extracellular distribution of AGPs in banana leaves and roots, and their changes under LT stress were investigated in two genotypes differing in chilling tolerance, by immuno-techniques using 17 monoclonal antibodies against different AGP epitopes. Changes in total classical AGPs in banana leaves were also tested. The results showed that AGP epitopes recognized by JIM4, JIM14, JIM16, and CCRC-M32 antibodies were primarily distributed in leaf veins, while those recognized by JIM8, JIM13, JIM15, and PN16.4B4 antibodies exhibited predominant sclerenchymal localization. Epitopes recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 antibodies were distributed in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Both genotypes accumulated classical AGPs in leaves under LT treatment, and the chilling tolerant genotype contained higher classical AGPs at each temperature treatment. The abundance of JIM4 and JIM16 epitopes in the chilling-sensitive genotype decreased slightly after LT treatment, and this trend was opposite for the tolerant one. LT induced accumulation of LM2- and LM14-immunoreactive AGPs in the tolerant genotype compared to the sensitive one, especially in phloem and mesophyll cells. These epitopes thus might play important roles in banana LT tolerance. Different AGP components also showed differential distribution patterns in banana roots. In general, banana roots started to accumulate AGPs under LT treatment earlier than leaves. The levels of AGPs recognized by MAC207 and JIM13 antibodies in the control roots of the tolerant genotype were higher than in the chilling sensitive one. Furthermore, the chilling tolerant genotype showed high immuno-reactivity against JIM13 antibody. These results indicate that several AGPs are likely involved in banana tolerance to chilling injury.

  17. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  18. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  19. banana juice as an alternative energy source for banana in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... The different banana cultivars tested for multiplication responded similarly at different levels and types of energy sources. It was, therefore, apparent that banana juice from cultivar. Kayinja was the best in terms of promoting shoot multiplication and shoot vigour. It was apparent from our results that 50 ml l-1.

  20. Correlações entre caracteres da planta e do cacho em bananeira (Musa spp Correlations among characters of the plant and of the bunch in banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2006-02-01

    quantify the relationships among characters development and yield attributes in flowering and harvesting periods of 13 banana (Musa spp. genotypes (varieties and hybrids, in Guanambi State of Bahia, Brazil. The varieties were Prata anã e Pacovan (AAB, Grande naine e Nanicão (AAA, and the hybrids PA42-44, PV42-85, PV42-142, PV42-68 e ST12-31 (AAAB e Ambrosia, Calipso, Bucaneiro e FHIA02 (AAAA, selected in Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. The characters analyzed were plant height; pseudostem perimeter; number of functional leaves in the flowering and in the harvesting; number of days from planting to flowering and to harvesting; number of days from flowering to harvesting; bunch weight, of raquis and of the hands; length and diameter of the peduncle; number of hands and fruits; weight of the second hand; weight, length and diameter of finger and peel thickness. The correlations among the weight of the bunch and the other studied characters, varied among the genotypes and cycles. The associations among the weight of the bunch and the characters of the plant, in a general were no significant, and among the weight of the bunch and the characters of the bunch significant and positive for most of the genotypes in the two cycles evaluated. The correlations among the characters involving all the genotypes along the two cycles was predominantly positive and no significant, however, the associations among the characters of the bunch were in majority significant, positive and with expressive values.

  1. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  2. MULTIPLICACIÓN DE HONGOS MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR (H.M.A Y EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN EN PLANTAS MICROPROPAGADAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MULTIPLICATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE FUNGI (AMF AND MYCORRHIZATION EFFECT IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF BANANA (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’ (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    host’ plants and substrates, and the effectiveness of the samples obtained from banana plants (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’. The average association of the HMA to the plants was 37,76 ± 21,86%, regarding this percentage, the plants ‘B’ (Brachiaria decumbens and ‘S’ (Sorgum vulgare favored gratly the association. Considering the substrate, the ‘S2’ (sand 50-soil 50 and the ‘S6’ (Vermiculite 50-soil 50 had associations significantly superior to treatments. In plants ‘S’ and ‘K’ (Pueraria phaseoloides and in substrate S1 (sand 30-soil 70, was found a higher number of spores. The combination plant-substrate that most favored the association was the plant B (used as a trap culture using substrates ‘S2’ and ‘S4’ (‘cascarilla de arroz’ 50-soil 50 and the production of spores were plants ‘K’ and ‘S’ in substrate ‘S1’. The general HMA association in banana plants coming from tissue crop was 48,74 ± 30,44; there were not found significant differences between plants with zero days and plants with 30 days already acclimated. The samples with inoculum diseases spread upon them which favored the association, were the ones coming from the banana agro-environment compared to the commercial samples and those from natural environments in Urabá. The greatest foliar dry and root weight was found on banana samplings applied with ‘I5’ (sample from agro-environment. For the growth variables there was not found any difference.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of KIN10 and cold-acclimation related genes in wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lai, Gongti; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars may experience chilling or freezing injury in some of their cultivated regions, where wild banana can still grow very well. The clarification of the cold-resistant mechanism of wild banana is vital for cold-resistant banana breeding. In this study, the central stress integrator gene KIN10 and some cold-acclimation related genes (HOS1 and ICE1s) from the cold-resistant wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans) were cloned and their expression patterns under different temperature treatments were analyzed. Thirteen full-length cDNA transcripts including 6 KIN10s, 1 HOS1 and 6 ICE1s were successfully cloned. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that all these genes had the highest expression levels at the critical temperature of banana (13 °C). Under chilling temperature (4 °C), the expression level of KIN10 reduced significantly but the expression of HOS1 was still higher than that at the optimal temperature (28 °C, control). Both KIN10 and HOS1 showed the lowest expression levels at 0 °C, the expression level of ICE1, however, was higher than control. As sucrose plays role in plant cold-acclimation and in regulation of KIN10 and HOS1 bioactivities, the sucrose contents of wild banana under different temperatures were detected. Results showed that the sucrose content increased as temperature lowered. Our result suggested that KIN10 may participate in cold stress response via regulating sucrose biosynthesis, which is helpful in regulating cold acclimation pathway in wild banana.

  4. Detection of banana streak virus (BSV) Tamil Nadu isolate (India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. 2Department of Fruit Crops, ... Hence, attempts were made for diagnosis of BSV and to study the serological relationship with ... Among the five virus diseases of banana, disease caused by banana ...

  5. Effect of spatial heterogeneities of water fluxes and application pattern on cadusafos fate on banana-cultivated andosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, C; Cattan, P; Louchart, X; Voltz, M

    2008-12-24

    In tropical humid environments under intensive banana production, pesticide transfer in waters can be of particular concern due to heavy rainfall, steep slopes, and soils with high infiltration capacities. The transfer in percolation and runoff waters of the nematicide cadusafos was investigated during a three month field experiment. The spatial heterogeneity of the banana plantation was taken into account by measuring percolation fluxes both under the banana plants and in the interrows with a specially designed lysimeter device installed at 60 cm depth. At the field scale, 0.34% of the pesticide applied was transferred in percolation, 0.13% in runoff. Forty-nine percent of cadusafos losses occurred by percolation under the banana plants, 23% by interrow percolation, and 28% by runoff. Losses were highest during the three weeks following cadusafos application, and this is also when dissipation in the soil was highest (calculated half-life in the soil: 7d). After this period, losses of cadusafos were low, both in soil and waters. Under the banana plant, saturated fluxes carried most of the pesticide, despite total percolation fluxes being at least five-times higher than saturated ones. Although overall pesticide transfer in water was low (0.5% of applied), it was not negligible due to the frequency of pesticide application in these areas.

  6. Construction of a heterologous gene expression system in the banana rhizobacterium strain GW-3 and its colonization ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Xia, Qiyu; Zhang, He; Lu, Xuehua; Sun, Jianbo; Zhang, Xin

    2014-03-01

    Rhizobacteria inhabiting the rhizosphere are beneficial to their host plants, and can potentially serve as biocontrol agents to control plant diseases. We isolated the rhizobacterium strain GW-3, which was the dominant bacterium in the rhizosphere soils of healthy banana plants. Then, we constructed an expression system with a kanamycin resistance gene to express a heterologous protein in GW-3. Using the green fluorescent protein gene as the reporter, we monitored expression of the heterologous protein by detecting fluorescence intensity and conducting western blot analyses. The standard fluorescence intensity of the recombinant strain reached 1,482 ± 3.49 RFU. To study the colonization ability of GW-3, we inoculated this bacterium into sterilized and unsterilized rhizosphere soils and monitored the bacterial population over 25 days. The populations of GW-3 in rhizosphere soils first increased, then decreased, and finally reached a balance. Laser scanning confocal microscope analyses of fluorescence in banana roots after inoculation with GW-3 confirmed that the recombinant GW-3 strain stably colonized banana root surfaces. Analyses of the bacterial population in unsterilized rhizosphere soils showed that the recombinant GW-3 strain was still the dominant bacterium in banana rhizosphere soils at 25 days after inoculation. Together, these results showed that this expression system can be used to express a heterologous protein at high levels in a dominant rhizobacterium. By incorporating relevant resistance genes into the expression system, this method could be used to genetically engineer GW-3 to control banana wilt disease.

  7. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  8. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  9. Assessment of banana fruit maturity by image processing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Prabha, D.; Satheesh Kumar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Maturity stage of fresh banana fruit is an important factor that affects the fruit quality during ripening and marketability after ripening. The ability to identify maturity of fresh banana fruit will be a great support for farmers to optimize harvesting phase which helps to avoid harvesting either under-matured or over-matured banana. This study attempted to use image processing technique to detect the maturity stage of fresh banana fruit by its color and size value of their images precisely...

  10. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  11. Compositional changes in banana ( Musa ssp. ) fruits during ripening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overripe banana fruits, respectively. The results showed that the nutritional composition of banana pulp was diversely affected by ripening. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with the stages of ripeness. Bananas are considered a good source of Mg in the diet, and the data obtained herein ...

  12. Sustainable Banana Production and Pesticides in Costa Rica | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Producing bananas for export is an important economic activity in Costa Rica. Large multinational producers employ thousands of workers, who live near plantations, and smallholders grow banana as a cash crop. But, pesticide use in the banana industry is high and constitutes a health hazard for the farm workers, farmers ...

  13. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the extent of hydrolysis was conducted. Reactor CO containing banana pulp and inoculum but with no eggshells added was used as the control, while reactors C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5 containing banana pulp and ...

  14. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  15. Farmer evaluation of dried banana based products | Pekke | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farmer participatory evaluation of dried banana based products was conducted in various districts of Uganda. Bananas were dried using a tunnel solar dryer developed by Post Harvest Handling and Storage project (PHHS) of Kawanda Post-harvest Programme and improved by the National Banana Research ...

  16. Effect of environment and cultivar on the expression of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is grown for subsistence and income generation by 80% of small scale farmers all year round in Kenya hence it is an important food security crop. However viral diseases such as banana streak disease (BSD), caused by Banana streak virus, hamper the production of the crop. BSV has been reported to ...

  17. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performance of Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    constrained from increased production by lack of capital, high yielding and disease resistant banana varieties. Policy recommendation to this effect was suggested. Key words: Policy, structure, conduct, performance and banana. INTRODUCTION. Cultivated bananas (cultivars) belong to the Euniusa of the family muraceae.

  18. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  19. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132

  20. Natural product of wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong: biopesticide to control the vector of banana blood disease bacterium in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N; Dharma, A; Efdi, M; Yuhendra; Eliesti, F

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the most important food crops in Indonesia. Its production is greater than any other agricultural commodity. With the population of 230 million in 2010, banana was consumed up to three million tons in this country. However, Banana Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB), one of the most devastating banana pathogens in the world, which is only found in Indonesia, threatens not only the growth of this plant but also the lives and the livelihoods for most of the Indonesian society. BDB is caused by a lethal bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype-4, which infects a wide range of bananas, from bananas used for consumption to wild bananas. In West Sumatera, the disease killed 1.40% of bananas in 1998, and then increased dramatically to 37.9% in 2003. The total banana production dropped to 62% in this province. The search for controlling the vector has led to the pre-investigation of Wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong C.K. Lim which has a stink bug odour similar to a methidathion insecticide. The plant was collected around the conservation area of Lembah Anal in West Sumatra. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of natural insecticides compound contained in E. slahmong against D. melanogaster. This study tested the effect of E. slahmong on the mortality, anti-feedant and repellent levels against Drosophila melanogaster, the vector of BDB. The essential oil of E. slahmong was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaves. We found that the extract of E. slahmong significantly affected the mortality of D. melanogaster of 30-40% and also acted as an antifeedant (with success rate of 73-93%) and repellent (with success rate of 99-99.6%). The long- term objective of this study is to develop green biopesticide to control BDB in Indonesia, based on an environmentally friendly pest management.

  1. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Domingues, E.T.; Alvarez, A.L.F.; Mendez, B.M.J.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD 50 in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the removal of

  2. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Scarminio, Viviane [UNESP; Fruet, Andrea C. [UNESP; Witaicenis, Aline [UNESP; Rall, Vera L. M. [UNESP; Di Stasi, Luiz C. [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, c...

  3. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  5. Differential accumulation of β-carotene and tissue specific expression of phytoene synthase (MaPsy) gene in banana (Musa sp) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, R; Singh, V P; Arora, A; Bhattacharya, R C; Rajendran, Ambika

    2017-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran , a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp. The gene encoding Musa accuminata phytoene synthase ( MaPsy ) was successfully amplified using a pair of degenerate primers designed from Oncidium orchid. The deduced amino acid sequences shared a high level of identity to phytoene synthase gene from other plants. Gene expression analysis confirmed the presence of two isoforms ( MaPsy1 and MaPsy2 ) of MaPsy gene in banana fruits. Presence of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in peel and one in pulp confirmed the differential accumulation of β-carotene in banana fruits. However, Nendran accumulated more β-carotene in edible pulp due to presence of both the isoforms of MaPsy gene. Thus, carotenoid accumulation is a tissue specific process strongly dependent on differential expression pattern of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in banana.

  6. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  7. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  8. Identification of miRNAs involved in fruit ripening in Cavendish bananas by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fangcheng; Meng, Xiangchun; Ma, Chao; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-10-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding small RNAs that play an important regulatory role in various biological processes. Previous studies have reported that miRNAs are closely related to the ripening process in model plants. However, the miRNAs that are closely involved in the banana fruit ripening process remain unknown. Here, we investigated the miRNA populations from banana fruits in response to ethylene or 1-MCP treatment using a deep sequencing approach and bioinformatics analysis combined with quantitative RT-PCR validation. A total of 125 known miRNAs and 26 novel miRNAs were identified from three libraries. MiRNA profiling of bananas in response to ethylene treatment compared with 1-MCP treatment showed differential expression of 82 miRNAs. Furthermore, the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted to target a total of 815 target genes. Interestingly, some targets were annotated as transcription factors and other functional proteins closely involved in the development and the ripening process in other plant species. Analysis by qRT-PCR validated the contrasting expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes. The miRNAome of the banana fruit in response to ethylene or 1-MCP treatment were identified by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 82 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be closely associated with the ripening process. The miRNA target genes encode transcription factors and other functional proteins, including SPL, APETALA2, EIN3, E3 ubiquitin ligase, β-galactosidase, and β-glucosidase. These findings provide valuable information for further functional research of the miRNAs involved in banana fruit ripening.

  9. Caracterização microclimática em cultivo consorciado café/banana Microclimatic characterization in coffee and banana intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. M. Pezzopane

    2007-06-01

    the first being close to the nearest point to banana plants and the second at the center of the shaded crop plot. The banana plants reduced the incoming solar radiation to the coffee crop, showing a higher reduction at the nearest point to banana plants. The wind speed was reduced by 48% at the shaded crop, this value being influenced by the season of the year and pruning of the banana plants. Differences were found only for the maximum air temperature at the central point of the shaded crop, showing higher averages in relation to the unshaded crop during the summer and autumn, and also in relation to the nearest point to banana plants during the spring, summer and autumn, showing higher differences on sunny days and with low wind speed.

  10. Long noncoding RNAs that respond to Fusarium oxysporum infection in 'Cavendish' banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Li, Chunqiang; Li, Shuxia; Peng, Ming

    2017-12-05

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of genes that influence a variety of biological functions through acting as signal, decoy, guide, and scaffold molecules. In banana (Musa spp.), an important economic fruit crop, particularly in Southeast Asia, the wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), especially strain Foc TR4, is disastrous. In banana, how the biogenesis of these lncRNAs is regulated in response to pathogen infection is still largely unknown. In this study, strand-specific paired-end RNA sequencing of banana samples was performed on susceptible and resistant cultivars inoculated with Foc, with three biological replicates and at two different times after infection. Overall, 5,294 lncRNAs were predicted with high confidence through strict filtration, including long intergenic ncRNA (lincRNA) and antisense lncRNA. Differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs were identified in response to Foc infection in the inoculated versus the mock-inoculated banana of the susceptible 'BX' and resistant 'NK' cultivars. Through KEGG, GO, and the expression levels of the DE lncRNAs, some DE lncRNAs were predicted to be involved in plant-pathogen interactions and phytohormone signal transduction. In this study, this catalog of lncRNAs and their properties will facilitate further experimental studies and functional classifications of these genes.

  11. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-20

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism.

  12. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  13. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN Y LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN LA ACUMULACIÓN DE BIOMASA EN PLANTAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MICORRHIZATION AND FERTILIZATION EFFECT ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION IN BANANA PLANTS (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de invernadero (ubicado en el municipio de Bello - Antioquia (Colombia se evaluó el efecto independiente y combinado de los factores: tipo de inóculo de Hongos Micorriza Arbuscular (HMA, fertilización y aplicación de materia orgánica sobre el porcentaje de asociación de HMA en plantas de banano (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano, así como en la acumulación de materia seca foliar y radical. Dentro del factor tipo de inóculo, se evaluaron inóculos nativos, de agroecosistemas bananeros y ecosistemas naturales del Urabá (Antioquia-Colombia, uno comercial y la especie Acaulospora morrowiae; con respecto a la fertilización se probó la mitad, completa y dos veces la dosis de la fertilización recomendada de acuerdo al análisis de suelo y a los requerimientos de la planta, y cada uno de estos factores con y sin la aplicación de materia orgánica; como testigos se usaron, la no aplicación del respectivo factor. Se usó como material vegetal plantas de banano micropropagadas del grupo Cavendish cv. Gran Enano (AAA. El sustrato utilizado para el crecimiento de las plantas de banano se compuso de suelo y arena en relación 70/30 v/v. El suelo se obtuvo de la granja experimental de Augura, ubicado en el municipio de Carepa en la región de Urabá. Los resultados encontrados, muestran que los factores que más incidieron en la asociación así como en la acumulación de biomasa en toda la planta son la micorrización y la adición de materia orgánica. Los resultados, también muestran un comportamiento positivo respecto al uso de inóculos nativos de agroecosistemas bananeros, con bajas aplicaciones de fertilizantes.The effects of independent an combined factors such as inoculum type, fertilization and organic matter application on the percentage of association of ‘H.M.A’ in banana plants (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’, and on the accumulation of leaves and rrots material, were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Natives samples

  15. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    important parameters in banana marketing thus the reason they were considered in this study. The data were analysed using Statistics Analysis. System (SAS) for analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were separated by the Student-. Newman-Keuls test. RESULTS. The differences in growth parameters of the 10.

  16. EFFECT OF MULCHING ON BANANA WEEVIL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Diferencias sexuales en la morfologia externa de Cosmopolites sordidus. Germar (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Ciencias. Biol, La Habana 1: 1-11. Mitchell, G.A. 1978. The estimation of banana borer population and resistance levels. WINBAN Research and development. Technical bulletin No. 2. pp. 34. Price, N.S. 1993.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF WASTE BANANA PEELS AND RADISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    wheat, maize, sugar beet, potatoes, palm tree, sun flower, fruits and vegetable wastes, and algae ... or gasoline. It can be used alone or mixing with gasoline [8]. We report here the production of biofuels from banana peels and radish leaves. The production of biofuels from vegetable oil and other edible resources is not ...

  18. Towards improving highland ban.anas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most fertile land races belonged to 'Nakabululu' and 'Nfuuka' clone sets. Viable seeds were obtained from several land races indicating that genetic improvement ofthese highland bananas through cross breeding is possible. The fertile Iandraces should be cross-pollinated with improved diploids to produce resistant ...

  19. Banana Algebra: Compositional Syntactic Language Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  20. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  1. Review on postharvest technology of banana fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mu

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... tural system. Due to its relatively little requirement of land preparation, care, maintenance, and a comparatively high yield per given area and time, bananas are well suited to traditional ... pled with the postharvest management practices because ..... on the target market or the duration of the required.

  2. Morphological abnormality among regenerated shoots of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400. UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul ... culture as a direct organogenesis (Swamy et al., 1982;. Vuylsteke, 1998; Kulkarni et ... by cytokinin types, their concentrations and type of banana cultivars ...

  3. Application of Nutrient Enriched Biochar to Grow Bananas at the Plantation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzengung, Valentine

    2017-04-01

    The majority of soils in Cameroon consist of varying laterites derived from granites. The lateritic soils are generally depleted in nutrients. The most fertile soils in Cameroon are young soils that have formed from volcanic rocks of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). The richer volcanic soils which are found in the southwest region and the western regions are used to grow the major cash crops, including cocoa, coffee, rubber, banana, tea, and palm fruits. The government owned Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) and private commercial farmers in the country have resorted to the heavy use of imported agrochemicals to mitigate the serious and persistent soil fertility challenges. Cameroon is the third largest biomass producer in Africa. This means that Cameroon has a high biomass production potential. Among the many types of biomass available for biochar production in Cameroon, empty fruit bunches (EFB) from the many palm oil plantations offer one of the largest concentration of biomass. CDC alone produces over 200,000 tons of EFB biomass each year. The corporation uses less than half of the EFB it produces in its palm oil processing mills for mulching. The remaining EFB are disposed by open burning leading to significant air pollution. In 2015, we entered into a collaborative understanding with CDC to dispose some of its EFB by pyrolysis to produce biochar. The produced biochar is enriched with natural plant nutrients obtained from animal waste (poultry chicken manure) and volcanic lava dust from the 2001 eruption of Mount Cameroon. The biochar, chicken litter and volcanic rock dust is aged for 14 - 21 days to produce a 100% natural soil enhancer commercialized under the name "QwikGro". The QwikGro is undergoing field evaluation on three hectares of banana plantation owned by CDC. The field trial began in June 2016. Of the three hectares, one hectare of the bananas was planted using 100% (only) QwikGro, the second hectare was planted with 50% QwikGro and received

  4. Evaluation of organic amendments on microbial soil respiration and agronomic variables in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuellins Dennis Durango Cabanilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the use of organic amendments on soil microbial respiration and agronomic variables in banana plants was studied, evaluating 22 treatments consisting of three amendments and four organic products, each in three doses and control treatmet (no amendment. The results showed significant increases in soil microbial respiration, with high doses of vinasse and mycorrhizae at 90 days after transplantation. In the agronomic variables were found significant differences of increase of height, diameter of pseudotallo and dry matter, with the amendments: vinaza, shrimp fluor, humus and biostimulant. Therefore, from the results obtained it can be concluded that the organic amendments increased the microbial respiration activity and stimulated the agronomic development of the banana plant.

  5. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J; Friedman, Haya

    2016-05-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Current status of the banana and plantain collection at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana (Musa acuminata Colla. [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla [ABB, AAAB, AABB]), are large monocotyledonous plants in the Musaceae family and is one of the world’s furthermost important crops in the world. High genetic variability can be found in centers of origin, but the lack of diversity in...

  7. GAS EXCHANGE IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BANANA PRATA IN SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    ARANTES,ALESSANDRO DE MAGALHÃES; DONATO,SÉRGIO LUIZ RODRIGUES; SIQUEIRA,DALMO LOPES DE; COELHO,EUGÊNIO FERREIRA; SILVA,TÂNIA SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate gas exchange of banana Prata in two production cycles in semiarid environment. Six cultivars were used as treatments arranged into a completely randomized design with five replications and four plants per plot. For physiological characteristics, it was considered a factorial arrangement of 6x14x2, six cultivars, 14 periods (months), two readings, 8:00 and 14:00 in each period. The rates of gas exchange, the carboxylation efficiency and the instantaneous ...

  8. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  9. Genetic relationship among subspecies of Musa acuminata Colla and A-genome consisting edible cultivated bananas assayed with ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phruet Racharak

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationship among subspecies of Musa acuminata and A-genome consisting edible cultivated bananas was investigated by ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twelve samples of wild type bananas that were classified into 5 subspecies of Musa acuminata, thirty-three samples of edible cultivatedbananas and M. balbisiana were used as plant materials for this study. Of a total of 36 ISSR primers screened, 6 primers revealed a total of 128 alleles, allele size varied from 200 to 3,000 bp with an average of 21.33 alleles per primer, average of allele frequency was 0.18, polymorphic percentage was 1.0 and heterozygositywas 0.29. From the dendrogram, banana samples can be divided into two main clusters with similarity coefficient value at 0.18. The first cluster belonged to the out group which included Musa itinerans and Ensete glaucum, the second cluster belonged to Musa coccinea, M. laterita, all subspecies of M. acuminata, M. balbisiana and all the cultivar groups of the edible cultivated bananas and plantains. In addition, the results indicated two Musa species, consisting of M. coccinea and M. laterita, were sister group of the second cluster as well. All specimens of subspecies of M. acuminata were related to cultivated groups of A-genome consisting of cultivated bananas in Thailand.

  10. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit Banana entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution genotype of M. acuminata. This wonder crop, as of today, remains untouched by the green revolution and researchers face intrinsic impediments for varietal improvement to enhance its yield. The complex genome of banana was decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Banana has historically faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small and marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding of its structural genome has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unravelling the process of parthenocarpy for better fruit quality, and fruit ripening in this climacteric fruit. Injunction of comparative genomics research will usher in to integrate information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  11. Banana bunchy top virus in sub-Saharan Africa: investigations on virus distribution and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Hanna, R; Alabi, O J; Soko, M M; Oben, T T; Vangu, G H P; Naidu, R A

    2011-08-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) was first reported from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the 1950s, has become invasive and spread into 11 countries in the region. To determine the potential threat of BBTV to the production of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) in the sub-region, field surveys were conducted for the presence of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in the DRC, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon and Malawi. Using the DNA-S and DNA-R segments of the virus genome, the genetic diversity of BBTV isolates was also determined from these countries relative to virus isolates across the banana-growing regions around the world. The results established that BBTD is widely prevalent in all parts of DRC, Malawi, Angola and Gabon, in south and western part of Cameroon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of DNA-S and DNA-R indicate that BBTV isolates from these countries are genetically identical forming a unique clade within the 'South Pacific' phylogroup that includes isolates from Australia, Egypt, South Asia and South Pacific. These results imply that farmers' traditional practice of transferring vegetative propagules within and between countries, together with virus spread by the widely prevalent banana aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa, could have contributed to the geographic expansion of BBTV in SSA. The results provided a baseline to explore sanitary measures and other 'clean' plant programs for sustainable management of BBTV and its vector in regions where the disease has already been established and prevent the spread of the virus to as yet unaffected regions in SSA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  14. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yu; Deng, Gui-Ming; Yang, Jing; Viljoen, Altus; Jin, Yan; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Zuo, Cun-Wu; Lv, Zhi-Cheng; Yang, Qiao-Song; Sheng, Ou; Wei, Yue-Rong; Hu, Chun-Hua; Dong, Tao; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-08-05

    Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99%) genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 33,243 (37.71%) unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI), ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in banana. This study generated a

  15. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bressan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta, heliconia (Heliconia spp., red ginger (Alpinia purpurata, and banana (Musa sp.. Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  16. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-22

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  17. Evasion of short interfering RNA-directed antiviral silencing in Musa acuminata persistently infected with six distinct banana streak pararetroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-10-01

    Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5'-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5' portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being targeted by the host silencing

  18. [Activity of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein of banana fruit tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguen; Buza, N L; Krinitsyna, A A; Protsenko, M A

    2005-01-01

    The activity of polygalacturonase and the protein inhibiting this enzyme, which affected polygalacturonases of phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Gloesporium musarium, were detected in banana (Musa acumthata L.) fruit of cultivars Cavendish and Korolevskii. The polygalacturonase from banana fruit was inhibited by the preparations of the protein inhibitor not only from bananas but also from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit.

  19. Ply tensile properties of banana stem and banana bunch fibres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... ... easy to process and have promising mechanical properties [2-5]. Success stories have been told of how natural fibres from agro-plants and wastes have been made into semi- structural products for both domestic and indus- trial applications [6-8]. Numerous research have been done on kenaf, flax, hemp, ...

  20. Avaliação de clones de banana Cavendish Evaluation of cavendish banana clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Na bananeira ocorrem variações somaclonais em taxa muito superior ao que se observa na maioria das outras culturas, provavelmente em função da instabilidade mitótica. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar clones de bananeira Cavendish coletados em diferentes locais. Os clones Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063 coletados em São Paulo, Santa Catarina e Bahia foram avaliados no Lote 54-P da Thelo Produção Agropecuária (Grupo Plena, no Projeto Jaíba, Etapa 1, no município de Matias Cardoso-MG. Avaliaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de brotos, peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos e de pencas por cacho, comprimento e circunferência do fruto e número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita. Observou-se grande similaridade nas características dos clones. No entanto, os resultados obtidos permitem a recomendação dos clones N. IAC Abóbora Verde e G.N. Williams.Somaclonal variations occur in bananas at greater rates compared to other crops, probably due to mitotic instability. The objective of the present research was to evaluate Cavendish banana clones collected from different sites. The 'Grand Naine' clones (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 and 'Nanicão' (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 and N. SC-063 collected from the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Bahia, were evaluated at the Station 54-P of the Thelo Agricultural Production (Plena Group, in the Jaíba Project, Stage 1, in the city of Matias Cardoso-MG. The characteristics of the plant as height and pseudostem circumference, number of live leaves at flowering and harvesting, number of shoots, weight of bunch and hand, number of fruits and hands per bunch, fruit length and

  1. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparative Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Tissue-Cultured Plantlets of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Cultivarsin Response to Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the most destructive soil-borne diseases. In this study, young tissue-cultured plantlets of banana (Musa spp. AAA cultivars differing in Foc susceptibility were used to reveal their differential responses to this pathogen using digital gene expression (DGE. Data were evaluated by various bioinformatic tools (Venn diagrams, gene ontology (GO annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway analyses and immunofluorescence labelling method to support the identification of gene candidates determining the resistance of banana against Foc. Interestingly, we have identified MaWRKY50 as an important gene involved in both constitutive and induced resistance. We also identified new genes involved in the resistance of banana to Foc, including several other transcription factors (TFs, pathogenesis-related (PR genes and some genes related to the plant cell wall biosynthesis or degradation (e.g., pectinesterases, β-glucosidases, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and endoglucanase. The resistant banana cultivar shows activation of PR-3 and PR-4 genes as well as formation of different constitutive cell barriers to restrict spreading of the pathogen. These data suggest new mechanisms of banana resistance to Foc.

  3. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  5. Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ratna Djuita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker. The research aims todetect genomic integrity of in vitro irradiated banana using microsatellite marker. These studies were done on bananacv. Pisang Mas irradiated by 15 Gy of gamma ray. The DNA was isolated from each accesion following Dixie.Amplification of DNA products were done by Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR 2400 using ten primers, and thenelectroforesis in agarose 1%. Finally a vertical polyacrylamide gel electroforesis was run and the products werevisualized by silver staining. The result shown that among the primers tested, eight primers produced clear, discrete,and reproducible bands. Number of DNA band exhibited ranging from one to two, following the ploidy level of pisangMas which is a diploid banana cultivar (AA. One band suggest homozygote allele while two bands showedheterozygote allele. Out of eight primers, six primers produced different allele among irradiated, in vitro, and in vivocontrol plant. Meanwhile, for the other two primers the allele were monomorph for all the accessions examined.Genomic modification was observed at all irradiated plants. The modification can happened at zygosity of certain allelethat may change from heterozygote to homozygote or vice versa. While modification in allele size that underlyinggenomic instability could be caused by several genetic events such as deletion, insertion, and amplification ofnucleotides.

  6. Certain growth related attributes of micropropagated banana under different salinity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.U.; Soomro, F.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity (NaCl) was assessed on banana (Musa spp.) cv., Sindhri Banana (Basrai) propagating plantlets in aseptic condition. Four different NaCl levels [0 (control) 50, 100 and 150 mM] were maintained at shoot multiplication stage for 6-weeks. Salinity reduced the number of plantlets per explants and plant biomass significantly. A proportional relationship was observed for Na/sup +/ and Cl/sub -/ but K/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/and NO/sub 3/ were observed to be inversely proportioned with NaCl stress. Similarly, total proteins as well as carbohydrate contents were decreased significantly. Increasing mode of secondary metabolites (proline, betaine contents and reducing sugars) were showing a negative relationship of saline stress with plant micro-propagation efficiency. Among photosynthetic pigments, total carotenoids were increased while chlorophyll contents (Chl a and b) decreased. Similarly, nitrate reductase activity also reduced. Overall, vegetative propagation of banana was affected significantly by NaCl stress under in-vitro conditions. (author)

  7. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronielli Cardoso Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity of banana varieties in Brazil, only a few cultivars have the proper agronomic traits and fruit quality for commercial exploitation. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical traits and sensorial acceptance of banana genotypes, in order to identify those with potential for commercial growing. Six improved banana genotypes were assessed (BRS Maravilha, PC 0101, FHIA 18, TM 2803, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira, as well as three commercial cultivars (Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã. Analyses of peel and pulp color, peel thickness, pulp yield, moisture, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carotenoids and sensorial acceptance were performed. The BRS Maravilha, FHIA 18, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira genotypes presented physicochemical traits similar to the Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã commercial cultivars. The BRS Maravilha and TM 2803 genotypes had sensorial acceptance similar to the Prata Anã and Grand Naine cultivars, and are therefore promising for commercial growing, with the advantage of being resistant to the black Sigatoka and Panama disease.

  8. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata) on human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingolo, Catharina E; Braga, João M A; Vieira, Ana C M; Moura, Mirian R L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2012-12-01

    Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts) has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g) and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses) revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.

  9. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. Plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com culturas anuais Irrigated banana resistant to black Sigatoka, with annual intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu de Souza

    2010-03-01

    July 2007, in a 3 x 5 randomized block design with split plots. The plots consisted of three banana varieties (Pacovan Ken, Caipira and Thap Maeo and subplots of four interim crops (common bean Pearl, okra Dart, watermelon Crimson Sweet and cowpea, with three replications and a control (banana without intercrop. Altogether 756 banana plants were considered, in 45 plots, using 6 central banana plants per plot, representing the main crop. The intercrops were planted in the banana interrows, in those with and those without the irrigation pipeline. The banana and intercrops were planted in the same period. Banana plants were spaced 3.0 m between rows and 2.0 m between plants and irrigated by microsprinklers spaced 6 m apart. Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of the banana varieties were evaluated in the 1st cycle. No significant effect of the crops on the banana varieties was observed, except for the traits number of days from planting to flowering and number of days from planting to harvest of the banana varieties. The cowpea use promoted delay at the crop cycle of three varieties of banana plants Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo.

  11. Xylem specific activation of 5’ upstream regulatory region of two NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) in banana is regulated by SNBE-like sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of secondary cell wall in the xylem elements is controlled by a subgroup of NAC (NAM, ATAF, CUC) family, known as vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). In the present study, we analyzed the 5’ upstream regulatory region of two banana NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) for tissue specific expression and presence of 19-bp secondary-wall NAC binding element (SNBE)-like motifs. Transgenic banana plants of Musa cultivar Rasthali harboring either PMusaVND7::GUS or PMusaVND6::GUS showed specific GUS (β-D-Glucuronidase) activity in cells of the xylem tissue. Approximately 1.2kb promoter region of either MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 showed presence of at least two SNBE-like motifs. This 1.2kb promoter region was retarded in a gel shift assay by three banana VND protein (VND1,VND2 and VND3). The banana VND1-VND3 could also retard the mobility of isolated SNBE-like motifs of MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 in a gel shift assay. Transcript levels of MusaVND6 and MusaVND7 were elevated in transgenic banana overexpressing either banana VND1, VND2 or VND3. Present study suggested a probable regulation of banana VND6 and VND7 expression through direct interaction of banana VND1- VND3 with SNBE-like motifs. Our study also indicated two promoter elements for possible utilization in cell wall modifications in plants especially banana, which is being recently considered as a potential biofuel crop. PMID:29438404

  12. Progresso da sigatoka-negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso-Brasil Progress of black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis in banana plants after the bunch emergence in the district of Cáceres, Mato-Grosso-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Benedita Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A sigatoka-negra, causada pelo fungo Mycosphaerella fijiensis, pode causar 100% de perdas na produção das cultivares suscetíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o progresso da sigatoka-negra em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso. O experimento foi conduzido no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004 em plantios das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco, sendo esta última uma cultivar de plátano, do grupo Terra. As avaliações foram efetuadas a intervalos de 15 dias, quantificando-se, através de uma escala diagramática, a severidade da sigatoka-negra em todas as folhas de 5 plantas de cada cultivar, marcadas logo após a emissão das inflorescências. A partir dos dados coletados no campo, computaram-se: a severidade da doença na folha n.º 10 e o número de folhas viáveis. Considerou-se como folha viável as folhas sadias e aquelas com até 15% de área foliar lesionada. Os dados de temperatura e da umidade relativa foram registrados por um aparelho eletrônico instalado na área. A precipitação pluvial foi registrada na Estação meteorológica de Cáceres, distante 12 km do experimento. As condições climáticas foram favoráveis à sigatoka negra durante o ano todo e as plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco após a emissão do cacho, perderam totalmente as folhas antes dos frutos atingirem o pleno desenvolvimento, cujos prejuízos no primeiro semestre atingiram 100% de perdas na produção comercializável.The black sigatoka, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis may cause 100% of yield losses in susceptible cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the progress of the black sigatoka in banana plants after the bunch emergence, in the district of Cáceres, Mato Grosso State - Brazil. The experiment was carried out from February to December 2004, in banana cultivars "Grande Naine" and "Maçã", as well as plantain cultivar Farta Velhaco (Terra

  13. Strategies for resistance to bacterial wilt disease of bananas through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The livelihoods of millions of Ugandan farmers have been threatened by current outbreak of a banana bacterial wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, which is very destructive and rapidly spreading in Uganda. Bananas are the highest value staple food and source of income for millions of ...

  14. Banana cultivar distribution in Rwanda | Nsabimana | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, banana have been a highly sustainable crop in Rwanda, but with the introduction of various diseases and pests in the last 10 -20 years, production has fallen by over 40%. The objectives of this study were to (i) establish the current diversity and distribution of banana cultivars, (ii) understand factors that affect the ...

  15. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicated that banana peel provided necessary nutrients for cell growth and cellulase synthesis. It can be used as a potential substrate for cellulase production by T. viride GIM 3.0010 under solid-state fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cellulase production using banana peel.

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fruit flies; (2) No bananas from bunches containing prematurely ripe fingers (i.e., individual yellow... process); and (4) To safeguard from fruit fly infestation, the bananas must be covered with insect-proof packaging, such as insect-proof mesh screens or plastic tarpaulins, from the time that they are packaged for...

  17. Agroecological distribution of banana systems in the Great Lakes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantain and Cavendish production on the other hand dominate at the lower altitudes where the acreage under banana cultivation is steadily increasing. ... to strategic planning for increased productivity of bananas especially considering possible effects on food security, pest/disease control, cultivar diversity and ...

  18. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  19. Identification of indigenous ripining technologies of banana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of indigenous ripining technologies of banana and plantain fruits among women-marketers in southeastern Nigeria. ... for a short period of time. The implications of the findings for banana and plantain indigenous ripening technologies extension education were drawn. Agro-Science Vol. 6 (2) 2007: pp. 60-66 ...

  20. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), movement relative ...

  1. Ethical perception of human gene in transgenic banana | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...

  2. Banana Xanthomonas wilt in Ethiopia: Occurrence and insect vector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Xvm) is an important disease of enset and banana in south and south-western Ethiopia where, the diversity of the insect fauna on banana inflorescences was unknown and the role of insects as vectors of the disease had not been studied. The objectives of ...

  3. Introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in Kenya. However, most of the cultivars grown particulary the local ones are low yielders and are thus not very suitable for commercial production. ... The study involved six FHIA and four Cavendish type of bananas obtained from Bioversity International.

  4. The changing spread dynamics of banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt still remains a serious threat to banana production in Uganda. Although the desired long term control strategy would have been use of resistance, no sources of resistance have been found. Further the transgenic resistance under development will only be deployed in the long run. In the meantime ...

  5. Production and evaluation of precooked dehydrated unripe banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant change in total aerobic counts or yeasts and moulds counts occurred in dehydrated banana slices packaged in 250 gauge polyethylene bags and stored at ambient temperature for 3 months. The slices were found to be high in starch (~68.5%) and minerals. When shallow fried, the dehydrated banana slices ...

  6. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  7. Farmer acceptance of introduced banana genotypes in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The same cultivars were acceptable mainly as dessert but also as cooking bananas during food shortages in central and western parts, especially, in areas where the growing of traditional cultivars is progressively declining. There was little interest in the new bananas in western parts of the country. Major considerations for ...

  8. Preliminary evaluation of improved banana varieties in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) production in Mozambique is largely confined to the Cavendish variety that is eaten as a dessert. On the other hand, banana is a staple food crop in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of a range of high yielding and disease resistant cooking and dessert varieties in Mozambique ...

  9. Urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dessert bananas (Musa spp.) form one of the world's most important fruits, yet one of the least traded commodities in Uganda. A range of exotic and hybrid dessert bananas that included KABANA 3H and KABANA 4H were introduced in Uganda in response to Fusarium wilt disease that was wiping away Gros Michel.

  10. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liquid crystals; banana-shaped compounds; isophthalic acids; X-ray diffraction. Abstract. In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several ...

  11. Production and evaluation of precooked dehydrated unripe banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at developing a process for production of easy to prepare dehydrated banana slices. Steaming unripe bananas for 7 minutes followed by hand peel stripping, slicing and dehydration in air dryers produced slices with better rehydration properties than slices produced without steaming, even when the ...

  12. Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... The nectaries in banana are located at the base of filaments of the male flowers. The nectar is viscous and sweet due to presence of sugars. However, the exact composition of banana nectar is unknown. Due to its viscosity it can only be used as a pollen germination medium after dilution with sterile water.

  13. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  14. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced

  15. Determinants of market production of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. Data were collected from a random sample of 217 farmers through the use of a structured questionnaire. Results of the study indicate that about 80% of the farmers interviewed produce cooking banana ...

  16. Genetic Diversity Among East African Highland Bananas For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 84 distinct cultivars of highland bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda, grouped in five clone sets and it is not known which among these are female fertile. The objective of the study reported herein was to identify female fertile highland bananas that can be used in a cross breeding program and to determine the ...

  17. REACTION OF Musa balbisiana TO BANANA BACTERIAL WILT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2Makerere University, Department of Agricultural Production, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Corresponding author: kumalfred@gmail.com. (Received 7 February, 2012; accepted 3 September, 2013). ABSTRACT. Banana bacterial wilt (Xanthomonas campestris) is an emerging disease of bananas in Uganda.

  18. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  19. Olfactory attractiveness of mixtures of some host plant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple "Y" shaped olfactometer was used in laboratory studies on the olfactory attractiveness of mixtures in various proportions of industrial analogues of some host plant and conspecific-based semiochemicals, or their combinations with banana rhizome, to the banana weevil. The aim was to identify factors that influence ...

  20. Transcriptomic Changes of Drought-Tolerant and Sensitive Banana Cultivars Exposed to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy Muthusamy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In banana, drought responsive gene expression profiles of drought-tolerant and sensitive genotypes remain largely unexplored. In this research, the transcriptome of drought-tolerant banana cultivar (Saba, ABB genome and sensitive cultivar (Grand Naine, AAA genome was monitored using mRNA-Seq under control and drought stress condition. A total of 162.36 million reads from tolerant and 126.58 million reads from sensitive libraries were produced and mapped onto the Musa acuminata genome sequence and assembled into 23,096 and 23,079 unigenes. Differential gene expression between two conditions (control and drought showed that at least 2268 and 2963 statistically significant, functionally known, non-redundant differentially expressed genes (DEGs from tolerant and sensitive libraries. Drought has up-regulated 991 and 1378 DEGs and down-regulated 1104 and 1585 DEGs respectively in tolerant and sensitive libraries. Among DEGs, 15.9 % are coding for transcription factors (TFs comprising 46 families and 9.5% of DEGs are constituted by protein kinases from 82 families. Most enriched DEGs are mainly involved in protein modifications, lipid metabolism, alkaloid biosynthesis, carbohydrate degradation, glycan metabolism, and biosynthesis of amino acid, cofactor, nucleotide-sugar, hormone, terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Several, specific genotype-dependent gene expression pattern was observed for drought stress in both cultivars. A subset of 9 DEGs was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results will provide necessary information for developing drought-resilient banana plants.

  1. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  2. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kenji Oi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the mass and relative humidity of the dried product. Three levels were used in selected variables, which corresponded to the completion of 27 experiments. In experiments in which they obtained the lowest values of relative humidity, the amounts of mass were also the lowest, while in experiments where they met the higher amounts of the levels of relative humidity ranged from the highest. Considering the industrial application, whose purpose is the low humidity and increased production of the product, test 22 was the most appropriate, and found 11% moisture and 4.33 g in mass.

  3. Improvement of banana through biotechnology and mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.S.; Ganapathi, T.R.; Bapat, V.A.; Kulkarni, V.M.; Suprasanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Protocols were standardized for in vitro propagation of several elite and diverse banana accessions using shoot tip explants. Tissue culture raised plants were field planted at multiple locations. Studies were undertaken for the induction of mutations using multiple shoot cultures of six selected cultivars, Shreemanti (AAA), Basrai (AAA), Lal Kela (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Karibale Monthan (ABB) and a wild diploid (BB). These shoot cultures were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays (0-100 Gy) and subcultured thrice (up to M 1 V 3 ) to separate shimeras, followed by induction of rooting (M 1 V 4 ). In general, the rate of multiplication had a negative association with the dose of gamma rays. Enhanced multiplication of shoots was noticed at lower doses. The proliferation of shoots was arrested beyond 50 Gy and a dose of 70 Gy was completely lethal for all the genotypes studied. The rooted plantlets were hardened in the green house and in the early stages of field growth, a few cholorophyll and morphological variants have been noticed. Preliminary studies have been made with DNA samples of different varieties and variants for DNA quality and restriction digestion. Studies are underway to characterize these using PCR based methods. (author)

  4. Effect of utilization of tomato extract and foliar fertilizer as media on shoots multiplication of banana cv Ambon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidhari, L. A.; Purwanto, E.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    The good quality banana seeds are still difficult to obtain. There are two ways to provide seeds, namely conventional and tissue culture (in vitro). Tomato extract contains natural ZPT or phytohormone which can be utilized in modification of banana tissue culture media. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of media types and tomato extracts in various concentrations for multiplication of banana cv. Ambon in vitro. The study was conducted from October - December 2016 at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Horticulture Seed Center, Salaman, Magelang. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with two treatment factors. The firs factor was media type with the addition of foliar fertilizer, the second factor was modification of tomato extract with 4 levels. The results showed that the different of the treated media treatment did not affect the emerge of leaf and leaf length, the number of roots and root length. The emerge of the leaves of all treatments occurred at 6 days after planting with the highest average length was obtained in MS treatment with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l (10.3 cm). The use of MS medium with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l generated the average root number 15.5 with a root lengths 7.5 cm. Substitution of MS medium with tomato extract and foliar fertilizer did not show better results compared to the use of MS media in the multiplication of banana shoots in tissue culture.

  5. Development of environmental friendly lost circulation material from banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Hasan, Nur â.€˜Izzati; Naimi, Fardelen Binti Md; Othman, Nur Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Loss of expensive mud could lead to major financial problem in executing a drilling project and is one of the biggest problems that need to be tackled during drilling. Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) is the most stable state of the art drilling mud used in current drilling technologies. However, the problem with lost circulation is still inevitable. The focus of this project is to develop a new potential waste material from banana peel in order to combat lost circulation in SBM. Standard industrial Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is used to compare the performance of banana peel as LCM in SBM. The effects of different sizing of banana peels (600 micron, 300 micron and 100 micron) were studied on the rheological and filtration properties of SBM and the bridging performance of banana peel as LCM additive. The tests were conducted using viscometer, HTHP filter press and sand bed tester. Thermal analysis of banana peel was also studied using TGA. According to the results obtained, 300 and 100 micron size of banana peel LCM exhibited an improved bridging performance by 65% as compared to industrial LCM. However, banana peel LCM with the size of 600 micron failed to act as LCM due to the total invasion of mud into the sand bed.

  6. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  7. Prospects of banana waste utilization in wastewater treatment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Danish, Mohammed

    2018-01-15

    This review article explores utilization of banana waste (fruit peels, pseudo-stem, trunks, and leaves) as precursor materials to produce an adsorbent, and its application against environmental pollutants such as heavy metals, dyes, organic pollutants, pesticides, and various other gaseous pollutants. In recent past, quite a good number of research articles have been published on the utilization of low-cost adsorbents derived from biomass wastes. The literature survey on banana waste derived adsorbents shown that due to the abundance of banana waste worldwide, it also considered as low-cost adsorbents with promising future application against various environmental pollutants. Furthermore, raw banana biomass can be chemically modified to prepare efficient adsorbent as per requirement; chemical surface functional group modification may enhance the multiple uses of the adsorbent with industrial standard. It was evident from a literature survey that banana waste derived adsorbents have significant removal efficiency against various pollutants. Most of the published articles on banana waste derived adsorbents have been discussed critically, and the conclusion is drawn based on the results reported. Some results with poorly performed experiments were also discussed and pointed out their lacking in reporting. Based on literature survey, the future research prospect on banana wastes has a significant impact on upcoming research strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of banana fruit maturity by image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surya Prabha, D; Satheesh Kumar, J

    2015-03-01

    Maturity stage of fresh banana fruit is an important factor that affects the fruit quality during ripening and marketability after ripening. The ability to identify maturity of fresh banana fruit will be a great support for farmers to optimize harvesting phase which helps to avoid harvesting either under-matured or over-matured banana. This study attempted to use image processing technique to detect the maturity stage of fresh banana fruit by its color and size value of their images precisely. A total of 120 images comprising 40 images from each stage such as under-mature, mature and over-mature were used for developing algorithm and accuracy prediction. The mean color intensity from histogram; area, perimeter, major axis length and minor axis length from the size values, were extracted from the calibration images. Analysis of variance between each maturity stage on these features indicated that the mean color intensity and area features were more significant in predicting the maturity of banana fruit. Hence, two classifier algorithms namely, mean color intensity algorithm and area algorithm were developed and their accuracy on maturity detection was assessed. The mean color intensity algorithm showed 99.1 % accuracy in classifying the banana fruit maturity. The area algorithm classified the under-mature fruit at 85 % accuracy. Hence the maturity assessment technique proposed in this paper could be used commercially to develop a field based complete automatic detection system to take decision on the right time of harvest by the banana growers.

  9. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  10. Cultivation Versus Molecular Analysis of Banana (Musa sp.) Shoot-Tip Tissue Reveals Enormous Diversity of Normally Uncultivable Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2017-05-01

    The interior of plants constitutes a unique environment for microorganisms with various organisms inhabiting as endophytes. Unlike subterranean plant parts, aboveground parts are relatively less explored for endophytic microbial diversity. We employed a combination of cultivation and molecular approaches to study the endophytic bacterial diversity in banana shoot-tips. Cultivable bacteria from 20 sucker shoot-tips of cv. Grand Naine included 37 strains under 16 genera and three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes). 16S rRNA gene-ribotyping approach on 799f and 1492r PCR-amplicons to avoid plant organelle sequences was ineffective showing limited bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA metagene profiling targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region after filtering out the chloroplast (74.2 %), mitochondrial (22.9 %), and unknown sequences (1.1 %) revealed enormous bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria formed the predominant phylum (64 %) succeeded by Firmicutes (12.1 %), Actinobacteria (9.5 %), Bacteroidetes (6.4 %), Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and minor shares (banana shoot-tips (20 phyla, 46 classes) with about 2.6 % of the deciphered 269 genera and 1.5 % of the 656 observed species from the same source of shoot-tips attained through cultivation. The predominant genera included several agriculturally important bacteria. The study reveals an immense ecosystem of endophytic bacteria in banana shoot tissues endorsing the earlier documentation of intracellular "Cytobacts" and "Peribacts" with possible roles in plant holobiome and hologenome.

  11. Quality evaluation of banana skin extract jellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S V; Valente, W A; Figueiredo, L P; Dias, M V; Pereira, P P; Pereira, A G T; Clemente, P R

    2011-04-01

    Due to the great volume of banana skin resulting from the industrialization of banana and to their high pectin content, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of the following factors: extract/sugar, pectin and citric acid on the chemical, physical and sensory qualities of the jellies obtained. A complete factorial experimental design was used (2(3)) with 3 central points to evaluate the influence of the factors on the dependent variables, testing the linear models. The chemical properties underwent few alterations and the instrumental and sensory texture attributes were mainly affected by the extract/sugar ratio and the pectin level. The brittleness, elasticity and gumminess increased with increases in the extract/ sugar ratio and pectin level. According to the sensory analysis and the purchasing intention, the best formulations were those obtained using a higher extract/sugar ratio (60/40) and lower pectin level (0.5 g/ 100), combined with the highest (20 mL) or lowest volumes of citric acid (15 mL), with scores for all the attributes in the range from 'I liked slightly' to 'I liked moderately'.

  12. Solar Trap for Banana Drying Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food drying methods nowadays are mostly in high use of electricity and fuel which lead to high operational cost. This has resulted in a waste of energy and money due to the use of modern tools requires significant costs for implementation. Meanwhile, the traditional food drying process only uses sun rays in their process, where the process is far more efficient than the modern drying method. In this study, the test was conducted to determine the trapped solar heat energy requirements for the process of drying foods such as agricultural products, particularly bananas. The solar trap test by using solar trap container was carried out include determining the thermal energy requirement for drying, preparing equipment (solar trap container to trap solar energy, handling and drying tests on samples of bananas. The percentage amount of water removal and energy required for the drying process was found to be 48% and 134 J. The results of this study can determine that solar trap drying method is easier, quicker and more effective than the usual method of drying because it use natural solar energy. Several proposals have been suggested for improvement for future study, such as controlling the solar trap air in the container, replacing the trap solar wall with a darker color, examining the floors slope so that more solar traps collected and installing a small hose on the base of the container so that the water evaporated in the solar trap may exit through the route.

  13. Efeito da adubação mineral, orgânica e calagem, na produção da bananeira em várzea litorânea de Caraguatatuba - Estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with the banana plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fereira da Cunha

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados da adubação de bananeira com adubos químicos, orgânicos, sob a forma de tortas oleaginosas, e calagem, efetuada com carbonato de cálcio, em dois solos comumente usados para plantio de bananais no município do Caraguatatuba, litoral de São Paulo. Os delineamentos usados foram os de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos para os experimentos de adubos químicos e orgânicos, o quatro tratamentos, com o mesmo número de repetições, para os de calagem. Na adubação química, os elementos N, P e K foram estudados em três níveis, com várias combinações. Os ensaios com adubos químicos mostraram que apenas a adubação potássica teve influência acentuada sôbre a produção. A adubação azotada revelou pequeno efeito o fósforo não modificou a produção da bananeira nos solos estudados. As tortas oleaginosas proporcionaram grandes aumentos de produção, sobretudo, a de mamona, que trouxe produções cêrca de duas vêzes superior à de algodão. As aplicações de calcário, como corretivo, não produziram resultados significativos sôbre a produção da bananeira nos solos estudados, cujo pH variava entre 5,17 a 5,95.Fertilizer experiments were carried out to study the response of the banana plant to mineral and organic fertilizers, and to soil correctives. The experiments were conducted at Caraguatatuba on two types of the soils generally used for the banana crop in the coastal areas of São Paulo State. The experiments were designed in randomized blocks with four replications. Eight treatments, including mineral fertilizers and meals, were compared. In case of liming four treatments were applied. The resulta from the experiments indicated that potassium induced a strong response, especially in the area called Sítio Ribeirão. A response to nitrogen was noticed only at Sítio Velho, where small quantities of this element were necessary. No response to phosphorus and lime was

  14. The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

  15. Bioinformatics analysis to assess potential risks of allergenicity and toxicity of HRAP and PFLP proteins in genetically modified bananas resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuan; Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O; Lu, Mei; Tripathi, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease threatens banana production and food security throughout East Africa. Natural resistance is lacking among common cultivars. Genetically modified (GM) bananas resistant to BXW disease were developed by inserting the hypersensitive response-assisting protein (Hrap) or/and the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene(s) from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). Several of these GM banana events showed 100% resistance to BXW disease under field conditions in Uganda. The current study evaluated the potential allergenicity and toxicity of the expressed proteins HRAP and PFLP based on evaluation of published information on the history of safe use of the natural source of the proteins as well as established bioinformatics sequence comparison methods to known allergens (www.AllergenOnline.org and NCBI Protein) and toxins (NCBI Protein). The results did not identify potential risks of allergy and toxicity to either HRAP or PFLP proteins expressed in the GM bananas that might suggest potential health risks to humans. We recognize that additional tests including stability of these proteins in pepsin assay, nutrient analysis and possibly an acute rodent toxicity assay may be required by national regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic dissimilarity of putative gamma-ray-induced 'Preciosa-AAAB-Pome type' banana (Musa sp) mutants based on multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, R K N; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Oliveira, L S; Ledo, C A S; Silva, S O

    2011-10-25

    Bananas are among the most important fruit crops worldwide, being cultivated in more than 120 countries, mainly by small-scale producers. However, short-stature high-yielding bananas presenting good agronomic characteristics are hard to find. Consequently, wind continues to damage a great number of plantations each year, leading to lodging of plants and bunch loss. Development of new cultivars through conventional genetic breeding methods is hindered by female sterility and the low number of seeds. Mutation induction seems to have great potential for the development of new cultivars. We evaluated genetic dissimilarity among putative 'Preciosa' banana mutants generated by gamma-ray irradiation, using morphoagronomic characteristics and ISSR markers. The genetic distances between the putative 'Preciosa' mutants varied from 0.21 to 0.66, with a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8064. We found good variability after irradiation of 'Preciosa' bananas; this procedure could be useful for banana breeding programs aimed at developing short-stature varieties with good agronomic characteristics.

  17. Avaliação de variante somaclonal de porte baixo de bananeira 'Nanicão Jangada' (Musa sp em duas densidades Evaluation of a dwarf somaclonal variant of banana 'Nanicão Jangada' (Musa sp in two planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia da Costa Zonetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, sob duas densidades de plantio, um variante somaclonal de porte baixo de bananeira, comparando-o com a variedade Nanicão Jangada que lhe deu origem. Os materiais genéticos 'Nanicão Jangada'(controle e o variante somaclonal representado pelas seleções 224 e 225 de um ensaio anterior, foram avaliados nos espaçamentos 2,0m X 2,0m (densidade 2500 plantas ha-1 e 3,0m X 2,0m (1666plantas ha-1, na Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Campus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições, com utilização de mudas micropropagadas, sob irrigação por gotejamento, no período de dezembro de 1998 a março de 2001, com avaliação dos dois primeiros ciclos de produção. Constatou-se efeito da densidade e do ciclo sobre a produção estimada de frutos sendo que no cultivo mais denso, a média foi de 81,25 t.ha-1 no primeiro ciclo de produção e 67,93 t.ha-1 no segundo ciclo. No cultivo de menor densidade a produção estimada no primeiro ciclo foi de 51,35 t.ha-1 e 44,08 t.ha-1 no segundo. As seleções do variante de porte baixo apresentaram menor altura da planta e mostraram-se relativamente mais precoces e com produção semelhante a cv. Nanicão Jangada no primeiro ciclo. No segundo ciclo houve uma queda na produção do bananal, com maior intensidade para a seleção 225 do variante.A dwarf somaclonal variant of banana was evaluated under two planting densities. It was compared with the cultivar "Nanicão Jangada", the original clone from which the variant derived. The genotypes 'Nanicão Jangada'(control and the somaclone, represented by selections 224 and 225 from a previous experiment, were evaluated at spaced 2.0 m X 2.0 m (density of 2500 plants ha-1 and 3.0 m X 2.0 m (1666 plants ha-1 at the "Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP", Campus de Ilha Solteira, SP. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks with 5

  18. Efficiency of water application of irrigation systems based on microsprinkling in banana plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Further food production may be limited by the reduced availability of water resources. Since irrigated agriculture is the productive sector that presents a higher demand of water, this sector has been under intense pressure in order to ensure food production with improved efficiency of water use. This study aimed to use the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique to measure percolation losses and to determine water application efficiency of banana (Musa spp. trees using microsprinkler irrigation systems. Three systems were studied: (i one 32 L h-1 microsprinkler for four plants; (ii one 60 L h-1 microsprinkler for four plants; and (iii one 60 L h-1 microsprinkler for two plants. Systems that replace water to the soil with the lowest variation of infiltrated water depths at different distances from plant pseudostem were the most efficient. The water application efficiency of microsprinkler irrigation systems using the (i, (ii, and (iii microsprinkler systems were 85%, 80 % and 90 % respectively.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of ripe and unripe fruit tissue of banana identifies major metabolic networks involved in fruit ripening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Mehar Hasan; Lakhwani, Deepika; Pathak, Sumya; Gupta, Parul; Bag, Sumit K; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-12-02

    Banana is one of the most important crop plants grown in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is a climacteric fruit and undergoes ethylene dependent ripening. Once ripening is initiated, it proceeds at a fast rate making postharvest life short, which can result in heavy economic losses. During the fruit ripening process a number of physiological and biochemical changes take place and thousands of genes from various metabolic pathways are recruited to produce a ripe and edible fruit. To better understand the underlying mechanism of ripening, we undertook a study to evaluate global changes in the transcriptome of the fruit during the ripening process. We sequenced the transcriptomes of the unripe and ripe stages of banana (Musa accuminata; Dwarf Cavendish) fruit. The transcriptomes were sequenced using a 454 GSFLX-Titanium platform that resulted in more than 7,00,000 high quality (HQ) reads. The assembly of the reads resulted in 19,410 contigs and 92,823 singletons. A large number of the differentially expressed genes identified were linked to ripening dependent processes including ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signalling, cell wall degradation and production of aromatic volatiles. In the banana fruit transcriptomes, we found transcripts included in 120 pathways described in the KEGG database for rice. The members of the expansin and xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene families were highly up-regulated during ripening, which suggests that they might play important roles in the softening of the fruit. Several genes involved in the synthesis of aromatic volatiles and members of transcription factor families previously reported to be involved in ripening were also identified. A large number of differentially regulated genes were identified during banana fruit ripening. Many of these are associated with cell wall degradation and synthesis of aromatic volatiles. A large number of differentially expressed genes did not align with any of the databases and

  20. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana.

  1. High content of dopamine, a strong antioxidant, in Cavendish banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, K; Sakakibara, H

    2000-03-01

    A strong water-soluble antioxidant was identified in the popular commercial banana Musa cavendishii. It is dopamine, one of the catecholamines. For suppressing the oxygen uptake of linoleic acid in an emulsion and scavenging a diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, dopamine had greater antioxidative potency than glutathione, food additives such as butylated hydroxyanisole and hydroxytoluene, flavone luteolin, flavonol quercetin, and catechin, and similar potency to the strongest antioxidants gallocatechin gallate and ascorbic acid. Banana contained dopamine at high levels in both the peel and pulp. Dopamine levels ranged from 80-560 mg per 100 g in peel and 2.5-10 mg in pulp, even in ripened bananas ready to eat. Banana is thus one of the antioxidative foods.

  2. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  3. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  4. Influence of triadimefon on the growth and development of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dessert banana cultivars (Hindi, Basrai and Williams) were affected compared to the control. The optimum culture conditions for root formation were obtained in the case of sub-culturing. The excised shoot cultures into Murashige and Skoog ...

  5. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mpon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007 with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% respectively. Modification of the fibres was carried out by grafting ethyl acrylate in the presence of ammonium nitrate cerium(IV. Optimisation of the copolymerisation reaction conditions was studied by measuring the rate of conversion, the rate of grafting and the grafting efficiency. The results showed that at low values of ceric ion concentration (0.04 M, at ambient temperature, after three hours and at a concentration of 0.2 M ethyl acrylate, maximum values of the parameters cited were obtained.

  6. Relação entre o tempo de enraizamento in vitro e o crescimento de plantas de bananeira na aclimatização Relationship between the in vitro rooting time and the growth of banana plants in the aclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do tempo de permanência em meio de enraizamento sobre o crescimento in vitro e ex vitro de plantas de bananeira. Como explantes, foram utilizadas brotações axilares provenientes do estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de ápices caulinares das cultivares Caipira (AAA, Preciosa (AAAB e Japira (AAAB. Para o enraizamento, empregou-se o meio MS reduzido a 50% da concentração de sais, adicionado de 30 g.L-1 de sacarose, 1 mg.L-1 de AIB e 6 g.L-1 de ágar. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x4, com três cultivares (Caipira, Preciosa e Japira e quatro períodos de enraizamento in vitro (7; 14; 21 e 28 dias, num total de 12 tratamentos. Ao final de cada período, a altura da parte aérea, o número e o comprimento de raízes foram avaliados, e as plantas, submetidas ao processo de aclimatização por 90 dias. Após esse período, as plantas foram avaliadas quanto à sobrevivência, número e comprimento de raízes, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca de raízes, parte aérea e total. De modo geral, observou-se que a fase de indução de raízes nas brotações de bananeira in vitro ocorreu até os 14 dias de cultivo em meio de enraizamento, havendo apenas crescimento em tamanho das raízes após esse período. Entre as cultivares, verificou-se que, com exceção do diâmetro de pseudocaule, a cultivar Caipira apresentou crescimento vegetativo in vitro e durante a aclimatização (altura de plantas, número e comprimento de raízes e massa seca da parte aérea, raízes e total superior às cultivares Preciosa e Japira. Após 21 dias de permanência em meio de enraizamento, a taxa de sobrevivência das plantas, observada em casa de vegetação, alcançou 100%, independentemente da cultivar testada.The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of the exposition time to rooting medium on the in vitro and ex vitro growth of banana plants. As explants, new axillaries

  7. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi.

  8. Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    2018-01-01

    One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technology Utilization of Banana in Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thasneem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala involved 90 commercial banana growers, The objective of the study was to assess the level of adoption of selected KAU (Kerala Agricultural University practices in banana cultivation A wellstructured interview schedule was used for data collection from the respondents. The study revealed that majority of the farmer respondents had medium level of adoption.

  10. Desenvolvimento e produção de frutos de bananeira em resposta à adubação nitrogenada e potássica Development and production of fruits of banana plant as a response to nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDILSON CARVALHO BRASIL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adubação nitrogenada e potássica no desenvolvimento e produção da bananeira (Musa spp., cultivar Pioneira, em experimento conduzido no Município de Capitão Poço, PA, em Latossolo Amarelo, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 80, 160 e 240 g de N/planta/ano e 0, 150, 300 e 450 g de K2O/planta/ano. Como fontes de nutrientes, utilizaram-se uréia e cloreto de potássio. Os resultados de crescimento, até 240 dias do plantio, indicaram que apenas o N influenciou a circunferência do pseudocaule e a altura de planta, verificando-se que o modelo quadrático ajustou-se melhor a todas as variáveis avaliadas. No segundo ciclo de produção, a adição de K promoveu efeito quadrático no peso de cacho, peso de penca por cacho e peso médio de penca, com incrementos de 73, 76 e 39%, respectivamente, em relação à ausência de K. A aplicação de N promoveu aumento linear no peso de cacho e de pencas por cacho, com aumentos máximos de 32 e 30%, respectivamente, em relação a ausência do nutriente. No terceiro ciclo de produção, apenas o K influenciou no peso de cacho, peso de penca por cacho e peso médio de penca, com aumentos de 39, 40 e 26%, respectivamente.The effect of the N and K fertilization on the development and production of the banana plant (Musa spp., cv. Pioneira, was evaluated in an experiment carried out in Capitão Poço county, Pará State, Brazil, in a Yellow Latosol, using a randomized blocks design, in factorial arrangement of 4x4. The treatments were: 0, 80, 160 and 240 g of N per plant per year; 0, 150, 300 and 450 g of K2O per plant per year. Urea and potassium chloride were used as nutrient sources. The results of plant growth showed that there was effect of N on circumference of pseudostem and plant height. The quadratic model was better adjusted to all the variables. The results of production of the second cycle indicated that K increased

  11. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED SHORT BANANA FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Misra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short banana fiber reinforced composites have been prepared in laboratory to determine mechanical properties. It has been observed that as soon as the percentage of the banana fiber increases slightly there is a tremendous increase in ultimate tensile strength, % of strain and young modulus of elasticity. Reinforcement of banana fibers in epoxy resin increases stiffness and decreases damping properties of the composites. Therefore, 2.468% banana fiber reinforced composite plate stabilizes early as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate but less stiff as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate

  12. AMIDO RESISTENTE EM FARINHAS DE BANANA VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes RAMOS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o teor de amido resistente (AR em farinhas de banana verde produzidas a partir de treze genótipos de bananeira. Para a produção da farinha foram separadas a 1ª, 3ª e 5ª pencas de cada genótipo, na qual cada penca correspondeu a uma repetição. Os frutos de cada penca no estádio 1 (casca completamente verde de maturação foram descascados manualmente, cortados em fatias circulares de 0,5 cm e desidratados em estufa com circulação de ar a 40ºC por 48 horas, sendo em seguida moídos. A análise de AR consistiu em um processo enzimático, calculando-se o conteúdo final pela concentração de glicose liberada. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística e mostraram diferenças significativas para o teor de AR nas farinhas obtidas dos genótipos de bananeira, sendo que a farinha com maior teor de AR foi a produzida a partir do cultivar ‘Nam’ (40,25% e a menor pelo híbrido ‘Fhia 01’ (10,01%. Pode-se concluir que o conteúdo de AR varia em relação ao genótipo utilizado para a confecção da farinha e que a banana pode ser uma boa opção de estudo de alimento funcional.

  13. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as ΔG, ΔS and ΔH were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L -1 , the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g -1 at 25 ± 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of ΔH and ΔS obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''- 1 and 1.37 J.mol''- 1 , respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol -1 when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  14. The in vitro secretome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis induces cell death in banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuc-Uc, José; Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Canto-Canché, Blondy; Tzec-Simá, Miguel; Rodríguez-García, Cecilia; Peraza-Echeverría, Leticia; Peraza-Echeverría, Santy; James-Kay, Andrew; Cruz-Cruz, Carlos Alberto; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2011-06-01

    The hemibiotrophic filamentous fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes the banana foliar disease known as black Sigatoka, responsible for major worldwide losses in the banana fruit industry. In this work the in vitro secretome of M. fijiensis was characterized. Native and denaturant polyacrylamide gel protease assays showed the M. fijiensis secretome contains protease activity capable of degrading gelatin. Necrotic lesions on leaves were produced by application of the in vitro secretome to the surface of one black Sigatoka-resistant banana wild species, one susceptible cultivar and the non-host plant Carica papaya. To distinguish if necrosis by the secretome is produced by phytotoxins or proteins, the latter ones were precipitated with ammonium sulfate and applied in native or denatured forms onto leaves of the same three plant species. Proteins applied in both preparations were able to produce necrotic lesions. Application of Pronase, a commercial bacterial protease suggested that the necrosis was, at least in part, caused by protease activity from the M. fijiensis secretome. The ability to cause necrotic lesions between M. fijiensis secreted- and ammonium sulfate-precipitated proteins, and purified lipophilic or hydrophilic phytotoxins, was compared. The results suggested that leaf necrosis arises from the combined action of non-host specific hydrolytic activities from the secreted proteins and the action of phytotoxins. This is the first characterization of the M. fijiensis protein secretome produced in vitro but, more importantly, it is also the first time the M. fijiensis secretome has been shown to contain virulence factors capable of causing necrosis to its natural host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the black leaf streak pathogen of banana: progress towards understanding pathogen biology and detection, disease development, and the challenges of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Alice C L

    2011-05-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is grown throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits are a key staple food in many developing countries and a source of income for subsistence farmers. Bananas are also a major, multibillion-dollar export commodity for consumption primarily in developed countries, where few banana cultivars are grown. The fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease (BLSD; aka black Sigatoka leaf spot) on the majority of edible banana cultivars grown worldwide. The fact that most of these cultivars are sterile and unsuitable for the breeding of resistant lines necessitates the extensive use of fungicides as the primary means of disease control. BLSD is a significant threat to the food security of resource-poor populations who cannot afford fungicides, and increases the environmental and health hazards where large-acreage monocultures of banana (Cavendish subgroup, AAA genome) are grown for export. Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet is a sexual, heterothallic fungus having Pseudocercospora fijiensis (M. Morelet) Deighton as the anamorph stage. It is a haploid, hemibiotrophic ascomycete within the class Dothideomycetes, order Capnodiales and family Mycosphaerellaceae. Its taxonomic placement is based on DNA phylogeny, morphological analyses and cultural characteristics. Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a leaf pathogen that causes reddish-brown streaks running parallel to the leaf veins, which aggregate to form larger, dark-brown to black compound streaks. These streaks eventually form fusiform or elliptical lesions that coalesce, form a water-soaked border with a yellow halo and, eventually, merge to cause extensive leaf necrosis. The disease does not kill the plants immediately, but weakens them by decreasing the photosynthetic capacity of leaves, causing a reduction in the quantity and quality of fruit, and inducing the premature ripening of fruit harvested from infected plants. Although Musa spp. are the

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of banana MADS-box family closely related to fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Wang, Jingyi; Gao, Pengzhao; Hu, Wei; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-14

    Proteins encoded by MADS-box genes are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of flowering plant growth and development. Currently, no systematic information exists regarding the MADS-box family in the important tropical fruit banana. Ninety-six MADS-box genes were identified from the banana (Pahang) A genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Musa acuminata MCM1-AGAMOUS- DEFICIENS-SRF (MaMADS) could be divided into MIKC c , MIKC*, Mα/β and Mγ groups. MIKC c could be further divided into 11 subfamilies, which was further supported by conserved motif and gene structure analyses. Transcriptome analysis on the Feng Jiao (FJ) and BaXi Jiao (BX) banana cultivars revealed that MaMADS genes are differentially expressed in various organs, at different fruit development and ripening stages, indicating the involvement of these genes in fruit development and ripening processes. Interactive network analysis indicated that MaMADS24 and 49 not only interacted with MaMADS proteins themselves, but also interacted with hormone-response proteins, ethylene signal transduction and biosynthesis-related proteins, starch biosynthesis proteins and metabolism-related proteins. This systematic analysis identified candidate MaMADS genes related to fruit development and ripening for further functional characterization in plants, and also provided new insights into the transcriptional regulation of MaMADS genes, facilitating the future genetic manipulation of MADS-mediated fruit development and ripening.

  18. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  19. Elucidation of the compatible interaction between banana and Meloidogyne incognita via high-throughput proteome profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyafaznim Al-Idrus

    Full Text Available With a diverse host range, Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode is listed as one of the most economically important obligate parasites of agriculture. This nematode species establishes permanent feeding sites in plant root systems soon after infestation. A compatible host-nematode interaction triggers a cascade of morphological and physiological process disruptions of the host, leading to pathogenesis. Such disruption is reflected by altered gene expression in affected cells, detectable using molecular approaches. We employed a high-throughput proteomics approach to elucidate the events involved in a compatible banana- M. incognita interaction. This study serves as the first crucial step in developing natural banana resistance for the purpose of biological-based nematode management programme. We successfully profiled 114 Grand naine root proteins involved in the interaction with M. incognita at the 30th- and 60th- day after inoculation (dai. The abundance of proteins involved in fundamental biological processes, cellular component organisation and stress responses were significantly altered in inoculated root samples. In addition, the abundance of proteins in pathways associated with defence and giant cell maintenance in plants such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glycolysis and citrate cycle were also implicated by the infestation.

  20. In Vitro Proliferation and Cryoconservation of Banana and Plantain Elite Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Guillermo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and modern biotechnology are increasingly becoming interdependent, and many new techniques have brought new opportunities for enhancing production and marketing. Germplasm storage is an alternative for the conservation of plant genetic diversity, contributing to the improvement and maintenance of propagation programs for species of interest. In this work, banana corms were collected as plant material from relatively young commercial plantations of three different cultivars: ‘Williams’, Valery (AAA genome; Cavendish subgroup, and ‘Barraganete’ (AAB genome; Plantain subgroup. Their shoot tips were introduced into in vitro conditions, and subcultured monthly to obtain the required number of shoots. The shoots were subsequently rooted and stimulated to invigoration in order to extract apical meristems (0.8–1.0 mm, which were prepared for cryopreservion in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C following pre-conditioning in PVS2 vitrification solution. Thereafter, the explants were rapidly thawed and then recovered and regenerated using two different methods – by Panis (2009 and Korneva et al. (2009 – consisting of two different sets of recovery and subsequent regeneration media. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the banana cultivar ‘Williams’ demonstrated higher survival and regeneration rates after cry-opreservation using the Korneva method, whereas in cultivars ‘Valery’ and ‘Barraganete’, there were no significant differences between the tested methods. The ‘Barraganete’ cultivar had the lowest survival and regeneration rates, regardless of the applied method.

  1. Efficiency of boron application in an Oxisol cultivated with banana in the Central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adônis; de Castro, César; Fageria, Nand K

    2010-12-01

    In the Amazon region, there is no information on the fertilization of banana plants with boron (B). Besides this, the extractant (hot water) currently used to test B concentrations has many limitations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of B on the fruit yield and quality of banana plants of the Cavendish (AAA) sub-group, grown in dystrophic Yellow Latosol (Oxisol or Xanthic Ferralsol), in the Amazonas State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, composed of four B rates (0, 4, 8 and 12 kg ha-1) and two harvest cycles (sub-treatments), with four replicates. The B availability in the soil was determined by three extractants: Mehlich 3, hot water and KCl 1.0 mol L-1. The application of B influences the fruit yield, pulp/peel ratio, pulp resistance and B content in the leaves and fruits. The KCl 1.0 mol L-1 extractant was similar to the hot water in the evaluation of available B. To obtain maximum yield, it is necessary to apply 4.1 and 6.1 kg ha-1 of B in the first and second cycles, respectively.

  2. Bioinformatic identification and expression analysis of banana microRNAs and their targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Juan; Feng, Renjun; Shi, Hourui; Ren, Mengyun; Zhang, Yindong; Wang, Jingyi

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in multiple biological processes by degrading targeted mRNAs or repressing mRNA translation. Thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, whereas only a limited number of miRNAs have been predicted in M. acuminata (A genome) and M. balbisiana (B genome). Here, previously known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS), a database of banana genes. A total of 32 potential miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNAs families were detected using a range of filtering criteria. 244 miRNA:target pairs were subsequently predicted, most of which encode transcription factors or enzymes that participate in the regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In order to validate the predicted miRNAs and the mutual relationship between miRNAs and their target genes, qRT-PCR was applied to detect the tissue-specific expression levels of 12 putative miRNAs and 6 target genes in roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits. This study provides some important information about banana pre-miRNAs, mature miRNAs, and miRNA target genes and these findings can be applied to future research of miRNA functions.

  3. Bioinformatic identification and expression analysis of banana microRNAs and their targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chai

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs represent a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in multiple biological processes by degrading targeted mRNAs or repressing mRNA translation. Thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, whereas only a limited number of miRNAs have been predicted in M. acuminata (A genome and M. balbisiana (B genome. Here, previously known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS, a database of banana genes. A total of 32 potential miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNAs families were detected using a range of filtering criteria. 244 miRNA:target pairs were subsequently predicted, most of which encode transcription factors or enzymes that participate in the regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In order to validate the predicted miRNAs and the mutual relationship between miRNAs and their target genes, qRT-PCR was applied to detect the tissue-specific expression levels of 12 putative miRNAs and 6 target genes in roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits. This study provides some important information about banana pre-miRNAs, mature miRNAs, and miRNA target genes and these findings can be applied to future research of miRNA functions.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterisation of banana fruit polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P S; Bird, C; Robinson, S P

    2001-09-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was not substantially induced after wounding or treatment with 5-methyl jasmonate. Banana flowers and unexpanded leaf roll had high PPO activities with lower activities observed in mature leaves, roots and stem. Four different PPO cDNA clones were amplified from banana fruit (BPO1, BPO11, BPO34 and BPO35). Full-length cDNA and genomic clones were isolated for the most abundant sequence (BPO1) and the genomic clone was found to contain an 85-bp intron. Introns have not been previously found in PPO genes. Northern analysis revealed the presence of BPO1 mRNA in banana flesh early in development but little BPO1 mRNA was detected at the same stage in banana peel. BPO11 transcript was only detected in very young flesh and there was no detectable expression of BPO34 or BPO35 in developing fruit samples. PPO transcripts were also low throughout ripening in both flesh and peel. BPO1 transcripts were readily detected in flowers, stem, roots and leaf roll samples but were not detected in mature leaves. BPO11 showed a similar pattern of expression to BPO1 in these tissues but transcript levels were much lower. BPO34 and BPO35 mRNAs were only detected at a low level in flowers and roots and BPO34 transcript was detected in mature leaves, the only clone to do so. The results suggest that browning of banana fruit during ripening results from release of pre-existing PPO enzyme, which is synthesised very early in fruit development.

  5. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The core regulatory network of the abscisic acid pathway in banana: genome-wide identification and expression analyses during development, ripening, and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yan, Yan; Shi, Haitao; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Ding, XuPo; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiashui; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-29

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a crucial role in developmental and environmental adaptation processes of plants. However, the PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 families that function as the core components of ABA signaling are not well understood in banana. In the present study, 24 PYL, 87 PP2C, and 11 SnRK2 genes were identified from banana, which was further supported by evolutionary relationships, conserved motif and gene structure analyses. The comprehensive transcriptomic analyses showed that banana PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 genes are involved in tissue development, fruit development and ripening, and response to abiotic stress in two cultivated varieties. Moreover, comparative expression analyses of PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 genes between BaXi Jiao (BX) and Fen Jiao (FJ) revealed that PYL-PP2C-SnRK2-mediated ABA signaling might positively regulate banana fruit ripening and tolerance to cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Finally, interaction networks and co-expression assays demonstrated that the core components of ABA signaling were more active in FJ than in BX in response to abiotic stress, further supporting the crucial role of the genes in tolerance to abiotic stress in banana. This study provides new insights into the complicated transcriptional control of PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 genes, improves the understanding of PYL-PP2C-SnRK2-mediated ABA signaling in the regulation of fruit development, ripening, and response to abiotic stress, and identifies some candidate genes for genetic improvement of banana.

  8. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    OpenAIRE

    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kim Sarah; P?rez Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: ...

  9. Genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes in banana highlights MaATG8s in cell death and autophagy in immune response to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Wen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Guoyin; Wu, Chunjie; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Hongqiu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-08-01

    MaATG8s play important roles in hypersensitive-like cell death and immune response, and autophagy is essential for disease resistance against Foc in banana. Autophagy is responsible for the degradation of damaged cytoplasmic constituents in the lysosomes or vacuoles. Although the effects of autophagy have been extensively revealed in model plants, the possible roles of autophagy-related gene in banana remain unknown. In this study, 32 MaATGs were identified in the draft genome, and the profiles of several MaATGs in response to fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) were also revealled. We found that seven MaATG8s were commonly regulated by Foc. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, we highlight the novel roles of MaATG8s in conferring hypersensitive-like cell death, and MaATG8s-mediated hypersensitive response-like cell death is dependent on autophagy. Notablly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment resulted in decreased disease resistance in response to Foc4, and the effect of 3-MA treatment could be rescued by exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene, indicating the involvement of autophagy-mediated plant hormones in banana resistance to Fusarium wilt. Taken together, this study may extend our understanding the putative role of MaATG8s in hypersensitive-like cell death and the essential role of autophagy in immune response against Foc in banana.

  10. Mutation induction by gamma irradiation in a triploid banana Pisang Berangan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, C.; Liew, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Shoot-tip meristems of triploid banana Pisang Berangan (Intan cultivar) were irradiated at 0, 25, 35, 45 and 60 Gy in gamma cell with a Co-60 source. The explants were in-vitro multiplied to produce M sub 1 V sub 4 plants. Increasing gamma doses caused a reduction of survival rates as well as the average number of buds or shoots produced per explant. On the basis of linear estimate of bud/shoot proliferation to gamma doses, the radiation dose that reduced the growth to 50% of the control treatment, i.e. LD sub 50 was about 38 Gy. Many phenotypic variants in growth, leaf deformation and changes in pigmentation and texture were observed in nursery plants. In addition, field-grown plants also produced various forms of bunch and fruit abnormality. Generally, mutagenic treatments resulted in a 4 to 6 fold increase in the frequency of variant plants. For number of weeks to harvest and plant height, the mean values of irradiated plants did not differ significantly from the control plants. However, mutation induction tended not only to increase the variability of these two quantitative traits but also showed a much higher frequency for plants having early fruiting or shorter plant stature. As in-vitro mutation induction could create genetic variability as well as many undesirable variants, it is highly desirable to integrate in-vitro mutation with a selection system that can screen for large mutagen treated populations

  11. Malate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Chandramouli, Sumana; Han, Ping; Liu, Pei

    2003-01-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is a key enzyme responsible for malic acid synthesis in the glyoxylate cycle, which functions to convert stored lipids to carbohydrates, by catalysing the glyoxylate condensation reaction with acetyl-CoA in the peroxisome. In this study, the cloning of an MS cDNA, designated MaMS-1, from the banana fruit is reported. MaMS-1 was 1801 bp in length encoding a single polypeptide of 556 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed that MaMS-1 possessed the conserved catalytic domain and a putative peroxisomal targeting signal SK(I/L) at the carboxyl terminal. MaMS-1 also shared an extensive sequence homology (79-81.3%) with other plant MS homologues. Southern analysis indicated that MS might be present as multiple members in the banana genome. In Northern analysis, MaMS-1 was expressed specifically in ripening fruit tissue and transcripts were not detected in other organs such as roots, pseudostem, leaves, ovary, male flower, and in fruit at different stages of development. However, the transcript abundance in fruit was affected by stage of ripening, during which transcript was barely detectable at the early stage of ripening (FG and TY), but the level increased markedly in MG and in other fruits at advanced ripening stages. Furthermore, MaMS-1 expression in FG fruit could be stimulated by treatment with 1 microl l(-1) exogenous ethylene, but the stimulatory effect was abolished by the application of an ethylene inhibitor, norbornadiene. Results of this study clearly show that MS expression in banana fruit is temporally regulated during ripening and is ethylene-inducible.

  12. Growth and Yield Performance of Banana (Musa acuminate L. as Affected by Different Farm Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. Panelo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Integrated Sustainable Agri-Techno Demo Farm (ISATDF of the Pangasinan State University, Sta. Maria Campus, Sta. Maria, Pangasinan from October 15, 2013 to August 18, 2014 with a duration of 308 days. This study aimed to determine the growth and yield performance of banana (Musa acuminata L. as affected by different farm manures. Specifically, it attempted to: (1 determine the effect of different farm manures on the growth and yield performance of banana; and to (2 determine the cost and return of the different farm manures. The experiment was laid out using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences between treatments using F-test at 5 and 1 percent levels of significance and the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT was used to evaluate the differences among treatment means. The treatments used were the following: T1 - chicken manure, T2 - cow manure, T3 - goat manure, and T4 - hog manure. The results revealed that the application of chicken manure recorded the tallest plants (5.27 cm, most number of suckers (340. The application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly increased the mid-trunk diameter (25.63cm and (25.62 cm; finger length (14.33 cm and (13.13 cm; finger diameter (3.60 cm each; and weight of fruits (450kgs each. Net income and return on investment (ROI were also influenced by chicken manure and goat manure. Application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly enhanced the yield quality attributes and income of banana compared to the other sources of organic manure

  13. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no

  14. A Simple Diffraction Experiment Using Banana Stem as a Natural Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Karunawan, Jotti; Chasanah, Widyastuti Rochimatun; Nursuhud, Puji Iman; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Sulhadi

    2017-01-01

    A simple diffraction experiment was designed using banana stem as natural grating. Coherent beams of lasers with wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 532 nm that pass through banana stem produce periodic diffraction patterns on a screen. The diffraction experiments were able to measure the distances between the slit of the banana stem, i.e. d = (28.76 ±…

  15. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  16. Production of Malt Flavoured Low-Sugar Drink from Banana ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana fig from fully ripe banana, caramel and malt extract, food drink thickening agent, acetic acid and local hop extract (Alfalfa) were used in the formulation of a low-sugar malt drink. Banana fig was used as a replacement for malted barley. The pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), percentage sugar content, specific gravity ...

  17. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  18. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  19. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  20. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukola C. Adedayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana (MSL, Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana (MAC, and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca (MAR. Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g, while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL. Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL. Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  1. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results. MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α-amylase (IC50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion. The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes. PMID:27872791

  2. Electromagnetic banana kinetic equation and its applications in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaing, K. C.; Chu, M. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Seol, J.

    2018-03-01

    A banana kinetic equation in tokamaks that includes effects of the finite banana width is derived for the electromagnetic waves with frequencies lower than the gyro-frequency and the bounce frequency of the trapped particles. The radial wavelengths are assumed to be either comparable to or shorter than the banana width, but much wider than the gyro-radius. One of the consequences of the banana kinetics is that the parallel component of the vector potential is not annihilated by the orbit averaging process and appears in the banana kinetic equation. The equation is solved to calculate the neoclassical quasilinear transport fluxes in the superbanana plateau regime caused by electromagnetic waves. The transport fluxes can be used to model electromagnetic wave and the chaotic magnetic field induced thermal particle or energetic alpha particle losses in tokamaks. It is shown that the parallel component of the vector potential enhances losses when it is the sole transport mechanism. In particular, the fact that the drift resonance can cause significant transport losses in the chaotic magnetic field in the hitherto unknown low collisionality regimes is emphasized.

  3. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background . This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results . MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α -amylase (IC 50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC 50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC 50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion . The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  4. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsalve G, John F; Medina de Perez, Victoria Isabel; Ruiz colorado, Angela Adriana

    2006-01-01

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  5. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF FUSARIUM DISEASE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY WITH BIOLOGICAL AGENT IN MAS CULTIVAR BANANA IN LAND INFECTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Shofiyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of General Director of Production and Horticulture, the damage of plantation areas in banana plantation centers in Indonesia always increases in years, this is due to Fusarium attack caused by fungus Fusarium oxisphorum and causing damage of 30- 70 % banana plantation areas.The aim of this empirically for due to biological control technology Fusarium wilt effective and environmentally friendly to the infected area in District Baturaden, Banyumas through soil solarization treatments and utilization of biological agents..The Research was conducted at the wilt disease endemic Fusarium land located in the village Pamijen, District Baturraden, Banyumas. The research design was a Split Plot Design consisting of 2 treatments, the main plot treatments is soil solarization, whereas treatment subplot is the type and dose of biological agents antagonist. The results showed that the treatment given soil solarization proved to increase the temperature of the surface of the soil up to 8.8 ° C compared with without solarization and reduces demand Fussarium population at ground level up to 53.61%, whereas without solarization Fussarium population decline by 22, 33%. Provision of biological agents Trichoderma, Gliocladium and P. Fluoroscens during the study proved to provide inhibition of the development of Fussarium on seedling disease, indicated by the appearance of symptoms of the disease until the end of the study. This is possible due to the formation of phenolic compounds such as tannins, saponins and glicosida and colonization between biological agents with the root system of plants in which the contact between pathogen inhibition with banana plant seedlings root system so that it protects the roots of the disease-causing pathogen infection Fussarium wilt. Treatment of biological agents proved capable of providing better vegetative growth when compared to the untreated biological agents (control in which had significant effect on the

  7. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del

    2009-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  9. Success evaluation of the biological control of Fusarium wilts of cucumber, banana, and tomato since 2000 and future research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong

    2017-03-01

    The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum strains is the most devastating disease of cucumber, banana, and tomato. The biological control of this disease has become an attractive alternative to the chemical fungicides and other conventional control methods. In this review, the research trends and biological control efficiencies (BCE) of different microbial strains since 2000 are reviewed in detail, considering types of microbial genera, inoculum application methods, plant growth medium and conditions, inoculum application with amendments, and co-inoculation of different microbial strains and how those affect the BCE of Fusarium wilt. The data evaluation showed that the BCE of biocontrol agents was higher against the Fusarium wilt of cucumber compared to the Fusarium wilts of banana and tomato. Several biocontrol agents mainly Bacillus, Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, nonpathogenic Fusarium, and Penicillium strains were evaluated to control Fusarium wilt, but still this lethal disease could not be controlled completely. We have discussed different reasons of inconsistent results and recommendations for the betterment of BCE in the future. This review provides knowledge of the biotechnology of biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber, banana, and tomato in a nut shell that will provide researchers a beginning line to start and to organize and plan research for the future studies.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF FHIA-01 (HYBRID DESSERT BANANA PROPAGATED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND CONVENTIONAL SUCKER IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-propagated plants of FHIA-01 (exotic hybrid dessert banana were grown and their shoot-tip cultures were produced following standard method. Suckers were taken from the same plants as with the shoot-tip culture samples. The design was the randomly complete block. The plant density was 1667 plants/ha. Plants were fertilized at the rate of 40t/ha poultry manure per year split over 3 equal applications. Statistical analysis of data was performed with ANOVA. The field performance of in vitro propagated (tissue culture tetraploid banana (FHIA-01 plants was compared with that of sucker-derived plants. In vitro-propagated plants established and grew faster, taller (240 cm and bigger than the conventional sucker-derived plants. The former produced heavier bunches (39.1 t/ha and could be harvested earlier. They however produced smaller number of fingers than the conventional sucker-derived plants. Significant differences were observed between the plant height and plant girth (48.6 cm (at one metre above ground at harvest. No significant difference was observed in bunch weight, number of hands, number of fingers and the number of leaves at harvest. The nutrient used in the Tissue culture medium may have played a significant role in the growth vigour of FHIA-01. It may also be having an influence on the performance of the hybrid. This influence may improve the yield of the crop thus improving the economy of farmers.

  11. Odour-active compounds in banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Febles, Yanet

    2013-11-15

    Application of solid-phase microextraction, simultaneous distillation-extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 146 compounds, 124 of them were positively identified. Thirty-one odourants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical banana aroma, eleven of them are reported for the first time as odour-active compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of functional sequences in the pregenomic RNA promoter of the Banana streak virus Cavendish strain (BSV-Cav).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remans, Tony; Grof, Christopher P L; Ebert, Paul R; Schenk, Peer M

    2005-03-01

    The promoter regions of plant pararetroviruses direct transcription of the full-length viral genome into a pregenomic RNA that is an intermediate in the replication of the virus. It serves as template for reverse transcription and as polycistronic mRNA for translation to viral proteins. We have identified functional promoter elements in the intergenic region of the Cavendish isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV-Cav), a member of the genus Badnavirus. Potential binding sites for plant transcription factors were found both upstream and downstream of the transcription start site by homology search in the PLACE database of plant cis-acting elements. The functionality of these putative cis-acting elements was tested by constructing loss-of-function and "regain"-of-function mutant promoters whose activity was quantified in embryogenic sugarcane suspension cells. Four regions that are important for activity of the BSV-Cav promoter were identified: the region containing an as-1-like element, the region around -141 and down to -77, containing several putative transcription factor binding sites, the region including the CAAT-box, and the leader region. The results could help explain the high BSV-Cav promoter activity that was observed previously in transgenic sugarcane plants and give more insight into the plant cell-mediated replication of the viral genome in banana streak disease.

  13. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Agustin B.; Daniells, Jeff; Fourie, Gerda; Hermanto, Catur; Chao, Chih-Ping; Fabregar, Emily; Sinohin, Vida G.; Masdek, Nik; Thangavelu, Raman; Li, Chunyu; Yi, Ganyun; Mostert, Lizel; Viljoen, Altus

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas. PMID:28719631

  14. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Mostert

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on ripening, storage and biochemical parameters of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viveka, M.R.; Gayathri Karkera, U.; Chandrashekar, K.R.; Akshatha; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) popularly known as kadali (S) belongs to the family Musaceae is an economically important plant due to its nutritive fruit used as staple food all over the world. Several techniques have been employed to delay fruit ripening and softening by storing preclimacteric bananas in modified or controlled atmospheres. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended the usage up to 1.0 kGy of gamma irradiation for delaying the ripening in fruits. Irradiation significantly improved shelf life by inhibiting the fungal growth in strawberries. Hence, present work was undertaken to scrutinize the impact of gamma irradiation on the ripening, storage and the biochemical attributes of Musa paradisiaca L. variety kadali. Present work revealed that irradiation at 0.2 kGy and 0.3 kGy retained their organoleptic properties till 16th day of storage against under normal conditions. Nutritional parameters such as ascorbic acid content, soluble sugar and protein contents were significantly higher in irradiated fruits. Hence, lower dose of gamma irradiation could be successfully used in extending the shelf life and nutritional quality and delay the process of ripening in Musa paradisiaca L.

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of embryogenesis cell suspensions of banana cultivar Grande naine (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet has become in the last years, the most destructive disease that affects the production of banana and plantains world-wide. The present work was made with the objective to obtain transgenic plants of banana cultivar Grand naine (AAA resistant to this disease with the use of genetic transformation. Embryogenenic cell suspensions obtained from somatic embryos formed from immature male flowers, were used for the transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial strain EHA-105 was used with the binary plasmids pHCA-58, pHCG-59 and pHGA-91, which contain different combinations of genes that encode for the antifungal chitinase, glucanase enzymes and the AP-24 osmotin. The commercial herbicide BASTA® was used as selective agent. One hundred ten putative transformed lines of the three constructions were obtained, after three selection months in the culture medium. The transgenic events were verified by means of Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis. Key words: AP-24, chitinase, glucanase, Musa, Mycosphaerella fijiensis

  17. Inheritance of black sigatoka disease resistance in plantain-banana (Musa spp.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R; Vuylsteke, D

    1994-10-01

    Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet), an airborne fungal leaf-spot disease, is a major constraint to plantain and banana (Musa spp.) production world-wide. Gaining further knowledge of the genetics of host-plant resistance will enhance the development of resistant cultivars, which is considered to be the most appropriate means to achieve stable production. Genetic analysis was conducted on 101 euploid (2x, 3x and 4x) progenies, obtained from crossing two susceptible triploid plantain cultivars with the resistant wild diploid banana 'Calcutta 4'. Segregating progenies, and a susceptible reference plantain cultivar, were evaluated over 2 consecutive years. Three distinct levels of host response to black sigatoka were defined as follows: susceptible ( 10). Segregation ratios for resistance at the 2x level fitted a genetic model having one major recessive resistance allele (bs 1) and two independent alleles with additive effects (bsr 2 and bsr 3). A similar model explains the results at the 4x level assuming that the favourable resistance alleles have a dosage effect when four copies of them are present in their respective loci (bs i (4) ). The proposed model was further validated by segregation data of S 1 progenies. Mechanisms of black sigatoka resistance are discussed in relation to the genetic model.

  18. EFFECT OF DEFOLIATION ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PRATA COMUM’ BANANA FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA DOMINGUES LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the advent of black sigatoka in commercial banana crops in the “Vale do Ribeira” region, state of São Paulo, the monitoring the severity and chemical control of the disease in susceptible varieties have become more frequent in order to avoid leaf loss. This study simulated the effect of defoliation caused by the disease on the yield and quality of ‘Prata Comum’ banana fruits, depending on the formation period and fruit position in the bunch. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x11 factorial scheme (period of bunch formation x number of leaves at flowering, 6-16 leaves at flowering in two periods of bunch formation with six replicates. In Period 1, flowering occurred at 04/15/13 and in Period 2 at 01/07/14, although in Period 1, bunch mass was higher and in Period 2, higher average maximum and minimum daily temperatures, precipitation and radiation were observed. Regardless of formation period, the number of leaves at flowering affected bunch mass, which ranged from 18 to 23 kg plant-1. Defoliation affected the size of fruits of hand 1 and last hand of the bunch, but not the variability in fruit size due to the position the fruit occupies in the bunch and physicochemical characteristics.

  19. LEGUMINOUS COVER CROPS FOR BANANA PLANTATIONS IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEUS AUGUSTO LIMA QUARESMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures and low rainfall characterize the Brazilian semiarid regions. This regional climate demands the adoption of practices that increase the efficiency and sustainability of local farming. This study aimed to assess the ability of two perennial herbaceous leguminous species, calopo and tropical kudzu, to provide permanent soil cover in banana plantations in Jequitinhonha Valley, northeast Minas Gerais state, Brazil. To this end, we evaluated the differences of calopo and tropical kudzu in soil cover capacity and the amount of senescent phytomass deposited on the soil surface, nutrient content in senescent phytomass, as well as their effects on temperature and soil moisture, compared with bare soil in two experimental sites. The results showed that, compared with tropical kudzu, calopo had a higher soil cover capacity and was more effective at increasing organic material and nutrients in the soil owing to the relatively higher amount of senescent phytomass deposited on the soil surface. However, both calopo and tropical kudzu reduced soil temperature and increase soil moisture compared with bare soil. Overall, we concluded that these species can deposit high levels of senescence in the soil, providing several benefits to the cultivation system of banana plants in the semiarid regions.

  20. Pathological Status of Pyricularia angulata Causing Blast and Pitting Disease of Banana in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of leaf blast on nursery plants and pitting disease on maturing banana bunches has been recorded in banana plantations during rainy season in Eastern India during 2014 to 2015. Taxonomical identification as well as DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of fungus isolated from affected tissue culture derived plantlets and fruits confirmed the pathogen to be Pyricularia angulata Hashioka “in both the cases”. Koch’s postulates were proved on young plantlets as well as on maturing fruits of cv. Grand Naine under simulated conditions. Evolutionary history was inferred and presented for our P. angulata strain PG9001 with GenBank accession no. KU984740. The analysis indicated that the P. angulata is phylogenitically distinct from other related species related to both Pyricularia and Magnaporthe. Detailed symptoms of blast lesions on young leaves, transition leaves, mid rib, petioles, peduncle, maturing bunches, bunch stalks and cushions were documented. Notably, the distinct small pitting spots on maturing bunches reduced the visual appeal of mature fruits. Appearance of pitting symptoms on fruits in relation with age of fruits and their distribution pattern on bunch and fingers was also documented in detail. Further, the roles of transitory leaves, weed hosts, seasonality on disease occurrence have also been documented.

  1. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinante, Sandra R.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Batista, Luciano do N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  2. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  3. PRELIMINARY SCREENING RESISTANCE OF Musa GERMPLASMS FOR BANANA BUNCHY TOP DISEASE IN PURWODADI BOTANIC GARDEN, PASURUAN, EAST JAWA

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Hapsari; Ahmad Masrum

    2012-01-01

    Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) caused by Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) is one of the most serious banana diseases, constraint and devastate to the local and regional banana production. Some of banana cultivars were more readily infected by the virus, but considering no cultivars is resistant. The incidences of BBTD and the type and severity symptoms in natural conditions without any artificial inoculation were recorded. The observations results on 2009 showed that 12.14% of the total acces...

  4. Preliminary Screening Resistance Of Musa Germplasms For Banana Bunchy Top Disease In Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Pasuruan, East Jawa

    OpenAIRE

    Hapsari, Lia; Masrum, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) caused by Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) is one of the most serious banana diseases, constraint and devastate to the local and regional banana production. Some of banana cultivars were more readily infected by the virus, but considering no cultivars is resistant. The incidences of BBTD and the type and severity symptoms in natural conditions without any artificial inoculation were recorded. The observations results on 2009 showed that 12.14% of the total acces...

  5. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A L; Van der Lee, T A J; Ferreira, C F; Te Lintel Hekkert, B; Zapater, M-F; Goodwin, S B; Guzmán, M; Kema, G H J; Souza, M T

    2010-11-09

    We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for VNTR markers. Forty-two primer pairs were selected for validation, based on repeat type and length and the number of repeat units. Five VNTR markers showing multiple alleles were validated with a reference set of isolates from different parts of the world and a population from a banana plantation in Costa Rica. Polymorphism information content values varied from 0.6414 to 0.7544 for the reference set and from 0.0400 and 0.7373 for the population set. Eighty percent of the polymorphism information content values were above 0.60, indicating that the markers are highly informative. These markers allowed robust scoring of agarose gels and proved to be useful for variability and population genetics studies. In conclusion, the strategy we developed to identify and validate VNTR markers is an efficient means to incorporate markers that can be used for fungicide resistance management and to develop breeding strategies to control banana black leaf streak disease. This is the first report of VNTR-minisatellites from the M. fijiensis genome sequence.

  6. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  7. Isolation and characterization of nucleotide-binding site and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat-resistance gene candidates in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Xu, W H; Xie, Y X; Zhang, X; Pu, J J; Qi, Y X; Li, H P

    2011-12-15

    Commercial banana varieties are highly susceptible to fungal pathogens, as well as bacterial pathogens, nematodes, viruses, and insect pests. The largest known family of plant resistance genes encodes proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for the isolation of candidate genes in banana that may be involved in plant defense. Six degenerate PCR primers were designed to target NBS and additional domains were tested on commercial banana species Musa acuminata subsp malaccensis and the Musa AAB Group propagated in vitro and plants maintained in a greenhouse. Total DNA was isolated by a modified CTAB extraction technique. Four resistance gene analogs were amplified and deposited in GenBank and assigned numbers HQ199833-HQ199836. The predicted amino acid sequences compared to the amino acid sequences of known resistance genes (MRGL1, MRGL2, MRGL3, and MRGL4) revealed significant sequence similarity. The presence of consensus domains, namely kinase-1a, kinase-2 and hydrophobic domain, provided evidence that the cloned sequences belong to the typical non-Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like domain NBS-LRR gene family.

  8. Evaluation of indicators to determine black sigatoka susceptibility in five banana hybrid cultivars ( Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Pérez Armas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective of determining the variation of growth, development and yields indicators of five banana hybrid cultivars. The research was carried in the Agroindustrial Farm Marta Abreu, Cienfuegos, in a carbonated Brown soil. It was made a characterization of the soil and the climatic variables. A field experiment was developed with a design in blocks at random with four repetitions with five banana cultivars as treatments (‘FHIA-18’, ‘FHIA-02’, ‘FHIA-01’, ‘SH-3436 L-9’ and ‘FHIA-23’ . The plots had an area of 56 m2 with 16 plants, been evaluated eight for a total 32 plants for cultivar. The variable evaluated were the spotty youngest leaf, number of leaf by plant, incubation time (PI, evolution time of symptoms (TES and developing time of symptoms (TED, severity index (IS, active photosynthetic index (INHE and infection relative index. The cultivars FHIA-23 and SH 3436 L9 presented a hither time of development of the disease. In a general the more susceptible cultivar to the black Sigatoka under of the farm condition was FHIA-23. The clones FHIA-18, FHIA-01 and FHIA-02 presented the best behavior in the spotted youngest leaf and the number of leaf up to the flowering and the harvest time. The clones FHIA-01 and FHIA-18 have the better response to Black Sigatoka attending to the incubation period, the evolution time of the symptom and develo pment time of the disease

  9. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) detection of dwarf off-types in micropropagated Cavendish (Musa spp. AAA) bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasco, O P; Graham, G C; Henry, R J; Adkins, S W; Smiths, M K; Godwin, I D

    1996-11-01

    A RAPD marker specific to the dwarf off-type (hereafter known as dwarf) from micropropagation of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA) cultivars New Guinea Cavendish and Williams was identified following an analysis of 57 normal (true-to-type) and 59 dwarf plants generated from several different micropropagation events. Sixty-six random decamer primers were used in the initial screen, of which 19 (28.8%) revealed polymorphisms between normal and dwarf plants. Primer OPJ-04 (5'-CCGAACACGG-3') was found to amplify an approx. 1.5 kb band which was consistently present in all normal but absent in all dwarf plants of both cultivars. Reliable detection of dwarf plants was achieved using this marker, providing the only available means ofin vitro detection of dwarfs. The use of this marker could facilitate early detection and elimination of dwarfs from batches of micropropagated bananas, and may be a useful tool in determining what factors in the tissue culture process lead to this off type production.Other micropropagation-induced RAPD polymorphisms were observed but were not associated with the dwarf trait.

  10. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... The feasibility of using banana peel for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma viride GIM 3.0010 in solid-state fermentation was evaluated in this study. The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, initial moisture content of the medium, inoculum size and supplementation of carbon sources ...

  11. efficient screening procedure for black sigatoka disease of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015, African Crop Science Society. EFFICIENT SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR BLACK SIGATOKA DISEASE OF BANANA. A. KUMAKECH1, 2, H.J. LYNGS JØRGENSEN3, R. EDEMA2 and P. OKORI 2. 1 National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), Ngetta Zonal Agricultural Research and Development. Institute ...

  12. Optimization of biogas production from banana peels: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The matooke processing industry being set up by the Presidential Initiative on Banana Industrial Development (PIBID), once fully operational will generate much matooke associated waste that requires a sustainable waste handling mechanism. Anaerobic digestion of the peel waste for biogas production would provide a ...

  13. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    The least biogas yield of 10 mL was obtained in digester. C5 with 9 g of calcined eggshells additive. Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. INTRODUCTION. The energy and global warming crisis, stimulates the need for development of renewable energy worldwide. (Buasri et al., 2013).

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on Hom Tong banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This report contains research on the use of gamma irradiation to retard the ripening and extend the shelf life of bananas. The major concerns were the effects that irradiation would have on the nutritional content, the organoleptic properties and the pigment of the fruit

  15. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana yield and economic performance in Mbarara, Uganda. S.H. Okech, P.J.A. van Asten*, C.S. Gold1and H. Ssali2. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, P.O. Box 7878, Kampala, Uganda. 1Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, ...

  16. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carboxylate groups, presence of a sulphur atom and of a fluorine substituent in meta posi- tion of the outer rings) result in a large number of possible conformations. 2.3 Influence of lateral substituent on the central ring Y2 or Y4. Resorcinol-based banana-shaped molecules are very sensitive to the introduction of sub-.

  17. Bird use of banana plantations adjacent to Kibale National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate bird use of a widespread matrix habitat in forested landscapes of western Uganda, I used mist nets to compare bird communities in the understory of continuous forest and adjacent banana plantations. Frugivorous and insectivorous birds accounted for a higher proportion of captures in the forest habitat than in ...

  18. Gaseous fuel production by anaerobic fungal degradation of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic biodegradation of banana leaves by cellulolytic fungus (yeast) was carried out at optimum operational conditions of temperature (330C), PH (7.3) and slurry concentration (4g/25cm3). The organic component of the gaseous fuel generated was analysed using flame ionization detector (FID). The analysis revealed ...

  19. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of banana ( Musa sp.) cv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five lines were then selected on the basis of putative PCR positives and a Southern blot analysis gave hybridization signals with 1 to 4 copy number integration patterns characteristic of Agrobacterium mediated transformation. These results confirm stable gene integration in East African banana cultivar cv. Sukali Ndiizi ...

  20. Fabrication of Biomembrane from Banana Stem for Lead Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afianti Sulastri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (i.e. lead (Pb is one of the environmental issues recently due to its danger for human health. Therefore, strategy for removing Pb from waste water treatment is important. One of the prospective methods to remove Pb is membrane biofilter. Here, the purpose of this study was to prepare the membrane biofilter for Pb removal process. In this study, membrane biofilter was produced from banana stem. Banana stem was selected because of its abundant availability   in Indonesia. And, for somewhat, this banana stem can be environmental problems (become waste since Indonesia is one of the top producers in the world. In short of the experimental procedure, we conducted three steps of experiments: (1 Preparation of microbial cellulose using Acetobacter xylinum using banana stem for a main source; (2 Synthesis of cellulose acetate; and (3 Preparation of biomembrane from obtained cellulose acetate. To produce membrane biofilter, the cellulose acetate was dissolved into dichloromethane to form a dope solution. Then, the doped solution was printed in Petri dish. Some biomembrane properties were characterized for identification, i.e. infrared spectra, electron microscope, and elemental analysis. Experimental results showed that we succeeded to prepare biomembrane with a pore size of 5 μm. The filtration efficiency of our prepared membrane was 93.7% of Pb when using Pb with a concentration of 10 ppm.

  1. Assessing the determinants of tissue culture banana adoption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study cross-section data was used to analyze the effect of farmers' demographic, socioeconomic and institutional setting, market access and physical attributes on the probability and intensity of tissue culture banana (TCB) adoption. The study was carried out between July 2011 and November 2011. Both descriptive ...

  2. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  3. A screening method for banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Diferencias sexuales en la morfologia externa de. Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Ciencias. Biol. l, La Habana 1: 1-11. Mesquita ALM, Alvers EJ, Caldas RC (1984). Resistance of banana cultivars to Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Fruits, 39(4): 254-257. Mitchell G (1978).

  4. Detection of banana streak virus (BSV) Tamil Nadu isolate (India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is of quarantine significance since Musa is a vegetatively propagated crop. Diagnosis by symptomatology is unreliable because the symptoms are variable or absent. Hence, reliable and sensitive diagnostic tests are of major significance. Such sensitive diagnostic tests are also required for virus ...

  5. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of unripe banana ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of unripe banana ( Musa sapientum L.), lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus S.) and turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) on pathogens. ... The solvents were ethanol (70%, v/v) and water. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion method. The clinical isolates include ...

  6. Optimization of heterologous expression of banana glucanase in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abughren Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the heterologous production of a banana glucanase in Escherichia coli, its gene (GenBank GQ268963 was cloned into a pGEX-4T expression vector as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST. BL21 cells transformed with the GST-Mus a 5 construct were employed for the protein production induced by 1 mM of isopropyl-â-D-tiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. Conditions for the protein expression were optimized by varying the temperature (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C and duration of protein expression (3h, 6h and 12h. The level of protein production was analyzed by densitometry of sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAG after electrophoretic resolution of respective cell lysates. The optimal protein expression for downstream processing was obtained after 12h of cell growth under 25°C upon addition of IPTG. Recombinant GST-Mus a 5 purified by glutathione affinity chromatography revealed a molecular mass of about 60 kDa. The IgE and IgG reactivity of rGST-Mus a 5 was confirmed by dot blot analysis with individual patient’s sera from subjects with banana allergy and polyclonal rabbit antibodies against banana extract, respectively. Purified recombinant glucanase is a potential candidate for banana allergy diagnosis.

  7. Plantain, banana and wheat flour composites in bread making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This effort was complemented by extensive post-harvest research on new product development and evaluation from various accessions of plantain and banana hybrids. Transformation of fruits at different stages of ripening involving different processing techniques, packaging and preservation of new products was ...

  8. Banana Xanthomonas wilt: a review of the disease, management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt: a review of the disease, management strategies and future research directions. M Biruma, M Pillay, L Tripathi, G Blomme, S Abele, M Mwangi, R Bandyopadhyay, P Muchunguzi, S Kassim, M Nyine, L Turyagyenda, S Eden-Green ...

  9. Banana Xanthomonas wilt: a review of the disease, management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... Banana production in Eastern Africa is threatened by the presence of a new devastating bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (formerly Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum). The disease has been identified in Uganda, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo,. Rwanda ...

  10. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The beneficial impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on banana nutrition and resistance against abiotic and biotic ... Intraradical root colonization, with production of arbuscules and vesicules, as well as ... Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Musa acuminata, in vitro conditions, sporulation.

  11. Impact of Diseases on Export and Smallholder Production of Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ma, Li Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15 of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish

  12. Short communication: Alkaline surface modification of banana stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the important issues in producing composite materials with natural fibres is the modification of the surface of the fibres to enhance adhesion and interfacial bonding with polymer matrix. In this report, the effect of alkalization on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and surface morphology of banana stem fibres ...

  13. Retail Rural: Urban Market Integration of Plantain and Banana in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge about price at various markets determine to a large extent the effectiveness of information flow between the markets which further depicts efficiency of such markets for price prediction. This study examined the trend of prices of plantain and banana and their response between rural and urban markets in ...

  14. Review on postharvest technology of banana fruit | Hailu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include disinfecting, packaging and storage temperature. Pre- and postharvest treatments were found to have an effect on postharvest quality of banana, suggesting that postharvest quality of produce subjected to preharvest treatments should be assessed from a quality improvement, maintenance and consumer ...

  15. urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Fusarium Wilt Diseases, Genting Highlands. Resort, Malaysia, 18-20 October 1999. Karamura, D.A., Karamura, E.B. and Gold, C.S.. 1996. Cultivar distribution in primary banana growing regions of Uganda. MUSAAFRICA. 9:3 - 5. Ladd, G.W. and Lapan, M.B.E. 1976. Price and demands for input Characteristics. American.

  16. Factors driving the adoption of cooking banana processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of efforts in realising her aim of introducing cooking banana into Nigeria, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) mounted training and awareness campaigns on its utilisation in collaboration with Shell and Agip Oil companies between 1991 and 1997. This study looked into the adoption profile of the ...

  17. urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    livelihood to transporters and dealers in its trade. (FAO, 2002). However, this industry has been facing many problems that include; low genetic diversity, poor quality of the ..... Marketing survey of the. Banana sub-sector in Rwanda. September. 2002, ATDT-CIAT/ISAR/IITA-FOODNET/. CRS, Kigali, Rwanda. Gowen, S.1995.

  18. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core ...

  19. Agronomic performance of introduced banana varieties in lowlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of Rwandan banana cultivars are low-yielding and susceptible to pests and diseases. High yielding and pest/disease resistant varieties have been obtained in advanced breeding centers recently. Introduction, evaluation and adoption of such varieties by local producers may be one of the options to boost yields.

  20. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Langhe, E.; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, S.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2010), s. 849-857 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Backcrossing * banana * breeding Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.388, year: 2010

  1. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coculture fermentation of banana agro-waste to ethanol by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana is a major cash crop of many regions generating good amount of waste after harvest. This agro waste which is left for natural degradation is used as substrate for single step ethanol fermentation by thermophilic, cellulolytic, ethanologenic Clostridium thermocellum CT2, a new culture isolated from elephant ...

  3. Evaluation of genetic diversity between 27 banana cultivars (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated bananas (Musa spp.) are mostly diploid or triploid cultivars with various combinations of the A and B genomes inherited from their diploid ancestors Musa acuminata Colla. and Musa balbisiana. Colla. respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish the relatedness of 27 ...

  4. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  5. Prospects and determinants of adoption of IITA plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yielding and disease resistant plantain and banana hybrids and its associated technologies generated by IITA to combat the menace of black Sigatoka disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) were massively disseminated in year 2000. Since the hybrids were slightly different from the existing varieties in fruit size there was ...

  6. Efficient regeneration of the endangered banana cultivar 'Virupakshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantlets of the banana cultivar 'Virupakshi' (AAB) were regenerated from somatic embryos derived from embryogenic cells of calli from immature male flower explants. Induction of calli from explants was favored by a relatively moderate concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (4 mg/L), high concentrations of ...

  7. Effect of different nematicide applications per year on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different nematicide applications per year on control of banana root nematode, root weight and crop yield in Belize. The relationship between cost and benefit of the nematicide applications was also estimated. Methodology and results: A field experiment was ...

  8. Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four geographical regions of Ghana. The isolates were developed into pure single-spore cultures on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Single-spore cultures of the 25 B. theobromae isolates from the four crops were grown in V8 juice medium ...

  9. The use of indigeneous ripening technologies by banana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of the indigenous ripening technologies helped the women to generate quick and constant relatively high income (X = N7,375 per month) which they used in purchasing more ripening facilities, more bunches of banana and plantain, essential household materials, etc. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol.

  10. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group)

  11. Factors influencing the diffusion of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an interim measure in combating the incidence of black Sigatoka disease on plantain, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture introduced cooking banana in Southeast Nigeria in the late 1980s. This was multiplied and distributed to farmers through the extension systems of both governmental and ...

  12. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease

  13. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  14. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  15. The Impact of the Urban Environment on Plantain and Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils have low cation exchange capacity (CEC) usually experiencing multiple nutrients deficiencies (Enwezor, et al. 1981). Plantains and bananas are .... Consumers preference Low Low Average Avcrage Hi gh High Avcrage Average ... N/B : NAIRA - CFA FRANCS, EXCHANGE RATE AS AT 1998 N1.00 = 6.25 Frs.

  16. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to ...

  17. Production, characterization and application of banana (Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pasting properties of flour from six varieties of matured green banana (Musa spp) fruits identified as Gross michel (GM), Dwarf Cavendish (DC), Cavendish (CA), Lacatan (LA), Poyo (PO) and Red skin (RS) were determined. Flour of CA, used in formulation of banana–whole maize meal was assessed organoleptically for ...

  18. International institute of tropical agriculture plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Dissemination of research results by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) had been a major challenge to the Institute as inappropriate dissemination mechanism was revealed as a major constraint to her earlier efforts in disseminating cooking banana technologies between 1990 and 1994.

  19. Strategy to increase Barangan Banana production in Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhany, I.; Chalil, D.; Ginting, R.

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to analyze internal and external factors in increasing Barangan Banana production in Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Samples were determined by snowball sampling technique and purposive sampling method. Using SWOT analysis method, this study found that there were 6 internal strategic factors and 9 external strategic factors. Among that strategic factors, support for production facilities appears as the most important internal strategic factor, while the demand for Barangan Banana. as the most important external strategic factor. Based on the importance and existing condition of these strategic factors, using support for production facilities and realization of supporting facilities with farming experience are the strategies covering strength-opportunity (SO), organizing mentoring to meet the demand for Barangan Banana are the strategies covering weakness-opportunity (WO), making use of funding support and subsidies to widen the land, using tissue culture seeds and facilities and infrastructures are the strategies covering strength-threat (ST), increas the funding support to widen the land, the use of tissue culture seeds and facilities and infrastructures are the strategies covering weakness-threat (WT) are discussed and proposed to increase Barangan Banana productivity in Kabupaten Deli Serdang.

  20. Metal analyses of ash derived alkalis from banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to determine the metal content of plantain and banana peels ash derived alkali and the possibility of using it as alternate and cheap source of alkali in soap industry. This was done by ashing the peels and dissolving it in de-ionised water to achieve the corresponding hydroxides with pH above ...

  1. Influence of triadimefon on the growth and development of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... Many variations were observed among chlorophyll, carotenoids and protein contents of triadimifon (50 mg/L) treated cultures and untreated ones. High decrease was observed among the usual sterol content of triadimifon (50 mg/L) treated shoot buds compared to the control. Key words: Banana, cultivars, ...

  2. Improvement of bananas for black sigatoka and panama disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of bananas for black sigatoka and panama disease resistance through genetic manipulation. K De Smet, B Panis, L Sagi, BPA Cammue, R Swennen. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. agronomic performance of introduced banana varieties in lowlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The soil type is volcanic alluvial soil, while dominant crops are rice and banana. Seven hybrids bred by FHIA ( ... Bioversity International via Du Roi tissue culture laboratory, South Africa; Poyo (Cavendish sub- group ..... Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2-5 October 1995. Eds. E.A. Frison, J.-P. Horry and D. De Waele. ISAR, 2002.

  4. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... surface sterilized with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 6 min which gave minimum contamination with maximum culture establishment. Of various treatment combinations ... Cultivated banana is a triploid derived from two diploid species that is, Musa acuminata (Malaysia) and Musa balbsiana. (India) (Georget et al., 2000).

  5. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Kagy

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome, more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC, with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to

  6. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Brink, van den Paul J.; Tedengren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and

  7. DArT whole genome profiling provides insights on the evolution and taxonomy of edible Banana (Musa spp.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sardos, J.; Perrier, X.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, I.; Kilian, A.; Roux, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2016), s. 1269-1278 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LG15017 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : multilocus genotype data * arrays technology dart * genetic diversity * population-structure * balbisiana colla * acuminata colla * markers * identification * aflp * domestication * Musa acuminata * Musa balbisiana * Musa spp. * banana * DArT * domestication * taxonomy * classification * domestication Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  8. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  9. FGF-2 expression and the amount of fibroblast in the incised wounds of Rattus norvegicus rats induced with Mauli banana (Musa acuminata stem extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didit Aspriyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional wound treatment using herbal medicine is thought to maintain the health of families and society in general economically, effectively, and efficiently without inducing side effects. One genus of plant that can be used as a traditional medicine is the Mauli banana, indigenous to South Borneo. Mauli banana stem contains bioactive compounds, most of which are tannins along with ascorbic acid, saponin, β-carotene, flavonoids, lycopene, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Tanin has antibacterial and antioxidant effects at low concentrations, as wells as antifungal ones at high concentrations. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effects of Mauli banana stem extract at concentrations of 25%, 37.5%, and 50% on the quality of incised wound healing in male Rattus norvegicus rats by assessing FGF-2 expression and fibroblast concentration on days 3 and 7. Methods: This research represented an experimental laboratory-based investigation involving 32 rats of the Rattus norvegicus strain aged 2-2.5 months old. Sampling was performed using a simple random sampling technique since the research population was considered homogeneous and divided into 8 treatment groups (C3, M3-25, M3-37.5, M3-50, C7, M7-25, M7-37.5, M7-50. The rats in each group were anesthetized before their back was incised with length and width of 15x15mm with a depth of 2mm. Gel hydroxy propyl cellulose medium (HPMC was applied to the incised wound of each rat in the control group, while stem Mauli banana extract was applied to that of each rat in the treatment groups three times a day at an interval of 6-8 hours. On day 3, four rats from each group were sacrificed, while, in the remaining groups, the same procedure was performed until day 7, at which point they (8 groups were sacrificed for HE examination in order to assess the amount of fibroblast and for IHC examination to examine FGF-2 expression. Data regarding FGF-2 expression and the amount of fibroblast were analysed

  10. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  11. Modified and fuzzified general problem solver for the 'monkey and banana' problem, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Norihide; Takahashi, Ryoichi.

    1991-01-01

    The master-and-slave control system should be extensively implemented for the in-service inspection of operating nuclear power stations or the decommission of retired plants. The performance of this system depends on the intelligent slave. In this paper the degree of intelligence is approximated by the given amount of prior knowledge or suggestions. This paper aims at improving the general problem solver (GPS) by incorporating the learning process in order to solve the puzzle of the 'monkey and banana'. The monkey in this puzzle may be a reasonable alternative to represent the intelligent slave. Also, this paper deals with fuzzified problem solving since the master's command is not always crisp to the slave. (author)

  12. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing. Besides energy scarcity and unreliability, banana production, marketing and industrial processing generate large quantities of organic wastes that are disposed of majorly by unregulated dumping in places such as swamps, thereby forming huge putrefying biomass that emit green house gases (methane and carbon dioxide). On the other hand, the energy content of banana waste, if harnessed through appropriate waste-to-energy technologies, would not only solve the energy requirement for processing of banana pulp, but would also offer an additional benefit of avoiding fossil fuels through the use of renewable energy. The potential waste-to-energy technologies that can be used in valorisation of banana waste can be grouped into three: Thermal (Direct combustion and Incineration), Thermo-chemical (Torrefaction, Plasma treatment, Gasification and Pyrolysis) and Biochemical (Composting, Ethanol fermentation and Anaerobic Digestion). However, due to high moisture content of banana waste, direct application of either thermal or thermo-chemical waste-to-energy technologies is challenging. Although, supercritical water gasification does not require drying of feedstock beforehand and can be a promising thermo-chemical technology for gasification of wet biomass such as banana waste, it is an expensive technology that may not be adopted by banana farmers in Uganda. Biochemical conversion technologies are

  13. Three Infectious Viral Species Lying in Wait in the Banana Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabannes, Matthieu; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Vernerey, Marie-Stéphanie; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Barbe, Valérie; Gayral, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Plant pararetroviruses integrate serendipitously into their host genomes. The banana genome harbors integrated copies of banana streak virus (BSV) named endogenous BSV (eBSV) that are able to release infectious pararetrovirus. In this investigation, we characterized integrants of three BSV species—Goldfinger (eBSGFV), Imove (eBSImV), and Obino l'Ewai (eBSOLV)—in the seedy Musa balbisiana Pisang klutuk wulung (PKW) by studying their molecular structure, genomic organization, genomic landscape, and infectious capacity. All eBSVs exhibit extensive viral genome duplications and rearrangements. eBSV segregation analysis on an F1 population of PKW combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed that eBSImV, eBSOLV, and eBSGFV are each present at a single locus. eBSOLV and eBSGFV contain two distinct alleles, whereas eBSImV has two structurally identical alleles. Genotyping of both eBSV and viral particles expressed in the progeny demonstrated that only one allele for each species is infectious. The infectious allele of eBSImV could not be identified since the two alleles are identical. Finally, we demonstrate that eBSGFV and eBSOLV are located on chromosome 1 and eBSImV is located on chromosome 2 of the reference Musa genome published recently. The structure and evolution of eBSVs suggest sequential integration into the plant genome, and haplotype divergence analysis confirms that the three loci display differential evolution. Based on our data, we propose a model for BSV integration and eBSV evolution in the Musa balbisiana genome. The mutual benefits of this unique host-pathogen association are also discussed. PMID:23720724

  14. Evaluation of Banana Hypersensitivity Among a Group of Atopic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia H.; El-Shennawy, Dina; Nasser, Manar W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the frequency of banana sensitization and allergy among a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to parental/self reports. Methods This is a case-control study included 2 groups of allergic children with and without history of banana allergy, each included 40 patients. They were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) using commercial banana allergen extract and prick-prick test (PPT) using raw banana, in addition to measuring the serum banana-specific IgE. Oral banana c...

  15. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available reported in some banana producing regions (Figure 1). The ability of the fungal pathogens (especially race 4) to infect a wide range of banana cultivars and to establish resistance to chemical pesticides is a threat to the continued cultivation... of bananas. Alternative remedies to curb proliferation of Panama disease have therefore been initiated. CSIR Biosciences is extensively engaged in the development of biological control strategies and has identified an isolate of Bacillus spp., which...

  16. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, ...

  17. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hailu, M.; Seyoum Workneh, T.; Belew, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with t...

  18. Physicochemical quality and antioxidant changes in ‘Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Pannipa Youryon; Suriyan Supapvanich

    2017-01-01

    The physicochemical and antioxidant changes of ‘Kluai Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit (Musa AA group) were investigated during ripening. The visual appearance, peel and pulp color, firmness, total soluble solids concentration (TSS), total acidity (TA) and bioactive compounds of the fruit at three stages of ripening (mature green, ripe and overripe) were monitored. Changes in both the peel and pulp color, texture, TSS and TA contents during banana ripening were similar to those of other banana frui...

  19. Appropriate stage of ripeness and time for vacuum frying of cultivated banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Pitak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study appropriate ripeness of cultivated banana and time period for vacuum fry. Sliced bananas of thickness 1-2 mm were fried at temperature 130 ๐ C under vacuum condition. The samplings were done at 3 level of ripeness; 1 raw banana, 2 the first day of ripeness, 3 the second day of ripeness. In addition 5 levels of fried period were set; 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 min. The raw banana fried for 12 min shown the best result. The products have a crisp texture, appropriate hardness and toughness, standard moisture and color with the most acceptance by consumers.

  20. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis.

  1. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Mahouachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain” subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA and cinnamic acids (CA were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  2. Hormonal and hydroxycinnamic acids profiles in banana leaves in response to various periods of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahouachi, Jalel; López-Climent, María F; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. "Grand Nain") subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  3. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  4. Biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is of important to study the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature. This study would be of significant in the case of non- refrigerated transport, practices within the country and transhipment to distant countries. studies have therefore extended to assess the shelf-life of irradiated banana stored under-room temperature. Extension of shelf -life have been achieved by many methods, the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for developing nations. the aim of this investigation is to study the biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on G ros Michel m ature green banana fruits and also to determine the optimum dose level and the optimum storage conditions which resulted in, keeping the organoleptic qualities as it is and maximum extension in shelf-life

  5. The Diversity of Wild Banana Species (Genus Musa in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulut Dwi Sulistyaningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of wild banana species (genus Musa, listed in Flora of Java has been revised. The present taxonomic study is based on morphological characteristics observed in the herbarium specimens deposited at the Herbarium Bogoriense (BO, living collections in the Bogor Botanical Garden, the Cibodas Botanical Garden, and during the explorations done at Mt. Salak, West Java. Eight species of Musa (Musa acuminata, M. balbisiana, M. coccinea, M. ornata, M. salaccensis, M. sanguinea, M. textilis and M. velutina and seven infraspecific taxa of M. acuminata are recognized in Java, of which two infraspecific taxa are endemic. West Java is the center of distribution for the wild banana species in Java. Taxonomic descriptions including an identification key are presented.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis and highland banana (ssp. truncata were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping and no distinguishing pattern was observed. The morphological characters found variable within these populations were related to developmental changes and mutations. The results ob tained in this study were not revolutionary. However, the survey of a large number of characters treated with multivariate techniques further sharpened the existing groupings of the Musa acuminata subspecies.

  7. Relationships between respiration, ethylene, and aroma production in ripening banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, J B; Shearer, D; McGlasson, W B; Wyllie, S G

    1999-04-01

    Mature green bananas were treated with the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at intervals during the 24 h period after initiation of ripening with propylene. Following 1-MCP treatment, the fruits were ripened in either air or propylene while ethylene, carbon dioxide, and volatile production and composition were monitored at regular intervals. The application of 1-MCP significantly delayed and suppressed the onset and magnitude of fruit respiration and volatile production. The 1-MCP treatments also caused a quantitative change in the composition of the aroma volatiles, resulting in a substantial increase in the concentration of alcohols and a decrease in their related esters. The results showed that ethylene has a continuing role in integrating many of the biochemical processes that take place during the ripening of bananas.

  8. Studies on optimization of ripening techniques for banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, B V C; Kaur, Tajender; Gill, M I S; Dhaliwal, H S; Ghuman, B S; Chahil, B S

    2010-06-01

    Fruits of banana (Musa spp) cultivar 'Grand Naine' were harvested at physiological green mature stage. The first lot of fruit was exposed to ethylene gas (100 ppm) for 24 h in ripening chamber. The second lot was treated with different concentrations of aqueous solution of ethephon (250, 500, 750, 1000 ppm) each for 5 min. The fruits were packed in plastic crates and stored in ripening chamber maintained at 16-18°C and 90-95% RH. Treatment with ethylene gas (100 ppm) or ethephon (500 ppm) resulted in adequate ripening of fruits after 4 days with uniform colour, pleasant flavour, desirable firmness and acceptable quality and better shelf-life. The untreated control fruits were hard textured and poor in colour and quality. The ripening with ethylene gas or ethephon treatment seems to hold promise in reducing postharvest losses and boosting the economy of banana growers and traders.

  9. Differential expression and characterization of three metallothionein-like genes in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Goh, Chong-Jin; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Pua, Eng-Chong

    2002-02-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich polypeptides that are involved in metal detoxification and homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of three members (MT2A, MT2B and MT3) of the MT-like gene family from ripening banana fruit and their differential expression in various banana organs and during fruit development and ripening. All members of the MT-like gene encode small cysteine-rich polypeptides of 65-79 amino acid residues. MT2A shared a high sequence similarity (54-77%) with several type-2 MTs in plants, while MT3 was highly homologous (51-61%) with type-3 MTs. The three members expressed differentially in various organs but transcripts were generally more abundant in reproductive than vegetative organs. During fruit development, the MT2A transcript was barely detectable in ovary but increased to a high level in young fruit at 20 days after shooting (DAS) and declined gradually thereafter as fruit developed. In contrast, both MT2B and MT3 expressed poorly in young fruits (20-60 DAS) and transcripts were detected only in fruits at later stages of development. As ripening progressed, expression of MT2A decreased but that of MT3 increased. Expression of MT members during ripening appeared to be differentially regulated by ethylene, whose levels were low in FG and TY fruit but surged climacteristically in MG and declined sharply as ripening advanced further. Exogenous application of ethylene at 5 ppm or higher concentrations down-regulated MT2A expression and the inhibitory effect of ethylene could be partially suppressed by the presence of norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action. Ethylene had no effect on transcript accumulation of MT2B and MT3. However, MT3 expression was greatly enhanced in response to metals such as CdSO4, CuSO4 and ZnSO4. These results suggest that increased MT3 expression may be associated with excess metal ions present in ripening fruit tissues. This study also

  10. Interaction of Spatially Localized LHW with Banana Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krlín, Ladislav; Fuchs, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Papřok, Richard; Seidl, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 166-168 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2014 - 26th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/26./. Prague, 16.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anomalous acceleration * stochasticity * lower hybrid waves * banana particles * tokamaks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/krlin.pdf

  11. The radurisation of bananas under commercial conditions: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a large scale trial with bananas, a doubling of storage life in the ripening rooms (from 14 to 29 d) was achieved using irradiation treatment to an average dose of 0,85 kGy. Both colour development and fruit softening were significantly reduced in the irradiated fruits compared with the untreated batch. A slight phytotoxic effect to the fruit was noticed at the dose of 0,85 kGy

  12. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero; Rogério Eiji Hanada; Luadir Gasparotto; Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Neto; Jorge Teodoro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both f...

  13. Physiological, molecular and ultrastructural analyses during ripening and over-ripening of banana (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish sub-group) fruit suggest characteristics of programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Kelley, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of plant development that has been studied for petal senescence and vegetative tissue but has not been thoroughly investigated for fleshy fruits. The purpose of this research was to examine ripening and over-ripening in banana fruit to determine if there were processes in common to previously described PCD. Loss of cellular integrity (over 40%) and development of senescence related dark spot (SRDS) occurred after day 8 in banana peel. Nuclease and protease activity in the peel increased during ripening starting from day 2, and decreased during over-ripening. The highest activity was for proteases and nucleases with apparent molecular weights of 86 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. Images of SRDS showed shrinkage of the upper layers of cells, visually suggesting cell death. Decrease of electron dense areas was evident in TEM micrographs of nuclei. This study shows for the first time that ripening and over-ripening of banana peel share physiological and molecular processes previously described in plant PCD. SRDS could represent a morphotype of PCD that characterizes a structural and biochemical failure in the upper layers of the peel, thereafter spreading to lower and adjacent layers of cells. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Purification and characterization of banana fruit acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, W L; Plaxton, W C

    2001-12-01

    An acid phosphatase (APase, EC 3.1.3.2) from ripened banana (Musa cavendishii L. cv. Cavendish) fruit has been purified 1,876-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP)-hydrolyzing specific activity of 745 micromol Pi produced (mg protein)(-1) min(-1). Non-denaturing PAGE of the final preparation resolved a single protein-staining band that co-migrated with APase activity. SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration demonstrated that the purified enzyme exists as a 40-kDa monomer. That the enzyme is glycosylated was indicated by its tight absorption to Concanavalin A-Sepharose. Banana APase was relatively heat stable, displayed a symmetrical pH/activity profile with maximal activity at pH 5.8, and was activated 180% and 150% by 5 mM Mn2+ and Mg2+, respectively. The enzyme exhibited a broad substrate selectivity, with maximal specificity constants (Vmax/Km) obtained with pNPP, phosphoenolpyruvate, phenyl phosphate, and O-phospho-L-tyrosine. Potent inhibition by Pi, molybdate, vanadate, arsenate, and Zn2+ was observed. Putative metabolic functions of the APase are discussed in relation to maintaining significant Pi mobility during banana fruit ripening.

  15. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Leenie, A.; Harimi, M.; Beng, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m 2 , meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m 2 . For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m 2 in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m 2 in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m 2 and 2.685 GN/m 2 , respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities

  16. Molecular diagnostics for the sigatoka disease complex of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, Mahdi; Abeln, Edwin C A; Kema, Gert H J; Waalwijk, Cees; Carlier, Jean; Vries, Ineke de; Guzmán, Mauricio; Crous, Pedro W

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease diagnosis in the Mycosphaerella complex of banana is based on the presence of host symptoms and fungal fruiting structures, which hamper preventive management strategies. In the present study, we have developed rapid and robust species-specific molecular-based diagnostic tools for detection and quantification of M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Conventional species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were developed based on the actin gene that detected DNA at as little as 100, 1, and 10 pg/mul from M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae, respectively. Furthermore, TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed based on the beta-tubulin gene and detected quantities of DNA as low as 1 pg/mul for each Mycosphaerella sp. from pure cultures and DNA at 1.6 pg/mul per milligram of dry leaf tissue for M. fijiensis that was validated using naturally infected banana leaves.

  17. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiguang Sun

    Full Text Available The abscisic acid (ABA-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38 had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT under long day (LD conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage; however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants.

  18. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiguang; Miao, Hongxia; Yu, Xiaomeng; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38) had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT) under long day (LD) conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD) for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage); however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants.

  19. More nutritious bananas resist disease | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... By inserting resistant varieties (like FHIA-17 and FHIA-23) between traditional, susceptible plants, we 'trap' the disease agent and prevent it from spreading. This has a direct impact on food security by restoring the productivity of the traditional varieties." — Abdou Tenkouano, International Institute of ...

  20. Biological and Host Range Studies with Bagous affinis, An Indian Weevil that Destroys Hydrilla Tubers. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Fabacae); iris, ornamental Iris sp. (Iridaceae); lily, ornamental Lilium sp. (Liliaceae); banana, Musa X paradisiaca L (Musaceae); curly dock, Rumex ... crispus L. (Polygonaceae); smartweed, Polygonum densiflorum Meissner (Polygonaceae); portulaca, ornamental Portulaca sp. (Portulacaceae). 2 Plant

  1. Analysis of micronuclei of the oral epithelium in workers of a banana zone exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Achi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following study was realized with workers of the zone of Guapiles (Limon, Costa Rica), to determine the possible damage to the genetic material occasioned by labour exhibition to pesticides. The presence of micronuclei in cells of the oral epithelium was used as a biomarcador of effect . Besides, an analysis of frequency of other abnormalities was made in the nucleus of the epithelial cells, which can be an indication of genotoxicity or cytotoxicity. The group of women exposed to pesticides (cases) was formed by workers of packing plants of different independent banana states. The group of women who constituted the group of control were persons that neither them nor their spouses or companions had never worked at agricultural labours and that had not lived inside a banana estate. The samples of the controls were gathered not only from women who are employed at the Hospital of Guapiles, but also from patients who were expecting to be attended in the external consultation of the same hospital, or, in the Healthy Child consultation in the health center of the same city. It is the first time that a study of control-case is done in the country to detect genotoxicidad, using micronuclei of the oral epithelium (MNOE) as a biomarcador. The participants were interviewed to obtain information about his or her customs and family history that could be relevant for the study. The preparation and the analysis of the cells of the oral epithelium of every individual was done in the laboratories of the Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA), of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Although there are indications of cytotoxic and genotoxicity in the controls showed by an increase of the frequencies of other nuclear abnormalities, the results demonstrated that there is not a significant increase in MNOE's frequency between the group of cases and of controls. (Author) [es

  2. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement.

  3. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Salvucci, Anthony; Crous, Pedro W; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-08-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  4. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti-Cheng Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka, Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot, and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka, is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven

  5. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  6. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  7. Screening the banana biodiversity for drought tolerance: can an in vitro growth model and proteomics be used as a tool to discover tolerant varieties and understand homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine eVanhove

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for research aimed at understanding drought tolerance, screening for drought tolerant varieties and breeding cops with an improved water use efficiency. Bananas and plantains are a major staple food and export product with a worldwide production of over 135 million tonnes per year. Water however is the most limiting abiotic factor in banana production. A screening of the Musa biodiversity has not yet been performed. We at KU Leuven host the Musa International Germplasm collection with over 1200 accessions. To screen the Musa biodiversity for drought tolerant varieties, we developed a screening test for in vitro plants. Five varieties representing different genomic constitutions in banana (AAAh, AAA, AAB, AABp and ABB were selected and subjected to a mild osmotic stress. The ABB variety showed the smallest stress induced growth reduction. To get an insight into the acclimation and the accomplishment of homeostasis, the leaf proteome of this variety was characterized via 2D DIGE. After extraction of the leaf proteome of 6 control and 6 stressed plants, 2600 spots could be distinguished. A PCA analysis indicates that control and stressed plants can blindly be classified based on their proteome. One hundred and twelve proteins were significantly more abundant in the stressed plants and eighteen proteins were significantly more abundant in control plants (FDR α 0.05. Twenty four differential proteins could be identified. The proteome analysis clearly shows that there is a new balance in the stressed plants and that the respiration, metabolism of ROS and several dehydrogenases involved in NAD/NADH homeostasis play an important role.

  8. Simulation of defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in the yield and quality of banana 'Nanica ' fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in yield and quality of banana 'Nanica' was stimulated in this study. A completely randomized 2x8 factorial design with six repetitions was used, in which period of bunch formation and number of leaves at flowering were established as factors. Plants for defoliation were selected on 04/05/2013 (Period 1, and on 07/01/2014 (Period 2. Six to to 13 leaves remained per plant by removing those with more than 50% of blade with injury or senescence. More appropriate climatic conditions before and after flowering, promoted greater mass accumulation in the bunch in Period 2. The increased number of leaves at flowering increased the length of the fruit and the mass of 4th hand, as well as the bunch mass and postharvest period. Defoliation is suggested only for non-functional leaves as well as the maintenance of at least 10 leaves per plant, independent of the period of bunch formation.

  9. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  10. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  11. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  12. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important

  13. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),

  14. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  15. Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

    2010-10-01

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group.

  16. 77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... green stage (i.e., bananas with no yellow or green color break) is a standard industry practice for... have double doors at the entrance to the facility and at the interior entrance to the area where the bananas are packed. This proposed requirement is designed to exclude fruit flies from the packinghouse...

  17. Arabidopsis and Musa cyclin D2 expressed in banana (cv. “Sukali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic transformation of banana is important because of its polyploidy, sterility and long generation time of most cultivars which limit conventional breeding. However, transformability and regeneration of transgenic lines remains low in bananas. This research reports on the potential of CycD2 genes to improve ...

  18. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus ...

  19. Anti-nutrients and heavy metals in some new plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantain and banana flour are important raw material in the baking and confectionery industry, and complementary food formulation. Five new plantain and banana hybrids developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) at Highrainfall Station, Onne, Nigeria were screened for certain anti-nutritional ...

  20. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  1. Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability and sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania Silva; Conti-Silva, Ana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    A mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor. The use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  3. Exploring the Potential of Banana SAP as Dye for the Adinkra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to explore the potential of banana sap as a dye for the Adinkra industry in Ghana. Pseudostem extract of banana and stem bark extract of Bridelia micratha were compared as dyeing stuff. A consumer preference study was also conducted to assess the acceptability of the products developed.

  4. Expression analysis of banana MaECHI1 during fruit ripening with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... banana ethylene production and MaECHI1 gene expression peaks appeared earlier with ethylene treatment than with other treatment. MaECHI1 gene expression was markedly responsive to the fruit ripening process and to exogenous ethylene treatment. Keywords: Banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA), endochitinase gene ...

  5. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single

  6. Detecting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil and symptomless banana tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana

  7. Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Banana Yields in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate variability and change are existing sets of conditions which affect crop productivity. An evaluation of their impacts on banana yield in the CDC-DelMonte Banana Project at Tiko is fundamental in conceiving adaptation strategies towards coping with, and minimizing their deleterious impacts for maximum productivity ...

  8. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil response to aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil,

  9. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  10. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  11. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  12. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  13. Physiological responses in the banana plantlets treateds with strobilurinsRespostas fisiológicas em mudas de banananeira tratadas com estrobilurinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivia Helena Modenese-Gorla da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are reports that strobilurin besides having a fungicide effect can promote physiologic benefits to the plants. However, this effect on banana plants was not studied yet. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of strobirulins on the physiology of banana plantlets. For this purpose, cultivar Grand Naine banana plantlets were transferred to pots containing substrate and kept in a nursery with 50% shading. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments (water, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin and five replications. The treatments were applied at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting at a dose 100 g a. i. ha-1 with manual spray. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, shoot dry matter in strobilurin treated plants were higher than the untreated plants, however, the effect of fungicide treatment was different, being the most pronounced effect of pyraclostrobin compared to azoxystrobin. Plants treated with pyraclostrobin had higher leaf area, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content of leaf total nitrogen than the plants treated with azoxystrobin and water, which did not differ. Strobilurins affect the physiology of the banana plantlets differently, the effect being more pronounced by pyraclostrobin.Há relatos de que estrobilurinas, além de atuarem como fungicida, promovem benefícios fisiológicos às plantas. Assim sendo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de estrobirulinas na fisiologia de mudas de bananeira. Para tal, mudas micropropagadas da cultivar Grand Naine foram repicadas para vasos contendo substrato e mantidas em viveiro a 50% de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (água, azoxistrobina e piraclostrobina e cinco repetições. As estrobirulinas foram aplicadas com pulverizador manual aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a repicagem, na dose de 100 g i. a. ha-1. A altura da planta, di

  14. Use of the aniline blue-KOH staining in the study of the banana-Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milady Mendoza-Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the first stages of the infection process with the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet was made beginning with the inoculation of young banana plants obtained from in vitro culture. The experimental system host-pathogen studied, included the susceptible cultivar ‘Niyarma yik’ (AA to Black Sigatoka disease and the Pseudocercospora fijiensis isolate CCIBP-Pf1. The fluorescent staining technique with KOH-aniline blue was used for this study. Samples from infected leaves were taken and incubated in a KOH solution, rinsed in deionized water, mounted in the stain solution and examined with ultraviolet fluorescence. The use of this technique allowed to observe the epiphytic growing of the fungus over the plant tissue with high resolution and contrast, in an early stage of the infection. Key words: Black Sigatoka, fungi, Musa

  15. Origins and domestication of cultivated banana inferred from chloroplast and nuclear genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved.We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1 and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome. Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome and M. schizocarpa (S-genome, respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas.Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings suggested that multiple maternal origins and a reduction in

  16. Developmental Localization and Methylesterification of Pectin Epitopes during Somatic Embryogenesis of Banana (Musa spp. AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiang; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Šamaj, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Background The plant cell walls play an important role in somatic embryogenesis and plant development. Pectins are major chemical components of primary cell walls while homogalacturonan (HG) is the most abundant pectin polysaccharide. Developmental regulation of HG methyl-esterification degree is important for cell adhesion, division and expansion, and in general for proper organ and plant development. Methodology/Principal Findings Developmental localization of pectic homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes and the (1→4)-β-D-galactan epitope of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DM) were studied during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA). Histological analysis documented all major developmental stages including embryogenic cells (ECs), pre-globular, globular, pear-shaped and cotyledonary somatic embryos. Histochemical staining of extracellularly secreted pectins with ruthenium red showed the most intense staining at the surface of pre-globular, globular and pear-shaped somatic embryos. Biochemical analysis revealed developmental regulation of galacturonic acid content and DM in diverse embryogenic stages. Immunodots and immunolabeling on tissue sections revealed developmental regulation of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes recognized by JIM7 and LM20 antibodies during somatic embryogenesis. Cell walls of pre-globular/globular and late-stage embryos contained both low methyl-esterified HG epitopes as well as partially and highly methyl-esterified ones. Extracellular matrix which covered surface of early developing embryos contained pectin epitopes recognized by 2F4, LM18, JIM5, JIM7 and LM5 antibodies. De-esterification of cell wall pectins by NaOH caused a decrease or an elimination of immunolabeling in the case of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes. However, immunolabeling of some low methyl-esterified epitopes appeared stronger after this base treatment. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that both low

  17. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment.

  18. An efficient DNA isolation method for tropical plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    walkinnet

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Due to interfering components such as polysacharrides, polyphenols, etc, DNA isolation from tropical plants had been challenging. We developed a safe, universal and efficient DNA extraction method, which yielded high-quality DNA from 10 tropical plants including cassava, rubber tree, banana, etc. In the.

  19. An efficient DNA isolation method for tropical plants | Huang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to interfering components such as polysacharrides, polyphenols, etc, DNA isolation from tropical plants had been challenging. We developed a safe, universal and efficient DNA extraction method, which yielded high-quality DNA from 10 tropical plants including cassava, rubber tree, banana, etc. In the extraction buffer, ...

  20. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.