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Sample records for banana plants

  1. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

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    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  2. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

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    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  3. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

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    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  4. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

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    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  5. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

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    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

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    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  7. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

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    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  8. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

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    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  9. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

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    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  10. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

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    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  11. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

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    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  12. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Streptomyces sp. ON RHIZOSPHERE PLANT BANANA (Musa paradiasica IN PENDEM VILLAGE JEMBRANA REGENCY BALI

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    Retno Kawuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pendem village in Jembrana regency is one of the banana plantation in Bali. Now a days banana plants were attack by bacterial wilt disease with the symptoms of wilting plants, brown spots on the vessel banana stems and fruit to rot and dry. Control of use of chemical fertilizers can cause bad impact on environment and also can not control the disease. Streptomyces bacteria are bacteria that are capable of producing enzymes and antibiotics that can be used as biocontrol agents of several diseases in plants. The purpose of this research is to isolate and identify the bacteria Streptomyces from rhizosphere of banana plants without symptoms in the village Pendem Jembrana regency. The method of isolation of Streptomyces using Platting method, Streptomyces isolated from soil rhizosphere of banana plants without symptoms or health plant. Soil was taken by digging near rooting bananas plant about 15 cm from the ground and and the sample was growth on media Humic Vitamin Agar (HVA and Yeast Extract Malt Agar (ISP4. Identification macros-copically and microscopically and biochemical test using determination key book guide to the Classification and Identification of the Actinomycetes and Their antibiotics of Lechevalier and Waksman (1973. Result showed it was found 9 Streptomyces isolate; Streptomyces sp.1, Streptomyces sp. 2, Streptomyces sp.3, sp.4 Streptomyces, Streptomyces sp.5 sp.6, Streptomyces sp 7, Streptomyces sp.8 and Streptomyces sp.9. Nine isolates of Streptomyces sp. will be tested against the bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum ,the bacteria that causes bacterial wilt disease.

  13. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

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    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  14. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

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    Hugh Roderick

    Full Text Available A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI values for a banana (Musa spp. field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  15. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

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    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  16. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

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    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  17. Distinct silicon and germanium pathways in the soil-plant system: Evidence from banana and horsetail

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    Delvigne, C.; Opfergelt, S.; Cardinal, D.; Delvaux, B.; André, L.

    2009-06-01

    Plants strongly impact the continental silicon cycle by taking up Si and precipitating opal phytoliths which are recycled into the soil. Studying Ge incorporation, a chemical analog of Si, relative to Si may provide a useful tracer of Si pathways. However, Ge uptake and transport through plants and the impact on Ge/Si of phytoliths remain poorly understood. Here, we report Ge uptake and accumulation and Ge/Si fractionation in all plant parts and solutions from: (1) hydroponic banana, (2) in situ sampled banana, and (3) horsetails. We further combine these data with δ29Si from banana plants. Our data reconcile opposite conclusions drawn from previous studies on Ge uptake and pathways. No discrimination of Ge occurred at the root-solution interface. Banana and horsetails were shown to accumulate Ge in roots: a previous study provided evidence of low Ge/Si ratios in root phytoliths which contrasts with high bulk Ge/Si ratios in roots we report here. This suggests that Ge is organically trapped in roots. Consequently, shoots display lower Ge/Si ratios, without fractionation between shoot parts since Ge would follow transpiration stream as silicon, and is not discriminated between shoot parts. This contrasts with the two-step discrimination against heavy Si isotopes, at the root-solution interface, and then within the shoots. The soil composition (clays versus Fe oxides) has a leading role on the Ge/Si signatures of plants which may in turn impact on the Si and Ge fluxes to the global ocean.

  18. Status of weeds as reservoirs of plant parasitic nematodes in banana fields in Martinique

    OpenAIRE

    Quénéherve, Patrick; Chabrier, C.; Auwerkerken, Annemie; Topart, Patrick; Martiny, Bernard; Marie Luce, S.

    2006-01-01

    During a survey of the nematodes associated with weeds in banana fields in Martinique, 41 weed species in 37 genera from 20 plant families were collected to extract nematodes from the roots. Results of this survey showed that 24 weed species were hosts of Radopholus similis, 23 were hosts of Helicotylenchus spp., 13 were hosts of Pratylenchus spp., 13 were hosts of Hoplolaimus seinhorsti, 29 were hosts of Meloidogyne spp. and 24 were hosts of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The presence of the burr...

  19. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species.

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    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  20. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species

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    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  1. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

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    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants.

  2. Pesticide residues in heterogeneous plant populations, a model-based approach applied to nematicides in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Philippe; Chabrier, Christian; Malézieux, Eric

    2007-03-21

    Nematicides are widely used to control plant-parasitic nematodes in intensive export banana (Musa spp.) cropping systems. Data show that the concentration of fosthiazate in banana fruits varies from zero to 0.035 g kg-1, under the maximal residue limit (MRL=0.05 mg kg-1). The fosthiazate concentration in fruit is described by a Gaussian envelope curve function of the interval between pesticide application and fruit harvest (preharvest interval). The heterogeneity of phenological stages in a banana population increases over time, and thus the preharvest interval of fruits harvested after a pesticide application varies over time. A phenological model was used to simulate the long-term harvest dynamics of banana at field scale. Simulations show that the mean fosthiazate concentration in fruits varies according to nematicide application program, climate (temperature), and planting date of the banana field. This method is used to assess the percentage of harvested bunches that exceed a residue threshold and to help farmers minimize fosthiazate residues in bananas.

  3. Agronomic Efficiency of Biosolid as Source of Nitrogen to Banana Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS or biosolid has been studied as source of nutrient for several different plant species. It also contributes to soil fertility recycling organic matter and plant nutrients. This followup work examines a three-year (2001–2004 field experiment designed to evaluate the response of banana plants (Cavendish subgroup to the application of biosolid as source of nitrogen. The treatments consisted of control (mineral PK, no N, three rates of sludge, and two rates of mineral NPK fertilizer. Plant and soil N concentration, fruit yield, plant height, stem diameter, and foliar endurance index were measured. Fruit yield with mineral fertilization or sludge applications did not differ statistically (P>0.05. Application of biosolid resulted in statistically significant higher agronomic efficiency (P<0.05 in comparison to mineral fertilizers. The concentration of soil mineral nitrogen increased using mineral fertilizer or sludge until 0.80 m after three years of application. The effect of the source of N was smaller than the effect of the rate. Biosolid can be used as source of N for banana growers.

  4. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  5. A workflow for peptide-based proteomics in a poorly sequenced plant: A case study on the plasma membrane proteome of banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertommen, A.; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Cordewener, J. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    for membrane proteomics. However, their application in non-model plants demands special precautions to prevent false positive identification of proteins.In the current paper, a workflow for membrane proteomics in banana, a poorly sequenced plant, is proposed. The main steps of this workflow are (i......, integral plasma membrane proteins from banana leaves were successfully identified....

  6. Members of Gammaproteobacteria as indicator species of healthy banana plants on Fusarium wilt-infested fields in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Culminating in the 1950’s, bananas, the world’s most extensive perennial monoculture, suffered one of the most devastating disease epidemics in history. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), forced the abandonment of the Gros Michel-based export banana industry. Comparative microbiome analyses performed between healthy and diseased Gros Michel plants on FW-infested farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica revealed significant shifts in the gammaproteobacterial microbiome. Although we found substantial differences in the banana microbiome between both countries and a higher impact of FOC on farms in Costa Rica than in Nicaragua, the composition especially in the endophytic microhabitats was similar and the general microbiome response to FW followed similar rules. Gammaproteobacterial diversity and community members were identified as potential health indicators. Healthy plants revealed an increase in potentially plant-beneficial Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, while diseased plants showed a preferential occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae known for their plant-degrading capacity. Significantly higher microbial rhizosphere diversity found in healthy plants could be indicative of pathogen suppression events preventing or minimizing disease expression. This first study examining banana microbiome shifts caused by FW under natural field conditions opens new perspectives for its biological control. PMID:28345666

  7. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  8. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  9. 某公司租用土地开发香蕉项目综合效益分析%Analysis on Comprehensive Benefits of a Company Planting Banana on Rented Lands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈西林

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made in this article on the eco-benefit, social benefit, and economic benefit from banana planting of a company in three planting bases in Xinping County. Before the banana is planted, the land is classified into sloppy land, woodland and arable land We carefully study the three types of land, analyze the various effects and benefits made by banana planting on these types of land, and make a comprehensive comment.

  10. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p  0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  11. Development of the banana plants 'Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01' under the effect of paclobutrazol applied on the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Emanuel; Siqueira, Dalmo L; Salomão, Luiz C C; Peternelli, Luiz A; Ventrella, Marília C; Cavatte, Rithiely P Q

    2009-06-01

    Under some cultivation conditions, excessive growth of the pseudostem of banana plants can be considered a limiting factor, and thus, the use of growth regulators can constitute a valid alternative. This work aimed to evaluate the action of paclobutrazol on the growth of the pseudostem of banana plants and other characteristics of their development. An experiment was installed with five paclobutrazol doses (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 g of a.i. plant-1) combined with two banana plant cultivars ('Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01'). Paclobutrazol did not affect the number of days from planting to flowering, total leaf area and leaf emission rate. However, it increased leaf permanence on the plants and sucker number, reduced the foliar area of the leaves emitted after its application and provided an average reduction in pseudostem height of 26%.

  12. A Comparison of Fitness Characters of Two Host Plant-Based Congeneric Species of the Banana Aphid, Pentalonia Nigronervosa and P. Caladii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Parna; Agarwala, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Aphids and other phytophagous insects often show intra-specific variations in relation to host plant utilization. In several instances, intra-species variations lead to host-plant specialization. These are considered to be important source of speciation. In a recent study (Foottit RG et al. 2010. Zootaxa 2358: 25–38) two forms of the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa f typica Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from banana hosts and P. nigronervosa f. caladii van der Goot collected from Zingiberaceae and Araceae respectively were described as separate species, P. nigronervosa Coquerel and P. caladii van der Goot, based on morphological and molecular differences. A study was undertaken to examine the ecological and biological characters in asexual wingless morphs of the two forms of P. nigronervosa sensu lat. using taro (Araceae) and banana (Musaceae) as host plants. The results showed consistent differences between the two forms. In biological characters, the apterous morphs off. caladii from taro host plants were found to be significantly more fecund, showed a higher net reproductive rate, longer reproductive duration, and their adults lived longer than the f. typica aphids from banana host plants. In ecological characters, f. caladii aphids formed bigger colonies and in significantly less time on taro plants in comparison to f. typica aphids which formed smaller colonies in significantly more time on banana plants. Reciprocal transfer of the two forms of P. nigronervosa aphids between their host plant species lowered performance on the transferred host plants. These results confirmed that P. nigronervosa f. typica from banana hosts and P. nigronervosa f. caladii from taro hosts are indeed two different species in relation to host plant utilization and suggested that the observed differences in their fitness characters represented distinct genotypes. PMID:20883136

  13. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  14. 香蕉叶与香蕉全株营养成分和单宁含量的比较分析%The comparative analysis of the nutrients and tannins content of the banana leaves and the banana whole plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中英; 王春芳; 曹兵海

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨香蕉叶与香蕉全株的饲料价值,试验以香蕉叶与香蕉全株为研究对象,对其常规营养成分和单宁含量进行了化学分析。结果表明,香蕉叶中的DM、CP、EE、NDF、ADF、ADL、Ash、P、总能、总酚、非单宁酚、总单宁和缩合单宁含量均显著地高于香蕉全株(P<0.05)。因此,香蕉叶的饲料价值优于香蕉全株,但酚类和单宁类抗营养物质的含量也高于香蕉全株。%To explore the feed value of the banana leaves and the banana whole plant, this experiment selected the banana leaves and the banana whole plant as the research object and tested its nutrients and tannins content. The results showed that the content of the DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ash, P, GE total phenols, non-tannins phenols, tannins and condensed tannins of the banana leaves were significantly higher than the banana whole plant(P<0.05). The feed value of the banana leaves was bet-ter than the banana whole plant, but the phenols and tannin content of the banana leaves was also higher than the banana whole plant.

  15. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  16. Induction of Defense-Related Enzymes in Banana Plants: Effect of Live and Dead Pathogenic Strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the response of banana (Grand Naine variety) plants when interacting with dead or live pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, a causative agent of Panama disease. Response of plants was evaluated in terms of induction of defense-related marker enzyme activity, namely, peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-1,3 glucanase, chitinase, and phenolics. Plant's interaction with live pathogen resulted in early induction of defense to restrain...

  17. Ethno-cognitive connections between HIV/AIDS and banana plants in the Bahaya agricultural society in north-western Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Githinji, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on ethno-cognitive connections between HIV/AIDS and banana plants in the Bahaya agricultural society that emerged from an anthropological study carried out in 2005-2006 in Nsisha, a rural village in Bukoba District, north-western Tanzania. The paper briefly describes the historica

  18. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  19. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-12-10

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes.

  20. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  1. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  2. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-ba...

  3. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  4. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  5. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

  6. 普洱市香蕉施肥现状调查与分析①%Present Situation of Fertilizer Application to Banana Plants in Puer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻禄

    2013-01-01

    2013年对普洱市香蕉种植施肥状况情况进行全面、深入了解,发现普洱市香蕉施肥存在有机肥施用少,以化肥为主,造成有的种植地块有机质降低;磷肥施用量大幅偏高,钾肥施用量严重不足,且施用方式不合理等问题。结合国内的发展情况,对普洱香蕉生产的施肥情况进行分析,提出普洱香蕉要推广水肥一体化施肥技术、合理改进N、 P、 K肥施用比例、增施有机肥等建议。%The situation of fertilizer application to banana plants in Puer City was investigated in 2013. The results showed that problems existed in fertilizer application to banana plants in Puer City, such as main application of chemical fertilizers and little application of organic manure resulting in degradation of organic mater in the fields, over application of P fertilizer, seriously deficient application of K fertilizer, inappropriate application methods and etc. The situation of fertilizer application to banana plants in Puer was analyzed. Suggestions such as popularizing integrated application of water and fertilizers to banana plants in Puer, improving application proportion of N, P, K fertilizers, increasing application of organic manures and etc were put forward.

  7. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  8. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Ana

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves; Silvia Nietsche; Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira; Manoel Xavier de Oliveira Júnior; Roberto Célio Antunes Júnior; Carlos Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    Prata Ana is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible to several pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Ana cv. in the first and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments and four replications. lit an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found on Thap Maeo and Caip...

  9. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  10. Banana Fibers – Variability and Fracture Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana fibers obtained from the stem of banana plant (Musa sapientum have been characterised for their diameter variability and their mechanical properties, with a stress on fracture morphology. The nature of representative stress strain curves and fracture at different strain rates have been analysed through SEM.

  11. Effects of N(6)-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Different concentrations of N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1-14 mg L(-1) with or without 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA, or BAP at 7-14 mg L(-1) with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L(-1) (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L(-1) (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L(-1) (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. BAP at 11 mg L(-1) with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak.

  12. Investigating hydropedological relations using quantified morphological data under banana plants on a transect in Guadeloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeau, Martin; Weynants, Mélanie; Cattan, Philippe; Dorel, Marc; Javaux, Mathieu

    2010-05-01

    Due to its limited surface and contamination through chemicals, subsurface water resources in Guadeloupe are under pressure. Banana plantations on highly conductive soils, in particular Andisols represent a large source of nonpoint-source pollution. The proper characterization of the soil transfer properties are therefore needed to sustainably manage groundwater. Hydropedology can help understand the links between the soil hydraulic behaviour and its pedology. The aim of this study was to assess the key parameters controlling the hydraulic properties of these soils. Fifteen sites were chosen along a climatic transect in the South East of Guadeloupe, going from lower to higher altitudes associated with a rainfall gradient and with a pedological differentiation, to investigate the effects of soil type and soil structure on the hydraulic properties. At each site, a structural description of the profile (Manichon technique) was realised and samples were taken for chemical and mineral characterization. The root density was also assessed. In situ suction infitrometer measurements were realised at the soil surface. Undisturbed 1 L soil cores were extracted in the A (10-20 cm) and B (40-60 cm) horizons for Multistep outflow (MSO) measurements. The experiments were simulated with Hydrus-1D parameterised with the Mualem-van Genuchten (MV) model for which the parameters were optimised with the inversion algorithm AMALGAM-SO. Links between the hydraulic characteristics (infiltration rates and MV parameters) and soil profile information were obtained using a stepwise procedure. Infiltration rates at -1 and 0 cm of pressure head were satisfactorily described based on the root density, the contents of fine earth and easily discernible clods. All these explanatory variables contain information on the structural state of the soil. The MV parameters optimised from the MSO experiments were not well described with the available predictors. However, points of the hydraulic conductivity

  13. Phenylpropanoid pathway is potentiated by silicon in the roots of banana plants during the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçã, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in

  14. Hakalau Forest - Mechanical Control of Invasive Plants: Banana Poka and English Holly

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest NWR was established to conserve endangered forest birds and their habitats. The Refuge supports a diversity of native plants and birds, including 27...

  15. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Alwi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SSs, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages by banana stem juice were 80.1%, 88.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, observed for effluent at pH 7 using 90 mL dosage. The inulin concentration in the banana stem was examined to be 1.22016 mg/mL. It could be concluded that banana stem juice showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes and could be applied in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian spent coolant wastewater prior to secondary treatment.

  16. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  17. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  18. The Structure Design and Spatial Analysis of the New Banana Planting Open Pit Machine%新型香蕉种植开坑机的结构设计与空间分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉印; 黄伟; 刘光浩; 王莎莎; 毕伟

    2017-01-01

    基于目前香蕉种植作业方式落后及种植开坑机研制缺乏的现状,研发了一种连杆式可控三自由度香蕉种植开坑机。首先,介绍了新型香蕉种植开坑机的机构原理和结构特点;其次,根据新型香蕉种植开坑机的雅可比矩阵进行奇异性分析,并得出其结构奇异位型;再次,根据数学理论隐含数存在的条件,分析计算新型香蕉种植机结构工作空间的边界条件,得出香蕉开坑机的工作空间;最后,运用 MatLab 软件仿真模拟仿真,得出香蕉开坑机输出点的空间图形。该分析验证了香蕉种植开坑机的可行性和可靠性,具有一定的推广价值。%Based on the banana cultivation practices , banana planting machine development the present situation of the lack of open pit , thie paper developed a connecting rod type controlled three degrees of freedom banana planting machine open pit .First , this paper introduces the new banana planting mechanism principle and structure characteristics of open pit machine , Secondly , according to a new type of banana planting machine open pit singularity of the jacobian matrix and the singular type structure , analysis is made .Again, according to the mathematical theory of several existing condi-tions, calculation of new banana planting machine structure workspace boundary condition , it is concluded that the ba-nana open pit machine workspace .Simulation by using the software of matlab simulation , it is concluded that the banana open pit machine output points of space pattern .The analysis proves the feasibility of banana planting open pit machine and by sex , has certain promotion value .

  19. Based on the New Type of Banana Planting Open Pit of UG Simulation Machine%基于新型香蕉种植开坑机的UG仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炳光; 马俊生; 马桂香; 梁甲; 刘子良; 文棋

    2016-01-01

    For large banana plantations of relative lack of research and development of the open pit machine , designed a new type of banana planting machine open pit.This machine has the open pit are of good quality, lower cost, and can adapt to the characteristics of different digging holes required .In this paper , the new type of banana planting the working principle of the open pit machine kinematics analysis and using 3 d software UG , new real banana planting open pit machine working condition .The results show that the new type of banana planting open pit machine can meet the de -mand of work .A new type of banana planting the development of the open pit machine can be used as crop other similar open pit machine developed to provide the reference .%针对大规模香蕉种植开坑机的研发比较缺乏的问题,设计了一种新型香蕉种植开坑机. 该机具有开坑质量高、成本较低及能适应不同挖坑要求的特点. 为此,介绍了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作原理,并运用三维软件UG进行运动学分析,真实再现了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作状况. 结果表明:新型香蕉种植开坑机能够满足工作需求,可为其他类似农作物开坑机器的研制提供参考.

  20. Effects of two pheromone trap densities against banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, populations and their impact on plant damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Kagezi, G.H.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study to evaluate the effect of pheromone trap density on the population of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Col., Curculionidae) was conducted in Masaka district, Uganda. The pheromone used was Cosmolure+, a commercially available weevil aggregation pheromone. Forty-two

  1. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  2. Development of the banana plants 'Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01' under the effect of paclobutrazol applied on the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Under some cultivation conditions, excessive growth of the pseudostem of banana plants can be considered a limiting factor, and thus, the use of growth regulators can constitute a valid alternative. This work aimed to evaluate the action of paclobutrazol on the growth of the pseudostem of banana plants and other characteristics of their development. An experiment was installed with five paclobutrazol doses (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 g of a.i. plant-1 combined with two banana plant cultivars ('Prata Anã' and 'FHIA-01'. Paclobutrazol did not affect the number of days from planting to flowering, total leaf area and leaf emission rate. However, it increased leaf permanence on the plants and sucker number, reduced the foliar area of the leaves emitted after its application and provided an average reduction in pseudostem height of 26%.Em algumas condições de cultivo o crescimento excessivo do pseudocaule de bananeiras pode ser considerado um fator limitante, assim a utilização de reguladores de crescimento pode constituir uma alternativa. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ação do paclobutrazol sobre o crescimento do pseudocaule de bananeiras e outras características do seu desenvolvimento. Para isso foi instalado um experimento com cinco doses do paclobutrazol (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0 g de i.a.planta-1 combinadas com dois cultivares de bananeira ('Prata Anã' e 'FHIA-01'. O paclobutrazol não afetou o número dedias do plantio ao florescimento, a área foliar total e a taxade emissão de folhas. Contudo, aumentou a permanência das folhas nas plantas e o número de perfilhos, reduziu a área foliar das folhas emitidas após a sua aplicação e proporcionou uma redução média de 26% na altura do pseudocaule.

  3. Seasonal variation of nutrients leaves concentration of banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SPVariação sazonal da concentração de nutrientes em folhas de bananeiras, no Vale do Ribeira-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Mendonça

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Vale do Ribeira, SP, main agricultural activity is the banana crop, which accounts for most of this fruit production in the State of São Paulo. The nutritional balance of the plant is one of the most important factors for the banana plant can complete the cycle and achieve high productivity. Aiming to evaluate the seasonal variation of leaf nutrient concentration in banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SP, we used the results of 252 chemical analyses of plant tissue, collected from August 2009 to September 2010, in the 18 representative properties for the region, ten cultivated with subgroup Cavendish banana plant and eight of subgroup Prata banana plant. The largest variation between the macronutrient occurred for K and S, and among the micronutrients, especially for Fe and B. In some dates of evaluation, there was a higher leaf concentration of P, K, Ca and Zn, in subgroup Cavendish banana plants, while the subgroup Prata banana plants showed higher leaf concentration, especially of Mn, B and N. Climatic conditions, especially rain, influenced the leaf nutrient content, especially for K, N, S, B and Fe. O Vale do Ribeira, SP, tem como principal atividade agropecuária o cultivo da bananeira, sendo responsável pela maior parte da produção dessa frutífera no estado de São Paulo. O equilíbrio nutricional da planta é um dos fatores mais importantes para que esta consiga completar o ciclo e alcançar alta produtividade. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação sazonal da concentração foliar de nutrientes em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Ribeira-SP, foram utilizados 252 resultados de análise química de nutrientes do tecido vegetal, coletados no período de agosto de 2009 a setembro de 2010, de 18 propriedades representativas na região, dez cultivadas com bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish e oito do subgrupo Prata. A maior variação entre os macronutrientes ocorreu para o K e o S e entre os micronutrientes, principalmente, para o Fe e o B

  4. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  5. Let's Go Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  6. New Banana Planting Open Pit Machine Working Principle and Analysis%新型香蕉种植开坑机器的工作原理及结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炳光; 马俊生; 汤华飞; 刘硕; 马桂香; 刘子良; 梁甲; 黄珍章

    2016-01-01

    针对大规模香蕉种植开坑机器的研发比较缺乏,设计了一种新型香蕉种植开坑机器,其具有开坑质量高、成本低及能适应不同挖坑要求的特点.同时,分析了新型香蕉种植开坑机器的工作原理,对螺旋式刀盘及重要零件利用Inventor自带应力分析模块建立了有限元模型.有限元分析的结果表明:新型香蕉种植开坑机器能够满足工作要求,且各零件满足刚度和强度的要求可为其他类似农作物开坑器的研制提供参考.%For large banana plantations of relative lack of research and development of the open pit machine, designed a new type of banana planting machine open pit.This machine has high quality open pit Lower cost, and can adapt to dif-ferent digging holes requirements analysis of the characteristics of a new type of banana planting the working principle of the open pit machine for spiral cutter disc and important parts of the finite element model is established by finite element analysis results show that a new type of banana planting open pit machine can meet the job requirements, and the parts meet the requirement of stiffness and strength.A new type of banana planting the development of the open pit machine can be used as crop other similar open pit machine developed to provide the reference.

  7. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  8. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  9. Investigation on banana diseases caused by plant parasitic nematodes in Guangxi, China%广西香蕉植物线虫病发生情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金玲; 刘志明; 陆秀红; 秦碧霞; 刘纪霜; 乔丽娅

    2011-01-01

    Banana diseases caused by root-knot nematodes were investigated in Guangxi from 2009 to 2010. In this study, 253 soil samples and root samples were collected, and 9 important genera of plant parasitic nematodes were found. They were Meloidogyne, Tylenchorhynchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Helicotylenchus, Aphelench-oides, Hoplolaimus, Tylenchus, and Criconemella. The genera Meloidogyne was found widely distributed in plantations. The results showed that the incidence of root-knot nematodes was 100% in 16 villages and towns. The highest disease index was 60, and the highest density of this nematode in soils reached 307 juveniles per 100 Ml soils. These diseases were popular in banana plantations of Guangxi.%作者于2009-2010年,对广西香蕉线虫病发生情况进行了实地调查,分别采集根际土壤和根系样本共253份,调查结果表明:广西香蕉主要有害线虫有根结线虫、矮化线虫、短体线虫、肾状线虫、螺旋线虫、滑刃线虫、纽带线虫、垫刃线虫和小环线虫,其中根结线虫发生最普遍也最严重,根结病指最高达60,土壤根结线虫虫口密度最高达307头/100 mL土.

  10. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  11. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  12. The Structure Design and Simulation Analysis of New Type Banana Planting Open Pit Machine%新型香蕉种植开坑机的结构设计与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉印; 张林

    2017-01-01

    Based on the principle of reduce labor costs, improve labor efficiency, this paper developed a controllable connecting rod type 3-dof new banana planting open pit machine. First of all, through the formula based on screw theory based on the degrees of freedom, calculates the controllable banana planting open pit machine freedom, Secondly, ba-nana planting open pit machine was established by applying the method of closed loop vector controlled the kinematics e-quation of earth auger, it is concluded that the kinematics characteristic;finally, combining with the multi-body dynam-ics theory combined with ADAMS software, simulation analysis was carried out on the controlled banana planting open pit machine, it is concluded that the engine movement characteristics. The results verify the rationality and feasibility of the new type of structure.%基于降低减轻人力成本、提高劳动效率的原则,研发了一种可控连杆式三自由度香蕉种植开坑机。首先,通过基于旋量理论为基础的自由度公式,计算出可控香蕉种植开坑机自由度;其次,运用闭环矢量法建立了可控香蕉种植开坑机的运动学方程,得出其运动学特性;最后,结合多体动力学理论及 ADAMS 软件,对可控香蕉种植开坑机进行仿真分析,得出其发动机运动特性,进而验证了该新型结构的合理性和可行性。

  13. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Acclimatization of young banana plants under different conditions of luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de mudas de bananeira micropropagadas, sob diferentes condições de aclimatização. Mudas de bananeira "Prata-Anã', obtidas por micropropagação, com 2-3 cm de comprimento, foram plantadas em bandejas contendo substrato comercial Plantmax. As bandejas contendo os tubetes foram colocadas sob estufins com cobertura plástica transparente, para aclimatização em diferentes condições de luminosidade. Os tratamentos foram compostos de: T1- Câmara de aclimatização sob cobertura em telhado de amianto; T2- Câmara de aclimatização sob telado, com 50 % de sombreamento, e T3- Câmara de aclimatização coberta com papel tipo Kraft e sob telado, com 50 % de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e setenta repetições. As plantas permaneceram por 15 dias nos referidos tratamentos, quando foi realizada a primeira avaliação. Aos 30 dias após o plantio, foi realizada a segunda avaliação. Foram avaliadas as características comprimento da muda, diâmetro do coleto, número de folhas completamente expandidas e porcentagem de pegamento. As características avaliadas foram submetidas à análise de variância, sendo os efeitos dos tratamentos comparados pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Na primeira avaliação, observaram-se 100 % de sobrevivência das plântulas nas três condições de luminosidade testadas. Aos trinta dias após o plantio em tubete, as plantas aclimatizadas em estufin sob telado com 50% de sombreamento apresentaram as maiores médias de comprimento, diâmetro e número de folhas, com 4,6 cm, 0,64 cm e 5,5 folhas, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating the rate of survival of micro propagated young plants of banana under different acclimatization conditions. Young banana plants 'Prata Anã', from micro propagation, with 2-3 cm of length were planted in little tubes filled with the

  14. Bananas go paraelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: peter.lunkenheimer@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2008-05-14

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  15. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  16. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  17. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Cabidoche

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the relative water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h−1 under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI. Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 130 mm rainfall depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow and to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to calibrate

  18. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents.

  19. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  20. Fitonematoides associados a bananais 'Pacovan' sob condição de cultivo irrigado: relação com a produção Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with banana 'Pacovan' in irrigated condition: connections with production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2007-01-01

    Radopholus similis. Pôde-se inferir que o manejo adotado em cada núcleo de produção de banana irrigada influenciou na produção (peso de cachos sob diferentes populações de fitonematóides.Among the factors that affect the productivity of banana, stand out pests, diseases and inadequate cultural practices. In this context, plant parasitic nematodes have great importance for reducing the efficiency of water and soil nutrients absorption by the roots, causing the plants to fall down near harvest. About 146 nematode species have already been reported associated to banana roots. Nevertheless, only Radopholus similis, several species of the genus Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchulus cause significant losses in banana plantations. In plantations located in irrigated areas in the municipal districts of Petrolina/PE and Juazeiro/BA, questionnaires were applied to obtain information about the history of the area, including plant nutrition, fertility, cultural practices, incidence of pests and post-harvesting practices. It was observed that 90% of the area belonged to small farmers. The major problems pointed out were: inadequate management, including harvesting and post-harvesting practices, presence of nematodes and strong winds. In this research a survey of the occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes was carried out. Thus, this research aimed to identify the genera of the plant parasitic nematodes found, and to study the relationship between the banana production in the several selected areas with the population of plant parasitic nematodes in the soil and in the banana root system. In each selected area, 20 banana plants were marked and samples of soil and roots were taken. Each sample was composed of four samples of each plant to represent the population of nematodes. The genera of the most abundant nematodes were Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus. Nevertheless, the production was neither related to the number of farms in each location

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwa Fama Tongo, Lyna; Muengula, Marcel; Zinga, I; Kalonji, Adrien; Iskra-Caruana, M.L.; Bragard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting produc- tion and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiol- ogical survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers’ fields for two consecutive sea- sons coverin...

  2. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa.

  3. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Cabidoche

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h−1 under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI. Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data

  4. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp.) plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Moussa, R.; Cattan, P.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Voltz, M.

    2009-11-01

    Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h-1) under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI). Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to

  5. Densidade do sistema radicular da bananeira 'Pacovan' sob irrigação por aspersão Root system density of 'Pacovan' banana plant under sprinkler irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Lacerda Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Governador Dix-Sept Rosado, microrregião Açu-Apodi, no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, tendo como objetivo verificar os efeitos do sistema de irrigação por aspersão na densidade do sistema radicular da bananeira 'Pacovan'. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram duas amostragens por planta, realizadas do lado contrário ao da emissão da inflorescência, formando um ângulo de 45º. Em cada amostragem, foram realizadas quatro retiradas do material de solo a distâncias de 20 cm, sendo a primeira a 30 cm e a última a 90 cm do pseudocaule. A análise dos dados demonstrou que ocorreu redução linear no peso fresco e na densidade de comprimento de raízes da bananeira em função da profundidade do solo. Em relação à distância do pseudocaule da bananeira, tanto o peso fresco quanto a densidade de comprimento de raízes não mostraram resultados significativos.The present work was conducted at Governador Dix-Sept Rosado County, microregion Açu-Apodi, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte and its objective was to study the effects of sprinkler irrigation system on the density of the root system of 'Pacovan' banana plants. The experiment followed a completely randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme, with five replications. The treatments were two sampling groups, taken per plant, and in the opposite side of the inflorescence emission, forming between them an angle of 45°. In each sampling group, four samples containing soil material were collected at intervals of 20 cm, so the first was distant 30 cm and the last 90 cm from the pseudostem. Data analysis showed that occurred a linear reduction in root fresh weight and in lenght of roots density, in replications to soil depth. For the distance from the plant pseudostem there were no significant differences between samples, both

  6. Fungus-Elicited Metabolites from Plants as an Enriched Source for New Leishmanicidal Agents: Antifungal Phenyl-Phenalenone Phytoalexins from the Banana Plant (Musa acuminata) Target Mitochondria of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; Martínez, Silvia; Saugar, José María; Izquierdo, Laura R.; Abad, Teresa; Luis, Javier G.; Piñero, José; Valladares, Basilio; Rivas, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Two antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins isolated from the banana plant (Musa acuminata) elicited with the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, together with a methoxy derivative of one of them and two epoxide precursors of their chemical synthesis, were tested for leishmanicidal activity on Leishmania donovani promastigotes and L. infantum amastigotes. Drugs inhibited proliferation of both forms of the parasite with a 50% lethal concentration range between 10.3 and 68.7 μg/ml. Their lethal mechanism was found linked to the respiratory chain by a systematic approach, including electron microscopy, measurement of the oxygen consumption rate on digitonin-permeabilized promastigotes, and enzymatic assays on a mitochondrial enriched fraction. Whereas the whole set of compounds inhibited the activity of fumarate reductase in the mitochondrial fraction (50% effective concentration [EC50] between 33.3 and 78.8 μg/ml) and on purified enzyme (EC50 = 53.3 to 115 μg/ml), inhibition for succinate dehydrogenase was only observed for the two phytoalexins with the highest leishmanicidal activity: anigorufone and its natural analogue 2-methoxy-9-phenyl-phenalen-1-one (EC50 = 33.5 and 59.6 μg/ml, respectively). These results provided a new structural motif, phenyl-phenalenone, as a new lead for leishmanicidal activity, and support the use of plant extracts enriched in antifungal phytoalexins, synthesized under fungal challenge, as a more rational and effective strategy to screen for new plant leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:15105102

  7. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  8. Preliminary Report on the Effect of Plant Leaves on Ripening of Banana%植物叶片处理香蕉果实后熟试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维全; 杨建峰; 胡荣锁; 潘学峰

    2012-01-01

    在特定温度条件下,用胡椒、假药、糯米香等植物叶片处理香蕉果实后熟,试验结果表明参试植物叶片处理均有催化香蕉后熟作用,当温度25~30℃,叶片与香蕉质量比约1:5时,后熟香蕉果皮颜色较好,其中,假药叶处理香蕉后熟时间短,果皮颜色好;糯米香叶能延长香蕉果皮褪绿时间。%The results from experiment of banana under the treatments of various plant leaves at a specific temperature indicated that all tested leaves had effect on post-harvested fruit ripening. Banana peel color shows best at temperature of 25 to 30 ℃ when plant leaves and hanana are treated at weight ratio of 1 : 5. Of the tested plant leaves, Piper sarmentosum can make the rip- ening time shorter with better peel color, and peel deterioration can be delayed under the treatment of Teucrium manghuaense.

  9. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  10. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  11. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  12. Avaliações fenológicas e agronômicas em café arábica cultivado a pleno sol e consorciado com banana 'Prata Anã' Phenological and agronomic evaluations in a coffee crop grown under unshaded and shaded by 'Prata Anã' banana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, cultivados a pleno sol e consorciados com banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, em Mococa (SP, em Latitude 21º 28' S, Longitude 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m. Entre julho de 2001 e junho de 2004 foi acompanhado o desenvolvimento fenológico dos cultivos, além de se avaliar, o crescimento das plantas em altura e diâmetro da copa. Nas safras de 2002, 2003 e 2004 foram avaliados os parâmetros de produção nos dois sistemas de cultivo, além de sua variabilidade nas parcelas do cultivo consorciado. Nos sistemas de cultivo avaliados, o crescimento vegetativo em altura e diâmetro foi maior no período primavera-verão em relação ao período outono-inverno, não tendo sido encontradas diferenças significativas das taxas de crescimento, de desenvolvimento fenológico e dos índices de produção entre os cultivos. No cultivo consorciado, no ponto próximo às bananeiras observaram-se diferenças em relação aos demais pontos amostrados no crescimento vegetativo e desenvolvimento fenológico para algumas épocas do ano, além de apresentar menor produção por planta.A study was carried out in coffee crop (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, unshade and shaded by banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, in Mococa, São Paulo State, Brazil (Latitude South 21º 28 ', Longitude West 47º 01 ', altitude 665m. Phenological data for the coffee crops were taken, from July, 2001 to June, 2004. The growth of the plants concerning height and diameter was also evaluated. The harvests of 2002, 2003 and, 2004 were appraised by the production parameters, and their variability for different positions in shaded coffee crop. The vegetative growth in height and diameter showed higher activity during the spring-summer period in relation to the autumn-winter period, in both in the cultivation systems evaluated. No significant differences of the growth taxes, of phenological development

  13. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  14. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  15. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  16. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  17. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  18. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  19. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  20. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  1. 宿根栽培年限对桂西南香蕉生产的影响及管理建议%The Effect of Planting Years on Stubble Banana Production and Management Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余赟; 韦义波; 韦思智; 方昭; 迟志广; 李宝深

    2014-01-01

    The difference among growth, routine management, cost and benefits of major banana plantations with differ-ent planting years in Southwest of Guangxi province is analyzed. The decreasing planting density is sup-posed to be the most important factor affecting planting length. The highest economic benefit could be obtained in planta-tions being planted for two years in succession, and gradually decline with the year goes. The recommenda-tions on how to lengthen the plantations life in a reasonable way are presented.%分析目前广西桂西南香蕉主产区不同宿根栽培年限蕉园在香蕉生长、蕉园管理难度、蕉园成本收益上的差异,提出限制延长蕉园宿根栽培年限的主要因素是种植密度的显著下降:宿根栽培2年的蕉园经济收益最高,随着宿根栽培年限的延长,蕉园经济收益逐年下降。就此提出合理延长蕉园宿根栽培年限的管理措施。

  2. Densidade de plantio na produtividade e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas e frutos da bananeira cv. Thap Maeo Plants density on yield and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de plantio na produtividade, tempo de colheita e teores dos nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos de bananeira cv. Thap Maeo (AAB cultivada em Manaus (AM. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos fatores: três densidades de plantio (1.111; 1.667 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e duas épocas de colheita (primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os resultados do primeiro e segundo ciclos mostraram incremento significativo da produtividade, com aumento da densidade de plantio. O tempo médio para colheita dos cachos foi menor na densidade de 1.111 plantas ha-1 (1º ciclo, 338 e 2º ciclo, 401 dias. Na média das densidades e independentemente do ciclo, os teores de macronutrientes nos frutos apresentaram a ordem de: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, enquanto a dos micronutrientes foi: 1º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu e 2º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants density on yield, period of harvest and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo (AAB, cultivated in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment was conduced in a randomized blocks, with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of planting density (1,111; 1,667 and 3,333 plants ha-1, and two cycles of harvest (sub treatments. The results obtained from 1st cycle and 2nd cycle showed significant increase in the yield per unit area as the employed plant density increased. The shortest average period to harvest banana bunches (1st cycle, 338 days and 2nd cycle, 401 days was observed for the lower density (1,111 plants ha-1. Pooled data of density and cycles showed that exportation of macronutrients through the fruits was, in order: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, while in micronutrients was: 1st cycle - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu, and 2nd cycle - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.

  3. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  4. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  5. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species o

  6. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  7. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  8. Desenvolvimento de bananeiras cultivadas em ambiente protegido sob efeito do paclobutrazol aplicado nas folhas Development of banana plants cultivated in a protected environment under the effect of paclobutrazol applied to the leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo avaliar os efeitos do paclobutrazol aplicado via foliar sobre o desenvolvimento de bananeiras cultivadas em ambiente protegido, durante o primeiro ciclo de produção, foi instalado um experimento seguindo o esquema fatorial, com cinco doses do produto (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 g de i.a. planta-1, combinados com duas cultivares, 'Prata-Anã' e 'FHIA 01'. O paclobutrazol não influenciou em características como o número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e área foliar total. Contudo houve uma redução do número de perfilhos produzidos por planta, da circunferência do pseudocaule e uma redução média de 20% da altura do pseudocaule.An experiment was carried out following the factorial scheme using five paclobutrazol doses (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 g of a.i. plant-1, and two cultivars, 'Prata Anã' and 'FHIA 01' to evaluate the effects of the product applied to the leaves on the development of banana plants cultivated in a protected environment, during the first production cycle. Paclobutrazol did not influence the number of days from planting to flowering and the total foliar area. However, there was a reduction in the number of suckers produced by the plant and in pseudostem circumference, as well as a mean reduction of 20% in pseudostem height.

  9. Eficiência hospedeira de oito cultivares de bananeira a fitonematóides Host reaction of eight banana cultivars to plant parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lucí Dinardo-Miranda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Grande Naine, Nanicão Jangada, Nanicão (Grupo AAA, Enxerto, Prata, Prata Zulu, Maçã e Mysore (Grupo AAB foram plantados em campo e avaliados quanto à eficiência hospedeira a nematóides. Todos eles apresentaram elevadas populações de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1, sendo considerados, portanto, hospedeiros favoráveis dessa espécie. Os cultivares do grupo AAA e Mysore foram também hospedeiros favoráveis de Radopholus similis, enquanto os demais do grupo AAB se comportaram como hospedeiros pouco favoráveis. Helicotylenchus dihystera foi detectado em baixas populações, em raízes e no solo da rizosfera de todos os cultivares.The host reaction of eight banana cultivars (Musa spp. to nematodes was assessed in a field experiment. Three cultivars evaluated were members of AAA Group (Grande Naine, Nanicão and Nanicão Jangada and five belonged to AAB Group (Prata, Enxerto, Prata Zulu, Maçã and Mysore. All cultivars were infested by Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, rated as efficient hosts. The AAA Group cultivars and Mysore were also efficient hosts to Radopholus similis, whereas Prata, Enxerto and Maçã were not. Helicotylenchus dihystera was detected at low density populations in soil and root samples of all cultivars.

  10. 沼液在西兰花·冰糖橙·香蕉种植中的应用效果%Application Effect of Biogas Slurry in Planting of Broccoli, Sweet Orange and Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰男; 王德林; 代媛; 史珊; 陈学礼; 徐锐

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究沼液在农业生产中的应用效果。[方法]以复合肥和普通农家肥为对照,设不同浓度的沼液处理。采用不同浓度沼液对西兰花、冰糖橙、香蕉3种作物进行追肥,通过田间试验,分别测定西兰花、冰糖橙、香蕉的产量、Vc含量和含糖量。[结果]用沼液进行追肥,可以增加西兰花、香蕉、冰糖橙的产量和Vc含量,增产率最高分别达111.90%、100.80%、132.40%,Vc含量的增加率最高分别达45.33%、33.13%、14.13%;香蕉和冰糖橙的还原糖含量增加率最高分别达407.56%和18.07%;沼液对3种作物的含糖量也有一定的影响,其中西兰花含糖量随沼液浓度的增大而减少,还原糖含量最大降幅达10.15%,总糖含量最大降幅达37.13%。[结论]综合分析,沼液在作物种植中有较大的推广应用价值。%Objective] To study the application effect of biogas slurry in agricultural production .[ Method] Compound fertilizer and common farm manure were compared with different concentrations of biogas slurry.Different concentrations of biogas slurry were applied in planting of broccoli, sweet orange and banana, and the yield, vitamin C and sugar content of the three kinds of crops were analyzed through field test. [Result] The yield and vitamin C content of broccoli, sweet orange and banana were increased by the application of biogas slurry, and the highest increasing rate of the yield was up to 111.9%, 100.8%, and 132.4% respectively, while the highest increasing rate of vitamin C content reached 45.33%, 33.13%, and 14.13% respectively.The reducing sugar content of banana and sweet orange were also improved, and the increasing rate was up to 407.56% and 18.07% respectively.Sugar content of the three kinds of crops was also influenced by the ap-plication of biogas slurry.The sugar content of broccoli decreased with the increase of biogas slurry concentration, and the

  11. 健康香蕉(Musa paradisiaca)植株与枯萎病患病植株根区土壤细菌多样性的比较研究%Comparison of Soil Bacterial Genetic Diversity in Root Zone of Banana(Musa paradisiaca) Infected with Fusarium Wilt and Non-Infected Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓; 李勤奋; 武春媛; 李怡; 刘景坤

    2015-01-01

    Currently banana fusarium wilt (Fusarium oysporumf. cubense) is one of the important soil-borne diseases of seriously threat to banana production. However, there is no effective method for prevention in the world. The objective of this study was providing research information for the prevention of banana fusarium wilt from the perspective of microbial ecology. Two gene libraries of 16S rRNA were constructed by directly extracted from soil total DNA. And the soil samples were collected from root zone of banana which infected with fusarium wilt and non-infected plants in three typical plots infected by banana fusarium wilt (Jianfeng, Shiyuetian, Chongpo) in Hainan Province. The soil bacterial genetic diversity was analyzed by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic characters. The results were shown as follows: (1) the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in soils from root zone of banana which infected with fusarium wilt was 18 lower than that of non-infected plants. The Shannon index (H') and calculated species richness (Schao1) in soils from root zone of banana which infected with fusarium wilt was respectively 0.66 and 26 lower than that of non-infected plants. (2) 63 OTUs were belonged to 9 bacterial taxa and 4 non-determined genotypes in soils from non-infected plants, and 45 OTUs were belonged to 8 bacterial taxa and 2 non-determined genotypes in soils from fusarium wilt infected plants. And the 6 bacterial phyla of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes among them were common bacterial taxa in soils from root zone of banana both infected with fusarium wilt and non-infected plants. However, Cyanobacteria and Bacteria intertae sedis were only existed in the soils from root zone of banana plants which non-infected with fusarium wilt. In contrast, Nitrospia was only observed in the soils from root zone of infected plants. (3) The proportion of Firmicutes in soils from fusarium wilt infected plants was 11

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  13. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  14. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in ‘senescence associated’ dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212

  15. Comportamento agronômico de bananeira 'Prata-anã' em função do tipo de muda Agromic performance of 'Prata-anã' banana regarding to plant propagation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento de campo com bananeira 'Prata-anã', visando a avaliar o comportamento agronômico de plantas estabelecidas a partir de três tipos de mudas: convencional, micropropagadas em meio sólido e em meio líquido. A área experimental foi instalada no município de Cristais Paulista-SP (20º23'S; 47º30'W, cujo clima é caracterizado por verão chuvoso e inverno seco. Avaliaram-se o crescimento e a fenologia por meio de medidas periódicas de comprimento e diâmetro do pseudocaule das plantas até a emissão da inflorescência. A incidência de doenças (CMV e mal-do-panamá foi estimada visualmente em função da apresentação de sintomas característicos pelas plantas. As plantas originadas de mudas micropropagadas apresentaram crescimento e desenvolvimento iniciais mais vigorosos, maior precocidade e cachos mais leves do que aquelas estabelecidas com mudas convencionais. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas em relação à incidência de doenças e ao tamanho dos frutos produzidos, em função dos tipos de mudas.A field experiment with 'Prata-anã' banana was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance of tissue culture-propagated plants in solid or liquid culture medium and conventionally propagated plants. The experiment was installed in Cristais Paulista (20º23'S; 47º30'W, Planalto Region of State of Sao Paulo (Brazil. This region is characterized by a summer rainy season and dry winter. Plant growth and phenology were assessed through periodic measurements of length and stem diameter of the plants until flowering. The incidence of diseases (CMV and Panama disease was estimated visually according to the presentation of symptoms by plants. The tissue culture-propagated-plants in solid or liquid medium showed initial growth and development more vigorous, precocious flowering and lighter bunches than those from conventionally propagated plants. There were no significant differences in the incidence of

  16. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  17. Caracteres da planta e do cacho de genótipos de bananeira, em quatro ciclos de produção, em Belmonte, Bahia Plant and branch characteristics of banana genotypes in four production cycles in Belmonte, Bahia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Basilio Vieira Leite

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, no ecossistema de Mata Atlântica, em condições de sequeiro de Belmonte - BA, 15 genótipos de bananeira, contemplando variedades e híbridos obtidos no programa de melhoramento genético de bananeira da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Os genótipos foram: 'Mysore', 'Thap Maeo', 'Caipira', 'Nam', PV03-76, PV03-44, JV03-15, PA03-22, 'Pioneira', 'Prata Anã', 'Ouro da Mata', 'Prata, 'Pacovan', 'Maçã' e 'Grande Naine'. Os caracteres avaliados foram: altura da planta (cm na roseta foliar e diâmetro do pseudocaule (cm a 30 cm do solo, no florescimento; número de dias do plantio à colheita; peso do cacho em kg; número de frutos por cacho e comprimento do fruto em cm. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 3,0 m x 2,0 m. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo cada parcela constituída de 49 plantas com 25 úteis em três repetições. Os tratos culturais foram os preconizados para a cultura. Não foi realizado controle da Sigatoca-amarela. A análise revelou que a avaliação de genótipos permite a identificação de variedades e cultivares promissoras para recomendação aos produtores, tendo se destacado, no cômputo das características avaliadas: 'Thap Maeo', 'Caipira', 'Nam' e PV03-76.Fifteen genotypes of banana were evaluated for their performance in the Mata Atlântica ecosystem, at Belmonte city, BA, with no irrigation system. The genotypes, including varieties and hybrids from Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Banana Breeding Program, were as follow: Mysore, Thap Maeo, Caipira, Nam, PV03-76, PV03-44, JV03-15, PA03-22, Pioneira, Prata Anã, Ouro da Mata, Prata, Pacovan, Maçã and Grande Naine. The agronomic traits evaluated in the experiments were: plant height (cm and diameter of pseudostem (measure at 30 cm above ground during flowering; number of days from planting to harvest, weight of bunch (kg, number of hands and fingers to bunch and fingers length (cm. The plant spacing was 3,0 m between rows and 2

  18. Alterações em propriedades de solo adubado com doses de composto orgânico sob cultivo de bananeira Changes in soil properties managed with organic compost rates, under banana plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de composto orgânico nas propriedades químicas do solo cultivado com bananeira 'Prata-anã' (Musa AAB, foi desenvolvido o presente trabalho na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP, Botucatu-SP. O plantio foi realizado no mês de novembro de 2002, com mudas convencionais, adotando-se o espaçamento de 2,5 x 2,5 m. O composto orgânico foi produzido com serragem de madeira e esterco de bovino, sendo os tratamentos empregados constituídos das seguintes doses de composto: T1 = 0 g planta-1 de K2O (dose zero do composto - Testemunha; T2 = 98,5 g planta-1 de K2O (43 kg planta-1 de composto; T3 = 197,0 g planta-1 de K2O (86 kg planta-1 de composto; T4 = 290,5 g planta-1 de K2O (129 kg planta-1 de composto; T5 = 394,0 g planta-1 de K2O (172 kg planta-1 de composto, sendo essas doses calculadas de acordo com o teor de potássio presente no mesmo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos, 5 repetições e 2 plantas por parcela. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e à análise de regressão. Aos quatro meses após a aplicação da última parcela da adubação com composto orgânico, realizou-se amostragem de solo da camada de 0 a 20 cm e foram avaliadas as propriedades químicas do solo. A adubação orgânica promoveu incrementos no pH, matéria orgânica, fósforo, cálcio, soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases do solo.Aiming to evaluate the effects of different organic compost rates in chemical properties of soil cultivated with banana plants 'Prata-anã' (Musa AAB, this present work was carried out at "Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP", Botucatu-SP. Plants were placed in the prepared area in November 2002, at 2,5 x 2,5 m spacing between plants. The organic compost was produced using wood residue and bovine manure and the treatments were constituted by different compost rates: T1 = 0 g plant-1 of K2O (zero of

  19. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  20. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  1. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.

  2. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  3. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  4. Produção da bananeira 'Nanicão' em diferentes densidades de plantas e sistemas de espaçamento Yield of 'nanicão' banana at different plant densities and spacing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexio Scarpare Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes densidades de plantio e sistemas de espaçamento sobre a produção da bananeira 'Nanicão', avaliando-se os primeiros quatro ciclos. Quatro densidades (3.333, 2.222, 1.666 e 1.333 plantas ha-1 e dois sistemas de espaçamento (retângulo e triângulo foram testados para as condições de Piracicaba,SP. O aumento da densidade de 1.333 para 3.333 plantas ha-1 diminuiu a massa do cacho em 15% a 20%, em decorrência do menor número de frutos por cacho, massa e tamanho do fruto. A produção foi sempre maior com o aumento da densidade, porém não ocorreu o mesmo quanto à produtividade. Até o terceiro ciclo, a produtividade das plantas no tratamento de maior densidade superou a das demais. No quarto ciclo, não houve diferença de produtividade entre as plantas, nas densidades testadas, em razão do aumento na duração do ciclo de produção do plantio mais denso. Comparado com o retângulo, o sistema de espaçamento em triângulo promoveu maior massa do cacho no primeiro ciclo e produtividade levemente superior ao longo dos quatro ciclos.The objective of this research was to study the effect of different planting densities and spacing systems on the yield of the 'Nanicão' banana, evaluating the first four cycles. Four density (3,333; 2,222; 1,666 and 1,333plants ha-1 and two spacing systems (rectangle and triangle were tested for the conditions of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The increase of the density of 1,333 to 3,333 plants ha-1 decreased bunch weight in 15% to 20%, due to reduction in number of fruit by bunch and fruit size. The yield was always higher as the density increased; however, there was not the same behavior for the productivity. Until the third cycle, the highest plant density overcame the productivity of the others. In the fourth cycle there was no difference in productivity among the densities, due to the increase in the duration of crop cycle in the highest

  5. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA. Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we found this cultivator cum entrepreneur diversified his land productivity. The monthly income generated from selling banana fruits, suckers and rubber seedlings were 30.2 %, 39.9% and 29.9% of his total farm income, respectively. The cultivator provide a novel insight in managing banana farm by introducing new techniques of planting, fertilization regime and diversification of income in his banana farm intercropped with rubber seedlings.

  6. Redução da oxidação na propagação in vitro da bananeira 'maçã' Oxidation reduction of in vitro propagation of banana cv. Maçã plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rubia Camolesi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de cultivo in vitro de bananeira enfrenta o problema de oxidação dos ápices caulinares na fase de estabelecimento. Conduziu-se este trabalho, para avaliar a combinação de ácido cítrico e citrato de potássio, buscando reduzir a oxidação in vitro de bananeira 'Maçã'. Os ápices caulinares, medindo 15 mm de pseudocaule e 5 mm de rizoma, foram cultivados no meio MS, com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Os tratamentos foram organizados em esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (com e sem pré-tratamento de antioxidantes por 90 minutos, com e sem a adição dos antioxidantes ao meio de cultivo e com e sem a transferência dos ápices caulinares; aos 15 dias, após a inoculação. Cada tratamento foi constituído por 15 ápices caulinares. Foram avaliados o grau de oxidação e o número de brotos na primeira e na segunda repicagem. O menor grau de oxidação foi obtido com o pré-tratamento dos ápices caulinares em 0,25 g L-1 de ácido cítrico e 0,75 g L-1 de citrato de potássio, sem a adição desses antioxidantes ao meio de cultivo e sem a necessidade de transferência dos ápices caulinares, aos 15 dias.The in vitro cultivation technique of banana plants faces the problem of oxidation of the stem apex in the establishment phase. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of the combination of citric acid and potassium citrate, to reduce the in vitro oxidation of 'Maçã' banana plants. The explants, measuring 15 mm of pseudostem and 5 mm of rhizome, were established in the MS medium with half concentration of the macronutrients. The treatments were organized in factorial design 2x2x2 (with and without pre-treatment of antioxidants for 90 minutes, with and without the addition of the antioxidants in the medium and with and without subculture to the 15 days after the inoculation. Each treatment was constituted by 15 stem apexes. The oxidation degree and the number of buds in the first and in the second re-culture were

  7. Anatomical and physiological modifications of micropropagated 'Caipira' banana plants under natural lighy Modificações anatômicas e fisiológicas de bananeiras 'Caipira' micropropagadas sob luz natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the use of natural light associated to changes in sucrose levels demonstrated potential in promoting in vitro hardiness of tropical climate species, as well as reducing production costs. However, little is known about physiological and structural changes that happen in the process. This study evaluated the physiological and anatomic performance, and ex vitro survival of micropropagated banana plants in response to cultivation conditions, in the stage of in vitro rooting. Shoots of the 'Caipira' cultivar were cultivated in MS medium, supplemented with 1 mg L-1 NAA and 6 g L-1 agar, in which the following treatments were applied: two sucrose concentrations (15 g L-1 or 30 g L-1 and two cultivation conditions (Natural light - greenhouse and Artificial light - growth chamber. At the end of 45 days, the contents of chlorophyll a, b and total, the relative water content in the tissues, anatomic characteristics and the ex vitro survival were evaluated. Effects of growth environment and sucrose concentration were observed on micropropagated 'Caipira' banana anatomy, physiology and survival. In vitro rooting of the shoots under natural light in the medium containing 15 g L-1 or 30 g L-1 sucrose promoted major alteration in the increase of palisade and spongy parenchyma, as well as reducing leaf water loss and plant death. The results obtained in the present study confirm the potential of the use of natural light as a substitute for artificial light for micropropagation of tropical species.Pesquisas acerca do uso da luz natural associado a alterações nos níveis de sacarose têm apresentado potencial para promover a rustificação in vitro de espécies de clima tropical bem como reduzir os custos de produção. Todavia, pouco se conhece sobre as modificações fisiológicas e estruturais ocasionadas. Avaliaram-se o comportamento fisiológico, anatômico e a sobrevivência ex vitro de bananeiras micropropagadas em resposta às condi

  8. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  9. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations in percolation fluxes in a tropical Andosol influenced by banana cropping patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Lacas, J.-G.; Sansoulet, J.

    2007-03-01

    SummarySpatial variability in percolation fluxes was studied in field plots cropped with banana plants, which induce very heterogeneous rainfall partitioning at the soil surface, with high subsequent infiltration in Andosols. Percolation fluxes were measured for just over a year at 1-7 day intervals in eight wick (WL) and gravity lysimeters (GL) that had been buried in the soil at a depth of 60 cm. The results revealed that WL captured unsaturated fluxes while GL only functioned after ponding occurred. The percolation flux measurements were highly biased with both systems, i.e. overpercolation with WL and underpercolation with GL. Percolation fluxes seemed, however, to be mainly unsaturated in the soil types studied. High percolation flux variability was noted on a plot scale, which could be explained by the vegetation structure: total percolation flux (WL) was 2.1-fold higher under banana plants; saturated percolation flux (GL) was 7-fold higher under banana plants and almost absent between banana plants. Eighty-eight per cent of the total variance in percolation flux could be explained by the rainfall intensity under the banana canopy, calculated while taking the rainfall partitioning by the vegetation and the initial water status into account. The number of lysimeters required for assessing percolation flux in a field plot can be reduced by taking the spatial patterns of the flux boundary conditions into account.

  11. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  12. Expression and distribution of extensins and AGPs in susceptible and resistant banana cultivars in response to wounding and Fusarium oxysporum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunli; Fan, Wei; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Fabrice, Musana Rwalinda; Xie, Ling; Ma, Juan; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2017-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is soil-borne disease of banana (Musa spp.) causing significant economic losses. Extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell wall components important for pathogen defence. Their significance for Foc resistance in banana was not reported so far. In this study, two banana cultivars differing in Foc sensitivity were used to monitor the changes in transcript levels, abundance and distribution of extensins and AGPs after wounding and Foc inoculation. Extensins mainly appeared in the root cap and meristematic cells. AGPs recognized by JIM13, JIM8, PN16.4B4 and CCRC-M134 antibodies located in root hairs, xylem and root cap. Individual AGPs and extensins showed specific radial distribution in banana roots. At the transcript level, seven extensins and 23 AGPs were differentially expressed between two banana cultivars before and after treatments. Two extensins and five AGPs responded to the treatments at the protein level. Most extensins and AGPs were up-regulated by wounding and pathogen inoculation of intact plants but down-regulated by pathogen attack of wounded plants. Main components responsible for the resistance of banana were MaELP-2 and MaPELP-2. Our data revealed that AGPs and extensins represent dynamic cell wall components involved in wounding and Foc resistance. PMID:28218299

  13. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  14. Colonization of Trichoderma H6 in Banana and its Effect on the Growth of Banana%体内定殖木霉H6对香蕉苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚; 谭昕; 汪军; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    对木霉H6进行抗药性标记,通过盆栽试验,研究其在香蕉体内定殖情况及其对香蕉苗生长的影响。结果表明,木霉H6可在香蕉苗的根、球茎、假茎、叶中传导并稳定定殖;体内定殖了木霉H6的香蕉苗的生长明显优于未定殖的香蕉苗,说明木霉H6在香蕉体内的定殖促进了香蕉苗的生长。%Trichoderma H6 was tagged with antibiotic resistance, and inoculated into the potted banana plants to observe its colonization in the plants and its effect on the plant growth. The results showed that Trichoderma H6 was conducted and colonized in the roots, corms, pseudostems and leaves of the banana plants, and that the banana plants colonized in vivo with Trichoderma H6 grew obviously better than the control plants without in vivo colonization of Trichoderma H6, indicating Trichoderma H6 would improve the growth of banana plants when colonized in the banana plants.

  15. Quality Differences of Laos and Guangxi Bananas%老挝与广西香蕉品质差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 刘志强; 方昭; 张学娟; 王金乔; 迟志广; 李宝深

    2015-01-01

    研究老挝琅勃拉邦与广西在同一施肥条件香蕉在果指特征、品质指标以及果皮、果肉中氮、磷、钾元素含量的差异,结果发现:外观性状与内在品质无显著性差异,老挝香蕉瓤皮比高于广西香蕉,且果皮色泽比广西香蕉好;老挝香蕉与广西香蕉果皮中氮、磷、钾元素含量存在显著性差异,果肉中只有氮含量存在显著性差异,果肉中磷、钾含量吾显著性差异。本研究结果为香蕉的施肥调控管理以及市场定位提供了一定的参考价值。%The differences were determined in shape feature, quality and macronutrients of peel and pulp between Laos and Guangxi bananas under the same fertilization condition. The data can provide references for banana fertilization management and marketing. The results showed that there were no significant differences in shape feature and fruit quality, but Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in the ratio of peel and pulp, and better in peel luster. The content of macronutrients in banana peel showed significant difference, Laos banana was much higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen and potassium, but less in phosphorus. While in banana pulp Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen, but no differences in potassium and phosphorus. Therefore it was feasible to plant bananas in Laos, and gave some advices on overseas banana plantation investment.

  16. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  17. Banana-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations.

  18. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  19. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  20. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  1. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  2. Cultivo de bananas em diferentes áreas na ilha de Tenerife Banana production under different conditions in Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar a produção e a qualidade de bananas produzidas em diferentes condições de cultivo na ilha de Tenerife, foram estudadas três regiões da ilha (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal, onde se produzem bananas ao ar livre das cultivares Gruesa, Gran Enana e Laja. Nas áreas de Cueva del Polvo e Hoya Melleque, emprega-se o cultivo convencional e, na propriedade Canaria Forestal, pratica-se o orgânico. Os espaçamentos adotados foram de 1,67 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova; 1,3 x 3,0 m, com uma planta por cova, e 2,0 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova, respectivamente, para as propriedades em Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal. Diante dos dados observados, é possível verificar que as plantas da cv. Gran Enana apresentam maior altura e as da cv. Gruesa, maior espessura de pseudocaule. Também se pode inferir que, dentre as áreas e cultivares estudadas, não houve grande variabilidade nas características físicas dos frutos. A produtividade média encontrada foi de 99,8 t.ha-1, valor considerado adequado.Aiming to characterize the production and the banana quality produced in different plantation conditions of Tenerife Island, three regions of the island were studied (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal where bananas of Gruesa, Gran Enana and Laja cultivars are produced in open-air conditions. In Cueva del Polvo and Hoya Melleque the production was carried out in conventional management, while in Canaria Forestal the plants were carried out under organic system. Plants spacing was 1.67 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole; 1.3 x 3.0 m, with one plant per hole and; 2.0 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole, respectivitly to Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal. Our data show that plants of Gran Enana are higher and Gruesa plants have the thickest pseudostem. Differences were not found regarding the physical fruit characteristics and the average yield was 99.8 t.ha-1.

  3. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L. on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Premal Kapadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  4. Spatial distribution of banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a Cavendish banana plantation, Penang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUSTIN N. OKOLLE; MASHHOR MANSOR; ABU HASSAN AHMAD

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution of immatures of the banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) and their parasitisms from three major parasitoids were studied in a Cavendish banana plantation from April 2004 to December 2004. Infestation levels and parasitism ofE. thrax life stages were recorded from bunched plants (BP), flowering plants (FP), preflowered plants (PF),broad leaf followers (BLF) and narrow leaf followers (NLF), as well as on well managed and poorly managed plants. Mean numbers of the immatures and numbers parasitized from the nine blocks in the plantation were fitted to four dispersion indices. Significant numbers of E. thrax immatures and those parasitized by Ooencyrtus erionotae, Cotesia erionotae and Brachymeria albotibialis were recorded from BLF and PF; no eggs were found on BP and FP. Although infestation was higher on well managed plants, only larval parasitism was significandy different. Three of the four indices indicated that eggs and larvae were random while all the indices showed pupae to be clumped. Parasitized eggs and pupae were clumped (4/4 indices) while 3/4 indices revealed a random pattern for parasitized larvae.

  5. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  6. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  7. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  8. Isolation of retro-transcribed RNA from in vitro Mycosphaerella fijiensis-infected banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, C M; Peraza-Echeverría, L; Islas-Flores, I R; Canto-Canché, B B; Grijalva-Arango, R

    2010-07-27

    High polyphenol and polysaccharide levels in plant tissues such as banana fruit and leaves constitute a significant challenge to the extraction of sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA required for cDNA library synthesis and molecular analysis. To determine their comparative effectiveness at eliminating polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins, three protocols for RNA extraction from in vitro banana plantlet leaves were tested: Concert(TM) Plant RNA isolation kit, a small-scale protocol based on Valderrama-Cháirez, and a modified version of the Valderrama-Cháirez protocol. RNA quantity and purity were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry using DEPC-treated water and Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Purity was greater using Tris-HCl. The Concert(TM) Plant protocol produced the poorest quality RNA. Reverse transcription into cDNAs from RNA isolated from in vitro banana plantlet leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis using the modified Valderrama-Cháirez protocol, followed by PCR using primers designed against gamma-actin from banana and M. fijiensis, yielded products of the anticipated size. In addition, this protocol reduced the processing time, lowered costs, used less expensive equipment, and could be used for other plants that have the same problems with high polyphenol and polysaccharide levels.

  9. Fungi obtained on various media from soil under banana trees near Logos in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ihnatowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the soil samples collected from beneath various banana plant, Musa paradisiaca L., 96 different species of soil fungi were isolated on medium: Ohio-Agar, Littmans-Agar, Martins Rose Bengal-Agar and identified. Four species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated by means of To-Ka-Va trap-hair method.

  10. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayabalan, Sivalingam; Kalaiponmani, Kalaimughilan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Panchanathan, Radha; Muthuvelayoutham, Ramlatha; Kumar, Krish K; Balasubramanian, Ponnuswami

    2013-04-01

    One of the most severe viral diseases of hill banana is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a nanovirus transmitted by the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa. In this study, we reported the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on a highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease. The target of the RNA interference (RNAi) is the rep gene, encoded by the BBTV-DNA1. In order to develop RNAi construct targeting the BBTV rep gene, the full-length rep gene of 870 bp was polymerase chain reaction amplified from BBTV infected hill banana sample DNA, cloned and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The partial rep gene fragment was cloned in sense and anti sense orientation in the RNAi intermediate vector, pSTARLING-A. After cloning in pSTARLING-A, the cloned RNAi gene cassette was released by NotI enzyme digestion and cloned into the NotI site of binary vector, pART27. Two different explants, embryogenic cells and embryogenic cell suspension derived microcalli were used for co-cultivation. Selection was done in presence of 100 mg/L kanamycin. In total, 143 putative transgenic hill banana lines were generated and established in green house condition. The presence of the transgenes was confirmed in the selected putative transgenic hill banana lines by PCR and reverse transcription PCR analyses. Transgenic hill banana plants expressing RNAi-BBTV rep were obtained and shown to resist infection by BBTV. The transformed plants are symptomless, and the replication of challenge BBTV almost completely suppressed. Hence, the RNAi mediating resistances were shown to be effective management of BBTV in hill banana.

  11. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  12. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of preserving fresh-cut banana immersed in sweetened fruit juice for relatively longer periods, favoring commercialization. This type of conservation, although widely used in Brazil for fruit salads, consists of a more complex system in a physiological basis, requiring adjustment of the solution parameters, such as sugar concentration, pH and acidity, considering the viability and freshness of the plant tissue. In this short review, we discuss some experimental data and present a new method for preserving fresh-cut banana. Reduction of enzymatic activity, either in temporary dipping treatment or permanent immersion of banana slices is regarded as a key factor for maintaining its quality during cold storage.

  13. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  14. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  15. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  16. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

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    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  17. MULTIPLICACIÓN DE HONGOS MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR (H.M.A Y EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN EN PLANTAS MICROPROPAGADAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MULTIPLICATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE FUNGI (AMF AND MYCORRHIZATION EFFECT IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF BANANA (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’ (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    host’ plants and substrates, and the effectiveness of the samples obtained from banana plants (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’. The average association of the HMA to the plants was 37,76 ± 21,86%, regarding this percentage, the plants ‘B’ (Brachiaria decumbens and ‘S’ (Sorgum vulgare favored gratly the association. Considering the substrate, the ‘S2’ (sand 50-soil 50 and the ‘S6’ (Vermiculite 50-soil 50 had associations significantly superior to treatments. In plants ‘S’ and ‘K’ (Pueraria phaseoloides and in substrate S1 (sand 30-soil 70, was found a higher number of spores. The combination plant-substrate that most favored the association was the plant B (used as a trap culture using substrates ‘S2’ and ‘S4’ (‘cascarilla de arroz’ 50-soil 50 and the production of spores were plants ‘K’ and ‘S’ in substrate ‘S1’. The general HMA association in banana plants coming from tissue crop was 48,74 ± 30,44; there were not found significant differences between plants with zero days and plants with 30 days already acclimated. The samples with inoculum diseases spread upon them which favored the association, were the ones coming from the banana agro-environment compared to the commercial samples and those from natural environments in Urabá. The greatest foliar dry and root weight was found on banana samplings applied with ‘I5’ (sample from agro-environment. For the growth variables there was not found any difference.

  18. Correlações entre caracteres da planta e do cacho em bananeira (Musa spp Correlations among characters of the plant and of the bunch in banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2006-02-01

    quantify the relationships among characters development and yield attributes in flowering and harvesting periods of 13 banana (Musa spp. genotypes (varieties and hybrids, in Guanambi State of Bahia, Brazil. The varieties were Prata anã e Pacovan (AAB, Grande naine e Nanicão (AAA, and the hybrids PA42-44, PV42-85, PV42-142, PV42-68 e ST12-31 (AAAB e Ambrosia, Calipso, Bucaneiro e FHIA02 (AAAA, selected in Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. The characters analyzed were plant height; pseudostem perimeter; number of functional leaves in the flowering and in the harvesting; number of days from planting to flowering and to harvesting; number of days from flowering to harvesting; bunch weight, of raquis and of the hands; length and diameter of the peduncle; number of hands and fruits; weight of the second hand; weight, length and diameter of finger and peel thickness. The correlations among the weight of the bunch and the other studied characters, varied among the genotypes and cycles. The associations among the weight of the bunch and the characters of the plant, in a general were no significant, and among the weight of the bunch and the characters of the bunch significant and positive for most of the genotypes in the two cycles evaluated. The correlations among the characters involving all the genotypes along the two cycles was predominantly positive and no significant, however, the associations among the characters of the bunch were in majority significant, positive and with expressive values.

  19. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  20. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  1. Sterilization of diseased plants infected with Fusarium wilt disease in banana fields%香蕉枯萎病田间发病株的高效灭菌方法筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 梁昌聪; 覃和业; 杨腊英; 郭立佳; 黄俊生

    2015-01-01

    To control the spread of Fusarium oxyporum f.sp.cubense (FOC),sterilization of bananaplant infected with the disease should be done.The inhibitory activity test of the mixtures of prochloraz and carbendazim at different mixing ratios against FOC was determined by the plates containing fungicides and the synergistic ratios were calculated according to Wadley formula.Then,the effects of quicklime,glyphosate,prochloraz,and the best mixture of fungicides were investigated on the PDA plates and diseased bananas,and the effects of different treatments with the best mixture of fungicides were tested.The synergistic interactions against FOC of the mixtures of prochloraz and carbendazim were observed at the ratio of 10 ∶ 1,and the synergism ratio was 1.53,and the ECs0 of the best mixture of fungicides was 0.025 mg/L,significantly smaller than that of other reagents tested.The FOC on the rhizosphere and banana corms sprayed with 1 000 mg/L the best mixture of fungicides decreased 95.93% after five days,and 71.88% after ten days,respectively,significantly higher than that of other reagents tested.Moreover,perfusion with the best mixture of fungicides after perforation on the banana cauloid was significantly better than spraying with the best mixture of fungicides.The FOC from banana corms treated with the best mixture of fungicides after perforation decreased 95.95% after five days.The sterilization method was efficient and convenient for controlling Fusarium wilt disease in banana fields.%为筛选有效防控香蕉枯萎病菌扩散蔓延的灭菌方法,采用含毒介质培养法测定咪鲜胺和多菌灵不同配比对枯萎病菌的毒力作用以筛选最佳混配液,比较最佳混配液与生石灰、草甘膦、咪鲜胺的平板抑菌和大田灭菌效果,并研究了大田不同施用方式对最佳混配液灭菌效果的影响.结果表明,咪鲜胺与多菌灵体积比为10∶1时得最佳混配液,可显著提高对香蕉枯萎病菌的

  2. 植物根际促生菌对香蕉幼苗生长及抗枯萎病效应研究%Effects of Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria on Growth and Controlling Fusarium-wilt Disease of Banana Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 彭智平; 杨少海; 于俊红; 黄继川; 吴雪娜; 杨林香

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究从香蕉根际土壤分离筛选的植物根际促生菌(PGPR)芽孢杆菌PAB-1、PAB-2菌株制剂对香蕉幼苗生长、养分吸收利用和香蕉枯萎病防治的效应研究。结果表明:试验处理56d后,施用植物根际促生菌菌剂的处理,株高、假茎围、地上部生物量、根长、根系生物量、总生物量、单株叶面积和叶绿素含量分别比对照增加18.5%~28.9%、17.0%~18.2%、16.8%~33.9%、41.5%~47.6%、65.5%~69.5%、24.8%~39.8%、24.0%~38.3%和30.0%~44.9%;施用PAB-2菌剂的处理,地上部氮、磷、钾、钙、镁养分吸收量分别比对照增加51.1%、46.1%、165.2%、7.4%和32.8%。接种香蕉枯萎病病原菌(FOC)的处理中,施用PGPR菌剂的香蕉叶片丙二醛含量显著低于只接种FOC4的,降低4.4%~10.6%;56d后香蕉枯萎病病情指数比只接种FOC4的降低12.5~31.3,防控效果达到18.8%~46.9%。施用PGPR菌剂能显著促进香蕉苗期植株生长,提高植株养分吸收,有效防控香蕉枯萎病发生。%Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR),which can promote the plant growth and yield,and inhibit plant pathogens,are microorganisms colonized in the plant rhizosphere.A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of PGPR on the growth of banana seedlings,absorption and utilization of nutrient and the suppression of the banana fusarium-wilt disease.The results showed that 56 days after treatments by PGPR,the differences of height,stem diameter,above-ground biomass,root length,root biomass,total biomass,leaf area per plant and leaf chlorophyll content of banana seedlings between treatment and control were remarkable increased by 18.5%-28.9%,17.0%-18.2%,16.8%-33.9%,41.5%-47.6%,65.5%-69.5%,24.8%-39.8%,24.0%-38.3%and 30.0%-44.9%,respectively.The absorptions of N,P2O5,K2O,CaO and MgO of seedlings treated by PAB-2 were higher than those of control,increased by 51.1%,46.1%,165.2%,7.4%,32.8%respectively

  3. Avaliação das cultivares de bananeira Prata-Anã, Thap Maeo e Caipira em diferentes sistemas de plantio no norte de Minas Gerais Evaluation of Prata Anã, Thap Maeo and Caipira banana cultivars in different planting systems in the north of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-06-01

    banana cultivars under three planting systems, in two production cycles, in the period from March 2004 to October 2006, in Janaúba, Minas Gerais. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and two statistical analyses: first: Prata Anã in six different planting systems; second: factorial 2 x 2 + 1, with four repetitions and six useful plants per parcel. The evaluated characteristics were: plant height, pseudostem circumference, total number of leaves, number of green leaves in the crop, number of days from planting to harvest, bunch weight, productivity, number of hands and fingers per bunch. The appraised characteristics were submitted to the variance analysis, being the treatments effects compared by the test of Tukey to 5% of probability. The cultivar mixture and the usage of borders did not influence most of the growth characteristics on the three studied cultivars. The cultivar Thap Maeo was superior to the Caipira in most of the appraised characteristics in the first and second cycles. The planting system with one border was superior. The analysis of the cultivar Prata Anã presented significant difference for the characteristics of green leaves number in the crop in the second cycle, number of hands/ bunch and number of fingers/bunch inside of the six planting systems.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  5. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  6. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  7. Natural product of wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong: biopesticide to control the vector of banana blood disease bacterium in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N; Dharma, A; Efdi, M; Yuhendra; Eliesti, F

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the most important food crops in Indonesia. Its production is greater than any other agricultural commodity. With the population of 230 million in 2010, banana was consumed up to three million tons in this country. However, Banana Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB), one of the most devastating banana pathogens in the world, which is only found in Indonesia, threatens not only the growth of this plant but also the lives and the livelihoods for most of the Indonesian society. BDB is caused by a lethal bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype-4, which infects a wide range of bananas, from bananas used for consumption to wild bananas. In West Sumatera, the disease killed 1.40% of bananas in 1998, and then increased dramatically to 37.9% in 2003. The total banana production dropped to 62% in this province. The search for controlling the vector has led to the pre-investigation of Wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong C.K. Lim which has a stink bug odour similar to a methidathion insecticide. The plant was collected around the conservation area of Lembah Anal in West Sumatra. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of natural insecticides compound contained in E. slahmong against D. melanogaster. This study tested the effect of E. slahmong on the mortality, anti-feedant and repellent levels against Drosophila melanogaster, the vector of BDB. The essential oil of E. slahmong was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaves. We found that the extract of E. slahmong significantly affected the mortality of D. melanogaster of 30-40% and also acted as an antifeedant (with success rate of 73-93%) and repellent (with success rate of 99-99.6%). The long- term objective of this study is to develop green biopesticide to control BDB in Indonesia, based on an environmentally friendly pest management.

  8. Indexação biológica de genótipos de bananeira para o Banana streak virus Germplasm biological indexing for Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma (BAG de bananeira é a base do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi indexar os acessos do BAG para o vírus das estrias da bananeira (Banana streak virus, BSV. Cada amostra foliar, coletada dos 220 acessos do BAG foi utilizada na inoculação de três plantas de bananeira 'Caipira' produzidas por micropropagação. As plantas foram inoculadas, através da cochonilha vetora Planococcus citri Risso, fornecendo-se um acesso de aquisição de 24 horas e de transmissão de 48 horas. Como controle positivo e negativo foram utilizadas plantas previamente analisadas por PCR, quanto a presença de BSV. Entre 15 e 70 dias após a inoculação, as plantas indicadoras apresentaram os primeiros sintomas. Desta forma, verificou-se que 44 dos 220 acessos estavam infectados com BSV.The Germplasm Active Bank (BAG of banana is the base of the genetic breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. The objective of this work was to index the accessions of the BAG for Banana streak virus (BSV. Each sample collected in the 220 accessions of BAG was used to inoculate three 'Caipira' banana plants, produced by micropropagation. The plants were inoculated using the mealybug Planococcus citri Risso as vector. The vector being allowed an access of acquisition of 24 hours and 48 hours of transmission. Plants were previously analysed by PCR for the presence or absence of BSV were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Between 15 and 70 days after inoculation the test plants showed the first disease symptoms. Using this methodology, it was observed that 44 of the 220 accesses were infected with BSV.

  9. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  10. A Simulation Model Estimates of the Intercropping Advantage of an Immature-Rubber, Banana and Pineapple System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadu B. Jalloh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Intercropping has been shown to have many advantages but it is fallacious to conclude it is always a better cropping system. Little is known about a new double-hedgerow intercropping of rubber, banana and pineapple in relation to its effects on growth and yield of the component crops when compared to their monocrops. Simulation modeling offers a cheaper and faster alternative to explore cropping scenarios and estimate their productivity under a wide range of management and environmental conditions. This simulation study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the growth and yield of immature rubber, banana and pineapple intercrop and monocrop scenarios with the aid of an intercrop simulation model named SURHIS, as well as estimating the intercropping advantage. Approach: A FORTRAN computer model (SURHIS that simulated the daily light interception and utilization by immature-rubber, banana and pineapple intercropping system was used to simulate intercrop and monocrop scenarios to estimate potential Dry Matter Yield (DMY for all crops as well as fruit yields for banana and pineapple. The results of the model were tested for accuracy by comparing actual field experimental results with the aid of Mean Deviation (MD and Mean Absolute Error (MAE statistical analyses. Intercropping advantage was assessed using the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER analysis. Results: The model was representative or predicted DMY of the crops with sufficient accuracy. The LER analysis showed that the intercropping system had a dry matter yield productivity advantage of 81% more than monocrops of the component crops. The results also showed that the higher the Plant Population Density (PPD, the greater is the dry matter yield. It was also shown that banana and pineapple had no deleterious effect on the growth of rubber. Fruit weight per plant of banana and pineapple was reduced with increase in PPD for the monocrops. Measured average fresh fruit bunch weight for

  11. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  12. 云南元江山地香蕉无公害栽培%Pollution Free Cultivation of Banana in Mountainous Areas of Yuanjiang,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建辉; 李云生; 杨丽华; 马云飞; 周昆华

    2012-01-01

    元江是云南最适宜发展香蕉的区域之一,目前坝区香蕉种植开始往山地发展。山地土壤灌溉条件以及香蕉栽培的特殊性,导致山地香蕉生产难以产生较好的经济回报。通过近几年山地香蕉栽培实践,总结了一套山地香蕉无公害栽培关键技术,解决了山地香蕉栽培的特殊性与土壤水肥灌溉条件的矛盾。%Yuanjiang is one of the most suitable areas for banana production in Yunnan.Banana planting is developing towards the mountainous areas at present.The mountainous soil and irrigation conditions and the particularity of banana cultivation lead to difficulties to produce good economic return of banana production in mountainous areas.A set of key techniques were summarized for pollution free cultivation of banana in mountainous areas after several years practice of banana cultivation in mountainous areas,which solved the contradiction between particularity of banana cultivation in mountainous areas and conditions of soil,water,fertilizer and irrigation.

  13. Heat shock transcription factors in banana: genome-wide characterization and expression profile analysis during development and stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Xia, Feiyu; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa acuminata) is one of the most popular fresh fruits. However, the rapid spread of fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) in tropical areas severely affected banana growth and production. Thus, it is very important to identify candidate genes involved in banana response to abiotic stress and pathogen infection, as well as the molecular mechanism and possible utilization for genetic breeding. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are widely known for their common involvement in various abiotic stresses and plant-pathogen interaction. However, no MaHsf has been identified in banana, as well as its possible role. In this study, genome-wide identification and further analyses of evolution, gene structure and conserved motifs showed closer relationship of them in every subgroup. The comprehensive expression profiles of MaHsfs revealed the tissue- and developmental stage-specific or dependent, as well as abiotic and biotic stress-responsive expressions of them. The common regulation of several MaHsfs by abiotic and biotic stress indicated the possible roles of them in plant stress responses. Taken together, this study extended our understanding of MaHsf gene family and identified some candidate MaHsfs with specific expression profiles, which may be used as potential candidates for genetic breeding in banana. PMID:27857174

  14. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  15. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  16. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  17. Ethanol Production from Banana Fruit and its Lignocellulosic Residues: Exergy and Renewability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Tropical countries such as Brazil and Colombia have the possibility of using their lands for growing vegetable products to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. The objective of this work is to apply exergy analysis to evaluate the renewability of anhydrous ethanol production from surplus banana fruit production and its residual biomass. The study takes into account all production stages: growing, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, and dehydration. It also considers the cogeneration plant and residues treatment. Four production routes were analyzed according to the biomass used as feedstock: banana pulp, banana fruit, hanging cluster or banana skin. Based on the exergy concept, performance indicators are proposed and calculated. In order to quantify the renewability of the ethanol production processes, a new indicator called “Renewability Performance Indicator” is defined and applied to the four ethanol production routes studied. The results show that when amilaceous material is used, better results than lignocellulosic material are obtained and four production processes studied must be classified as non-renewable.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  18. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  19. EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN Y LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN LA ACUMULACIÓN DE BIOMASA EN PLANTAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MICORRHIZATION AND FERTILIZATION EFFECT ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION IN BANANA PLANTS (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de invernadero (ubicado en el municipio de Bello - Antioquia (Colombia se evaluó el efecto independiente y combinado de los factores: tipo de inóculo de Hongos Micorriza Arbuscular (HMA, fertilización y aplicación de materia orgánica sobre el porcentaje de asociación de HMA en plantas de banano (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano, así como en la acumulación de materia seca foliar y radical. Dentro del factor tipo de inóculo, se evaluaron inóculos nativos, de agroecosistemas bananeros y ecosistemas naturales del Urabá (Antioquia-Colombia, uno comercial y la especie Acaulospora morrowiae; con respecto a la fertilización se probó la mitad, completa y dos veces la dosis de la fertilización recomendada de acuerdo al análisis de suelo y a los requerimientos de la planta, y cada uno de estos factores con y sin la aplicación de materia orgánica; como testigos se usaron, la no aplicación del respectivo factor. Se usó como material vegetal plantas de banano micropropagadas del grupo Cavendish cv. Gran Enano (AAA. El sustrato utilizado para el crecimiento de las plantas de banano se compuso de suelo y arena en relación 70/30 v/v. El suelo se obtuvo de la granja experimental de Augura, ubicado en el municipio de Carepa en la región de Urabá. Los resultados encontrados, muestran que los factores que más incidieron en la asociación así como en la acumulación de biomasa en toda la planta son la micorrización y la adición de materia orgánica. Los resultados, también muestran un comportamiento positivo respecto al uso de inóculos nativos de agroecosistemas bananeros, con bajas aplicaciones de fertilizantes.The effects of independent an combined factors such as inoculum type, fertilization and organic matter application on the percentage of association of ‘H.M.A’ in banana plants (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’, and on the accumulation of leaves and rrots material, were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Natives samples

  20. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  1. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  2. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  3. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit Banana entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution genotype of M. acuminata. This wonder crop, as of today, remains untouched by the green revolution and researchers face intrinsic impediments for varietal improvement to enhance its yield. The complex genome of banana was decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Banana has historically faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small and marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding of its structural genome has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unravelling the process of parthenocarpy for better fruit quality, and fruit ripening in this climacteric fruit. Injunction of comparative genomics research will usher in to integrate information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  4. Banana bunchy top virus in sub-Saharan Africa: investigations on virus distribution and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Hanna, R; Alabi, O J; Soko, M M; Oben, T T; Vangu, G H P; Naidu, R A

    2011-08-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) was first reported from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the 1950s, has become invasive and spread into 11 countries in the region. To determine the potential threat of BBTV to the production of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) in the sub-region, field surveys were conducted for the presence of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in the DRC, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon and Malawi. Using the DNA-S and DNA-R segments of the virus genome, the genetic diversity of BBTV isolates was also determined from these countries relative to virus isolates across the banana-growing regions around the world. The results established that BBTD is widely prevalent in all parts of DRC, Malawi, Angola and Gabon, in south and western part of Cameroon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of DNA-S and DNA-R indicate that BBTV isolates from these countries are genetically identical forming a unique clade within the 'South Pacific' phylogroup that includes isolates from Australia, Egypt, South Asia and South Pacific. These results imply that farmers' traditional practice of transferring vegetative propagules within and between countries, together with virus spread by the widely prevalent banana aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa, could have contributed to the geographic expansion of BBTV in SSA. The results provided a baseline to explore sanitary measures and other 'clean' plant programs for sustainable management of BBTV and its vector in regions where the disease has already been established and prevent the spread of the virus to as yet unaffected regions in SSA.

  5. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  6. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  7. Anthelminthic efficacy of banana crop residues on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Flávia Aparecida; Oliveira, Lincoln Nunes; da Silva, Rayana Brito; Nery, Patrícia Silva; Virgínio, Gercino Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to anthelminthics is common due to intensive and incorrect use. In searching for alternatives, extracts of banana plant were evaluated for egg hatching inhibition and fecal egg count reduction of sheep nematodes. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, pseudostem, and heart of the banana plant cv. Prata anã were tested at concentrations of 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg ml(-1) in egg hatching inhibition tests. For in vivo analysis, aqueous extracts were evaluated at dosages calculated according to the 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity testing in mice. Efficacy was evaluated at two time periods following oral administration. For the banana extracts at 2.5 mg ml(-1), egg hatching was significantly fewer than the negative control, with an LC(50) and LC(90) of 0.19 and 0.84 mg ml(-1), respectively. In vivo analysis for weeks 1 and 2 following a single treatment with aqueous leaf extract showed 33.1% and 32.5% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively. Further research on higher dosages with more frequent administration is needed to evaluate the potential for utilizing banana plant residues in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  8. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bressan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta, heliconia (Heliconia spp., red ginger (Alpinia purpurata, and banana (Musa sp.. Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  9. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-22

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  10. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa.

  11. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J; Friedman, Haya

    2016-05-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited.

  12. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Parameter optimization and experiment of pneumatic holding part for banana crown cutting%香蕉落梳机气动夹持部件参数优化与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正波; 杨洲; 孙健峰; 薛坤鹏; 牛萌萌; 邱汉; 陈兆春; 朱卿创; 孙志全

    2016-01-01

    arc surface area of holding part, cylinder gas pressure and diameter of banana stalk. Linear regression analysis of orthogonal experiments results showed that the equivalent friction increased significantly to a peak value of 359.494 N when using rubber holding part with inner arc surface area of 1 885 mm2, banana stalk diameter of 69 mm and cylinder gas pressure of 0.5 MPa. There was no significant difference in equivalent friction between linear regression analysis result and actual value that was 375.975 N (P<0.05). These researches are helpful for the design of banana stalk clamping device in banana crown cutting machine and are also beneficial to the improvement and application of clamping methods and clamping devices for stemmed plants.

  14. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  15. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.

  16. The effect of 25% Mauli banana stem extract gel to increase the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa

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    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mauli banana is a special plant of South Borneo that can be used as alternatif medicine for wound healing wound healing. Recent studies showed that Mauli banana stem contained some compound such as flavonoid, saponin, and tannin that had antibacterial and antiinflamation effect, and can accelerate the wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know the effect of 25% Mauli banana extract gel to the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa. Method: It was the real experimental with post test only control group design. It used 36 Sprague dawley rats that divided into 3 groups: the negative control group by giving aquadest, the positive control group by giving drug contain Aloe vera, and the treatment group by giving 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. Biopsy was done on day 3, 5, 7 and the preparat was made to measure the thickness of oral mucosa epithel by Image J software. Result: The result showed that 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem can increased the thickness of oral mucosa epithel on third day (51.26 µm, fifth days (108.49 µm, and seventh day (170.66 µm. The top thickness of mucosa epithel was on the seventh day. Two-ways Anova and Post Hoc LSD (p<0.05 showed the significant different between aquadest and 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem and drug contains Aloe vera are the aqual of meaningfull. Conclusion: 25%ethanol extract of Mauli banana can increase the epithelial thickness of wound healing procces in oral mucosa.

  17. Avaliação agronômica de genótipos de bananeiras em condições subtropicais, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brasil Agronomic evaluation of banana plants genotypes in subtropical conditions, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura

    2013-03-01

    diseases, appropriate size and resistance to drought and cold, there are few cultivars with agronomic potential to be used commercially. Aiming to evaluate the vegetative development of banana genotypes at Vale do Ribeira (Brazil conditions the following materials were tested, separated into two genomic groups: AAAA (Bucaneiro, FHIA 02 and FHIA 17, and AAAB, subdivided according to the cultivar used in the breeding: Prata (BRS Garantida, FHIA 18, BRS FHIA Maravilha, BRS Platina and PA94-01; Pacovan (BRS Japira, BRS Pacovan Ken, PV79-34, PV94-01 and BRS Vitória; and Yangambi n.2 (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa and YB42-03. The cultivars Grande Naine (AAA, Pacovan (AAB, Prata anã (AAB and Yangambi (AAA present development, production and sensory characteristics similar to the evaluated genotypes, so they were used to compare to standards. During two cycles it was evaluated: height, pseudo stem diameter, number of active leaves (on blooming and in the harvest, the interval between planting and blooming and the interval between planting and harvest (days. It was calculated confidence intervals in different groups and types of bananas. According to the obtained data it can be concluded that genotypes from AAAB group with 'Paconvan' genitor cultivar are not suitable for cultivation in the region due to the plants height. The genotypes that have potential to be cultivated in Vale do Ribeira region are: AAAA (FHIA 02 and FHIA 17, AAAB group with 'Prata' genitor cultivar (FHIA 18, BRS Garantida and PA94-01 and with 'Yangambi n.2' genitor cultivar (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa and Yangambi.

  18. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  19. Avaliação de clones de banana Cavendish Evaluation of cavendish banana clones

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    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Na bananeira ocorrem variações somaclonais em taxa muito superior ao que se observa na maioria das outras culturas, provavelmente em função da instabilidade mitótica. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar clones de bananeira Cavendish coletados em diferentes locais. Os clones Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063 coletados em São Paulo, Santa Catarina e Bahia foram avaliados no Lote 54-P da Thelo Produção Agropecuária (Grupo Plena, no Projeto Jaíba, Etapa 1, no município de Matias Cardoso-MG. Avaliaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de brotos, peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos e de pencas por cacho, comprimento e circunferência do fruto e número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita. Observou-se grande similaridade nas características dos clones. No entanto, os resultados obtidos permitem a recomendação dos clones N. IAC Abóbora Verde e G.N. Williams.Somaclonal variations occur in bananas at greater rates compared to other crops, probably due to mitotic instability. The objective of the present research was to evaluate Cavendish banana clones collected from different sites. The 'Grand Naine' clones (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 and 'Nanicão' (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 and N. SC-063 collected from the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Bahia, were evaluated at the Station 54-P of the Thelo Agricultural Production (Plena Group, in the Jaíba Project, Stage 1, in the city of Matias Cardoso-MG. The characteristics of the plant as height and pseudostem circumference, number of live leaves at flowering and harvesting, number of shoots, weight of bunch and hand, number of fruits and hands per bunch, fruit length and

  20. Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker.

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    Nina Ratna Djuita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker. The research aims todetect genomic integrity of in vitro irradiated banana using microsatellite marker. These studies were done on bananacv. Pisang Mas irradiated by 15 Gy of gamma ray. The DNA was isolated from each accesion following Dixie.Amplification of DNA products were done by Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR 2400 using ten primers, and thenelectroforesis in agarose 1%. Finally a vertical polyacrylamide gel electroforesis was run and the products werevisualized by silver staining. The result shown that among the primers tested, eight primers produced clear, discrete,and reproducible bands. Number of DNA band exhibited ranging from one to two, following the ploidy level of pisangMas which is a diploid banana cultivar (AA. One band suggest homozygote allele while two bands showedheterozygote allele. Out of eight primers, six primers produced different allele among irradiated, in vitro, and in vivocontrol plant. Meanwhile, for the other two primers the allele were monomorph for all the accessions examined.Genomic modification was observed at all irradiated plants. The modification can happened at zygosity of certain allelethat may change from heterozygote to homozygote or vice versa. While modification in allele size that underlyinggenomic instability could be caused by several genetic events such as deletion, insertion, and amplification ofnucleotides.

  1. Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants.

  2. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  3. Plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com culturas anuais Irrigated banana resistant to black Sigatoka, with annual intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu de Souza

    2010-03-01

    July 2007, in a 3 x 5 randomized block design with split plots. The plots consisted of three banana varieties (Pacovan Ken, Caipira and Thap Maeo and subplots of four interim crops (common bean Pearl, okra Dart, watermelon Crimson Sweet and cowpea, with three replications and a control (banana without intercrop. Altogether 756 banana plants were considered, in 45 plots, using 6 central banana plants per plot, representing the main crop. The intercrops were planted in the banana interrows, in those with and those without the irrigation pipeline. The banana and intercrops were planted in the same period. Banana plants were spaced 3.0 m between rows and 2.0 m between plants and irrigated by microsprinklers spaced 6 m apart. Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of the banana varieties were evaluated in the 1st cycle. No significant effect of the crops on the banana varieties was observed, except for the traits number of days from planting to flowering and number of days from planting to harvest of the banana varieties. The cowpea use promoted delay at the crop cycle of three varieties of banana plants Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo.

  4. Progresso da sigatoka-negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso-Brasil Progress of black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis in banana plants after the bunch emergence in the district of Cáceres, Mato-Grosso-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Benedita Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A sigatoka-negra, causada pelo fungo Mycosphaerella fijiensis, pode causar 100% de perdas na produção das cultivares suscetíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o progresso da sigatoka-negra em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso. O experimento foi conduzido no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004 em plantios das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco, sendo esta última uma cultivar de plátano, do grupo Terra. As avaliações foram efetuadas a intervalos de 15 dias, quantificando-se, através de uma escala diagramática, a severidade da sigatoka-negra em todas as folhas de 5 plantas de cada cultivar, marcadas logo após a emissão das inflorescências. A partir dos dados coletados no campo, computaram-se: a severidade da doença na folha n.º 10 e o número de folhas viáveis. Considerou-se como folha viável as folhas sadias e aquelas com até 15% de área foliar lesionada. Os dados de temperatura e da umidade relativa foram registrados por um aparelho eletrônico instalado na área. A precipitação pluvial foi registrada na Estação meteorológica de Cáceres, distante 12 km do experimento. As condições climáticas foram favoráveis à sigatoka negra durante o ano todo e as plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco após a emissão do cacho, perderam totalmente as folhas antes dos frutos atingirem o pleno desenvolvimento, cujos prejuízos no primeiro semestre atingiram 100% de perdas na produção comercializável.The black sigatoka, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis may cause 100% of yield losses in susceptible cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the progress of the black sigatoka in banana plants after the bunch emergence, in the district of Cáceres, Mato Grosso State - Brazil. The experiment was carried out from February to December 2004, in banana cultivars "Grande Naine" and "Maçã", as well as plantain cultivar Farta Velhaco (Terra

  5. Efeitos do Banana streak virus no desenvolvimento de cultivares de bananeira Effects of banana streak virus on the development of banana cultivars

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    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos da infecção pelo BSV no crescimento de cinco cultivares de bananeira. Mudas micropropagadas das cultivares SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo e Pioneira foram inoculadas com BSV pela cochonilha Planacoccus citri Risso. Como controles utilizaram-se mudas não inoculadas e inoculadas com cochonilhas não virulíferas. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas, a área foliar e as massas da matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Os primeiros sintomas do BSV foram detectados 15 dias após a inoculação em todas as plantas inoculadas com o vírus. Houve diferenças estatísticas significativas nas variáveis analisadas, concluindo-se que o vírus afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas de todas as cultivares avaliadas.On this study, the BSV effects on five banana cultivars were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Micropropagated plants of cultivars SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo and Pioneira were inoculated with BSV using mealybug Planacoccus citri Risso as a vector. Controls plants were inoculated with non-viruliferous mealybugs or not inoculated. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and root and shoot dry mass were evaluated. Disease symptoms were first visible 15 days after plant inoculation with virus. Statistical differences were detected for the host growth variables evaluated. It was concluded that BSV affected significantly the growth of all studied cultivars.

  6. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  7. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  8. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  9. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  10. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  11. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced sp

  12. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  13. Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xian; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC) is a causal agent of vascular wilt and leaf chlorosis of banana plants. Chloroses resulting from FOC occur first in the lowest leaves of banana seedlings and gradually progress upward. To investigate the responses of different leaf positions to FOC infection, hydroponic experiments with FOC inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Fusarium-infected seedlings exhibited a decrease in net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of all leaves. The wilting process in Fusarium-infected seedlings varied with leaf position. Measurements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(max) and visualization with transmission electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between chloroplast impairment and severity of disease symptoms. Furthermore, results of malondialdehyde content and relative membrane conductivity measurements demonstrated that the membrane system was damaged in infected leaves. Additionally, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were increased and total soluble phenolic compounds were significantly accumulated in the leaves of infected plants. The structural and biochemical changes of infected plants was consistent with plant senescence. As the FOC was not detected in infected leaves, we proposed that the chloroplast and membrane could be damaged by fusaric acid produced by Fusarium. During the infection, fusaric acid was first accumulated in the lower leaves and water-soluble substances in the lower leaves could dramatically enhance fusaric acid production. Taken together, the senescence of infected banana plants was induced by Fusarium infection with fusaric acid production and the composition of different leaf positions largely contribute to the particular senescence process.

  14. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  15. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana. PMID:27539368

  16. STUDIES ON VASCULAR INFECTION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CUBENSE RACE 4 IN BANANA BY FIELD SURVEY AND GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN REPORTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp. caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the most serious banana fungal diseases in the world. Understanding the infection process of Foc is important for development of effective ways in disease control. In order to follow infection and colonization of this pathogen from root to rhizome and pseudostem tissues of banana, a highly pathogenic strain FJAT-3076 of Foc race 4 (Foc4 was transformed with gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP and the fungus carrying gfp (FJAT-3076-GFP was used to inoculate banana plants (Cavendish cv. B.F.. After inoculation for 3 to 10 d, it was observed that the conidia and their germ-tubes had penetrated into epidermis of young roots. The hyphae were found inside the root xylem 10 d after inoculation in the rhizome and pseudostem xylem after inoculation for 17 d. All plants infected by Foc died in 24 d after inoculation. It was also observed that Foc had spread all over the xylem and part of hyphae reached the pseudostem surface. Hyphal population was found the highest in the pseudostem, lower in root and least in rhizome. Field survey confirmed that Foc4 were mostly present in the base of pseudostem and less in the rhizome. Thus, effective prevention of the Foc hyphae movement from the rhizome up to the pseudostem might delay or control banana wilt disease.

  17. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H; Trivedi, Prabodh K

    2016-08-19

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana.

  18. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  19. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kenji Oi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the mass and relative humidity of the dried product. Three levels were used in selected variables, which corresponded to the completion of 27 experiments. In experiments in which they obtained the lowest values of relative humidity, the amounts of mass were also the lowest, while in experiments where they met the higher amounts of the levels of relative humidity ranged from the highest. Considering the industrial application, whose purpose is the low humidity and increased production of the product, test 22 was the most appropriate, and found 11% moisture and 4.33 g in mass.

  20. 我国香蕉储藏的研究进展%Research Progress of Banana Storage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪虹; 谢德芳; 吕岱竹; 冯信平

    2012-01-01

    The research process of banana storage was introduced. The new methods that can prolong the storage period and shelf life of bananas in planting, harvesting and storage were also described, including uniform of application, bananas bagging, antiseptic treatment, radiation treatment, new packing materials and new ethylene absorbents. Based on these progresses, the developing direction of banana storage in China was mentioned in the article.%简述了近几年我国在香蕉储藏方面的研究成果,在香蕉种植、采收和储藏等各个环节中能够延长香蕉贮藏期和货架期的各种新的保鲜方法有均衡施肥、套袋种植、防腐处理、辐照处理、新的包装材料、新的乙烯吸收剂等,最后提出了今后我国香蕉储藏研究的发展万向.

  1. Comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses provide integrated insight into osmotic, cold, and salt stress tolerance mechanisms in banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Juhua; Wang, Jiashui; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    The growth, development, and production of banana plants are constrained by multiple abiotic stressors. However, it remains elusive for the tolerance mechanisms of banana responding to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, we found that Fen Jiao (FJ) was more tolerant to osmotic, cold, and salt stresses than BaXi Jiao (BX) by phenotypic and physiological analyses. Comparative transcriptomic analyses highlighted stress tolerance genes that either specifically regulated in FJ or changed more than twofold in FJ relative to BX after treatments. In total, 933, 1644, and 133 stress tolerance genes were identified after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, respectively. Further integrated analyses found that 30 tolerance genes, including transcription factor, heat shock protein, and E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, could be commonly regulated by osmotic, cold, and salt stresses. Finally, ABA and ROS signaling networks were found to be more active in FJ than in BX under osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, which may contribute to the strong stress tolerances of FJ. Together, this study provides new insights into the tolerance mechanism of banana responding to multiple stresses, thus leading to potential applications in the genetic improvement of multiple abiotic stress tolerances in banana. PMID:28223714

  2. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  3. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  4. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  5. Mechanization Status of Large-scale Banana Plantations in Guangxi%广西规模化蕉园机械化现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟志广; 方昭; 林涛; 张江周; 李宝深

    2015-01-01

    以广西金穗农业集团有限公司旗下蕉园为例,分析广西规模化蕉园各生产环节的机械化现状以及折合用工量,计算出蕉园总机械化率为71.19%,总结阻碍实现全程机械化的限制因素主要为定植、喷药、追肥、植株护理等操作。建议应广泛借鉴国外先进管理技术,按照适地适栽的原则,重点开发定植、追肥、护果、植株护理等环节机械化。%Taking the banana plantation of Guangxi Jinsui Agriculture Group Co., Ltd as an example, we analyzed the status of mechanization and equivalent amount of labor in large-scale banana plantation of Guangxi. The results showed that the total mechanical rate was 71.14%and planting banana, spraying, top dressing and banana fruit management were the mainly limiting factors to achieve fully mechanization. It should be widely learn advanced foreign management techniques, following the principles of suitable land planted, developing the machinery of planting, fertilizer, fruit care, plant care and other aspects.

  6. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  7. Silicon Isotope Fractionation by Banana Under Continuous Nutrient and Silica Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfergelt, S.; Cardinal, D.; Henriet, C.; Delvaux, B.; André, L.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon is absorbed by plants as aqueous H4SiO4 with other essential nutrients, and precipitates in aerial parts of the plant as phytolith, a biogenic opal. Phytoliths are restored to the soil by decomposition of organic debris from plant material. The role of higher plants in the biogeochemical cycle of silicon is therefore major although it is still poorly studied. Biomineralization processes are known to fractionate the three stable silicon isotopes with a preferential uptake of light isotopes. Therefore, following some preliminary results from Douthitt (1982), and studies presented in recent conferences (Ziegler et al., 2002; Ding et al., 2003), we suspect that phytolith production by plants could also fractionate the silicon isotopes. Inversely, intensity of phytolith-related isotopic fractionations might contribute to a better understanding of the soil-plant silicon cycle. Our study focused on banana, a silicon accumulating plant (>1% Si, dry weight).Musa acuminata cv Grande Naine has been grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions (light, temperature, humidity, nutrients) during six weeks. The nutrient supply was kept constant: three batches of five plants were grown with a continuous nutrient solution flow of 5, 50 and 100 ppm SiO2 respectively. Si isotopic compositions were measured in the source solution, and in silica extracted from the various parts of banana (roots, pseudostems, midribs and petioles, leaves), using a Nu Plasma multicollector mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) operating in dry plasma mode. The results are expressed as δ 29Si relatively to the NBS28 standard, with an average precision of ± 0.03‰ . Silicon contents and morphological studies of phytoliths were also achieved. Banana δ 29Si varied between -0.18 and -0.76‰ with a source solution at -0.02‰ . Values of δ 29Si were less fractionated, relatively to the nutrient solution, in roots, where no phytoliths have been observed until now, than in upper parts of banana where

  8. Stomatal density and responsiveness of banana fruit stomates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Brun, W A

    1966-01-01

    Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host.

  9. Avaliação de variante somaclonal de porte baixo de bananeira 'Nanicão Jangada' (Musa sp em duas densidades Evaluation of a dwarf somaclonal variant of banana 'Nanicão Jangada' (Musa sp in two planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia da Costa Zonetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, sob duas densidades de plantio, um variante somaclonal de porte baixo de bananeira, comparando-o com a variedade Nanicão Jangada que lhe deu origem. Os materiais genéticos 'Nanicão Jangada'(controle e o variante somaclonal representado pelas seleções 224 e 225 de um ensaio anterior, foram avaliados nos espaçamentos 2,0m X 2,0m (densidade 2500 plantas ha-1 e 3,0m X 2,0m (1666plantas ha-1, na Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Campus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições, com utilização de mudas micropropagadas, sob irrigação por gotejamento, no período de dezembro de 1998 a março de 2001, com avaliação dos dois primeiros ciclos de produção. Constatou-se efeito da densidade e do ciclo sobre a produção estimada de frutos sendo que no cultivo mais denso, a média foi de 81,25 t.ha-1 no primeiro ciclo de produção e 67,93 t.ha-1 no segundo ciclo. No cultivo de menor densidade a produção estimada no primeiro ciclo foi de 51,35 t.ha-1 e 44,08 t.ha-1 no segundo. As seleções do variante de porte baixo apresentaram menor altura da planta e mostraram-se relativamente mais precoces e com produção semelhante a cv. Nanicão Jangada no primeiro ciclo. No segundo ciclo houve uma queda na produção do bananal, com maior intensidade para a seleção 225 do variante.A dwarf somaclonal variant of banana was evaluated under two planting densities. It was compared with the cultivar "Nanicão Jangada", the original clone from which the variant derived. The genotypes 'Nanicão Jangada'(control and the somaclone, represented by selections 224 and 225 from a previous experiment, were evaluated at spaced 2.0 m X 2.0 m (density of 2500 plants ha-1 and 3.0 m X 2.0 m (1666 plants ha-1 at the "Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP", Campus de Ilha Solteira, SP. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks with 5

  10. Successful rescue and field establishment of native banana varieties severely affected by rhizome rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basawantanahalli Saddappa Sreeramu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome rot disease caused by Erwinia spp. is emerging as a major problem in banana nurseries and young plantations worldwide. Management of the disease is possible only in the initial stages of development. Currently no method is available for rescuing plant material already infected with this pathogen. A total of 95 Nanjanagud Rasabale and 212 Elakki Bale suckers were collected from different growing regions of Karnataka, India. During nursery maintenance of these lines, severe Erwinia infection was noticed. We present a method to rescue infected plants and establish them under field conditions. Differences were noticed in infection severity amongst the varieties and their accessions. Field data revealed good establishment and growth of most rescued plants under field conditions. The discussed rescue protocol coupled with good field management practices resulted in 89.19 and 82.59 percent field establishment of previously infected var. Nanjanagud Rasabale and var. Elakki Bale plants, respectively.

  11. Successful geothermal water utilization at the Atagawa Banana and Alligator Garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, W. (Atagawa Banana and Alligator Garden, Japan), Minohara, W., Sekioka, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Atagawa Banana and Alligator Garden which utilizes the waters of Atagawa hot springs in Izu-cho, Shizuoka Prefecture is described. Four hot spring wells are used to heat 13 hot houses for raising 6400 kinds of tropical plants and ponds where 450 alligators of 27 species are raised. The hot spring water has a pH of 8.6 and a temperature of 1050/sup 0/C. Tropical water lilies and fresh-water shrimp are also raised in heated ponds. Four figures, one table, and one reference are provided.

  12. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana.

  13. Relação entre o tempo de enraizamento in vitro e o crescimento de plantas de bananeira na aclimatização Relationship between the in vitro rooting time and the growth of banana plants in the aclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do tempo de permanência em meio de enraizamento sobre o crescimento in vitro e ex vitro de plantas de bananeira. Como explantes, foram utilizadas brotações axilares provenientes do estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de ápices caulinares das cultivares Caipira (AAA, Preciosa (AAAB e Japira (AAAB. Para o enraizamento, empregou-se o meio MS reduzido a 50% da concentração de sais, adicionado de 30 g.L-1 de sacarose, 1 mg.L-1 de AIB e 6 g.L-1 de ágar. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x4, com três cultivares (Caipira, Preciosa e Japira e quatro períodos de enraizamento in vitro (7; 14; 21 e 28 dias, num total de 12 tratamentos. Ao final de cada período, a altura da parte aérea, o número e o comprimento de raízes foram avaliados, e as plantas, submetidas ao processo de aclimatização por 90 dias. Após esse período, as plantas foram avaliadas quanto à sobrevivência, número e comprimento de raízes, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca de raízes, parte aérea e total. De modo geral, observou-se que a fase de indução de raízes nas brotações de bananeira in vitro ocorreu até os 14 dias de cultivo em meio de enraizamento, havendo apenas crescimento em tamanho das raízes após esse período. Entre as cultivares, verificou-se que, com exceção do diâmetro de pseudocaule, a cultivar Caipira apresentou crescimento vegetativo in vitro e durante a aclimatização (altura de plantas, número e comprimento de raízes e massa seca da parte aérea, raízes e total superior às cultivares Preciosa e Japira. Após 21 dias de permanência em meio de enraizamento, a taxa de sobrevivência das plantas, observada em casa de vegetação, alcançou 100%, independentemente da cultivar testada.The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of the exposition time to rooting medium on the in vitro and ex vitro growth of banana plants. As explants, new axillaries

  14. Transcriptome and expression profile analysis of highly resistant and susceptible banana roots challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Bai

    Full Text Available Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4, is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1' was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar 'Brazilian' in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1'. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of 'Yueyoukang 1' and 'Brazilian' and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', especially at the first three time points, which suggested that 'Yueyoukang 1' had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than 'Brazilian'. Expression patterns of genes involved in 'Plant-pathogen interaction' and 'Plant hormone signal transduction' pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR and senescence were up-regulated in 'Brazilian' but down-regulated in 'Yueyoukang 1', which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant 'Yueyoukang 1' was found to differ from that in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana. These results explain the resistance in the

  15. Desenvolvimento e produção de frutos de bananeira em resposta à adubação nitrogenada e potássica Development and production of fruits of banana plant as a response to nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDILSON CARVALHO BRASIL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adubação nitrogenada e potássica no desenvolvimento e produção da bananeira (Musa spp., cultivar Pioneira, em experimento conduzido no Município de Capitão Poço, PA, em Latossolo Amarelo, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 80, 160 e 240 g de N/planta/ano e 0, 150, 300 e 450 g de K2O/planta/ano. Como fontes de nutrientes, utilizaram-se uréia e cloreto de potássio. Os resultados de crescimento, até 240 dias do plantio, indicaram que apenas o N influenciou a circunferência do pseudocaule e a altura de planta, verificando-se que o modelo quadrático ajustou-se melhor a todas as variáveis avaliadas. No segundo ciclo de produção, a adição de K promoveu efeito quadrático no peso de cacho, peso de penca por cacho e peso médio de penca, com incrementos de 73, 76 e 39%, respectivamente, em relação à ausência de K. A aplicação de N promoveu aumento linear no peso de cacho e de pencas por cacho, com aumentos máximos de 32 e 30%, respectivamente, em relação a ausência do nutriente. No terceiro ciclo de produção, apenas o K influenciou no peso de cacho, peso de penca por cacho e peso médio de penca, com aumentos de 39, 40 e 26%, respectivamente.The effect of the N and K fertilization on the development and production of the banana plant (Musa spp., cv. Pioneira, was evaluated in an experiment carried out in Capitão Poço county, Pará State, Brazil, in a Yellow Latosol, using a randomized blocks design, in factorial arrangement of 4x4. The treatments were: 0, 80, 160 and 240 g of N per plant per year; 0, 150, 300 and 450 g of K2O per plant per year. Urea and potassium chloride were used as nutrient sources. The results of plant growth showed that there was effect of N on circumference of pseudostem and plant height. The quadratic model was better adjusted to all the variables. The results of production of the second cycle indicated that K increased

  16. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mpon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007 with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% respectively. Modification of the fibres was carried out by grafting ethyl acrylate in the presence of ammonium nitrate cerium(IV. Optimisation of the copolymerisation reaction conditions was studied by measuring the rate of conversion, the rate of grafting and the grafting efficiency. The results showed that at low values of ceric ion concentration (0.04 M, at ambient temperature, after three hours and at a concentration of 0.2 M ethyl acrylate, maximum values of the parameters cited were obtained.

  17. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  18. Avaliação do ciclo e produção da planta-filha em função do manejo da planta-mãe em diferentes épocas do ano em bananeira Prata-Anã Evaluation of cycle and production of sucker plant in function of mother plant management in banana tree 'Prata Anã´

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Egídio Flori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do manejo da planta-mãe e da época de seleção das plantas-filha de bananeira 'Prata-Anã´ (Musa spp. na produção e no período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha. Utilizou-se um bananal comercial com cinco anos de idade, plantado no espaçamento de 3,5 m x 2,0 m. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os tratamentos nas parcelas foram: manejo 1 (M1 - família conduzida sem a planta-mãe, a qual foi retirada logo após a sua floração; manejo 2 (M2 - família conduzida com planta-mãe (manejo convencional. As subparcelas corresponderam a doze épocas de seleção das plantas-filha, selecionadas no estádio de chifrão, iniciando em fev./02 e finalizando em jan./03. As características avaliadas foram: a período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha (período em dias entre a data de seleção da planta-filha e a sua colheita; b massa do cacho das plantas-filha. Diante dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se: o manejo da planta-mãe não influenciou a massa do cacho da planta-filha; o manejo da planta-mãe alterou o período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha, sendo esse menor naquelas conduzidas sem a planta-mãe (M1; a época de seleção influenciou a massa do cacho e o período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of managing banana mother plants and time of selection of sucker on their productive characteristics, using the cultivar 'Prata Anã´ (Musa spp. genomic group AAB. The crop was planted in March 1997, spaced by 3.5 m x 2.0 m. An experimental area of 2.1 hectares was demarcated in February 2002. A split-plot design was used incorporating a completely random design with three replications. The plots consisted of five plants submitted to two managements: M1 - hill managed without the mother plant, which was removed right after flowering; M2 - hill managed with the mother

  19. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  20. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  1. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  2. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  3. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  4. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  5. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  6. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  8. COMPONENTS OF CELL WALL, ENZYME ACTIVITY IN PEDICEL AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BANANAS TO FINGER DROP

    OpenAIRE

    GLORIA ANNABELL COBEÑA RUIZ; LUIZ CARLOS CHAMHUM SALOMÃO; DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA; SEBASTIÃO TAVARES DE REZENDE; LEILA CRISTINA ROSA DE LINS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A major problem in post-harvest handling of bananas is the individual detachment of the fruit from the hands. This study aimed to establishing the relationship between carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity in the pedicel region of three cultivars of bananas, resistant and susceptible to natural dropping, during post-harvest ripening, and the susceptibility of bananas to finger dropping. Cultivars ‘Terra’ (plantain, AAB group) and ‘Prata’ (banana, AAB group) triploids and th...

  9. "Banana-mania." Gender Politics in Yoshimoto Banana's Works and Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Mekkin Guðmundsdóttir Beck 1988

    2011-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana, a popular female writer in Japan, writes stories about Japanese adolescents finding their way in Japan. A great majority of them are female and must face a culture where there are basically separate worlds for men and women, the domestic and the corporate. The characters do not seem to experience this even if it is evident in the texts. Banana’s writing shows that women and men have a real hard time relating to each other, resulting in alienation in their divided worlds. Her...

  10. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia de Maria Borges; Joelma Pereira; Eliseu Marlônio Pereira de Lucena

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp.) verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fra...

  11. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSchubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I. In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the active odor components, use these compounds as stimuli and measure odor-induced Ca2+ signals in input and output neurons of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL, the first olfactory neuropil. We demonstrate that mixture interactions of a natural blend are very rare and occur only at the AL output level resulting in a surprisingly linear blend representation. However, the information regarding single components is strongly modulated by the olfactory circuitry within the AL leading to a higher similarity between the representation of individual components and the banana blend. This observed modulation might tune the olfactory system in a way to distinctively categorize odor components and improve the detection of suitable food sources. Functional GC-I thus enables analysis of virtually any unknown natural odorant blend and its components in their relative occurring concentrations and allows characterization of neuronal responses of complete neural assemblies. This technique can be seen as a valuable complementary method to classical GC/electrophysiology techniques, and will be a highly useful tool in future investigations of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical interactions.

  12. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  13. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  14. Nitrogênio e potássio em bananeira via fertirrigação e adubação convencional-atributos químicos do solo Nitrogen and potassium application on banana plant by fertirrigation and conventional fertilization-soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Junqueira Teixeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em Pindorama (SP, no qual se avaliaram os efeitos da fertirrigação e da adubação convencional com N e K em alguns atributos químicos de solo sob cultivo com bananeira, durante dois ciclos de produção. Avaliaram-se a disponibilidade e a movimentação de nutrientes (P, K, Ca e Mg no perfil do solo, bem como outros atributos químicos (matéria orgânica, acidez e saturação por bases, por meio de amostragens realizadas na implantação do experimento e ao final do primeiro e segundo ciclos de produção. Os principais efeitos dos tratamentos foram no pH do solo e no teor de K+ trocável. A adubação, tanto aplicada via fertirrigação como na forma convencional, implicou incrementos na acidez do solo, principalmente até 20 cm de profundidade. Observou-se que o impacto da adubação via fertirrigação no pH do solo foi proporcional à dose. A adubação convencional também causou decréscimo no pH, especialmente na região mais próxima das plantas, refletindo o efeito da aplicação localizada dos fertilizantes. A aplicação de adubo sólido na superfície do solo determinou significativo acúmulo de K nas camadas até 20 cm e na região mais próxima ao pseudocaule das plantas. Os efeitos da adubação via fertirrigação foram mais difusos, visto que os adubos são espalhados numa área de solo maior do que a coberta pela adubação convencional.A field experiment was carried out in Pindorama (Sao Paulo State, Brazil in which it was evaluated the effects of N and K application through fertirrigation and conventional fertilization on soil chemical properties in a banana plantation, during two cycles of production. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg availability and movement in soil profile and some chemical properties (organic matter, pH and base saturation were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation and at the end of the first and second production cycles. The most important treatment

  15. 海南香蕉产业风险及预警对策研究%Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕群; 曾小红; 方佳

    2011-01-01

    . The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees. And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech - training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  16. PCR multiplex para a detecção de BSV e CMV em bananeiras micropropagadas Multiplex PCR for detection of Banana streak virus and Cucumber mosaic virus from micropropagated banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vasquez Figueiredo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Um protocolo de PCR multiplex foi estabelecido para a detecção do Banana streak virus (BSV e do Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV em bananeiras micropropagadas. Estes vírus são responsáveis por perdas na produção de bananas em todo o mundo. Alguns trabalhos descrevem a integração do BSV no genoma B da bananeira. Contudo, a existência de bananeiras híbridas livres do BSV tem sido demonstrada. Ademais, determinadas estirpes do CMV não são transmitidas mecanicamente sob condições de laboratório, nem tampouco detectadas por testes sorológicos. Como conseqüência, a indexação de matrizes para cultura de tecido algumas vezes se mostra ineficiente. A metodologia apresentada neste trabalho sobrepõe esta dificuldade, pois se baseia na detecção do ácido nucléico viral presente em amostras foliares de bananeira. Na reação, foram usados os oligonucleotídeos BADNA 1A e BADNA 4, para a detecção do BSV, e "CMV senso" e "CMV antisenso" para a detecção do CMV. Após a eletroforese foi verificada a presença de dois fragmentos de DNA amplificados simultaneamente, um dos quais com 597 pb correspondente ao BSV e o outro, com 488 pb, correspondente ao CMV. Este resultado indica que o PCR multiplex pode ser utilizado como uma ferramenta adicional na indexação do BSV e do CMV em bananeiras propagadas por cultura de tecido.A protocol for multiplex PCR assay was established to detect both Banana streak virus (BSV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV in micropropagated banana cultivars. These viruses are responsible for losses in banana production worldwide. Previous reports have described the integration of BSV in banana genome B. However, the existence of hybrid BSV-free banana cultivars has been reported. Moreover, there have been reports that some CMV strains cannot be mechanically transmitted under laboratory conditions and are not always detected by serological assays. Therefore, the selection of virus-free mother plants for tissue culture is

  17. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  18. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  19. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  20. Impacts of Low Temperature in winter on Banana Production and Yield Losing Evaluation in Guangxi Province%冬季低温对广西香蕉生产及产量损失影响评估初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世业; 谭宗琨; 包辉昌

    2012-01-01

    通过对广西香蕉生产代表县1980—2008年产量与冬季低温关系分析.结合2008/2009—2010/2011年冬季香蕉大田生产灾情调查验证,结果表明:香蕉遭受辐射型、平流型寒冻害影响后表观症状差异明显,且导致产量损失的关键气象因子与天气类型有关。在此基础上,补充和完善了香蕉寒冻害等级指标。%Based on the low temperature data in winter and the banana yields of banana planting representative counties during 1980-2008 ,combined with the Banana cold disaster investigation in the winter of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011, the relationship between the banana yields and winter low temperature was analyzed. It shows that there is an obvious difference in freeze injury symptoms when bananas suffered radiation-type and advection-type cold damage. The key meteorological factors causing banana's yield losses are related to weather situation. And the banana cold damage indicators are supplement and improved.

  1. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF FHIA-01 (HYBRID DESSERT BANANA PROPAGATED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND CONVENTIONAL SUCKER IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-propagated plants of FHIA-01 (exotic hybrid dessert banana were grown and their shoot-tip cultures were produced following standard method. Suckers were taken from the same plants as with the shoot-tip culture samples. The design was the randomly complete block. The plant density was 1667 plants/ha. Plants were fertilized at the rate of 40t/ha poultry manure per year split over 3 equal applications. Statistical analysis of data was performed with ANOVA. The field performance of in vitro propagated (tissue culture tetraploid banana (FHIA-01 plants was compared with that of sucker-derived plants. In vitro-propagated plants established and grew faster, taller (240 cm and bigger than the conventional sucker-derived plants. The former produced heavier bunches (39.1 t/ha and could be harvested earlier. They however produced smaller number of fingers than the conventional sucker-derived plants. Significant differences were observed between the plant height and plant girth (48.6 cm (at one metre above ground at harvest. No significant difference was observed in bunch weight, number of hands, number of fingers and the number of leaves at harvest. The nutrient used in the Tissue culture medium may have played a significant role in the growth vigour of FHIA-01. It may also be having an influence on the performance of the hybrid. This influence may improve the yield of the crop thus improving the economy of farmers.

  3. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prasanta K.; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit “Banana” remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana. PMID:27833619

  4. Success evaluation of the biological control of Fusarium wilts of cucumber, banana, and tomato since 2000 and future research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong

    2017-03-01

    The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum strains is the most devastating disease of cucumber, banana, and tomato. The biological control of this disease has become an attractive alternative to the chemical fungicides and other conventional control methods. In this review, the research trends and biological control efficiencies (BCE) of different microbial strains since 2000 are reviewed in detail, considering types of microbial genera, inoculum application methods, plant growth medium and conditions, inoculum application with amendments, and co-inoculation of different microbial strains and how those affect the BCE of Fusarium wilt. The data evaluation showed that the BCE of biocontrol agents was higher against the Fusarium wilt of cucumber compared to the Fusarium wilts of banana and tomato. Several biocontrol agents mainly Bacillus, Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, nonpathogenic Fusarium, and Penicillium strains were evaluated to control Fusarium wilt, but still this lethal disease could not be controlled completely. We have discussed different reasons of inconsistent results and recommendations for the betterment of BCE in the future. This review provides knowledge of the biotechnology of biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber, banana, and tomato in a nut shell that will provide researchers a beginning line to start and to organize and plan research for the future studies.

  5. Potency of six isolates of biocontrol agents endophytic Trichoderma against fusarium wilt on banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taribuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistance against fusarium wilt. Endophytic Trichoderma was obtained from healthy roots of banana from three regencies in Yogyakarta, namely Trichoderma harzianum.swn-1, T. harzianum.swn-2, T. harzianum.psr-1, T. asperrellum, T. gamsii, and T. koningiopsis. Research on induced resintance was conducted in the greenhouse with polybag using Completely Randomized Design with 14 treatments and 3 replications. The results showed that the ability of Trichoderma gamsii antagonism against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was 60.61%. T. asperellum and T. harzianum.swn-2 could suppress this disease resulted in disease intensity of 8.33% which categorize as resistant. Trichoderma harzianum.psr-1 was significantly different in stimulating plant vegetative growth. Induced resistance by using endophytic Trichoderma spp. against  F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense showed increase in total phenolic compounds on the third and fourth weeks as well as peroxidase activity on the third, fourth and fifth weeks.  Observation of lignification on  the fifth week  showed that lignification occurred in root xylem

  6. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  7. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Slamet Minardi; Sri Hartati1); Hery Widijanto; Defi Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 =...

  8. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  9. Pathological Status of Pyricularia angulata Causing Blast and Pitting Disease of Banana in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Sangeetha; Singh, Hari Shankar; Petikam, Srinivas; Biswal, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of leaf blast on nursery plants and pitting disease on maturing banana bunches has been recorded in banana plantations during rainy season in Eastern India during 2014 to 2015. Taxonomical identification as well as DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of fungus isolated from affected tissue culture derived plantlets and fruits confirmed the pathogen to be Pyricularia angulata Hashioka “in both the cases”. Koch’s postulates were proved on young plantlets as well as on maturing fruits of cv. Grand Naine under simulated conditions. Evolutionary history was inferred and presented for our P. angulata strain PG9001 with GenBank accession no. KU984740. The analysis indicated that the P. angulata is phylogenitically distinct from other related species related to both Pyricularia and Magnaporthe. Detailed symptoms of blast lesions on young leaves, transition leaves, mid rib, petioles, peduncle, maturing bunches, bunch stalks and cushions were documented. Notably, the distinct small pitting spots on maturing bunches reduced the visual appeal of mature fruits. Appearance of pitting symptoms on fruits in relation with age of fruits and their distribution pattern on bunch and fingers was also documented in detail. Further, the roles of transitory leaves, weed hosts, seasonality on disease occurrence have also been documented. PMID:28167884

  10. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  11. The Nematicidal Effect of Camellia Seed Cake on Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne javanica of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Kang; Su, Lanxi; Li, Hongmei; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L) showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression. PMID:25849382

  12. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved...

  13. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  14. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  15. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  16. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  17. Investigation on chilling affected banana plantations during early spring season and restoration strategies%2011年早春我国香蕉寒害调查及寒害后恢复对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贵美; 李小泉; 韦绍龙; 邹瑜; 牟海飞; 李朝生; 韦华芳; 张进忠

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解2011年早春低温对我国香蕉生产的影响,提出寒害后香蕉恢复生产的技术措施,为香蕉抗寒栽培提供技术支持.[方法]2011年3月9~16日对我国香蕉主产区广西、广东、海南、云南、福建进行分片区实地寒害调查,对挂果株及待生产用的大、中、小吸芽进行田间解剖分析诊断.[结果]挂果株受寒害影响较吸芽植株敏感,大、中、小吸芽抗寒能力依次增强;同纬度区域高海拔香蕉受寒害比低海拔严重;此次低温对广西中部区域香蕉影响最为严重,挂果株产量损失超过50%,且只能留中小型吸芽作为生产株;广东、海南区域香蕉受寒害影响最小,其他区域居中.[建议]采用覆盖天地膜过冬、喷水保湿、套袋护果御寒等措施;选留受寒害后萌发的吸芽为下造生产株,做好蕉园管理工作,促进吸芽早萌发、早定芽;选育抗寒品种.%[ Objective ]The experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of low temperature on banana yield during early spring season of the year 2011 in order to develop proper measures for recovering banana plantations after being injured, and to sustain banana production under cold temperature conditions. [Method]Investigations were carried out to observe the effects of chilling temperatures on banana plantations in main banana production regions viz., Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan, and Fujian from March 9th to March 16th, 2011. Large, middle and small sized banana suckers and fruited plants were dissected and diagnosed under field conditions. [Result]The results showed that the fruited banana plants were more sensitive to low temperature compared to suckers. Large sized suckers responded more imperceptibly in cold weather compared to the smaller ones. The chilling damages to banana plants were more severe at high altitude compared to low altitude at same latitude. Banana plantations in central areas of Guangxi were severly affected

  18. Determination better culture medium in the establishment phase for the in vitro propagation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancasi-Espejo Ruth Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology of the Department of Biological and Natural Sciences of the Amazonian University of Pando, in 2014. The aim of the study was to determine better culture medium in the establishment phase for propagation in vitro banana (Musa paradisiaca L., 20 were selected and characterized mother plants NTRCA (New Technology Research Center Amazonia. A completely random design (CRD with three different culture media was used. The culture media were M1 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and L-cysteine 2 ml /L, M2 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented charcoal 2 g/L, M3 Murashige and Skoog (MS supplement-ed with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and cítrico100 mg/L acid. The variables evaluated were: The survival of the former Plantes, where contamination and oxidation was observed. The results showed that in the first phase of establishment, the best answer for the survival of the former Plantes banana (Musa paradisiaca, was with the culture medium 3, where a lower degree of oxidation (0.26 and pollution for all explants was obtained was 28%.

  19. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  20. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  1. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  2. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  3. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease dia

  4. Impact of Diseases on Export and Smallholder Production of Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ma, Li Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15 of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cu

  5. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  6. Integrating banana and ruminant production in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, Harry; Gourdine, Jean Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; Tournebize, Regis; Bassien-Capsa, Mylène; González-García, Eliel

    2012-08-01

    Using a mechanistic model, we compared five alternative farming systems with the purpose of transforming monoculture (MON) banana farms into mixed farming systems (MFS) with ruminants feeding banana by-products (leaves, pseudostems and nonmarketable fruits) and forage from the fallow land. The paper presents the main structure of the model (land surface changes, available biomass for animals, stocking rates, productive or reproductive indicators), and impact assessment (change in farm productivity) is discussed. Five MFS with typical local ruminant production systems were used to compare MON to the strategies using forage from fallow and/or integrating Creole cattle (CC), Creole goats (CG) or Martinik sheep (MS) into banana farming. One hectare MON shifted into an MFS allows a stocking rate of 1,184, 285, and 418 kg of live weight per hectare for CC, CG and MS, respectively. Banana by-products seem to be better valorized by the CC scenario. However, parameters such as length of the cycle, local prices for cattle, goat and sheep meat, work time and farmer's skills in ruminant management may have been taken into account by the farmer when choosing the ruminant species to rear.

  7. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  9. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1 (TEF-1) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, compri

  10. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group) a

  11. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  12. Risk zoning of cold damage to banana in Hainan Island%海南岛香蕉寒害风险区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海平; 王春乙; 张京红; 蔡大鑫; 刘少军; 车秀芬

    2013-01-01

    依据自然灾害风险分析理论和海南岛历年气候、DEM、耕地面积、香蕉种植面积和产量资料,借助GIS技术,对海南岛香蕉寒害的致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境敏感性、易损性和防寒抗灾能力进行了分析和区划,在此基础上建立了综合的香蕉寒害风险指数,并将该指数应用于海南岛香蕉寒害的风险区划.结果表明,海南岛中部为香蕉寒害高和次高风险区,东部和南部为香蕉寒害次低和低风险区,其余地区为中等风险区.%Based on risk analysis theory of natural disasters and data of climate,DEM,cultivated area,banana planting area and yield of Hainan Island over years and GIS technology,the hazard of disaster-causing factors,sensitivity of disaster-pregnant environments and vulnerability and disaster prevention ability against cold damage to banana in Hainan Island were analyzed and zoned.Furthermore,a comprehensive risk index model of cold damage to banana was constructed to divide the risk zone of cold damage to banana in Hainan Island.Results show that the highest and second-highest risk zones of cold damage to banana are located in the middle areas of Hainan Island,while the lowest and second-lowest risk zones are located in the eastern and southern areas.

  13. 假茎回收式香蕉茎叶粉碎机的设计%The Development of Recycling Type Banana Leaf Shredder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金燐; 张喜瑞; 李粤; 梁栋

    2016-01-01

    Banana straw contains high nutrition , if recycling will be a huge plant resources , current domestic develop-ment of banana stalk shredder mostly straw shattered after returning directly , and the little research that is shattered after the recycling machine .Aiming at this problem , we design a false stem recycling type crusher , banana leaf describes the overall design of the machine and structure of the main components .This machine is divided into false stem shattered in-stitutions and two parts in crushing mechanism , is mainly composed of a cutting device , spiral rotary device , double disc type false stem cutting device , lifting device , transmission device , fake stem crushing device , transmission channel , blade grinding device and banana straw debris collection device and so on , banana stem shattered , stem fragments recov-ery, in crushing counters-field set in one body .This machine design for the banana leaf resource utilization equipment research and development provides a feasible new models , for subsequent processing of banana false stem use reserve the necessary technology .%香蕉假茎含有较高的营养成分,若回收利用将是一种巨大的植物资源。目前,国内研制的香蕉秸秆粉碎机大多为假茎粉碎后直接还田,而对其粉碎后回收的机器研究很少。为此,设计了一种假茎回收式香蕉茎叶粉碎机,确定了其总体设计方案及主要部件的结构。该机分为假茎粉碎机构和蕉叶粉碎机构两部分,主要由切稍装置、螺旋扶茎装置、双圆盘式假茎切断装置、升降装置、传送装置、假茎粉碎装置、输送通道、叶片粉碎装置和假茎碎片收集装置等组成,将香蕉假茎粉碎、假茎碎片回收及蕉叶粉碎还田集于一体。该机的设计为香蕉茎叶资源利用设备的研发提供了可行的新型机型,为后续香蕉假茎的深加工利用储备了必要的技术。

  14. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  15. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  16. On the distribution of scaling hydraulic parameters in a spatially anisotropic banana field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Carlos M.

    2005-06-01

    density function for the scaling parameters, αi. Some indications for the origin of these disagreements, in terms of population size and test constraints, are pointed out. Visual inspection of normal probability plots can also lead to erroneous results. The scaling parameters αθ and αK show a sinusoidal spatial variation coincident with the underlying alignment of banana plants on the field. Such anisotropic distribution is explained in terms of porosity variations due to processes promoting soil degradation as surface desiccation and soil compaction, induced by tillage and localized irrigation of banana plants, and it is quantified by means of cross-correlograms.

  17. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  18. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Brink, van den Paul J.; Tedengren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and

  19. Banana skin: a novel material for a low-cost production of laccase

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Johann Faccelo Osma

    2008-01-01

    Laccases (benzenodiol: oxygen oxidoreductases; EC 1.10.3.2) are multicopper oxidases of wide substrate specificity mainly found in white-rot fungi, which are the only microorganisms able to degrade the whole wood components, but they are also expressed in bacteria and higher plants. Laccases are used currently in biotechnological processes because this enzyme oxidizes both phenolic and non-phenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. In this work banana skin has been selected as a supporting material for laccase produntion because of its high content in carbohydrates, which due to their organic nature are easily metabolized by the fungus. In addition, its content in ascorbic acid exerts an inhibitory effect against bacteria. The activity of the produced laccase is tested in decoloration studies.

  20. 基于单片机控制的香蕉秸秆粉碎机的设计%Research of Banana Stalk Crusher Based on Single Chip Microcomputer Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张燕

    2014-01-01

    In the production process of the banana planting , rational utilization of banana straw has become an important part of the banana industry , scale development .Banana planting industry in our country has been using the traditional manual processing of straw , which is a very hard work ,which requires a lot of manpower and greatly reduce the labor in-tensity of workers and improve the production efficiency .Therefore , there will be designed to provide a banana stalk crusher and a kind of efficient , practical set cutting , crushing one .The machine based on single chip microcomputer is full automatic control ,pressure sensor and step motor to realize the reasonable step motion , can better solve the problem of banana stalk crushing .%在香蕉种植生产过程中,香蕉秸秆的合理利用成为了香蕉产业化、规模化发展的重要组成部分。我国香蕉种植业一直采用传统的人工方式处理秸秆,既耗费大量的人力物力,又大大降低了生产效率且工人劳动强度高。为此,设计一种效率较高、实用性较强的集切割、粉碎一体的香蕉秸秆粉碎机。该机械基于单片机进行全程自动控制,压力传感器与步进电机合理配合实现各运动,能较好地解决香蕉秸秆粉碎的处理问题。

  1. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, Michael W; Novák, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cytokinin (CK) levels of in vitro-cultured and greenhouse-acclimatized 'Williams' bananas treated with six aromatic CKs were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The underground parts had higher endogenous CK levels than the aerial parts. Control plantlets had more isoprenoid CKs while the aromatic-type CKs were predominant in all other regenerants. Following acclimatization of the control and 10 μM CK regenerants, there was a rapid decline in both isoprenoid and aromatic CK in the greenhouse-grown plants. Apart from the control and 6-(3-Methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (MemTTHP) treatment with higher level of isoprenoid CK, aromatic CK remain the predominant CK-type across all CK treatments. The most abundant CK forms were meta-topolin (mT) and benzyladenine (BA) in the micropropagated and acclimatized plants, respectively. Micropropagated plantlets had cis-Zeatin (cZ) as the major isoprenoid CK-type which was in turn replaced by isopentenyladenine (iP) upon acclimatization. On a structural and functional basis, 9-glucoside, a deactivation/detoxicification product was the most abundant and mainly located in the underground parts (micropropagation and acclimatization). The results establish the wide variation in metabolic products of the tested aromatic CKs during micropropagation and acclimatization. The findings are discussed with the possible physiological roles of the various CK constituents on the growth and development of banana plants.

  2. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  3. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  4. ESTUDO DA CORRELAÇÃO DOS TEORES DE P, K, Al, Ca e Mg NO SOLO, COM A ALTURA DE BANANEIRAS DO CULTIVAR “MARMELO”, NA EMISSÃO DO CACHO P, K, Al, Ca, AND Mg SOIL CORRELATION STUDY WITH BANANA PLANT HEIGHT CULTIVAR "MARMELO" IN THE BUNCH EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Passos de Castro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A bananeira do cultivar “Marmelo” vem, a cada dia, sendo a melhor opção para os bananicultores, que fornecem frutas às fábricas de doces. Com o aumento dos plantios deste cultivar, necessitou-se de dados concretos, na indicação de glebas, para a formação de bananais, tomando como base a análise do solo. Para isto tomaram-se 40 amostras, constituídas cada uma de 12 sub-amostras, ao redor de 40 touceiras de bananas. Estas touceiras foram escolhidas ao acaso, em um bananal de 2,5 ha, plantado no espaçamento de 3m x 3m, com idade de três anos. Para cada amostra analisaram-se os teores de P, K, Ca + Mg e Al, sendo estes correlacionados com a altura da bananeira correspondente, na emissão da inflorescência. Com base nas análises estatísticas concluiu-se que: a. Em caso de não se indicar adubação, o plantio só deve ser efetuado em solos com mais de 50 ppm. de K; b. A indicação de adubos fosfatados deverá ser feita apenas quando o teor de P no solo for menor que 1 ppm; c. O teor de Ca + Mg do solo deverá ser elevado para 2 (dois mE/100 ml, utilizando-se calcário dolomítico; d. O alumínio tóxico do solo deve ser totalmente neutralizado.

    For commercial banana production, flat fersain is preferable because farm implements and heavy machinery can move early in the fields, but in Goiás, flat land is generally of very low fertility. This study was undertaken to determine the growth of the “Marmelo” banana in this kind of poor soil, using correlations between analyses of soils and the heights of pseudo stems at flowering, and to suggest viable fertilization for its successful growth.

  5. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  6. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Mahouachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain” subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA and cinnamic acids (CA were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  7. 移动式全喂入香蕉茎秆纤维提取机的研制与试验%Development and experiment of full feeding and movable combined machine for banana stalk fiber extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜瑞; 梁栋; 李粤; 王超

    2015-01-01

    为了解决中国香蕉茎秆废弃物带来的环境污染、疾病传播、资源浪费以及火灾事故等问题,该文结合香蕉茎秆粗大、含水量高等特点,通过研究香蕉茎秆喂入、挤水、机械击打刮取等关键机构,设计出一台可移动式全喂入香蕉茎秆纤维提取机,整机主要由茎秆输送装置、喂入装置、滚扎装置、纤维刮取装置、出料装置等部分构成。样机性能试验表明:该机生产率为206.6 kg/h,香蕉茎秆纤维提取率为90.4%,香蕉茎秆纤维含杂率为16.2%,提取100 kg香蕉茎秆纤维能耗为22.3 kW·h,符合生产需求。该研究可为香蕉茎秆纤维提取机的设计提供技术参考,对促进中国热带农业区香蕉产业发展具有重要意义。%Banana is one of the four fruits. The annual banana production is 9×106 t in China, and the banana stem waste is 2.7×107 t. At present, the traditional way to process the banana stem, such as artificial cut, natural decay and dry burning method, is still adopted in the banana planting area in China. These methods not only cause time consuming, high cost and low benefit, but also probably lead to environmental pollution, disease spread, waste of resources, fire accidents and other problems. Meanwhile, banana stalk contains high-quality plant fiber that is lightweight and with strong permeability, which has high economic value and is suitable for the production of medium and top-grade products, such as suits, shirts, ties, and various decorations, as well as fine paper. But nowadays the researches most have focused on the fiber extraction and application of pineapple, corn stalk and cotton stalk, etc. Based on the above issues, we design the fully feeding and movable combined machine for banana stalk fiber extraction, which is mainly composed of conveying device, feeding device, rolling device, fiber extracting device, discharging device, output device and collection roller. Before the machine

  8. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  9. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  10. The Use of Genetic Variability Analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense for Breeding Resistance of Banana against Fusarium Wilting Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Ruhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilting on banana crop caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is one of the important disease in banana plant in Indonesia. This disease can cause plant to wilt and die, therefore bringing loss to the banana farmer and entrepreneur. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense genetic variability analysis techniques can be done by in vitro or in vivo. One of F.oxysporum f. sp. cubense genetic variability analysis techniques by in vitro is RAPD-PCR. In this research, analysis is continued with pathogen test. Genetic variability analysis by in vivo is needed to determine the level of pathogen and the race. The result of genetic variability techniques by RAPD-PCR done by this writer indicates that there is a big relation/link difference between isolats from different island. Isolat from Mojokerto (East Java is 100% genetically different compared to the one from West Sumatera. Later, result of pathogen test shows that Pisang Ambon Kuning is the most resilient compared to Pisang Raja and William Cavendish. Based on the level of pathogen, there are two race grouping, which are race 1 that attacks Pisang Ambon Kuning and race 4 that attacks Pisang Raja and William Cavendish. Scott-Knott analysis on 26 isolats results in no real difference between isolats tested.

  11. Primary Experiment of Foliwell TM-Garl Against Nematodes of Banana%无线美防治香蕉线虫试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 李钟明

    2014-01-01

    为了减轻香蕉线虫危害,研究了新型防线虫药剂---无线美对香蕉线虫病的防治效果及对香蕉植株外观的影响。结果表明:与常规药剂相比,无线美不但能有效防治香蕉线虫病,而且对香蕉的叶长、叶宽、茎粗及根系生长有促进作用。%In order to reduce the harm of nematodes for banana ,the control effects of new pesticide FoliwellTM-Garland on nematodes and plant appearance were studied .The results showed compared with normal pesticide , FoliwellTM-Garland could promote the growth of leaf length ,leaf width ,stem diameter and root of banana ,and could control nematodes effectively .

  12. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  13. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  14. Identification of Potential for Banana in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. MANTEL; ZHANG XUELEI; ZHANG GANLIN

    2003-01-01

    Land use alternatives are sought to boost agricultural income and productivity in Hainan Island, China.Regional differences exist in crop limitations, such as typhoon risk, low temperatures, poor soil fertility, and drought. In this study a crop zonation was made for a range of crops, among which is banana, as a way to: 1)establish areas for potential expansion for banana, and 2) identify limitations and options for crop and land management. A spatial soil and terrain database of Hainan Island (1:250 000) was linked to the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The qualitative models were verified by comparing suitability maps with actual land use. The results may support policy formulation on issues such as alternatives to current land use, assessment of best management practices, and the need for fertilizer programmes.

  15. 从a hand of bananas 说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞洛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 英语怎么说“一串香蕉”?我们可以说a bunch of bananas,也可以说a handof bananas.但是,后者更趋形象生动.名词hand在此起双重作用,它既表示“串”(bunch),相当汉语“量词”,又含有一种巧妙的比喻,bananas为本体,而hand则成了喻体.类似a hand of bananas的表达在英语中不为鲜见.如hand这样起双重作用的名词可作以下分类.

  16. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  17. A study of Yoshimoto Banana : Focusing on expression of sense

    OpenAIRE

    李, 銀炯

    2003-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana's 'expression of sense' is based on human five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching). And her 'expression of sense' seems to be connected to the theme of her works by describing or implying mood, consciousness and feeling. 'Expression of sense' can reveal the individuality of a writer more than any other lingual expression because it is based on human subjectivity. In that point of view, I considered how her 'expression of sense'(which intend to bring great ef...

  18. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M. [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  19. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  20. 滚筒刮拉式香蕉茎秆纤维刮取装置参数优化与试验%Experiment of parameter optimization of fiber roller-scraping device for banana stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜瑞; 王超; 梁栋; 李粤

    2016-01-01

    Banana stalk is the main byproduct of banana after harvest. According to statistics, the annual banana production is more than 9 000 000 t in China, and the banana stalk is about 36 600 000 t. Traditionally, quantities of banana stalk are discarded in the field to naturally decay in the main banana planting areas in China, which leads to serious environment pollution, disease spread, waste of resources and other problems due to thick and large banana stalk as well as its high moisture content. Recent studies find that the banana stalk not only contains a variety of nutrients and organic matter, which can effectively increase the organic content of soil, but also is rich in high-quality plant fiber that is light-weight with good moisture absorption and heat dissipation, so it suits for the production of high-grade paper, clothes, ties, and so on. But nowadays domestic and foreign researches most focuse on the immersion method and the biochemical method, and the development of banana stalk fiber extracting device is rarely reported both at home and abroad. Based on the above issues, a fiber roller-scraping device for banana stalk was put forward in this paper, which is mainly composed of clamping device, scraping anvil, scraping roller, cabinet, grid plate, smoothing device, output belt, rack, and recycling box. Before experiment, the roller scraping device needs to be installed in the platform of fiber scraping device for banana stalk, and the banana stalk needs to be cut into slices. After the machine operates steadily, the slices of banana stem are continuously brought into the space between scraping roller and scraping anvil (the distance is 5 mm) in the scraping device with the transmission of the clamping device. Scraping roller rotates with high speed by means of adjustable-speed electric motor power through conveyor belt, and when it scraping, the constant hit makes the banana stem fiber’s biological tissue broken, and separates the disintegrating slag from

  1. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  2. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  3. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Crous, Pedro W.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  4. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  5. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening.

  6. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  7. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  8. Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address

  9. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  10. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  11. 香蕉茎杆收集预处理模式研究%Study on Desiccation and Collection Models for Banana Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继武; 李乐

    2015-01-01

    该研究对香蕉茎杆采用了8种干燥脱水处理和3种香蕉茎杆收集模式试验,结果显示将样品经粉碎、压缩后置于滤网上室外晾晒的干燥脱水效果最佳,含水率从90.5%降至19.93%,重量减轻了75.2%;储存3~6个月,含水率在17%~20%,容积降低至原来鲜品的30%~40%,基本上达到了干燥储存的要求。据此初步形成了香蕉植株-锯倒-粉碎-压榨-运输-干燥-储存的香蕉茎杆、干燥脱水集中收集的模式,为下一步企业对香蕉茎杆资源化利用奠定了一定的基础。%ln this study, 8 kinds of desiccation models and 3 kinds of col ection models were studied for banana stems. The results showed that the crushing-com-pression-air drying processing model showed the best desiccation effect for banana stems. Under this desiccation model, the moisture content was reduced from 90.5%to 19.93% with weight reduced by 75.2%; after 3 to 6 months of storage, the mois-ture content was stil remained within 17%-20%, and the volume was decreased to 30%-40% of the original volume of fresh banana stems. This desiccation model made banana stems basical y meet the requirements by drying storage. The plant-cutting down-crushing-compression-transportation-desiccation-storage production model was initial y developed for desiccation and col ection of banana stems, which would lay a certain foundation for the utilization of banana stem resource by enterprises.

  12. Investigation on the Species of Banana Insect Pests and Their Damages in Yunnan Province%云南香蕉害虫种类及发生危害调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志祥; 曾莉; 番华彩; 杨佩文; 唐志敏; 石兆云; 白建华; 郭保兴; 段超

    2012-01-01

    The species of insect pests and occurrence damages were investigated in the different growing season and the different banana gardens from 2008 years. 39 species of banana insect pests, and 5 species of molluscs, in Yunnan Province were investigated, and they belong to 8 orders and 21 families, and Basileptafulvipes (Motschusky) was a new record pest banana weevil in Yunnan province. Occurrence and damages regularity of 8 species major banana pests were studied and analyzed, The results showed that the graveness of occurrence damages were the hillside banana gardens, the decentralization planting banana gardens and the wildness adjacent banana gardens. The banana insect pests had two obvious population peaks in one growing season, and occurred from March to May and from September to November separately.%自2008年起对云南香蕉产区不同生长季节、不同蕉园类型的香蕉害虫发生种类及危害进行调查、采样。共采集到危害云南香蕉的害虫种36种,软体动物5种,分属8个目21个科,已鉴定到种的22种,其中褐足角胸叶甲为云南香蕉新记录害虫;发生较普遍、对香蕉危害较大的主要有8种害虫;蕉同类型中以山地蕉同、散户种植蕉园、与野生蕉邻近蕉园、2年以上蕉周的害虫种类多,发生危害较重;生长季节以春季(3~5月)、秋季(9~11月)两季害虫发生较重。

  13. 巴西香蕉苗静置水培营养液配方的初步筛选%Screening of the Nutrient Solution Formulas for Static Hydroponics of Banana (Musa AAA Cavendish Subgroup 'Brazil') Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小娟; 杨腊英; 谢德啸; 周端咏; 魏巍; 郭利佳; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    采用静置水培法,使用4种不同的营养液配方,并以清水培养和椰糠基质栽培为对照,对巴西香蕉苗进行生长比较试验。结果表明:在香蕉苗增加的生物量方面,BXM配方(巴西木植物营养液)处理与椰糠栽培的差异不显著,但与日本园试配方、Hoagland植物营养液配方、1/2 MS培养基营养元素配方和清水培养的差异显著;在株高和叶面积方面,均以椰糠栽培的最大,BXM配方处理的居次,接下来依次是Hoagland植物营养液配方、日本园试配方、1/2 MS培养基配方和清水培养。综上所述,在这4种营养液配方中,BXM配方是巴西香蕉苗生长的最适营养液配方。%In order to study water culture techniques, growths of the banana (Musa AAA cavendish subgroup cv. Brazil) plantlets under the static culture and substrate culture were 'compared. Four nutrient solutions including Hoagland solution, Murashige and Skoog (1/2MS) solution, BXM solution and RSYY solution were used to culture banana plantlets, which grew in tap water or in substrate culture (pearlite as substrate). The data showed that banana plantlets grew well in the four tested nutrient solutions, and there was a significant increase in biomass of the banana plantlets grew in static nutrient solution over that in tap water. Among the four nutrient solutions, the biomass of the banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution was next to that in substrate (pearlite) culture, and was significantly more than that in Hoagland solution, 1/2MS solution and RSYY solution. The indexes such as plant height and leaf area of banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution were largest among the four nutrient solutions, and then that grew in Hoagland solution, RSYY solution and MS solution reduced in turn. In conclusion, the banana plantlets grew best in BXM solution among the four nutrient solutions. So BXM solution is suggested, when growing banana plantlets in water culture.

  14. Functional analysis of DNA 4 coding region from a Chinese Zhangzhou isolate of banana bunchy top virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The DNA 4 coding region of banana bunchy top virus from a Chinese Zhangzhou isolate (BBTV-ZZ) is cloned by PCR. The sequencing analysis shows that it is 351 nucleotides long and it putatively encodes a protein of 116 amino acids. On the basis of a plant binary vector pBin438, the plant expression vector pBBTV-4B harboring the BBTV-ZZ DNA 4 coding region has been constructed and then transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. Xanthi nc) by a Agrobacterium-mediated procedure. Under insect-free condition, movement-defective mutant of CMV-Fny strain (CMV-Fny-△MP) is mechanically inoculated on the lower leaves of transgenic plants. Systemic symptoms with different degrees of severity are developed in the upper uninoculated leaves of transgenic plants at 12 days postinoculation (dpi), while no symptoms can be seen in the uninoculated leaves of untransformed plants at any time. Accumulation of CMV-Fny is detected on the upper uninoculated leaves of transgenic plants, but is not on that of untransformed plants by indirect double antibody sandwich enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The results reveal that transgenic plants have acquired the property of cell-to-cell movement and systemic spread of CMV-Fny-△MP. This suggests that the protein encoded by BBTV-ZZ DNA 4 might have function of viral movement protein.

  15. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  16. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  17. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  18. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl

  19. Detecting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil and symptomless banana tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana produc

  20. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for...; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing season; Harvesting only of hard green...

  1. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  2. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), m

  3. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single satisfa

  4. Influência do ácido giberélico na degradação do amido durante o amadurecimento da banana Influence of gibberellic acid in the starch breakdown during banana ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosecler Miranda Rossetto

    2004-03-01

    of chlorophyll and in mangoes the GA3 was responsible for decrease the activity of amylases and peroxidases. The banana, climacteric fruit, have as main power plant the starch. The starch of banana, depending of the variety, is reduced during the climaterium of value that vary of 12 the 20% to less than 1%, when the fruit is ripened, and the sacharose can increase up to 12 fold, in this time. In hydrolysis of the starch, the amylases seems to play a basic role in the beginning of this degradation, therefore it is given credit that only endoamylases is capable to attack entire granules, supplying substratum performance of other enzymes until the formation of sugars. The aim of this employment was to evaluate the effect of the giberelin A3 in the ripening of the banana, focusing the degradation of the starch. It was observed that the infiltrated phytohormone did not be under influence of the respiratory climacteric, however delayed the degradation of the starch and the accumulation of soluble sugars in at least two days and the peak of total activity of amylases also it was been slow.

  5. Physiological responses in the banana plantlets treateds with strobilurinsRespostas fisiológicas em mudas de banananeira tratadas com estrobilurinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivia Helena Modenese-Gorla da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are reports that strobilurin besides having a fungicide effect can promote physiologic benefits to the plants. However, this effect on banana plants was not studied yet. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of strobirulins on the physiology of banana plantlets. For this purpose, cultivar Grand Naine banana plantlets were transferred to pots containing substrate and kept in a nursery with 50% shading. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments (water, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin and five replications. The treatments were applied at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting at a dose 100 g a. i. ha-1 with manual spray. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, shoot dry matter in strobilurin treated plants were higher than the untreated plants, however, the effect of fungicide treatment was different, being the most pronounced effect of pyraclostrobin compared to azoxystrobin. Plants treated with pyraclostrobin had higher leaf area, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content of leaf total nitrogen than the plants treated with azoxystrobin and water, which did not differ. Strobilurins affect the physiology of the banana plantlets differently, the effect being more pronounced by pyraclostrobin.Há relatos de que estrobilurinas, além de atuarem como fungicida, promovem benefícios fisiológicos às plantas. Assim sendo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de estrobirulinas na fisiologia de mudas de bananeira. Para tal, mudas micropropagadas da cultivar Grand Naine foram repicadas para vasos contendo substrato e mantidas em viveiro a 50% de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (água, azoxistrobina e piraclostrobina e cinco repetições. As estrobirulinas foram aplicadas com pulverizador manual aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a repicagem, na dose de 100 g i. a. ha-1. A altura da planta, di

  6. First report of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  7. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  8. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  9. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  10. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Banana (AA Diploids with Contrasting Levels of Black and Yellow Sigatoka Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most banana cultivars are susceptible to many diseases, whereas Sigatoka leads to greatest yield losses. One of the strategies to overcome this disease is thorough banana genetic breeding which consists in the obtainment of improved (AA diploids which are then crossed with triploids obtaining (AAAB tetraploid disease resistant bananas also presenting other important agronomic characteristics. The prior knowledge of the genetic diversity of (AA diploids, is therefore considered indispensable in order to direct the crosses being made. The objective of the present work was to analyze the genetic diversity of 20 (AA banana diploids with contrasting levels of reaction to yellow and black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella musicola and M. fijensis, respectively, using molecular markers. From the dendrogram data it is shown that a great number of experimental hybrids can be obtained from the combination of genetically different diploids, therefore making the banana genetic breeding program more efficient regarding its objectives.

  12. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  13. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  14. Research advances in comprehensive utilization of banana by-products%香蕉副产品综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈石; 周红玲; 陈丽娜; 郑加协; 林加根

    2012-01-01

    China is a big banana-planting country.Banana stems and leaves and other by-products are important crop resources for future development,but there still have not formed a mature technology for processing and utilization.In this paper,some means for processing and utilization of banana by-products were reviewed,such as returning it to field directly,composting it as organic fertilizer,using it as fiber material,utilizing it as a resource,as feedstuff,as medium for edible fungi,and so on.%中国是香蕉种植大国,香蕉茎叶等副产品是一种很有开发潜力的农作物资源,但还没有形成一套成熟的处理和利用技术。该文阐述了香蕉茎叶等副产品在直接还田、堆制有机肥料、纤维利用、资源化、饲料化和食用菌培养基等方面的处理和利用研究进展。

  15. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  16. Secagem de bananas prata e d'água por convecção forçada Drying of banana prata and banana d'água by forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de variáveis como cultivar, formato (cilindro e disco, branqueamento e condições do ar aquecido (temperatura: 50 e 70 ºC e velocidade: 0,14 e 0,42 m/s sobre o comportamento de secagem convectiva de bananas com uso de modelagem matemática. As bananas foram desidratadas em secador de bandejas e pesada em intervalos pré-determinados. O modelo exponencial foi bem ajustado às curvas de secagem (R²: 0,98-0,99, mostrando que os fatores mais influentes sobre a taxa de secagem foram a temperatura, a velocidade do ar e o branqueamento. De acordo com as constantes cinéticas apresentadas pelo modelo recomenda-se a secagem de banana, em qualquer dos formatos estudados, nas seguintes condições: para banana-prata, uso de branqueamento e secagem a 50 ºC/0,42 m/s; e para banana-d'água, sem uso de branqueamento e secagem a 70 ºC/0,42 m/s.The influence of variables such as cultivar, shape (cylinder and disc, blanching, and heated air conditions (temperatures of 50 and 70 ºC and velocities of 0.14 and 0.42 m/s on convective drying behavior of bananas using mathematical modeling. The bananas were dehydrated in a tray dryer and were weighed in predetermined periods of time. The exponential model showed good agreement with the drying curves (R²: 0.98-0.99 indicating that the factors that influenced the drying rate the most were temperature, air velocity, and blanching. According to the kinetics constants obtained with the model, the drying of bananas is recommended, including all shapes investigated under the following conditions: banana prata, blanching and drying at 50 ºC/0.42 m/s; and banana d'água, no blanching and drying at 70 ºC/0.42 m/s.

  17. Different gamma radiation doses effects of {sup 60} Co on buds of banana plant (Nanicao-AAA) breeded in vitro; Efeito de diferentes doses de radiacao gama do {sup 60} Co em gemas de bananeira (Nanicao-AAA) desenvolvidas in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Dias [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Andrade, Arnobio Goncalves de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Vegetal; Kido, Laureen Michelle Houllou; Franca, Jose Geraldo Eugenio de [Empresa Pernambucasna de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (IPA), Recife, (Brazil); Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Buds from banana cv. Nanicao-AAA (3 mm x 3 mm) were aseptically cultured in a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplement with bezylaminepurine and sucrose, and solidified with agar. Buds placed on sterile Petri dishes were irradiated with increasing gamma rays doses (10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy). The statistical design was completely randomized with 5 doses and 30 replications. After irradiation, buds were transferred to 10 ml of the same medium into test tubes, and allowed to grow in a controlled environment (25 deg C, 16 h illumination ) for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences (Tukey, 0,05) between doses in terms of oxidation: in around 20% for all treatments. On the other hand, a statistically significant decrease in the germination of new buds with increased doses of irradiation was observed. The treatment with 40 Gy reduced in 80% the germination of new buds by the end of the evaluated period (4 weeks), resulting in a mean production of 1,5 buds. Mean production in the control was 7,6 buds. no statistically significant differences were detected between treatments with 10, 20, and 30 Gy, with a mean production of 3 buds, less than half obtained in the control. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzel Diedrik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis, and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody. Results Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs, mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs, proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM. This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP

  19. 香蕉假茎纤维造纸技术的研究%Study on Paper Making Technology of Banana Stem Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈致水; 李粤; 梁栋; 王娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study paper making technology of banana stem fiber. [ Method] The paper quality, paper output, cost and investment on raw material base were analyzed. [ Result ] Paper produced by banana stem fiber was durable without acid substance, the toughness is 30 times more than common paper. Compared with other plant fibers, paper making technology by banana stem fiber has its own advantages at cost, environment etc. [Conclusion] With banana stem as paper making material has profound development value and application prospect.%[目的]对香蕉假茎纤维造纸技术进行研究.[方法]分别对纸质、出纸率、成本、原料基地投资进行分析.[结果]从香蕉假茎中提取的纤维制成的纸张不含酸性物质,很耐用,韧度是一般纸张的30倍,能防火、吸油却不透水;与其他植物纤维相比,香蕉假茎纤维虽然纤维素含量中等,但综合成本、环境各方面的因素,香蕉假茎纤维造纸技术具有一定优势.[结论]香蕉假茎作为造纸原料,具有很大的开发价值和应用前景.

  20. Carbohydrate binding properties of banana (Musa acuminata) lectin I. Novel recognition of internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, H; Winter, H C; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Misaki, A; Goldstein, I J

    2001-05-01

    Examination of lectins of banana (Musa acuminata) and the closely related plantain (Musa spp.) by the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition of precipitation, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that they are mannose/glucose binding proteins with a preference for the alpha-anomeric form of these sugars. Both generate precipitin curves with branched chain alpha-mannans (yeast mannans) and alpha-glucans (glycogens, dextrans, and starches), but not with linear alpha-glucans containing only alpha1,4- and alpha1,6-glucosidic bonds (isolichenan and pullulan). The novel observation was made that banana and plantain lectins recognize internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues, which occur in the linear polysaccharides elsinan and nigeran. Concanavalin A and lectins from pea and lentil, also mannose/glucose binding lectins, did not precipitate with any of these linear alpha-glucans. This is, the authors believe, the first report of the recognition of internal alpha1,3-glucosidic bonds by a plant lectin. It is possible that these lectins are present in the pulp of their respective fruit, complexed with starch.

  1. 香蕉MaPRMT1基因的分离及表达分析%Isolation and Expression Analysis of MaPRMT1 Gene in Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡; 张建斌; 贾彩红; 杨景豪; 徐碧玉; 金志强

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of experiment was to lay molecular foundation for studying maturity mechanism of banana after harvest. [Method] The combined method of suppressing subtractive hybridization and cDNA micro-array were used to obtain cDNA segment of one PRMT gene in banana and the whole cDNA sequence of the gene was cloned.The bioinformatics analysis was operated on it,in addition, the expression profile analysis was conducted in different organs and different mature periods of banana.[Result] The whole length of cDNA in MaPRMT1 was 1 158 bp and possessed a complete open reading frame,which could encode 385 amino acids.It had high homology with PRMT in plant,containing one Methyltransf_1 domain.The MaPRMT1 gene was expressed in root,stem,leaf and fruit of banana and the expression levels in stem and leaf were relatively high.As the increase of days after harvest,the expression level declined gradually,however it reached maximum when ethylene release was biggest,then it declined.[Conclusion] MaPRMT1 belonged to the first kind of arginine methyltransferase and it was expressed differently in different organs and fruits at different mature periods.

  2. A novel source of biofertilizer from feather biomass for banana cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-07-01

    Feather waste is a promising protein biomass available as by-product from poultry processing was found to be rich in peptides, amino acids, and minerals like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper. Soil and foliar application of these products, besides representing a sustainable solution to the problem of feather disposal, may also represent an effective strategy to tackle the environmental effluence. As a consequence, they were also found to be very attractive in elevating the protein, amino acids, reducing sugar, total chlorophyll, and proline content of plants. On the other side, fertilizing effect enhanced the antioxidant potential of banana fruit which was assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine. This was associated with considerably higher antioxidant contents like total phenolics and flavonoids. Therefore, the application of this organic amendment could promote and improve the agro-ecosystem, human health; soil biological activities, and at the same time enhance the production of plant or products rich in bioactive substances.

  3. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  4. Adição de torta de mamona em substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira Effect of addition of castor bean pie in substrates in acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Novais Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira que oferecem qualidade genética e fitossanitária, favorecendo o desenvolvimento, instalação e uniformidade do pomar, é importante para a exploração comercial da bananicultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição da torta de mamona nos substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira da cv. Willians. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, sendo 2 substratos e 5 dosagens de torta de mamona (0; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g vaso-1. O substrato Vivatto Slim Plus® possibilitou o melhor desenvolvimento das plantas na aclimatação. Não são recomendadas doses superiores a 12 g planta-1 de torta de mamona misturadas ao substrato na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira.The use of micropropagated banana tree seedlings offer genetic and phytosanitary qualities, favoring the development, installation and uniformity of the yield and it is very important for the commercial exploration of banana fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor oil plant pie added to the substrate in the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. 'Willians'. It was use the completely randomized, with 10 treatments, being 2 substrates and 5 dosages of castor oil plant pie (0; 6; 12; 18 and 24 g for each recipient. The substrate Vivatto Slim Plus® showed the best development of the plants in acclimatization processes. Dosages above 12 g of castor oil plant pie for each plant are not recommended mixed to the substrate in the acclimatization of banana tree seedlings

  5. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  6. An Electrostatic Lens to Reduce Parallax in Banana Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Esch, P; Medjoubi, K; Esch, Patrick Van; Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Medjoubi, Kadda

    2005-01-01

    Cylindrical "banana" gas detectors are often used in fixed-target experiments, because they are free of parallax effects in the equatorial plane. However, there is a growing demand to increase the height of these detectors in order to be more efficient or to cover more solid angle, and hence a parallax effect starts to limit the resolution in that direction. In this paper we propose a hardware correction for this problem which reduces the parallax error thanks to an applied potential on the front window that makes the electrostatic field lines radially pointing to the interaction point at the entrance window. A detailed analytical analysis of the solution is also presented.

  7. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−26 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Uganda, 21−43 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Burundi and 25−53 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Rwanda). The major causes of poor yields are declining soil fertility and soil moisture stress. In order to ...

  8. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  9. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  10. 海南香蕉根颈象甲产卵选择性研究%Oviposition Preference of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢辉; 王明军; 钟义海; 卢芙萍; 徐雪莲; 陈青

    2011-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), is a kind of important pest on bananas, causing serious damage to many banana gardens in Hainan. In order to clarify the oviposition characteristic of C. Sordidus on the banana in Hainan, and offer the guide for the field controlling technology, the oviposition preference of C. Sordidus adult on the different host plant and leaf sheath, and the oviposition rate with different feeding ways, were studied and analyzed experimentally in the laboratory. The results showed that the oviposition rate of C. Sordidus on Brazil banana (Musa AAA cavendish) and Thailand banana (Musa AAA Croup KlaiHom Thong) was 32.87% and 30.93% separately, which were significantly higher than that on Tai Chiao (Musa AAB Sikl), Plantain (Musa ABA), Huangdi banana (Musa AA Pisang Mas), and Fenjiao (Musa ABB Pisang Awak). The adult preferred to oviposit on the middle leaf sheath, particularly the second leaf sheath, with the highest selectivity coefficient of 45.78%, significantly higher than the others. Moreover, when rotten and fresh banana pesudostem were separately used for oviposition of adult female C. Sordidus, the weekly average oviposition rate was 4 and 2 respectively, indicating that C. Sordidus preferred to oviposite on rotten pesudostem.%为了研究香蕉根颈象甲在海南香蕉上的产卵特性,指导田间防控技术,室内研究了香蕉根颈象甲成虫对寄主植物、叶鞘部位的产卵选择性及不同饲养方式下的产卵率.结果表明,在巴西蕉和泰国蕉上,香蕉根颈象甲的产卵率分别为32.87%和30.93%,均显著高于台蕉、大蕉、皇帝蕉和粉蕉;香蕉根颈甲成虫嗜好在香蕉假茎中部叶鞘产卵,在第2层叶鞘的选择性最高,选择系数为45.78%,显著高于其它几层叶鞘的选择系数;分别提供腐烂和新鲜的香蕉假茎让香蕉根颈象甲产卵,周平均产卵量分别为4粒和2粒,可见,香蕉根颈象甲喜欢在腐烂的假茎上产卵.

  11. Screening and Identification of Antagonistic Organisms against Banana Anthracnose Fungus%香蕉炭疽菌拮抗生防菌株的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗萍; 区建发; 杨炜钊; 方祥

    2011-01-01

    从香蕉组织中分离筛选到18株在平板上对香蕉炭疽菌孢子有明显抑菌活性的菌株,将这18株菌分别与香蕉炭疽菌共同接种到香蕉果指上进行活体防效复筛,发现与清水对照组相比较,AcT-02、AcT-07、AcT-09、AcT-11,AcT-13共5株细菌均表现出显著的防治效果,防效分别为49.77%±4.20%、47.87%±8.97%、63.82%±3.16%、68.15%±48%和73.850%±2.39%,香蕉病情指数显著降低;将该5株菌进行香蕉自然发病的防效试验,发现只有AcT-13菌株具有显著防治效果,其病情指数为18.67%,比对照降低了13%,将AcT-13进行形态学观察、生理生化特性测定以及分子学序列分析,初步将AcT-13菌株鉴定为解淀粉芽孢杆菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.%18 Strains of antagonistic were isolated from plant tissue of banana, which showed strong square inhibition zone in plate containing banana anthracnose spore suspension. And then antagonistic experiments in vivo of banana by artificial infection with banana anthracnose and antagonistic strains were carried out. the result showed that, compared to the control of water, only AcT-02, AcT-07, AcT-09,AcT-11, and AcT-13 could decrease banana anthracnose, with their control effect being of 49.77%±4.20%, 47.87%±8.97%, 63.82%±13.16%,68.15%±2.48% and 73.85%±2.39%, respectively. The disease index significantly discreased. The antagonistic experiment by natural infection with banana anthracnose using the five antagonistic strains showed that only the AcT-I3 fermentation can decreased the disease index of banana anthracnose and the disease index of banana anthracnose was 18.67%, being 13% lower than that of the control. Trough morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterristics, and analysis of gene sequense, the AcT-13 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens .

  12. Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from banana starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F

    2002-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, banana maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of banana glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of banana glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of banana glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. Banana starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of banana maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products.

  13. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-05

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption.

  14. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  15. The correlation between soil factors and the occurrence of banana fusarium wilt%蕉园土壤因子与香蕉枯萎病发病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓; 李勤奋; 侯宪文; 武春媛; 李光义; 洪葵

    2012-01-01

    , available phosphorus, available copper, available iron, available boron and exchangeable calcium were in healthy plots were more than 1.5 times of diseased ones. For the same diseased plots, the soil pH of rhizosphere soil gradually increased with increasing of infection grade of banana plant, while the concentrations of available phosphorus and available boron gradually decreased with increasing of infection grade of banana plant. It was concluded that properly applying phosphate and boron fertilizer contribute to the suppression of banana fusarium wilt in banana plantations.

  16. Desempenho agronômico de bananeiras micropropagadas em Botucatu-SP Agronomic characteristics of micropropagated bananas from Botucatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de bananeira 'Prata-anã', 'Maçã' e 'Nanicão', no município de Botucatu-SP. As mudas provenientes de micropropagação foram aclimatadas em estufa durante noventa dias e, posteriormente, plantadas no campo, conforme as recomendações técnicas para a cultura. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento, como número de dias do plantio à colheita, número de folhas ativas, altura de plantas e diâmetro do pseudocaule, medidas na época de emissão da inflorescência. Também foram mensuradas características de produção, entre as quais o número de frutos, diâmetro, comprimento e peso da segunda penca, peso total das pencas e número de frutos por cacho, na época da colheita. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o ciclo cultural médio variou com as cultivares, sendo de 416 dias, contados do plantio à colheita para a cv 'Nanicão', que foi a mais precoce, seguido da 'Prata-anã' (434 dias e da 'Maçã' (437 dias. As três cultivares apresentaram produtividade estimada no primeiro ciclo (planta-mãe de 30,56 t.ha-1; 19,50 t.ha-1 e 14,37 t.ha-1, respectivamente, para 'Nanicão', 'Prata-anã' e 'Maçã'. Houve correlação positiva entre algumas características de crescimento e produção.The research had as purpose to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of the bananas' cultivars 'Prata-anã' (group AAB, 'Maçã' (group AAB and 'Nanicão' (group AAA under the conditions of Botucatu city, São Paulo state, Brazil. The plants origined by tissue culture were climatizated in greenhouse during 90 days and after they were planted in the yield. Were evaluated the growth parameters as days number between the planting until the harvest , leaf number, plants height and stem diameter at the flowering time. Also, were measured production parameters as fruits number, banana bunches number, fruits diameter, banana bunches weight, height and weight of second banana

  17. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  18. Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Garcia, E; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-09-01

    Banana flour (BF) was obtained from unripe banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) and characterized in its chemical composition. Experimental bread was formulated with BF flour and the product was studied regarding chemical composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. The chemical composition of BF showed that total starch (73.36%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) were the highest constituents. Of the total starch, available starch was 56.29% and resistant starch 17.50%. BF bread had higher protein and total starch content than control bread, but the first had higher lipid amount. Appreciable differences were found in available, resistant starch and indigestible fraction between the bread studied, since BF bread showed higher resistant starch and indigestible fraction content. HI-based predicted glycemic index for the BF bread was 65.08%, which was significantly lower than control bread (81.88%), suggesting a "slow carbohydrate" feature for the BF-based goods. Results revealed BF as a potential ingredient for bakery products containing slowly digestible carbohydrates.

  19. 恩泰克26在灌溉施肥中对香蕉产量和品质的影响%Effect of ENTEC Stabilized Nitrogen on the Yield and Quality of Banana under Fertigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖焱波; 万其宇; 葛旭

    2012-01-01

    田间研究了灌溉施肥中加入硝化抑制剂稳定性氮肥对香蕉产量和品质的影响.结果表明:恩泰克稳定性氮肥处理香蕉单株产量25.2kg/株,折合产量54.8×103 kg/hm2,比对照增产11.0%;香蕉果指数比对照增加15个/株;处理的香蕉可食部分、可溶性糖和Vc指标略高于对照;新型硝化抑制剂3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐在灌溉施肥中具有广阔的应用前景.%Ecological nitrogen technology (ENTEC), a stabilized fertilizer with a nitrate inhibitor, can reduce nitrogen application rate by less nitrate leaching and save labor in European for many crops. In order to reduce nitrogen rate and save labor input in China's banana production, a field experiment was carried out in Nanning to investigate the effects of ENTEC on the yield increase of banana and its quality improvement, and the benefits and coat analysis was estimated thereafter. The results showed that ENTEC increased banana yields over traditional fertilizers management by 11%, the rate of nitrogen from ENTEC applied is less than that from traditional fertilizers at 200 g N per plant. Although cost of ENTEC is higher than that of traditional fertilizers, the benefit of ENTEC is also higher which compensates for the higher input cost of ENTEC, In summary, that fertilized banana with ENTEC is economical viable which offers a new perspective for banana nutrients management under fertigation.

  20. 多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机的有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis to Banana Harvester with Multi Degree of Freedom and Self Looking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢煜海; 曾昭文; 马桂香; 马俊生

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of research and development for large banana planting base of banana harvesting equipment , a multi degree of freedom and self-locking banana harvester was designed .The machine can harvest the various types of bananas .It has the characteristics of self-locking , multi degree of freedom movement , small transport etc .Through the analysis of the working principle of the machine , the finite element model is established for the key parts , and finite ele-ment analysis based on ANSYS is done .The results show that: the stiffness and strength of the harvester key parts can meet the requirements of the job .Design of banana harvester with multi degree of freedom and self locking can be provid-ed as a reference to other similar crop harvesting machinery .%针对大规模香蕉种植基地香蕉收割机具的研发比较缺乏,研制了一种多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机。该机可收割各型株高的香蕉,具有自锁、多自由度动作及小型运输等特点。通过分析该机的工作原理,对其关键零部件建立有限元模型,进行基于ANSYS的有限元分析。结果表明:收割机关键零部件的刚度和强度满足工作要求。自锁式多自由度香蕉收割机的研制可为其他类似农作物收割机具的研制提供参考。

  1. Dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a powerful tool to differentiate banana cultivars based on their volatile metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Marisela; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2012-10-15

    In this study the effect of the cultivar on the volatile profile of five different banana varieties was evaluated and determined by dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (dHS-SPME) combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (1D-GC-qMS). This approach allowed the definition of a volatile metabolite profile to each banana variety and can be used as pertinent criteria of differentiation. The investigated banana varieties (Dwarf Cavendish, Prata, Maçã, Ouro and Platano) have certified botanical origin and belong to the Musaceae family, the most common genomic group cultivated in Madeira Island (Portugal). The influence of dHS-SPME experimental factors, namely, fibre coating, extraction time and extraction temperature, on the equilibrium headspace analysis was investigated and optimised using univariate optimisation design. A total of 68 volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) were tentatively identified and used to profile the volatile composition in different banana cultivars, thus emphasising the sensitivity and applicability of SPME for establishment of the volatile metabolomic pattern of plant secondary metabolites. Ethyl esters were found to comprise the largest chemical class accounting 80.9%, 86.5%, 51.2%, 90.1% and 6.1% of total peak area for Dwarf Cavendish, Prata, Ouro, Maçã and Platano volatile fraction, respectively. Gas chromatographic peak areas were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and stepwise linear discriminant analysis) in order to visualise clusters within samples and to detect the volatile metabolites able to differentiate banana cultivars. The application of the multivariate analysis on the VOMs data set resulted in predictive abilities of 90% as evaluated by the cross-validation procedure.

  2. Occurrence and identification of reniform nematode disease of banana seedling%香蕉假植苗肾形线虫病的发生与病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峡; 张锦恒; 张绍升

    2012-01-01

    据调查,福建省漳州市香蕉组培假植苗普遍遭受肾形线虫侵染.通过观察形态特征,该病原线虫被鉴定为肾状肾形线虫,这是国内首次发现该线虫侵染香蕉组培假植苗.肾形线虫以未成熟雌虫侵染香蕉幼嫩的根组织,虫体前部插入皮层取食,后部在根组织外发育肥大;香蕉肾形线虫成熟雌虫通常为半内寄生,有时完全埋生于根组织内;受侵染的香蕉假植苗根系萎缩、变黑腐烂,地上部植株矮小、生长不良.%Investigation of disease on banana seedling in Zhangzhou, Fujian showed.that banana seedling was seriously infected by reniform nematode. The pathogenetic nematode was identified as Rotylenchulus reniformis based on morphological characteristics, and banana seedling infected by R. reniformis was first reported in China. Immature female was the infective stage of reniforra nematode. On penetration, only the anterior part of the body embedded within the cortical tissue of root, and the posterior part of the body swelled to form a typical kidney-shape out of the root tissue; the mature female of R. reniformis on banana was semi-endoparasite, but sometimes, it could be completely wrapped in root tissue; the infected root of banana seedling was atrophic, black and rotton, and aboveground of the plant was stunted and hypogenetic.

  3. 叶面喷施冠菌素对香蕉幼苗耐寒性的影响%Effects of Coronatine on Cold Tolerance of Banana Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯斗; 榻维言; 黄政树; 黄昌艳

    2009-01-01

    Banana plants of 'Williams hybrid' with 6 unfolded leaves and uniform growth were foliar sprayed with 4 levels (0,1,5 and 10 μmol/L) of concentrations of Coronatine,and their cold resistance was observed under low temperature. The results showed that the foliar spray of Coronatine to the banana plants at the concentrations from 1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L did not improve their cold resistance obviously and that their cold resistance tended to be lower with the increase of the concentration. Only 1 μmol/L treatment showed some effect on the banana plants in improving total SOD total activity,soluble sugar content (the highest) and chlorophylls content,and lowering relative electricity conductivity and MDA content,and this treatment failed to enhance the POD activity of the banana plants.%以生长一致、有6片展开叶的威廉斯香蕉幼苗为试验材料,研究0(CK)、1、5、10μmol/L 4个浓度的冠菌素喷洒香蕉幼苗后对香蕉幼苗耐寒性的影响.结果表明,1~10μmol/L浓度范围的冠笛素对提高香蕉幼苗抗寒性的效果不明显,并且呈浓度越高反而效果越差的趋势.只有1μmol/L的冠菌素对提高香蕉幼苗的SOD总活性、可溶性糖含量和叶绿素含量,以及降低相对电导率和丙二醛含量具有一定的作用.其中对提高可溶性糖含量的效果最明显,但是没有提高POD活性的效应.

  4. Pineapple and banana pectins comprise fewer homogalacturonan building blocks with a smaller degree of polymerization as compared with yellow passion fruit and lemon pectins: implication for gelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Beda M

    2009-04-13

    Pectins are viewed as multiblock cobiopolymers of different pectic polysaccharides, notably, homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). Furthermore, on the basis of HGs isolated from different (pectins from) dicot cell walls, HG is supposed to have an average degree of polymerization (DP) of approximately 100 irrespective of the plant source. To validate or invalidate these suppositions, pectins from both monocot (pineapple and banana) and dicot (yellow passion fruit and lemon) cell walls were examined. The results show that all the extracted pectins comprise HGs as well as type I and II arabinogalactan side chain-containing RGs I, but of significantly (p properties of pectin.

  5. Research progress in chilling injury of banana and its cultivation techniques against chilling%香蕉寒害及防寒栽培技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟海飞; 吴代东; 邹瑜; 林贵美; 张进忠

    2012-01-01

    Banana, sensitive to temperature, is vulnerable to chilling. Accordingly chilling resistance research, chilling forecast and prevention of banana is a long-standing critical challenge of banana production in China. Definition, symptoms and physiology of chilling injury together with meteorology and chilling-resistant cultivation measures were re-viewed based on relevant literaiure in recent 30 years. Key issues in this regard were described as follows: The first, critical concepts concerning banana chilling injury were mixed-up; the second, allogenic. materials could not he used to improve chilling resistance capability in practical production; the third, banana production was mainly distributed in less-suitable planting areas; the fourth, unbalance existed in banana demand and supply after cold injury; and the last, lack of cold-resistant banana cullivars. A series of corresponding countemeasures were put forward in order to provide references for chilling injury research, chilling resistance cultivation , post-disaster production recovery and chilling resistant varieties breeding.%香蕉对温度极为敏感,抗寒性差,香蕉抗寒的研究和预测防御是我国香蕉生产长期存在的关键性难题.文章参考近30年的有关文献,对香蕉的寒害定义、寒害症状、寒害生理学、气象学、防寒栽培措施等进行综述,指出我国香蕉寒害研究存在关键概念混淆、实际生产尚不能应用外源物质提高香蕉抗寒能力、香蕉生产主要分布于种植的次适宜区、香蕉寒害后产供失衡、缺乏抗寒品种等问题,并针对存在的问题提出了相应对策,以期为香蕉寒害的研究、防寒栽培、灾后恢复生产及抗寒品种选育提供参考依据.

  6. 土壤-香蕉幼苗体系中重金属Cd的迁移与分配%Migration and Accumulation of Cadmium in Soil and Banana System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月华; 毕仁军; 江剑侑

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to study the process of absorption and accumulation characteristics of heavy metal Cd2+ in soil and banana system. [ Method] Taking sandy latosol as test soil, banana as test plant, potted cultivation was used to study the characteristics of the concentration and accumulation index of Cd2+ in the soil, root, stem and leaf of banana. [ Result ] The results showed that concentration of Cd2+ had great effects on the enrichment effect in banana seedling, the concentration of Cd2+ was higher, and the enrichment coefficient of banana seedling was smaller. The accumulation of Cd2+ in different parts of banana seedling was very different. Cd2+ were absorbed and attributed in root largely, and few were transported to the above ground part. [ Conclusion] This study can provide theoretical basis for recognizing heavy metals residue in banana seedling, health risk and pollution control.%[目的]研究重金属Cd在土壤-香蕉幼苗体系中的迁移分配规律.[方法]以沙质砖红壤为供试土壤,以香蕉为试验植物,采用盆栽模拟试验方法研究了Cd在土壤、香蕉根系、茎、叶中的浓度和富集系数的变化规律.[结果]不同Cd处理浓度对香蕉苗体内Cd富集效果有很大的影响.当低浓度Cd处理土壤时,富集系数最大,高浓度时富集系数最小.香蕉苗不同部位吸收累积重金属Cd有明显差异,大部分累积在根部,向茎和叶迁移的量较小.[结论]该研究可为科学认识香蕉中重金属的残留问题、健康风险及其污染控制提供理论依据.

  7. Avaliação de genótipos de banana à sigatoca-amarela na amazônia ocidental Evaluation of the bananas genotypes to yellow sigatoka in ocidental amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Siviero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de genótipos de banana em relação à Mycosphaerella musicola foi avaliada em condições naturais de infecção. Foram avaliadas 24 plantas de cada genótipo. As cultivares 'Pacovan' e 'Prata-anã' atuaram como fonte de inóculo do patógeno. A avaliação da doença foi realizada com uso de uma escala de notas variando de 1 (plantas sem sintomas até 8 (folhas velhas e novas com sintomas, obtendo-se o índice de doença pela média ponderada das notas. As cultivares 'Mysore' e 'Nam' e o híbrido 'PA 12-03' foram classificados como suscetíveis ao patógeno. Os demais genótipos 'Yangambi km5', 'Thap Maeo', 'Pelipita', 'Pioneira', 'JV 03-15' e 'PV 03-44' foram classificados como resistentes ao patógeno.The reactions of hybrids and cultivars of banana were evaluated in response to Mycosphaerella musicola in field conditions. A total of twenty-four plants of each genotype were evaluated using 'Pacovan' and 'Prata-anã' cultivars as the source pathogen. The disease response was ranged from 1 to 8, where 1 represented a weak attack with few or no symptoms and 8 when lesions were observed both in young and old leaves. Disease index (DI was calculated for each genotype by multiplying the number of plant with the same scoring by the score and dividing the total by 24 (total mumber of one genotypes. The highest DIs were verified for susceptible genotypes, 'Nam', 'Mysore' and hybrid 'PA 12-03'. 'Yangambi km5', 'Thap Maeo', 'Pelipita', 'Pioneira', 'JV 03-15' and 'PV 03-44' were classified as resistant in our test.

  8. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  9. Biological characteristics of Basilepta fulvipes on banana%香蕉褐足角胸肖叶甲生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝生; 韦华芳; 霍秀娟; 吴代东; 张进忠; 谭柱; 陶里芬; 陆晓清

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究褐足角胸肖叶甲的生物学特性,为害虫防治提供科学依据.[方法]2009~2011年采用室内饲养和大田系统调查法,对褐足角胸肖叶甲的生物学特性进行观察和研究.[结果]褐足角胸肖叶甲在广西南宁1年发生5代,世代重叠,3月底~4月初成虫开始活动,交配产卵,卵产于寄主根部10~15 mm的疏松土层.成虫取食香蕉未完全展开的嫩叶和刚抽蕾的嫩果皮,严重影响香蕉叶片光合作用和果实的外观品质和商品价值.[建议]清除无用的吸芽苗、假茎枯叶和田边杂草,恶化害虫栖息环境;利用害虫的假死习性人工捕杀;适时采用化学药剂防治,并注意轮换用药.%[Objective]The study was made to investigate the biological characteristics of Basilepta fulvipes fed on leaves and fruits of banana (Musa spp.) in order to develop scientific measures for its control. [Method]From 2009 to 2011, the biological charateristics of B. Fulvipes were studied by laboratory breeding and systematic field investigations. \\ Result ] Mating of B. Fulvipes could be observed during late March and early April with 5 generations and overlapping generation each year in Nanning (Guangxi). The eggs were laid in about 10-15 mm loosen soil in banana rhizosphere. Adult B. Fulvipes fed on unexpanded young leaves of banana and its young pericarp, which severely affected the photosynthesis and the quality and commodity value of banana fruits. [Suggestion]The following measures for controlling B. Fulvipes were recom-mended : (1) Removal of useless sucker plants, dead leaves and false stem of banana, and weeds in order to worsen the habitat of B. Fulvipes; (2)Artificial killing according to the feign death habit of B. Fulvipes; (3)Control and prevention of B. Fulvipes alternatively by using chemical control agents.

  10. Effects of Different Fertilization Methods on Banana Growth and Yield%不同施肥方式对香蕉生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国良; 姚丽贤; 张育灿; 杨苞梅; 何兆桓; 周昌敏; 涂仕华

    2011-01-01

    通过研究在施用适量氮磷钾施肥条件下不同施肥方式对香蕉生长和产量的影响,为香蕉施肥技术提供完善的技术支撑.结果表明:全生长期撒施和前期撒施香蕉营养生长期与孕蕾期长势较好,前期水肥抽蕾期香蕉长高增粗,但抽蕾延缓.前期水肥,中、后期沟施或穴施施肥方式能提高果梳重和果指数,改善香蕉果实品质,提高果实风味,增产效果好,然而,由于该方式施肥人工费用较高,利润有所下降.香蕉中后期开沟或穴施肥容易伤根,香蕉感染枯萎病风险相对较大.%The effect of different fertilization methods on banana growth and yield was studied by applying appropriate amount of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizer. The perfect fertilization technology support on banana was provided. The results showed that the banana was growing well at the vegetative growth period and bug period by broadcasting fertilizer during whole growth stages and prophase. The banana grew taller and thicker but floral emergence later at floral emergence period by watering and fertilizing during prophase. The fruit comb weight and the fingers per plant were increased, the fruit quality was improved, tasted good and the yield increasing effect was well however the manpower was high and the profit was low by watering and fertilizing during prophase and furrowing or holing application during metaphase and anaphase. The banana wilt disease infection risk was greater by furrowing or holing application during metaphase and anaphase.

  11. Systemic acquired resistance in Cavendish banana induced by infection with an incompatible strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanli; Yi, Ganjun; Peng, Xinxiang; Huang, Bingzhi; Liu, Ee; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-07-15

    Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). The fact that there are no economically viable biological, chemical, or cultural measures of controlling the disease in an infected field leads to search for alternative strategies involving activation of the plant's innate defense system. The mechanisms underlying systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are much less understood in monocots than in dicots. Since systemic protection of plants by attenuated or avirulent pathogens is a typical SAR response, the establishment of a biologically induced SAR model in banana is helpful to investigate the mechanism of SAR to Fusarium wilt. This paper described one such model using incompatible Foc race 1 to induce resistance against Foc tropical race 4 in an in vitro pathosystem. Consistent with the observation that the SAR provided the highest level of protection when the time interval between primary infection and challenge inoculation was 10d, the activities of defense-related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) in systemic tissues also reached the maximum level and were 2.00-2.43 times higher than that of the corresponding controls on the tenth day. The total salicylic acid (SA) content in roots of banana plantlets increased from about 1 to more than 5 μg g⁻¹ FW after the second leaf being inoculated with Foc race 1. The systemic up-regulation of MaNPR1A and MaNPR1B was followed by the second up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3. Although SA and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling are mostly antagonistic, systemic expression of PR genes regulated by different signaling pathways were simultaneously up-regulated after primary infection, indicating that both pathways are involved in the activation of the SAR.

  12. Fusarium Wilt of Banana Is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt of banana (also known as Panama disease) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Where susceptible cultivars are grown, management is limited to the use of pathogen-free planting stock and clean soils. Resistant genotypes exist for some applications, but resistance is still needed in other situations. Progress has been made with this recalcitrant crop by traditional and nontraditional improvement programs. The disease was first reported in Australia in 1876, but did the greatest damage in export plantations in the western tropics before 1960. A new variant, tropical race 4, threatens the trades that are now based on Cavendish cultivars, and other locally important types such as the plantains. Phylogenetic studies indicate that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense had several independent evolutionary origins. The significance of these results and the future impact of this disease are discussed.

  13. The Analysis of Banana Cultivation of Agricultural Climate Resources in Laos%老挝香蕉种植农业气候资源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 张江周; 李宝深

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the banana planting industry in Laos is developing rapidly. Chinese companies are becoming the main force of investment in Laos banana planting and management. The climate data of all provinces in Laos were collected to analyze such climate resources as temperature, light, water, wind, etc. Besides based on the differences of climate characteristics, corresponding planting management suggestions were put forward respectively, so as to provide references for the investment and development of Chinese enterprises in laos.%近年来,老挝的香蕉种植产业发展迅速,中国企业是在老挝投资香蕉种植和管理的主力军。通过搜集老挝各省区2010~2015年的气候资料,分析老挝各省的温、光、水、风等气候资源,并对气候特点有差异的区域提出相应的种植管理建议,为中国企业在老挝地区的投资和发展提供借鉴。

  14. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species.

  15. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  16. CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘PRATA’ BANANA TREATED WITH CYTOKININ AND GIBBERELLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA DOMINGUES LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant growth regulators can influence fruit yield and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytokinin and gibberelin on the agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of banana fruits cv. ‘Prata’ (Musa spp. AAB, according to the formation period and position in the bunch. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized 2 x 5 factorial design, two periods of bunch development (summer and winter, five treatments and ten replicates. To study the effect of position in the bunch, split plot was adopted, considering in the plot, 2 x 5 factorial and in subplots, hand 1, hand 4 and last hand. Treatments consisted of 2 pulverizations with water, 150 mg L-1 cytokinin, 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, 100 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid and 200 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, applied from the fourth to the last hand of the bunch. Cytokinin and gibberellin, alone or associated, regardless of formation period and position, did not affect the size and physicochemical characteristics of fruits, only delayed the bunch harvest.

  17. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  18. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  19. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between...... pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus......-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re...

  20. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source.

  1. DEM simulation of particle flow on a single deck banana screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chusheng; Wang Hong; Zhao Yuemin; Zhao Lala; Dong Hailin

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical study of particle flow on a banana screen deck using the discrete element method (DEM) was presented in this paper.The motion characteristics and penetrating mechanisms of particles on the screen deck were studied.Effects of geometric parameters of screen deck on banana screening process were also investigated.The results show that when the values of inclination of discharge and increment of screen deck inclination are 10° and 5° respectively,the banana screening process get a good screening performance in the simulation.The relationship between screen deck length and screening efficiency was further confirmed.The conclusion that the screening efficiency will not significantly increase when the deck lengthL ≥430 mm (L/B ≥3.5) was obtained,which can provide theoretical basis for the optimization of banana screen.

  2. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology.

  3. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  4. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain uncle

  5. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata on human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina E. Fingolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.Inflorescências de bananeira são popularmente conhecidas como "umbigos", e esses são usados no Brasil como complementos nutricionais. No entanto, o valor nutricional das inflorescências (flores masculinas e brácteas de bananeira nunca foi estudado. Portanto, o material vegetal de Musa acuminata cultivar "ouro" foi coletado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil e, em seguida, submetido aos procedimentos químicos para determinar a sua composição nutricional. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. A análise da composição da amostra apresentou teor percentual médio de umidade, proteína, lipídeos e cinza de 8,21, 14,50, 4,04 e 14,43, respectivamente. As inflorescências secas mostraram significativo complemento nutritivo baseado no alto conteúdo de potássio (5.008,26 mg / 100 g e de fibra 49,83% (lignina, celulose e hemiceluloses revelando importantes propriedades funcional e nutritiva. Em uma avaliação paralela, o estudo

  6. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION TYPE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BANANA STARCH

    OpenAIRE

    D. Guerra-DellaValle; M. M. Sánchez-Rivera; P.B. Zamudio-Flores; G. Méndez-Montealvo; L.A. Bello-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Isolation of non-conventional starches has increased in the last decade; chemical modification of these no conventional starches may produce starches with improved physicochemical and functional properties that are not available from commercial starches. Banana starch was acetylated and oxidized and the thermal, pasting and rheological characteristics were evaluated. The low carbonyl and carboxyl groups might be due to the starch source. The acetylated banana starch obtained had a low degree ...

  7. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  8. Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker.

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ratna Djuita; Rita Megia

    2010-01-01

    Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker. The research aims todetect genomic integrity of in vitro irradiated banana using microsatellite marker. These studies were done on bananacv. Pisang Mas irradiated by 15 Gy of gamma ray. The DNA was isolated from each accesion following Dixie.Amplification of DNA products were done by Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR 2400 using ten primers, and thenelectroforesis in agarose 1%. Finally a vertical polyacrylamide gel...

  9. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  10. A Comparison of Banana Fiber Insulation with Biodegradable Fibrous Thermal Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Krishpersad Manohar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental concern about the disposal of discarded thermal insulation focused research in developing new and innovative biodegradable materials to facilitate and improve the thermal demands of society. Banana fiber is a lignocellulose material derived from the discarded tree trunk and can be a cheap, abundantly available, reliable, biodegradable and renewable raw material source. Thermal conductivity measurements on 50.4 mm thick slab-like banana fiber specimens showed characteristics cons...

  11. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Lemchi, J.; Onyeka, U.; Tenkouano, A.

    2001-01-01

    Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome) were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet) on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration...

  12. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  13. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  14. High-efficiency phenotyping for vitamin A in banana using artificial neural networks and colorimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in Brazil and an important source of minerals, vitamins and carbohydrates for human diet. The characterization of banana superior genotypes allows identifying those with nutritional quality for cultivation and to integrate genetic improvement programs. However, identification and quantification of the provitamin carotenoids are hampered by the instruments and reagents cost for chemical analyzes, and it may become unworkable if the number of samples to be analyzed is high. Thus, the objective was to verify the potential of indirect phenotyping of the vitamin A content in banana through artificial neural networks (ANNs using colorimetric data. Fifteen banana cultivars with four replications were evaluated, totaling 60 samples. For each sample, colorimetric data were obtained and the vitamin A content was estimated in the ripe banana pulp. For the prediction of the vitamin A content by colorimetric data, multilayer perceptron ANNs were used. Ten network architectures were tested with a single hidden layer. The network selected by the best fit (least mean square error had four neurons in the hidden layer, enabling high efficiency in prediction of vitamin A (r2 = 0.98. The colorimetric parameters a* and Hue angle were the most important in this study. High-scale indirect phenotyping of vitamin A by ANNs on banana pulp is possible and feasible.

  15. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Minardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 = 100 gr of phosphate rock, B2 = 200 gr phosphate rock, and B3 = 300 gr of phosphate rock. The third factor is application method, which is consisted of M1 = directly applied into the soil. M2 = incubated before applied into the soil. The observation of soil includes: soil pH, soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, total-N, total-P, available-P and the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Result shows that available-P in the Alfisols is very low. The interaction amongs the treatment significantly affect the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Banana corm extract and phosphate rock applied directly into the soil increase soil pH.

  16. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  17. Characterization of banana, potato, and rice starch blends for their physicochemical and pasting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika B. Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were studied to assess their suitability as an alternate for chemically modified starches. The blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were prepared in the respective ratio of 1:3:2, 3:2:1, and 2:1:3. The blend with higher proportion of banana and rice starches (BPR-213 showed highest water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity. The blend with higher proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed highest swelling power at 95°C but lowest water solubility at 95°C among other starch blends. The blend made with higher amount of potato starch (BPR-132 had significantly higher paste clarity than other blends (p < 0.05. The potato starch had significantly higher least gelation concentration than all other starches and their blends (p < 0.05. The banana starch and blend with highest proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed significantly lesser percent syneresis and thus highest freeze–thaw stability. Potato starch as well as it blends with greater amount of potato starch (BPR-132 showed highest value for peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and final viscosity than other blends.

  18. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  19. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  20. Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Modified Banana Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Mehrasbi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heavy Metals in Water resources is one of the most important environmental problems of countries. Up to now various methods of removing of these metals is considered, which is including using of low prices materials. In this study the potential of banana shells was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions such as Pb and Cd from aqueous solution. "nMaterials and Methods: Banana shells were pretreated separately with 0.4 mol/L NaOH, 0.4 mol/L HNO and distilled water and their adsorption ability were compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of the initial ion concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. Adsorption isotherms of metal ions on adsorbents were determined and correlated with common isotherm equations such as Lungmuir, Freundlich and BET models."nResults: The maximum adsorption capacities were achieved by alkali modified banana shells (36 mg/g for Pb and by acidic modified banana shells (16 mg/g for Cd. Experimental results showed that the best pH for adsorption was 6 and the adsorption values decreased with lowering pH. Isotherm models indicated best fit for Freundlich model for modified banana shells."nConclusion: In comparing the parameters of models, it was observed that the capacity of banana shells for adsorption of lead is higher  than for adsorption of cadmium, but the adsorption of  cadmium is stronger than the adsorption of lead.

  1. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.

  2. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp. in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old and very small in size (less than 1 ha. Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5% whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  3. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small dif...

  4. Banana Republic公司重塑自我

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路易斯·李; 肖前

    2004-01-01

    对马卡·汉森来说,去年的假日销售旺季是考验她能否成为时装趋势预言家的一场初试。51岁的汉森于去年6月被任命为Banana Republic公司的总裁,当时她认定美利奴羊毛弹性针织衫市场上最叫卖的颜色是蓝色。事实证明,她错了。汉森说:“苔绿色才是最畅销的,而我们的货却准备不足。”

  5. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  6. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.

  7. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira̵...

  8. Perceptions and outlook on intercropping coffee with banana as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J. A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...

  9. Use of abaca and banana fibers for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some previous researches show the potential of natural fibers for the production of filters, as these materials are commonly used in the production of tea bags or filters for tobacco. This paper focuses on the use of banana and abaca fiber for water purification, showing thus their capacity for heavy metals adsorption; on the other hand, since the filtering media used is formed by natural materials, microbiological analysis was carried out, ensuring that no organic pollution happens during the filtering process. This research has been approached with cupper and iron (Cu2+ and Fe2+, being both materials commonly used in water supply systems. Spanish regulation allows maximum levels of 2 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2 mg/L for Fe2+. Two types of vegetable fibers were used: banana fiber from Canary Islands and abaca fiber from Ecuador. Also different length fibers have been used, studying that way the effect of the superficial area on the adsorptive of ions on natural material. The amount of fiber used has also been varied, from 5 to 20 g per 100mL of water sample. Concentration of the metallic ions has also been modified, i.e.: 2, 4 and 6 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/L for Fe2+. Ions were either studied separately or when both were present in concentrations mentioned above. It has been shown that both types of fiber show ability for metallic content reduction in water, without introducing microbial pollution in treated samples.

  10. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-20

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  12. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  13. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  14. Diagnose nutricional para nitrogênio e potássio em bananeira por meio do sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS e de níveis críticos The N and K diagnosis on banana plants using the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS and critical value approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de resultados de um experimento de campo com arranjo fatorial, no qual foi estudada a resposta à aplicação de N e K em bananeira, em dois ciclos de cultivo, avaliou-se o desempenho do diagnóstico nutricional para esses nutrientes, empregando-se o sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação (DRIS e o critério de níveis críticos (NC. As situações nas quais se diagnosticou deficiência, foram classificadas como positivas (+, aquelas cujo diagnóstico indicou suficiência, como negativas (-. Em função da resposta na produção de frutos à aplicação de N ou K, classificaram-se os diagnósticos como verdadeiros (V ou falsos (F, resultando nas quatro possibilidades V+, V-, F+ e F-. Em relação ao N, a eficiência (%V+ e %V- dos diagnósticos baseados em NC foi de 48%; com o DRIS, foi de 69%. Para K, a eficiência dos diagnósticos feitos a partir do DRIS e NC foi de 63%. A proporção de diagnósticos de deficiência que se confirmaram com respostas positivas à aplicação de N em relação aos falsos positivos (%V+¸%F+, foi de 1,50 para o DRIS e de 0,68 para NC. Para os diagnósticos de deficiência de K, essa proporção foi de 1,67 para DRIS e NC. A variação líquida no rendimento (48 casos decorrente da aplicação de N associada a diagnósticos corretos foi de 124 t ha¹ para o DRIS e de 20 t ha¹ para NC. Para K, essa variação foi de 70 t ha¹ para o DRIS e NC.The Performance of DRIS and critical value approach (CVA diagnostics were evaluated based on leaf analysis from a field experiment on a factorial design to study the yield response of banana to N and K applications during two crop seasons. The situations identified as deficient were classified as positives (+ and those diagnosed as sufficient, were classified as negatives (-. According to the response on yield due the application of N or K, the diagnostics were classified as true (V or false (F. Four combinations were possible: V+, V-, F+ and F-. The

  15. Resfriamento de banana-prata com ar forçado Forced-air cooling of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÁRBARA TERUEL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as curvas de resfriamento de banana-prata (Musa balbisiana Colla e os valores do tempo de meio e sete oitavos de resfriamento, partindo do cálculo da Taxa Adimensional de Temperatura. Os frutos foram resfriados num sistema com ar forçado a 7ºC, umidade relativa de 87,6±3,8%, e velocidade do ar entre 1 e 0,2 m/s. Aplicou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, usando um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois fluxos de ar (fatores e duas embalagens (níveis, para um nível de significância de 10%. Os fluxos de ar foram 1.933 a 1.160 m³/h, e as embalagens se diferenciaram pela porcentagem de área de abertura disponível para a ventilação (40 e 3,2%. Foi constatada uma diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento, tanto quando aplicadas as duas taxas de ar como quando usadas as duas embalagens. O menor tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a maior taxa de ar (1.933 m³/h com a embalagem de maior área de aberturas (40%. O maior tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a menor taxa de ar (1160 m³/h com a embalagem de 3,2% de área efetiva de abertura. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o tempo de resfriamento depende, em grande medida, da taxa de ar e do tipo de embalagem usada. O tempo de resfriamento variou em média entre 117 a 555 min, dependendo do tratamento aplicado. Não se constatou diferença significativa nas perdas de massa entre os diferentes tratamentos.This work presents the cooling curves for bananas Prata, (Musa balbisiana Colla, and determinates half-cooling and seven-eight cooling times and the cooling rate. Bananas were kept in a cold room with a forced-air system at 7ºC and RH = 87.6±3.8%. The experiment was conducted in a 2x2 factorial design, to test the effects of two flow rates (factors of air passing through the product, and two types of boxes (levels. The statistical analysis was performed at p<0.10. The air flow rates were 1933

  16. Response of banana genotypes to yellow Sigatoka in coastal tablelands of Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilná Brito de Rezende Quirino

    Full Text Available Brazil has low availability of productive commercial cultivars with appropriate size and resistance to yellow Sigatoka. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different banana genotypes against yellow Sigatoka at conditions of Coastal Tablelands of Sergipe. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, municipality of Nossa Senhora das Dores. The experimental design was randomized blocks design with 22 genotypes and three replications, six plants per plot. The genotypes tested were: Enxerto-33, Japira-106, FHIA-23, YB42-17, YB42-47, FHIA-18, PA42-44, PA94-01, PV79-34, Pacovan Ken, Pacovan, Prata-Anã, Maravilha, Garantida, Princesa, Tropical, Maçã, Grande Naine, FHIA-02, Caipira, Bucaneiro and Thap Maeo. The severity of yellow Sigatoka was evaluated at 60, 270 and 420 days after planting (DAP (from July/2009 to July/2010, using a descriptive scale of Stover. Then, the infection rate was calculated at 60, 270 and 420 DAP, and was compared by Scott-Knott test at 5%. It was observed that genotypes have the same behavior at 270 DAP. At 60 DAP, genotypes with lower infection rate were Bucaneiro, Enxerto-33, Japira-106, YB42-17, FHIA-02, FHIA-18, FHIA-23, PA42-44, PA94-01, Caipira, Maçã, Prata-Anã and Thap Maeo. At 420 DAP, the lowest rates were obtained for genotypes YB42-17, FHIA-23, Princesa, YB42-47, Tropical, Grand Naine, Caipira, Maçã, Garantida, Bucaneiro, Pacovan Ken and Thap Maeo.

  17. In vitro mutants identification of banana (Musa sp.) with tolerance to toxin from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense, treating buds with several gamma radiation doses; Identificacao in vitro de mutantes de banana maca (Musa sp.) tolerantes a toxina do Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, a partir de gemas tratadas com diferentes doses de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Adriana Muniz Mendes de; Houllou-Kido, Laureen Michelle; Franca, Jose Geraldo Eugenio de [Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Recife, PE (Brazil); Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Mutants of banana, obtained through treatment with different level of gamma-radiation (0; 10; 20; 30; 40 Gy), were initially cultivated in vitro in medium for rapid clonal propagation during 30 days. These treatment affected the shoot tips development ratio. Some plants developed necrosis and died, but some of the shoot tips emitted new gems. These material were cultivated in medium 20% of the toxin of Fusarium oxysporum cubense. During the selection period, the necrosis occurrence and death of susceptible shoot tips were observed. Whereas the tolerant shoot tips kept themselves green during the entire selection process. At the end of the selection process, eight shoot tips were obtained. (author) 7 refs.

  18. Induction of banana Fusarium Wilt disease with biocontrol bacteria and pathogen by inoculation%接种生防菌和病原菌对香蕉抗枯萎病的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛玉潇; 贾慧升; 王国芬; 刘磊; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    Banana vitroplants of 4--5 leaves were inoculated in different ways with two biocontrol bacteria Bacillus subtilis strains A5-6 and C10-1 and the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen (Foc4) to observe their changes of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activities in leaves, which are related to plant tolerance to the disease. The PPO, POD and PAL activities in the leaves of the banana plants were determined by using the physiological and biochemical methods. The banana plants inoculated with the strains A5 -6 and C10-1 separately showed higher leaf PPO, POD and PAL activities than those inoculated with the sterile water control, and the banana plants inoculated with mixture of the biocontrol bacteria and Foc4 pathogen had higher leaf PPO, POD and PAL activities than those inoculated with Foc4 alone.%使用2株生防枯草芽孢杆菌A5-6,C10-1和香蕉枯萎病病原菌(Foc4),以不同的接种方式对4~5叶香蕉组培苗进行根部接种,以苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)这3种与植物抗病性密切相关的酶活性变化为指标,研究植物产生抗性的时间和强度的变化趋势。结果表明,经过生防菌A5-6和C10-1诱导处理的叶片PAL,POD,PPO的活性均高于对照(CK),生防菌和病原菌混合接种处理的POD和PPO酶活峰值高于生防菌和病原菌单独接种的处理。

  19. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  20. Análise do comércio de bananas em Lavras: Minas Gerais Analysis of banana trade in Lavras: Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A participação de Lavras na oferta de banana no mercado local é muito pequena, considerando-se que o Brasil é o segundo país maior produtor com 6,6 milhões de toneladas e Minas Gerais é o quarto entre os Estados produtores dessa fruta. Visando a quantificar a participação de Lavras e região na oferta de banana no mercado local, realizou-se esse trabalho em duas etapas: 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. A aplicação mensal de questionários nos principais estabelecimentos comerciais de hortifruti e feiras - livre de Lavras, permitiu conhecer o volume comercializado, procedência e perdas das principais cultivares de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que em 2002/2003 foram comercializados 945,24 t e em 2004/2005 foi de 1.001,98 t. Desse volume, 6,56% em 2002/2003 e 14,62% em 2004/2005 tiveram como origem Lavras. O consumo per capita anual manteve-se em torno de 11,8 kg nos dois períodos pesquisados. As bananas tipo 'Prata', foram as mais comercializadas nas duas etapas, 54,7% no primeiro período e 58,7% no segundo, sendo que 7,91% e 18,35% , respectivamente, tiveram como origem Lavras. O volume de banana 'Marmelo' e do tipo 'Nanicão', foram de 1,91% e 28,4%, respectivamente, sendo que 84,0% da 'Marmelo' e 3,43% da tipo 'Nanicão' na segunda etapa foram procedentes de Lavras. A banana 'Maçã' teve uma redução de 125,30 t para 107,47 t, correspondendo a 13,26%, sendo que a oferta dessa cultivar, originada de Lavras, manteve-se em 13,8%. As bananas 'Maçã' e 'Marmelo' apresentaram as menores perdas, 3,56% e 4,78% e as dos tipos 'Prata'e 'Nanicão'as maiores perdas, 9,39% e 10, 75%, respectivamente.The participation of Lavras in the banana production offered to the local commerce is still very low considering that Brazil is the second banana producer of the world, with a production around 6.6 ton/year and per-capita consumption of 24.4 kg/year. Minas Gerais ranks in the fifth place among the most important Brazilian state producers. This

  1. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Prado, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Marilene S; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H G; White, James F; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  2. Proteomic analysis of conidia germination in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 reveals new targets in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway for controlling Fusarium wilt of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Ming; Yang, Qiao-Song; He, Wei-Di; Li, Chun-Yu; Yang, Jing; Zuo, Cun-Wu; Gao, Jie; Sheng, Ou; Lu, Shao-Yun; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Conidial germination is a crucial step of the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), a most important lethal disease of banana. In this study, a total of 3659 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based comparative proteomic approach, of which 1009 were differentially expressed during conidial germination of the fungus at 0, 3, 7, and 11 h. Functional classification and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the majority of the differentially expressed proteins are involved in six metabolic pathways. Particularly, all differential proteins involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated, indicating the importance of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway to the conidial germination of Foc TR4. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and in vitro growth inhibition assay by several categories of fungicides on the Foc TR4 were used to validate the proteomics results. Four enzymes, C-24 sterol methyltransferase (ERG6), cytochrome P450 lanosterol C-14α-demethylase (EGR11), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (ERG13), and C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (ERG25), in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were identified and verified, and they hold great promise as new targets for effective inhibition of Foc TR4 early growth in controlling Fusarium wilt of banana. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the first comprehensive study on proteomics profiling of conidia germination in Foc TR4. It provides new insights into a better understanding of the developmental processes of Foc TR4 spores. More importantly, by host plant-induced gene silencing (HIGS) technology, the new targets reported in this work allow us to develop novel transgenic banana leading to high protection from Fusarium wilt and to explore more effective antifungal drugs against either individual or multiple target proteins of Foc TR4.

  3. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Beltrán-García

    Full Text Available In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg. Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg, a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg. A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  4. 香蕉真菌性叶斑病病原种群结构季节性变化研究%Seasonal variation in population structure of banana mycotic leaf spot pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善海; 黄思良; 岑贞陆; 覃丽萍; 黎起秦; 付岗

    2011-01-01

    or more fungal pathogens showed opposite trends compared to SBLS. Except for Altemaria musae and Pestalotiopsis menezesiana, seven other fungal pathogens were found to infect banana plants. The total detection rate of C. Musae increased with highest value was 92.8%, however it did not showed any distinct trend. [Conclusion]Seasonal variations were one of the major factors effecting fungal pathogen population dynamics associated with banana leaf spot diseases. The C. Musae, inducing SBLS, was predominant during the period of banana growth. It was recommended to control gray line disease induced by C. Musae during control of banana mycotic leaf spot.

  5. Host Range and Banana Variety Resistance to Bacterial Soft Rot Pathogens%香蕉细菌性软腐病菌的寄主范围及香蕉品种的抗性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁月; 陈雪凤; 李华平; 梁家杰; 刘琼光

    2013-01-01

    以分离获得的3个香蕉细菌性软腐病菌为接种菌株,采用针刺和注射等接种方法进行了香蕉细菌性软腐病菌寄主范围的鉴定,并对香蕉不同品种的抗性进行了测定.结果表明,在供试的15科22种植物中有21种植物可以被病原菌侵染而发病,表明该病原菌寄主范围广泛.对我国普遍栽种的7个香蕉品种的抗性测定结果表明,不同香蕉品种抗性存在差异,其中皇帝蕉为高抗品种;农科1号、大蕉和巴西蕉为中抗品种;而金粉、广粉和威廉斯B6为中感品种.%Banana soft rot, a serious disease caused by Dickeya sp., was found in Guangdong and Hainan provinces. The host range of banana soft rot pathogens in China and the disease resistance of different banana varieties were not reported. Three isolates of banana soft rot pathogens and 22 species of plants from 15 families were investigated for pathogen-host range by using artificial inoculation methods. The results indicated that three isolates had a wide host range. In addition, seven banana varieties, which widely grew in China, were used to identify the resistance to banana soft rot. The results showed that Musa AA Pisang Mas had a high resistance; Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Brazil, Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Nongke No. 1, and Musa ABB Pisang had a moderate resistance; Musa ABB Pisang Awak cv. Jinfen, Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Williams, Musa ABB Pisang Awak cv. Guangfen were moderately susceptible.

  6. Características morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar de plantas variantes e não variantes somaclonais de bananeiras (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivadas in vitro Morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaf epidermis of variant plants and somaclonal non-variants of banana trees (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Araújo Lacerda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variação somaclonal corresponde ao aparecimento de plantas anormais durante o processo de multiplicação in vitro, principalmente relacionada à estatura, no caso o gigantismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi averiguar as diferenças morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar na tentativa de diferenciar as plantas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou uma diferença significativa entre o diâmetro polar dos estômatos da 'Prata-anã' não variante e suas variantes, ambas em condições in vitro, observando-se que o mesmo não ocorre para as plantas in vivo. O número médio de estômatos é menor nas plantas variantes somaclonais, porém sem diferenças significativas a não ser para a planta PIII. A descamação de cera é evidente somente nas plantas variantes de ambos os materiais (in vitro e in vivo. Conclui-se que os caracteres morfoanatômicos da epiderme foliar, como densidade estomática, diâmetro estomático polar e a uniformidade da cera atuam como marcadores morfológicos para caracterizar as plantas micropropagadas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais para a característica gigantismo.Somaclonal variation corresponds to the emergence of abnormal plants during the process of multiplication in vitro, mainly related to stature, in the case the gigantism. The aim of this work was to discover morphoanatomical differences of the leaf epidermis in an attempt to differentiate plants of "Prata-anã" from their somaclonal variants. Analysis by scanning electronic microscopy showed significant difference between the polar diameter of the stomata of the "Prata-anã" non-variant and its variants, both in vitro. The same does not happen for plants in vivo. The average number of stomata is lower in the somaclonal variant plants, but without significant differences except for plant PIII. Wax peeling is only evident in the variant plants of both the

  7. Avaliação econômica da elaboração de banana-passa proveniente de cultivo orgânico e convencional Economic evaluation of dried banana production of the organic and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Bittencourt; Queiroz,Marlene R. de; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foi realizada a avaliação econômica da produção de banana-passa de uma agroindústria localizada no município de Guaraqueçaba - PR. Foi avaliado o processamento da banana-passa convencional e da banana orgânica produzida na região, comparando-se os indicadores de viabilidade econômica. A banana-passa orgânica é exportada para a Europa e a banana-passa convencional é comercializada na região de Curitiba - PR. Ambos os processamentos apresentaram viabilidade econômica positiva, a...

  8. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  9. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  10. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production.

  11. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  12. Effect of banana on blood pressure of hypertensive individuals: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Nepal

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    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension or high blood pressure is a critical condition which can strain the heart, injure blood vessels, leads to augment the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, and if untreated may cause death. Several herbal approaches have been made to treat hypertensive individuals. Banana is a well known tropical fruit with little known anti hypertensive properties. The objective of this research was to investigate changes in blood pressure after consuming banana among the hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct this research. Data was collected by questionnaire and personal interviewing. Two ripened bananas (Musa acuminata were provided to each subject for 20 days. Blood pressures of the participants were taken before and after the experimentation. Results Most of the subjects were in the age group >60 years followed by 30-40 years and 51-60 years. 57.1% of the respondents were female. Noticeable changes observed in the pre and post experimentation results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after banana consumption. Conclusion Results of this research strongly supports that banana contains phytochemicals, thus its intake significantly reduces blood pressure among hypertensive individuals. However, more clinical studies in human are still required that may provide evidence of efficacy.

  13. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  14. Experimental study of bamboo using banana and linen fibre reinforced polymeric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural fibres such as bamboo, jute, banana, coir, linen and the like in Fibre Reinforced Polymeric (FRP composites have become so vital due to their high effective stiffness and strength, availability, low cost, specific strength, better dimensional stability and mechanical properties, eco-friendly and biodegradable as compared with synthetic fibres. The interest in natural fibre reinforced polymeric composites is rapidly springing up in terms of research and industrial applications. The increased applications of these natural fibres in such composites are a proof to this claim. The paper deals with the detailed study of bamboo fibre, banana fibre and linen fibre cut into 2−4 mm of length with epoxy resin having random orientations. Various tests like Impact test (IZOD and CHARPY test, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test and Rockwell Hardness test were conducted on 10 specimens of bamboo epoxy resin composite, bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite and bamboo−linen epoxy resin composite. It is analysed and proved that bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite shows better results in Impact test with values of 4 Joules for Izod test and 5 Joules for Charpy test and in FTIR test, compatibility of fibres with polymers in bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite are the best while bamboo−linen epoxy resin composite shows better result in Rockwell hardness test with value of 40 RHN.

  15. Achieving asepsis of banana leaves for the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis

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    Srinivas C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Banana leaf is used in many centers in India during the care of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and other extensive blistering disorders. Sepsis is an important cause of death in TEN patients and use of banana leaf may be a source of such infection. Aims: We conducted this study to detect the bacterial flora of the banana leaf and to examine various methods of rendering the leaf aseptic. Methods: Five pieces of banana leaf, 2 x 2 cm in size, were cultured separately in blood agar as follows: One piece was heated over a flame and one was soaked in boiling water and one was autoclaved. Methylated spirit was applied over one piece and ignited. One piece was placed on the media, ′as is.′ The Petri dishes were incubated examined after 48 h. Results: All the pieces except the autoclaved specimen of the leaf grew coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS when aseptic precautions were not maintained and aerobic spore bearers when all aseptic measures were subsequently instituted during the procedure. Conclusion: We recommend measures to prevent possible transmission of bacterial infection by the leaf. Autoclaved and aseptically handled banana leaves may be used to reduce chance of infection in the treatment of TEN.

  16. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.

  17. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  18. Effect of Banana Fibers on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Compressed Earth Blocks

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    Marwan Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the built environment in developing countries is a major challenge in the 21st century. The use of local materials in construction of buildings is one of the potential ways to support sustainable development in both urban and rural areas. Building with Compressed Earthen Blocks (CEBs is becoming more popular due to their low cost and relative abundance of materials. The proposed Green-Compressed Earth Block (GCEB consists of ordinary CEB ingredients plus Banana fibers, which will be the focus of this study. Banana fibers are widely available worldwide as agricultural waste from Banana cultivation. Banana fibers are environmentally friendly and present important attributes, such as low density, light weight, low cost, high tensile strength, as well as being water and fire resistant. This kind of waste has a greater chance of being utilized for different application in construction and building materials. This focused on the use of banana fiber and its effect on the compressive and flexural strength in CEB. The deflection at the mid-span of the blocks studied was calculated using the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT. The results of this study will highlight general trends in the strength properties of different soil mixes for CEBs. These efforts are necessary to ensure that GCEB technology becomes more widely accepted in the world of building materials and is considered a reliable option for providing low-cost housing.

  19. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  20. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  1. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  2. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Banana by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paranthaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of endosulfan, carbendazim, chloropyripos in 10 banana samples in southern area of Tamilnadu, India (hill banana, karpuravalli, monthan, nendran, ney poovan, pachanadan, poovan, rasthali, red banana, robusta was investigated. Approach: In 7 samples, Carbendazim was found at concentrations ranging from 0.002-0.11 mg kg-1. In three samples, carbendazim was not found, whereas endosulfan, chloropyripos was not detected in any sample. Results: Analysis was carried out using HPLC-UV and samples were confirmed by GC-MS. The seven samples contained carbendazim that not exceeded the FAO/WHO codex alimentarius standards for MRLs (Maximum Residue Limit values of carbendazim pesticide on banana (whole is 1.0 mg kg-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the HPLC results carbendazim is finding in Hill banana (0.007 mg kg-1, Monthan (0.019 mg kg-1, Nendran (0.002 mg kg-1, Pachanadan (0.007 mg kg-1, Poovan (0.016 mg kg-1, Rasthali (0.017 mg kg-1 and Robusta (0.11 mg kg-1 and carbendazim is not finding Karpuravalli, Ney poovan and Red banana. Endosulfan, Chloropyrifos and Carbendazim in Robusta Banana sample are identified by matching their retention times and characteristic ion. TIC chromatogram for a positive Robusta Banana sample.

  3. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  4. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  5. Histology of Callogenesis in Diploid Bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Yellow compact calluses were induced from in vitro-grown shoot tips of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata, AA group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang� on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 100 mg/L malt extract, 50 mg/L proline, 50 mg/L cysteine, 100 mg/L glutamine, 1 mg/L biotin, 7 mg/L Dicamba and 2 mg/L TDZ. Green shoot buds were induced after transfer of the yellow compact calluses to the same MS medium but supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L BA and plant regeneration was achieved through organogenesis in callus cultures. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.2% activated charcoal but without plant growth regulators. Histological analysis revealed that calluses originated from small dense cells with well stained cytoplasm and nucleus typical of meristematic cells.

  6. Problems in Deep Processing of Banana in China%我国香蕉深加工问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解明明; 柯佑鹏

    2013-01-01

    Only deep processing the banana is the main approach to develop banana industry. This paper states the nutritive value and economic value of banana, reviews the progress of deep processing the banana, indicates the major problems about deep processing the banana, and put forward the development countermeasures.%发展香蕉深加工是发展香蕉产业的重要途径.本文阐述香蕉的营养价值和经济价值,综述香蕉深加工研究进展,指出香蕉深加工中存在的问题,并提出发展对策.

  7. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.

  8. Flame resistant cellulosic substrate using banana pseudostem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardancy was imparted in cellulosic cotton textile using banana pseudostem sap (BPS, an eco-friendly natural product. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied in pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics. Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analysed in terms of limiting oxygen index (LOI, horizontal and vertical flammability. Fabrics treated with the non-diluted BPS were found to have good flame retardant property with LOI of 30 compared to the control fabric with LOI of 18, i.e., an increase of 1.6 times. In the vertical flammability test, the BPS treated fabric showed flame for a few seconds and then, got extinguished. In the horizontal flammability test, the treated fabric showed no flame, but was burning only with an afterglow with a propagation rate of 7.5 mm/min, which was almost 10 times lower than that noted with the control fabric. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the chemical composition by FTIR, SEM and EDX, besides the pure BPS being characterized by EDX and mass spectroscopy. The fabric after the treatment was found to produce stable natural khaki colour, and there was no significant degradation in mechanical strengths. Based on the results, the mechanism of imparting flame retardancy to cellulosic textile and the formation of natural colour on it using the proposed BPS treatment have been postulated.

  9. Pseudo-Stem Banana Fibers: Characterization and Chromium Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Becker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, pseudo-stems of the banana tree were collected, characterized and used as adsorbent materials for the removal of the chromium ions from aqueous solution. The characterization of pseudo-stems by FTIR suggests the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The predominant groups were carbonyls (0.312 ± 0.010 mmol g–1 adsorbent, phenols (0.237 ± 0.021 mmol g–1 adsorbent, lactones (0.041 ± 0.003 mmol g–1 adsorbent and basic groups (0.096 ± 0.006 mmol g–1 adsorbent. The textural propriety of the adsorbent, surface area, pore volume and pore diameter were found to be 0.383 m2 g–1, 0.003525 cm3 g–1 and 368.3 Å, respectively. The pHpzc value was found 7.5 and so the adsorption assays of chromium removal from solution were more efficiently at acidic pH values. The experiments show that approximately 95% and 78% of the Cr (VI was removed from solution by untreated and treated fiber, respectively, in 300 minutes of the contact time.

  10. Banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S I Torgova; T A Geivandova; O Francescangeli; A Strigazzi

    2003-08-01

    3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a new type of liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with asymmetrical five-membered heterocycle as a central unit. They have a bent shape and are very convenient model-compounds for studying the dependence of the LC properties on the molecular design. We have also synthesized and investigated ‘banana-shaped’ 1,2,4-oxadiazoles using the ester groups as the linkage units. The new compounds exhibit spontaneous polarization in the smectic phase, even if there is no chiral group in the molecules. Preliminary experimental data suggest the presence of spontaneous polarization in the nematic phase as well. In order to study the structural properties of the LC phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on powder samples have been carried out. Based on the XRD data, a model of the structural arrangement of the bent molecules in the smectic phase is provided, which accounts for the macroscopic spontaneous polarization as well as the ferroelectric switching behavior.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Klebsiella variicola Plant Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Silva-Sanchez, Jesús; Barrios, Humberto; Rodríguez-Medina, Nadia; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa Elena; Garza-Ramos, Ulises

    2015-09-10

    Three endophytic Klebsiella variicola isolates-T29A, 3, and 6A2, obtained from sugar cane stem, maize shoots, and banana leaves, respectively-were used for whole-genome sequencing. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of circular chromosomes and plasmids. The genomes contain plant colonization and cellulases genes. This study will help toward understanding the genomic basis of K. variicola interaction with plant hosts.

  12. The Control of Harvesting Bananas off-peak in Baise Youjiang River and Its Technical Measures%百色右江河谷香蕉错峰采收的控制及技术措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何寒; 黄岚; 康林

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of bananas during the growth and development stage and the influence of natural environment on it, combining with the advantages of resources in Baise Youjiang River, making reasonable arrangement to the banana production in the area and implementing scientific planting management technology, to make the listing period of ba-nanas away from the harvest time of other regions and guarantee production yield as well as maintain the stability of bananas’ market.%  依据香蕉生长发育特性及自然环境对其的影响,结合百色右江河谷气候优势资源,对百色右江河谷区域内的香蕉生产进行合理的安排,并实施科学的种植管理技术,使百色右江河谷香蕉的上市期避开全国各香蕉产区的采收期,保证增产稳产的同时亦保持其市场的稳定性。

  13. 大型香蕉筛横梁断裂问题的研究与解决方案%Study on breaking of crossbeam of large-scale banana screen and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二锋; 王新文

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale banana screen is applied in the process of classification, desliming, medium remov ing and dewatering, etc. In the actual application, such problems of the large-scale banana screen appear as breaking of crossbeam, cracking of side plate, staving of spring, etc. Among these problems, breaking of cross beam is the most common, and it has seriously influenced the normal production in coal preparation plants. With BLS3661 large-scale banana screen serving as example, the breaking of crossbeam is studied, and solu tions are proposed.%大型香蕉筛应用在选煤厂分级、脱泥、脱介和脱水作业等工艺环节中.在实际应用中,大型香蕉筛出现了横梁断裂、侧板裂纹及弹簧压断等诸多问题,其中横梁断裂最尤为突出,严重影响了选煤厂的正常生产.以BLS3661大型香蕉筛为例,对大型香蕉筛横梁断裂的问题进行了研究,并提出了解决方案.

  14. Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.

  15. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  16. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  17. Design and Simulation of Banana Harvester with Multi Degree of Freedom and Self Looking%多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机的设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢煜海; 曾昭文; 马俊生; 马桂香

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of research and development for large banana planting base of banana harvesting equipment, a multi degree of freedom and self-locking banana harvester was designed.The machine is mainly composed of a power system, a feeding system and a harvesting system.Manual and electric mixed mode of operation.It not only can be used as a harvester, also can be used as a small transport or traction machine.Using three-dimensional modeling software SolidWorks to establish model and simulate the motion of key structure, the results show that the design meets the re-quirements.Design of banana harvester with multi degree of freedom and self locking can be provided as a reference to other similar crop harvesting machinery.%针对大规模香蕉种植基地香蕉收割机具的研发比较缺乏的现状,设计了一种多自由度自锁式香蕉收割机。该机主要由动力系统、进给系统及收割系统等组成,手动与电动混合操作方式,既可作为收割机,同时又可作为小型运输机及牵引机使用。采用三维造型软件 SolidWorks 对其建立模型,并对关键结构进行相应的运动仿真。结果表明:该机设计满足工作要求,可为其他类似农作物收割机具的设计提供参考。

  18. Development and Utilization of Banana Bud Edible and Medical Values%香蕉花蕾食用价值和药用价值的开发与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生财; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    Banana bud is rich in contents of mineral element,amino acid,protein,unsaturated fatty acid,dietary fiber,etc,and is of important edible value. Meanwhile,it can cure or prevent diabetes and heart cerebrovascular disease,diminish inflammation,stop itches,promote the wound healing,and have antioxidant effect. So it is of important significance to fully develop and utilize the edible and medical values of banana bud and to explore a new special and healthy vegetable variety,so as to improve the additional economic benefit of banana planting in China,to prolong its industry chain,to enhance competitive strength of banana industry,and to open up a new way for farmers to increase their incomes.%香蕉花蕾中富含矿质元素、氨基酸、蛋白质、不饱和脂肪酸、膳食纤维等多种成分物质,具有重要的食用价值,同时具有治疗或者预防糖尿病和心脑血管疾病、消炎止痛与促进伤口愈合、抗氧化等药用价值.充分开发利用香蕉花蕾的应用价值,对在蔬菜领域中发掘出一种特菜、保健蔬菜,以及在提高我国香蕉种植业附加经济效益,延长产业链,提升香蕉产业的竞争力,为蕉农开辟一条新的创收途径等方面均具有重要意义.

  19. The research on the ability of detached banana leaves to absorb and metabolize aqueous formaldehyde%离体香蕉叶片吸收和代谢甲醛能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚传娇; 陈丽梅

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the ability of detached banana leaves to absorb and metabolize aqueous formaldehyde (HCHO) was investigated. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb the aqueous HCHO, but the uptake rate for the low concentration (2 mmol·L-1) of HCHO was greater than that for the high concentration (6 mmol·L-1 ) of HCHO. 13C-NMR analysis indicated that H13 CHO in banana leaves could be converted into non-toxic compounds include [U-13 C]-glucose, [U-13 C]-fructose, [3-13 C]~serine and [5-13 C]-citrate through three putative metabolic pathways, with the production of a small amount of [2, 4-13C]-citrate and [2, 3-13C]-alanine. The results demonstrated that application of discarded banana leaves could effectively remove liquid formaldehyde pollution and could provide a reference for exploring HCHO metabolism in other higher plants.%以废弃离体香蕉叶片为材料,研究其吸收和代谢液体甲醛(HCHO)的能力.结果表明:香蕉叶片能有效地吸收液体HCHO,对低浓度(2 mmol·L-1)HCHO的吸收速率较高浓度(6 mmol·L-1)快.磁共振(13C-NMR)分析发现H13CHO在离体香蕉叶片可以通过3种途径转化为无毒[U-13C]-葡萄糖、[U-13C]-果糖、[3-13C]-丝氨酸和[5-13C]-柠檬酸,同时还产生少量的[2,4-13C]-柠檬酸和[2,3-13C]-丙氨酸.

  20. Multivariate Modelling of the Canary Islands Banana Output. The Role of Farmer Income Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González-Concepción

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest importer of bananas and the only major managed market in the international banana trade. Spain is the main banana producer within the European Union (EU, followed by France and Portugal. In all these countries the fruit is grown in overseas islands situated in tropical or sub-tropical areas and bananas are a pillar of the economic, social and environmental balance of these regions. Spanish production comes from the Canary Islands, an insular environment located in the Atlantic Ocean more than 1000 km south of the Iberian Peninsula and near the northwest coast of Africa. In the context of high production costs and strong competition from Latin American imports, the compensatory aid that local farmers have been receiving from the EU since 1993 has helped the archipelago to maintain its agricultural position while constituting a main support from an economic, social and landscaping standpoint. This research analyses the Canary Islands banana output evolution through the use of certain multivariate dynamic models that consider the influence of past production costs, past farmer income and future expectations, including a sensitivity analysis. We consider annual data time series on production, perceived prices and production costs for the period 1938-2002. Model predictions are contrasted using data for the period 2003-2006, thus spanning a wide period of time that includes key points such as the 1993 reform and the introduction of the 2006 reform. The empirical work highlights, as do all EU norms, the importance of maintaining adequate farmer income expectations to assure subsistence banana production.

  1. Molecular characterization of cold-responsive basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MabHLHs that interact with MaICE1 in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Huan; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2013-11-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are ubiquitously involved in the response of higher plants to various abiotic stresses. However, little is known about bHLH TFs involved in the cold stress response in economically important fruits. Here, five novel full-length bHLH genes, designated as MabHLH1-MabHLH5, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Gene expression profiles revealed that MabHLH1/2/4 were induced by cold stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient assays in tobacco BY2 protoplasts showed that MabHLH1/2/4 promoters were activated by cold stress and MeJA treatments. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MabHLH1/2/4 not only physically interacted with each other to form hetero-dimers in the nucleus, but also interacted with an important upstream component of cold signaling MaICE1, with different interaction domains at their N-terminus. These results indicate that banana fruit cold-responsive MabHLHs may form a big protein complex in the nucleus with MaICE1. Taken together, our findings advance our understanding of the possible involvement of bHLH TFs in the regulatory network of ICE-CBF cold signaling pathway.

  2. 香蕉枯萎病诱导抗性的小区试验%Field Plot Test on Induced Resistance of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 李静; 唐碧桃

    2012-01-01

    In the field plot test, banana plants were treated with Fusarium moniliforme,saturated limewater and sterile water respectively and inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum 7 days later; and the activity of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismu-tase (SOD), catalase (CAT)were determined. The results showed that limewater could induce resistance of banana to Fusarium oxysporum. Complex infection of both F. Oxysporum and F. Moniliforme aggravated diseases occurrence.%在田间小区栽培的香蕉苗上,接种串珠镰刀菌(Fusarium moniliforme)、喷施饱和石灰水和无菌水7d后,接种尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum),测定过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果表明,饱和石灰水能够诱导香蕉植株对尖孢镰刀菌产生抗性,串珠镰刀菌与尖孢镰刀菌复合侵染,加重了病害的发生.

  3. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylgly