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Sample records for banana plants

  1. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

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    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  2. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper Johansen; Malte Sohlbach; Barry Sullivan; Samantha Stringer; David Peasley; Stuart Phinn

    2014-01-01

    The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus) reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the...

  3. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the major banana growing districts further north. The mapping approach developed was based on very high spatial resolution airborne orthophotos. Object-based image analysis was used to: (1 detect banana plants using edge and line detection approaches; (2 produce accurate and realistic outlines around classified banana plants; and (3 evaluate the mapping results. The mapping approach was developed based on 10 image tiles of 1 km × 1 km and was applied to orthophotos (3600 image tiles from September 2011 covering the entire Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland. Based on field inspections of the classified maps, a user’s mapping accuracy of 88% (n = 146 was achieved. The results will facilitate the detection of banana plants and increase the inspection rate of Banana Bunchy Top Virus in the future.

  4. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  5. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  6. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  7. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  8. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB), “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB) and “Thap Maeo” (AAB) varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics ...

  9. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  10. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  11. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  12. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  13. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

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    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  14. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  15. Agronomic Efficiency of Biosolid as Source of Nitrogen to Banana Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) or biosolid has been studied as source of nutrient for several different plant species. It also contributes to soil fertility recycling organic matter and plant nutrients. This followup work examines a three-year (2001–2004) field experiment designed to evaluate the response of banana plants (Cavendish subgroup) to the application of biosolid as source of nitrogen. The treatments consisted of control (mineral PK, no N), three rates of sludge, and two rates of mineral NPK fe...

  16. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  17. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

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    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  18. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

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    Hugh Roderick

    Full Text Available A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI values for a banana (Musa spp. field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  19. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  20. Agronomic Efficiency of Biosolid as Source of Nitrogen to Banana Plants

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    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS or biosolid has been studied as source of nutrient for several different plant species. It also contributes to soil fertility recycling organic matter and plant nutrients. This followup work examines a three-year (2001–2004 field experiment designed to evaluate the response of banana plants (Cavendish subgroup to the application of biosolid as source of nitrogen. The treatments consisted of control (mineral PK, no N, three rates of sludge, and two rates of mineral NPK fertilizer. Plant and soil N concentration, fruit yield, plant height, stem diameter, and foliar endurance index were measured. Fruit yield with mineral fertilization or sludge applications did not differ statistically (P>0.05. Application of biosolid resulted in statistically significant higher agronomic efficiency (P<0.05 in comparison to mineral fertilizers. The concentration of soil mineral nitrogen increased using mineral fertilizer or sludge until 0.80 m after three years of application. The effect of the source of N was smaller than the effect of the rate. Biosolid can be used as source of N for banana growers.

  1. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

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    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  2. A workflow for peptide-based proteomics in a poorly sequenced plant: A case study on the plasma membrane proteome of banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertommen, A.; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Cordewener, J. H. G.;

    2011-01-01

    for membrane proteomics. However, their application in non-model plants demands special precautions to prevent false positive identification of proteins.In the current paper, a workflow for membrane proteomics in banana, a poorly sequenced plant, is proposed. The main steps of this workflow are (i......, integral plasma membrane proteins from banana leaves were successfully identified....

  3. A promoter from sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus drives transgene expression in banana and other monocot and dicot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P M; Sagi, L; Remans, T; Dietzgen, R G; Bernard, M J; Graham, M W; Manners, J M

    1999-04-01

    A 1369 bp DNA fragment (Sc) was isolated from a full-length clone of sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) and was shown to have promoter activity in transient expression assays using monocot (banana, maize, millet and sorghum) and dicot plant species (tobacco, sunflower, canola and Nicotiana benthamiana). This promoter was also tested for stable expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. These experiments showed that this promoter could drive high-level expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in most plant cells. The expression level was comparable to the maize ubiquitin promoter in standardised transient assays in maize. In transgenic banana plants the expression levels were variable for different transgenic lines but was generally comparable with the activities of both the maize ubiquitin promoter and the enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The Sc promoter appears to express in a near-constitutive manner in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. The promoter from sugarcane bacilliform virus represents a useful tool for the high-level expression of foreign genes in both monocot and dicot transgenic plants that could be used similarly to the CaMV 35S or maize polyubiquitin promoter. PMID:10380808

  4. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

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    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB, “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB and “Thap Maeo” (AAB varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics were performed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and phytotoxic effects of selected antibiotics to plants were determined. Among the 20 antibiotics evaluated, the strains showed sensitivity to cefaclor, cefalexin, cefalotin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. However, during MIC determination, the best results were obtained with cefaclor, vancomycin or nalidixic acid alone in concentrations ranging from 512 to 1,024 mg L-1. In culture medium, cefaclor at 1,024 mg L-1 was the only antibiotic to affect the multiplication and the shoot survival in culture.

  5. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. PMID:27178917

  6. 某公司租用土地开发香蕉项目综合效益分析%Analysis on Comprehensive Benefits of a Company Planting Banana on Rented Lands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈西林

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made in this article on the eco-benefit, social benefit, and economic benefit from banana planting of a company in three planting bases in Xinping County. Before the banana is planted, the land is classified into sloppy land, woodland and arable land We carefully study the three types of land, analyze the various effects and benefits made by banana planting on these types of land, and make a comprehensive comment.

  7. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p  0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  8. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N19, P19, K19 fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers was studied

  9. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  10. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats. PMID:4033739

  11. 香蕉叶与香蕉全株营养成分和单宁含量的比较分析%The comparative analysis of the nutrients and tannins content of the banana leaves and the banana whole plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中英; 王春芳; 曹兵海

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨香蕉叶与香蕉全株的饲料价值,试验以香蕉叶与香蕉全株为研究对象,对其常规营养成分和单宁含量进行了化学分析。结果表明,香蕉叶中的DM、CP、EE、NDF、ADF、ADL、Ash、P、总能、总酚、非单宁酚、总单宁和缩合单宁含量均显著地高于香蕉全株(P<0.05)。因此,香蕉叶的饲料价值优于香蕉全株,但酚类和单宁类抗营养物质的含量也高于香蕉全株。%To explore the feed value of the banana leaves and the banana whole plant, this experiment selected the banana leaves and the banana whole plant as the research object and tested its nutrients and tannins content. The results showed that the content of the DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ash, P, GE total phenols, non-tannins phenols, tannins and condensed tannins of the banana leaves were significantly higher than the banana whole plant(P<0.05). The feed value of the banana leaves was bet-ter than the banana whole plant, but the phenols and tannin content of the banana leaves was also higher than the banana whole plant.

  12. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  13. Ethno-cognitive connections between HIV/AIDS and banana plants in the Bahaya agricultural society in north-western Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Githinji, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on ethno-cognitive connections between HIV/AIDS and banana plants in the Bahaya agricultural society that emerged from an anthropological study carried out in 2005-2006 in Nsisha, a rural village in Bukoba District, north-western Tanzania. The paper briefly describes the historica

  14. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-12-10

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes.

  15. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  16. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-...

  17. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  18. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  19. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  20. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  1. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  2. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Alwi; Juferi Idris; Mohibah Musa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SSs), and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbi...

  3. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Nimusiima; Martina Köberl; John Baptist Tumuhairwe; Jerome Kubiriba; Charles Staver; Gabriele Berg

    2015-01-01

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect,...

  4. Genome Sequence of Banana Streak MY Virus from the Pacific Ocean Island of Tonga

    OpenAIRE

    Stainton, Daisy; Halafihi, Mana’ia; Collings, David A.; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Banana streak disease is caused by a variety of banana-infecting badnaviruses. A genome of the episomal form of a banana streak MY virus was recovered from an infected banana plant sampled on Vava’u Island, Tonga, and shares >98% pairwise identity with the six other genomes available in public databases.

  5. Effects of N(6)-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Different concentrations of N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1-14 mg L(-1) with or without 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA, or BAP at 7-14 mg L(-1) with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L(-1) (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L(-1) (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L(-1) (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. BAP at 11 mg L(-1) with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak.

  6. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    OpenAIRE

    Renny Futeri; Pharmayeni Pharmayeni

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel ) . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibil...

  7. Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon Kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source. Female organ was taken from heart of banana stem, while shoot-tip taken from sucker in banana plantation at Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Those explants were cultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IAA and supplemented by 100 tyrosin and 80 mg/l adenin hemisulphate. Observation showed that 180 and 42 buds were obtained from JBR 02 mutant lines respectively, while 84 and 79 buds for JAK 01 and JAK 02 respectively. The highest shoot formation was 1.013 shoots were obtained from BRC variety and lowest one was JBR 01 mutant line. statistical data analysis indicated that shoot formation between BRC variety and another mutant lines were significant difference using LSD test at level 0.05. Plantlet formation derived from female organ as well as shoot-tip showed that BRC variety produced number of plantlets per bottle was higher that another one. (author)

  8. Phenylpropanoid pathway is potentiated by silicon in the roots of banana plants during the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçã, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in

  9. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Alwi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SSs, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages by banana stem juice were 80.1%, 88.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, observed for effluent at pH 7 using 90 mL dosage. The inulin concentration in the banana stem was examined to be 1.22016 mg/mL. It could be concluded that banana stem juice showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes and could be applied in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian spent coolant wastewater prior to secondary treatment.

  10. Hakalau Forest - Mechanical Control of Invasive Plants: Banana Poka and English Holly

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest NWR was established to conserve endangered forest birds and their habitats. The Refuge supports a diversity of native plants and birds, including 27...

  11. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  12. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  13. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  14. Let's Go Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  15. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  16. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  17. 香蕉根际促生菌的研究展望%Progress and Prospect on Plant Growth - promoting Rhizobacteria of Banana Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 彭智平; 于俊红; 黄继川; 宋慧敏

    2011-01-01

    植物根际促生菌(plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria,PGPR)是一类具有促进作物生长并增加产量的作用,兼有抑制植物病原菌、根际有害微生物的根际微生物,作为生物肥料和生物农药的重要资源库,PGPR相关研究受到越来越多的重视.着重从PGPR的概念演变、功能机制、研究手段及应用现状等方面进行综述,并在分析香蕉根际促生菌研究现状的基础上,对香蕉PGPR研究的理论意义和现实意义提出讨论与展望.%Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are microorganisms colonized in the plant rhizosphere, which can promote the plant growth and yield, and inhibit plant pathogens.As an important resource of biofertilizer and biocontrol agents, PGPR have been paid more and more attention by researchers in the sustainable agriculture.This paper reviewed progresses on the concept development, functioning mechanisms, study techniques and the application of PGPR.In addition, the theoretical and practical significance of banana PG PR were disscused, and some future directions in PGPR study were suggested.

  18. Assessing benefits and costs of commercial banana production in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, R.; Rola, Agnes C.

    2003-01-01

    The Philippine banana industry is currently one of the top agricultural export earners. The increasing demand worldwide has resulted in greater expansion of area planted to banana, including those in environmentally critical places. Current high chemical input technologies used in banana production have been documented to have significant environmental and public health costs. In this paper, we assess the social costs and private benefits of banana production by commercial growers. We used pr...

  19. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  20. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  1. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  2. Bananas go paraelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: peter.lunkenheimer@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2008-05-14

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  3. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  4. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  5. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents.

  6. Fitonematoides associados a bananais 'Pacovan' sob condição de cultivo irrigado: relação com a produção Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with banana 'Pacovan' in irrigated condition: connections with production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2007-01-01

    Radopholus similis. Pôde-se inferir que o manejo adotado em cada núcleo de produção de banana irrigada influenciou na produção (peso de cachos sob diferentes populações de fitonematóides.Among the factors that affect the productivity of banana, stand out pests, diseases and inadequate cultural practices. In this context, plant parasitic nematodes have great importance for reducing the efficiency of water and soil nutrients absorption by the roots, causing the plants to fall down near harvest. About 146 nematode species have already been reported associated to banana roots. Nevertheless, only Radopholus similis, several species of the genus Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchulus cause significant losses in banana plantations. In plantations located in irrigated areas in the municipal districts of Petrolina/PE and Juazeiro/BA, questionnaires were applied to obtain information about the history of the area, including plant nutrition, fertility, cultural practices, incidence of pests and post-harvesting practices. It was observed that 90% of the area belonged to small farmers. The major problems pointed out were: inadequate management, including harvesting and post-harvesting practices, presence of nematodes and strong winds. In this research a survey of the occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes was carried out. Thus, this research aimed to identify the genera of the plant parasitic nematodes found, and to study the relationship between the banana production in the several selected areas with the population of plant parasitic nematodes in the soil and in the banana root system. In each selected area, 20 banana plants were marked and samples of soil and roots were taken. Each sample was composed of four samples of each plant to represent the population of nematodes. The genera of the most abundant nematodes were Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus. Nevertheless, the production was neither related to the number of farms in each location

  7. Degradation of Methyldopa by Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminori Mohri; Yoshihiro Uesawa

    2010-01-01

    Methyldopa, an antihypertensive, is a very close analogue of DOPA. Drug interaction accompanied by degradation in a banana juice mixture was reported for DOPA. However, the effect of banana on methyldopa has not been reported. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of banana juice on methyldopa. The drug and supernatant of banana pulp were mixed, and the mixture was observed for changes in color, drug concentration, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra at 30 °C. The originally clear...

  8. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  9. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  10. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  11. In vitro propagation and mutation induction in the banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The banana is the second most important fruit crop in India, both in areas (3.22 x 105 ha) and production (57.83 x 105 t). It accounts for 11% of the total area under fruit crops and over 18% of the total fruit production. Because of its high productivity and maximum returns, there is considerable scope for the expansion of banana cultivation. The banana is propagated vegetatively by suckers. A limited number of suckers (5-10) are produced from a plant in 1 year and therefore there is a shortage of planting material, which limits its multiplication. Micropropagation through tissue culture techniques would accelerate banana cultivation by improving its multiplication rate, productivity and quality. 4 refs

  12. The radurisation of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early studies on the radurisation of bananas indicated that this commodity did not benefit substantially from the treatment. This work, which was carried out at Pelindaba, indicated a low threshold dose for radiation damage and little shelf-life extension at this dose. In a second study carried out at Tzaneen more promising results were obtained. The reason for the differences seemed to be due to the time between harvesting and treatment which was much shorter in the Tzaneen study. Consequently it was decided to undertake a third and much larger trial in which the bananas would be treated in Tzaneen and then dispatched to Pretoria for storage and evaluation by a joint Nucor/Banana Board team. Parameters investigated included colour, firmness (by penatrometer testing) and sensory qualities. The bananas were stored for various periods at 15o C, ripened by exposure to ethylene gas under commerical conditons and then stored at ambient temperature for the remainder of the experiment. Bananas we re irradiated at various doses between 0,3 kGy and 1,5kGy and were compared with control batches which were stored under the same conditions

  13. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp.) plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Moussa, R.; Cattan, P.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Voltz, M.

    2009-11-01

    Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h-1) under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI). Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to

  14. Densidade do sistema radicular da bananeira 'Pacovan' sob irrigação por aspersão Root system density of 'Pacovan' banana plant under sprinkler irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Lacerda Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Governador Dix-Sept Rosado, microrregião Açu-Apodi, no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, tendo como objetivo verificar os efeitos do sistema de irrigação por aspersão na densidade do sistema radicular da bananeira 'Pacovan'. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram duas amostragens por planta, realizadas do lado contrário ao da emissão da inflorescência, formando um ângulo de 45º. Em cada amostragem, foram realizadas quatro retiradas do material de solo a distâncias de 20 cm, sendo a primeira a 30 cm e a última a 90 cm do pseudocaule. A análise dos dados demonstrou que ocorreu redução linear no peso fresco e na densidade de comprimento de raízes da bananeira em função da profundidade do solo. Em relação à distância do pseudocaule da bananeira, tanto o peso fresco quanto a densidade de comprimento de raízes não mostraram resultados significativos.The present work was conducted at Governador Dix-Sept Rosado County, microregion Açu-Apodi, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte and its objective was to study the effects of sprinkler irrigation system on the density of the root system of 'Pacovan' banana plants. The experiment followed a completely randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme, with five replications. The treatments were two sampling groups, taken per plant, and in the opposite side of the inflorescence emission, forming between them an angle of 45°. In each sampling group, four samples containing soil material were collected at intervals of 20 cm, so the first was distant 30 cm and the last 90 cm from the pseudostem. Data analysis showed that occurred a linear reduction in root fresh weight and in lenght of roots density, in replications to soil depth. For the distance from the plant pseudostem there were no significant differences between samples, both

  15. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  16. Drivers of soil fertility in smallholder banana systems in the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    Delstanche, Séverine

    2011-01-01

    Banana is a crop of major importance in the African Great Lakes Region, because of the food and cash it provides to about 85% of the population. Despite the management efforts of smallholder farmers, on-farm banana yields are low. Low yields are mainly attributed to poor soil fertility and limited input use, drought or irregular rainfall, pests and diseases and inappropriate management practices. Relying on observations on banana plants, crop management, pests and soils in various agro-ecoreg...

  17. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Kenji Oi; Elias Basile Tambourgi; Deovaldo de Moraes Jr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the m...

  18. Avaliações fenológicas e agronômicas em café arábica cultivado a pleno sol e consorciado com banana 'Prata Anã' Phenological and agronomic evaluations in a coffee crop grown under unshaded and shaded by 'Prata Anã' banana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, cultivados a pleno sol e consorciados com banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, em Mococa (SP, em Latitude 21º 28' S, Longitude 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m. Entre julho de 2001 e junho de 2004 foi acompanhado o desenvolvimento fenológico dos cultivos, além de se avaliar, o crescimento das plantas em altura e diâmetro da copa. Nas safras de 2002, 2003 e 2004 foram avaliados os parâmetros de produção nos dois sistemas de cultivo, além de sua variabilidade nas parcelas do cultivo consorciado. Nos sistemas de cultivo avaliados, o crescimento vegetativo em altura e diâmetro foi maior no período primavera-verão em relação ao período outono-inverno, não tendo sido encontradas diferenças significativas das taxas de crescimento, de desenvolvimento fenológico e dos índices de produção entre os cultivos. No cultivo consorciado, no ponto próximo às bananeiras observaram-se diferenças em relação aos demais pontos amostrados no crescimento vegetativo e desenvolvimento fenológico para algumas épocas do ano, além de apresentar menor produção por planta.A study was carried out in coffee crop (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, unshade and shaded by banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa AAB, in Mococa, São Paulo State, Brazil (Latitude South 21º 28 ', Longitude West 47º 01 ', altitude 665m. Phenological data for the coffee crops were taken, from July, 2001 to June, 2004. The growth of the plants concerning height and diameter was also evaluated. The harvests of 2002, 2003 and, 2004 were appraised by the production parameters, and their variability for different positions in shaded coffee crop. The vegetative growth in height and diameter showed higher activity during the spring-summer period in relation to the autumn-winter period, in both in the cultivation systems evaluated. No significant differences of the growth taxes, of phenological development

  19. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  20. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  1. Nitrogênio e potássio via fertirrigação e adubação convencional-estado nutricional das bananeiras e produção de frutos Nitrogen and potassium aplication on banana plant by fertirrigation and conventional fertilization-nutritional status of banana plants and fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Junqueira Teixeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em Pindorama (SP com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da fertirrigação e da adubação convencional com N e K, em bananeiras, durante dois ciclos de produção. Foram avaliados crescimento, estado nutricional e produção de frutos. A adubação causou redução do ciclo de produção. Os teores foliares de N e K foram influenciados pela adubação convencional e pela fertirrigação. Nos dois ciclos de cultivo, a produção de frutos variou em função dos tratamentos. A produção de frutos (t ha¹ ano¹ obtida com a aplicação de 80% da dose de N e de K via fertirrigação foi equivalente àquela com 100% da dose via adubação convencional.A field experiment was carried out in Pindorama (Sao Paulo State, Brazil with the objective of investigating the effects of N and K application through fertirrigation and conventional fertilization on banana plants during two crop cycles. Plant growth, nutrition status and fruit production were evaluated. The fertilization caused a reduction in the productive cycle. Fertilizers applied by fertirrigation or conventional fertilization changed the N and K leaf content. The fruit production varied in function of the treatment in the two cultivated cycles. Fruit production (t ha¹ year¹ obtained with application of 80% of N and K doses by fertirrigation was comparable to fruit production with 100% of fertilizer rate applied by conventional fertlization.

  2. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Bressan; Shizu Watanabe; April M. Greenwell

    2013-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpu...

  3. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  4. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  5. Elucidating the resistance response of irradiated banana cv. Lakatan to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-resistant banana variety Lakatan through gamma-irradiation had been successfully done as part of integrated management strategies against the disease. Ten irradiated Lakatan lines exhibited resistance to BBTV. Resistance of these lines was evaluated based on symptomatology and host-virus relationship. Insect colony development on Lakatan banana irradiated lines was monitored by artificially inoculating viruliferous banana aphids, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and counting the resulting number of aphids per plant at weekly intervals. Resistance to virus multiplication of Lakatan irradiated lines was characterized by quantifying the virus titer through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that not all lines were suitable as hosts in establishing aphid population. The reaction of the mutant lines to the vector and the pathogen varied to some extent. Disease incidence in some cases was correlated with aphid preference. Disease incidence was significantly higher (50%) on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower (50%) in those that were not colonized. Some mutant lines with very low aphid colony count, however showed high BBTV incidence. Variability in the results could be affected by other factors such as the developmental stage of the plant and prevailing environmental conditions during the conduct of the experiment. Virus titer was also reduced on these mutant lines, thus reduced virus multiplication. Non-irradiated (control) Lakatan banana had comparably high population of aphids, high disease incidence, and high virus titer

  6. Effects of acidic conditions on the growth of banana plantlets. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Malaysia, the banana, known locally as Pisang, is the major short term crop and is ranked as the third most important fruit crop for export. However, current production shows that demand is still greater than market supply. One of the major constraints in banana production is soil acidity, which affects the growth and yield. One way of overcoming this problem is biotechnological manipulations, i.e. by screening in vitro and selecting plants that are tolerant to acidity. Tissue culturing of bananas has been established and widely reported. A description is given of in vitro studies of two commercially grown bananas, Pisang Montel (Cavendish type) and Pisang Intan, with the objectives of selecting plants that are adaptable to a low pH and of understanding the biochemical mechanisms associated with acidity. P. Intan, a popular dessert banana, is reported to be severely affected by soil acidity. 6 refs

  7. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  8. Banana Dehydration Utilizing Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize biochemical degradation hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to investigate quality characteristics of bananas dried ...

  9. Nematode resistance in bananas : screening results on some new Mycosphaerella resistant banana hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Quénéhervé, Patrick; Salmon, F.; Topart, Patrick; Horry, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Banana hybrids with resistance to Yellow Sigatoka and Black Leaf Streak disease were evaluated for resistance to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis and to the lesion nematode Pratylenchus coVeae in a growth chamber at 24-28. Plants produced by tissue culture were acclimatised for 6 weeks prior to inoculation. Forty-five days after inoculation with nematodes, the root systems were processed and nematode numbers assessed. Two cultivars of Grande Naine (Musa AAA, Cavendish subgroup, ITC12...

  10. Densidade de plantio na produtividade e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas e frutos da bananeira cv. Thap Maeo Plants density on yield and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de plantio na produtividade, tempo de colheita e teores dos nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos de bananeira cv. Thap Maeo (AAB cultivada em Manaus (AM. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos fatores: três densidades de plantio (1.111; 1.667 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e duas épocas de colheita (primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os resultados do primeiro e segundo ciclos mostraram incremento significativo da produtividade, com aumento da densidade de plantio. O tempo médio para colheita dos cachos foi menor na densidade de 1.111 plantas ha-1 (1º ciclo, 338 e 2º ciclo, 401 dias. Na média das densidades e independentemente do ciclo, os teores de macronutrientes nos frutos apresentaram a ordem de: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, enquanto a dos micronutrientes foi: 1º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu e 2º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants density on yield, period of harvest and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo (AAB, cultivated in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment was conduced in a randomized blocks, with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of planting density (1,111; 1,667 and 3,333 plants ha-1, and two cycles of harvest (sub treatments. The results obtained from 1st cycle and 2nd cycle showed significant increase in the yield per unit area as the employed plant density increased. The shortest average period to harvest banana bunches (1st cycle, 338 days and 2nd cycle, 401 days was observed for the lower density (1,111 plants ha-1. Pooled data of density and cycles showed that exportation of macronutrients through the fruits was, in order: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, while in micronutrients was: 1st cycle - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu, and 2nd cycle - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.

  11. Regeneration and multiplication capacity of local banana (Musa spp.) cultivars using callus and shoot tip cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional clonal propagation of banana cultivars using suckers is very slow and limited. In Malaysia, areas for banana plantation are increasing and there is an urgent demand for a quick source of planting materials. In addition, there is interest in improving and developing local banana cultivars for commercial production. In vitro culture techniques can provide an effective method for rapid micropropagation of new banana plants. Plantlet regeneration of P. Intan was achieved via callus tissues derived from the cell suspension cultures. The planting materials for P. Nangka and P. Tanduk were difficult to obtain because of poor sucker formation. However, this study showed that the multiplication rate of plantlets of these cultivars is high and potentially useful in producing high and uniform planting materials

  12. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species o

  13. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  14. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species ...

  15. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  16. Wild Banana Seed Phytobezoar Rectal Impaction Causing Intestinal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Feng Yih; Heng, Sophia Si Ling; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Adila, Irene Nur Ibrahim; Tan, Yew Eng; Chong, Hock Chin

    2016-08-01

    Wild banana (Musa acuminata subsp. microcarpa) seed phytobezoar rectal impaction in adult is a rare entity. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with dementia who presented with lower abdominal pain, per-rectal bleeding and overflow faecal incontinence. Our investigation discovered a large wild banana seed phytobezoar impacted in the rectum causing intestinal obstruction, stercoral ulcer and faecal overflow incontinence. In this article, we discuss the patient's clinical findings, imaging and management. The culprit plant was identified and depicted. This may be the first report of its kind. Public consumption of these wild bananas should be curtailed. It is hoped that this report would increase the awareness of such condition and its identification. PMID:27574355

  17. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  18. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  19. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  20. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  1. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  2. Comportamento agronômico de bananeira 'Prata-anã' em função do tipo de muda Agromic performance of 'Prata-anã' banana regarding to plant propagation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento de campo com bananeira 'Prata-anã', visando a avaliar o comportamento agronômico de plantas estabelecidas a partir de três tipos de mudas: convencional, micropropagadas em meio sólido e em meio líquido. A área experimental foi instalada no município de Cristais Paulista-SP (20º23'S; 47º30'W, cujo clima é caracterizado por verão chuvoso e inverno seco. Avaliaram-se o crescimento e a fenologia por meio de medidas periódicas de comprimento e diâmetro do pseudocaule das plantas até a emissão da inflorescência. A incidência de doenças (CMV e mal-do-panamá foi estimada visualmente em função da apresentação de sintomas característicos pelas plantas. As plantas originadas de mudas micropropagadas apresentaram crescimento e desenvolvimento iniciais mais vigorosos, maior precocidade e cachos mais leves do que aquelas estabelecidas com mudas convencionais. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas em relação à incidência de doenças e ao tamanho dos frutos produzidos, em função dos tipos de mudas.A field experiment with 'Prata-anã' banana was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance of tissue culture-propagated plants in solid or liquid culture medium and conventionally propagated plants. The experiment was installed in Cristais Paulista (20º23'S; 47º30'W, Planalto Region of State of Sao Paulo (Brazil. This region is characterized by a summer rainy season and dry winter. Plant growth and phenology were assessed through periodic measurements of length and stem diameter of the plants until flowering. The incidence of diseases (CMV and Panama disease was estimated visually according to the presentation of symptoms by plants. The tissue culture-propagated-plants in solid or liquid medium showed initial growth and development more vigorous, precocious flowering and lighter bunches than those from conventionally propagated plants. There were no significant differences in the incidence of

  3. Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ramith Ramu; Prithvi S Shirahatti; Nanjunda Swamy S; Farhan Zameer; Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya; Nagendra Prasad M N

    2016-01-01

    Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2...

  4. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  5. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  6. Caracteres da planta e do cacho de genótipos de bananeira, em quatro ciclos de produção, em Belmonte, Bahia Plant and branch characteristics of banana genotypes in four production cycles in Belmonte, Bahia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Basilio Vieira Leite

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, no ecossistema de Mata Atlântica, em condições de sequeiro de Belmonte - BA, 15 genótipos de bananeira, contemplando variedades e híbridos obtidos no programa de melhoramento genético de bananeira da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Os genótipos foram: 'Mysore', 'Thap Maeo', 'Caipira', 'Nam', PV03-76, PV03-44, JV03-15, PA03-22, 'Pioneira', 'Prata Anã', 'Ouro da Mata', 'Prata, 'Pacovan', 'Maçã' e 'Grande Naine'. Os caracteres avaliados foram: altura da planta (cm na roseta foliar e diâmetro do pseudocaule (cm a 30 cm do solo, no florescimento; número de dias do plantio à colheita; peso do cacho em kg; número de frutos por cacho e comprimento do fruto em cm. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 3,0 m x 2,0 m. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo cada parcela constituída de 49 plantas com 25 úteis em três repetições. Os tratos culturais foram os preconizados para a cultura. Não foi realizado controle da Sigatoca-amarela. A análise revelou que a avaliação de genótipos permite a identificação de variedades e cultivares promissoras para recomendação aos produtores, tendo se destacado, no cômputo das características avaliadas: 'Thap Maeo', 'Caipira', 'Nam' e PV03-76.Fifteen genotypes of banana were evaluated for their performance in the Mata Atlântica ecosystem, at Belmonte city, BA, with no irrigation system. The genotypes, including varieties and hybrids from Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Banana Breeding Program, were as follow: Mysore, Thap Maeo, Caipira, Nam, PV03-76, PV03-44, JV03-15, PA03-22, Pioneira, Prata Anã, Ouro da Mata, Prata, Pacovan, Maçã and Grande Naine. The agronomic traits evaluated in the experiments were: plant height (cm and diameter of pseudostem (measure at 30 cm above ground during flowering; number of days from planting to harvest, weight of bunch (kg, number of hands and fingers to bunch and fingers length (cm. The plant spacing was 3,0 m between rows and 2

  7. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  8. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA. Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we found this cultivator cum entrepreneur diversified his land productivity. The monthly income generated from selling banana fruits, suckers and rubber seedlings were 30.2 %, 39.9% and 29.9% of his total farm income, respectively. The cultivator provide a novel insight in managing banana farm by introducing new techniques of planting, fertilization regime and diversification of income in his banana farm intercropped with rubber seedlings.

  9. A clone of irradiated banana cultivar 'Williams' with high yield potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to improve banana in the Sudan started effectively with three IAEA mutation breeding projects. The most common banana cultivar is 'Dwarf Cavendish', which covers almost 95% of the area under banana production. This cultivar is considered as the most adapted banana cultivar to different climatic conditions, but it is prone to 'choke throat' and has low yield potential. Banana cv. 'Williams' was irradiated at the IAEA/FAO laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria. Based on preliminary evaluation of the material, 5 mutants (i.e. W193-3, W188-3, W205-4, W206-1 and W224-4) were selected as single plants and propagated by tissue culture. Multi-location testing was carried out for these mutants with cvs. 'Dwarf Cavendish' and 'Williams as standard cultivars in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications and 25 plants per replication. Spacing was 2 x 2 m (2500 plant per ha) and one sucker was retained. The bunch weight and cumulative yield of clone 193-3 were significantly higher than all banana genotypes. The high yield of clone W193-3 in the plant crop was due to the significantly higher number of hands per bunch and larger fingers. The plant height at shooting and pseudostem girth were significantly higher in clone W193-3. The stability parameters for bunch weight of the different clones showed that clone W193-3 was stable with high yield in all environments. Clone W193-3 was released as a new banana cultivar for farmers under the names 'Albeely'. (author)

  10. Produção da bananeira 'Nanicão' em diferentes densidades de plantas e sistemas de espaçamento Yield of 'nanicão' banana at different plant densities and spacing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexio Scarpare Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes densidades de plantio e sistemas de espaçamento sobre a produção da bananeira 'Nanicão', avaliando-se os primeiros quatro ciclos. Quatro densidades (3.333, 2.222, 1.666 e 1.333 plantas ha-1 e dois sistemas de espaçamento (retângulo e triângulo foram testados para as condições de Piracicaba,SP. O aumento da densidade de 1.333 para 3.333 plantas ha-1 diminuiu a massa do cacho em 15% a 20%, em decorrência do menor número de frutos por cacho, massa e tamanho do fruto. A produção foi sempre maior com o aumento da densidade, porém não ocorreu o mesmo quanto à produtividade. Até o terceiro ciclo, a produtividade das plantas no tratamento de maior densidade superou a das demais. No quarto ciclo, não houve diferença de produtividade entre as plantas, nas densidades testadas, em razão do aumento na duração do ciclo de produção do plantio mais denso. Comparado com o retângulo, o sistema de espaçamento em triângulo promoveu maior massa do cacho no primeiro ciclo e produtividade levemente superior ao longo dos quatro ciclos.The objective of this research was to study the effect of different planting densities and spacing systems on the yield of the 'Nanicão' banana, evaluating the first four cycles. Four density (3,333; 2,222; 1,666 and 1,333plants ha-1 and two spacing systems (rectangle and triangle were tested for the conditions of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The increase of the density of 1,333 to 3,333 plants ha-1 decreased bunch weight in 15% to 20%, due to reduction in number of fruit by bunch and fruit size. The yield was always higher as the density increased; however, there was not the same behavior for the productivity. Until the third cycle, the highest plant density overcame the productivity of the others. In the fourth cycle there was no difference in productivity among the densities, due to the increase in the duration of crop cycle in the highest

  11. Welfare Gains from Liberalized Banana Trade and a New International Banana Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, H.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union import policy for bananas grants preferential trade access for ACP bananas and discriminates against bananas from other sources. It is shown that such trade discrimination cannot be defended by development-related motives. As a form of aid transfer to banana-exporting ACP countries, the EU import regime is highly inefficient. The effective value of financial transfers is low, while there are large associated welfare costs to domestic consumers and to non-preferred export co...

  12. Redução da oxidação na propagação in vitro da bananeira 'maçã' Oxidation reduction of in vitro propagation of banana cv. Maçã plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rubia Camolesi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de cultivo in vitro de bananeira enfrenta o problema de oxidação dos ápices caulinares na fase de estabelecimento. Conduziu-se este trabalho, para avaliar a combinação de ácido cítrico e citrato de potássio, buscando reduzir a oxidação in vitro de bananeira 'Maçã'. Os ápices caulinares, medindo 15 mm de pseudocaule e 5 mm de rizoma, foram cultivados no meio MS, com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Os tratamentos foram organizados em esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (com e sem pré-tratamento de antioxidantes por 90 minutos, com e sem a adição dos antioxidantes ao meio de cultivo e com e sem a transferência dos ápices caulinares; aos 15 dias, após a inoculação. Cada tratamento foi constituído por 15 ápices caulinares. Foram avaliados o grau de oxidação e o número de brotos na primeira e na segunda repicagem. O menor grau de oxidação foi obtido com o pré-tratamento dos ápices caulinares em 0,25 g L-1 de ácido cítrico e 0,75 g L-1 de citrato de potássio, sem a adição desses antioxidantes ao meio de cultivo e sem a necessidade de transferência dos ápices caulinares, aos 15 dias.The in vitro cultivation technique of banana plants faces the problem of oxidation of the stem apex in the establishment phase. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of the combination of citric acid and potassium citrate, to reduce the in vitro oxidation of 'Maçã' banana plants. The explants, measuring 15 mm of pseudostem and 5 mm of rhizome, were established in the MS medium with half concentration of the macronutrients. The treatments were organized in factorial design 2x2x2 (with and without pre-treatment of antioxidants for 90 minutes, with and without the addition of the antioxidants in the medium and with and without subculture to the 15 days after the inoculation. Each treatment was constituted by 15 stem apexes. The oxidation degree and the number of buds in the first and in the second re-culture were

  13. Anatomical and physiological modifications of micropropagated 'Caipira' banana plants under natural lighy Modificações anatômicas e fisiológicas de bananeiras 'Caipira' micropropagadas sob luz natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the use of natural light associated to changes in sucrose levels demonstrated potential in promoting in vitro hardiness of tropical climate species, as well as reducing production costs. However, little is known about physiological and structural changes that happen in the process. This study evaluated the physiological and anatomic performance, and ex vitro survival of micropropagated banana plants in response to cultivation conditions, in the stage of in vitro rooting. Shoots of the 'Caipira' cultivar were cultivated in MS medium, supplemented with 1 mg L-1 NAA and 6 g L-1 agar, in which the following treatments were applied: two sucrose concentrations (15 g L-1 or 30 g L-1 and two cultivation conditions (Natural light - greenhouse and Artificial light - growth chamber. At the end of 45 days, the contents of chlorophyll a, b and total, the relative water content in the tissues, anatomic characteristics and the ex vitro survival were evaluated. Effects of growth environment and sucrose concentration were observed on micropropagated 'Caipira' banana anatomy, physiology and survival. In vitro rooting of the shoots under natural light in the medium containing 15 g L-1 or 30 g L-1 sucrose promoted major alteration in the increase of palisade and spongy parenchyma, as well as reducing leaf water loss and plant death. The results obtained in the present study confirm the potential of the use of natural light as a substitute for artificial light for micropropagation of tropical species.Pesquisas acerca do uso da luz natural associado a alterações nos níveis de sacarose têm apresentado potencial para promover a rustificação in vitro de espécies de clima tropical bem como reduzir os custos de produção. Todavia, pouco se conhece sobre as modificações fisiológicas e estruturais ocasionadas. Avaliaram-se o comportamento fisiológico, anatômico e a sobrevivência ex vitro de bananeiras micropropagadas em resposta às condi

  14. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  15. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, S.A.L.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Ferreira, C.F.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Zapater, M.F.; Goodwin, S.B.; Guzmán, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Souza, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Mus

  16. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  17. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  18. In vivo fertilization of banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taliane Leila Soares; Everton Hilo de Souza; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa; Sebastião de Oliveira E Silva; Janay Almeida dos Santos Serejo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA) 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup), the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup) some ...

  19. Development of bunchy top virus resistant banana cv lakatan in vitro culture and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunchy to virus (BTV) is the most destructive virus disease of banana in the Philippines. Incorporation of resistance to this virus disease by conventional hybridization is not possible due to male and female sterility of most commercial banana cultivars. In vitro culture coupled with radiation technology can be used to develop BTV resistance in banana cv. Lakatan. The sensitivity of banana shot tip explants to gamma irradiation was determined by subjecting the shoot tips to varying doses (5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy) of irradiation. The LD sub 50 for banana shoot tips determined by 50% reduction in growth and shoot proliferation, was observed to around 20-25 Gy. Bulk irradiation of shoot tip explants was conducted using 20-25 Gy. Irradiated cultures were multiplied for 3-5 cycles and plants regenerated were potted out and screened for BTV resistance. A total of 3,447 irradiated plants regenerated from the radiosensitivity experiment (1,847 plants) and bulk irradiation of 20/25 Gy (1,600 plants) were screened for BTV resistance in the greenhouse using artificial BTV inoculation using the aphid vector Pentalonia nigronervosa. One hundred eighteen plants or 3.4% (118/3,447) of the artificially irradiated plants showed seedling resistance after 4-7 months of evaluation. These plants were planted in the field and were subjected to natural BTV infection. To date, 85 (out of the 118) putative seedling resistant plants continuously expressed BTV resistance in the field after more than 10 months of evaluation. The absence of BTV infection in 39 putative resistant plants was confirmed by ELISA test. Suckers from selected putative resistance plants will be collected, propagated and evaluated for the second cycle stability of BTV resistance and detailed characterization of important horticultural traits

  20. Quality Differences of Laos and Guangxi Bananas%老挝与广西香蕉品质差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 刘志强; 方昭; 张学娟; 王金乔; 迟志广; 李宝深

    2015-01-01

    研究老挝琅勃拉邦与广西在同一施肥条件香蕉在果指特征、品质指标以及果皮、果肉中氮、磷、钾元素含量的差异,结果发现:外观性状与内在品质无显著性差异,老挝香蕉瓤皮比高于广西香蕉,且果皮色泽比广西香蕉好;老挝香蕉与广西香蕉果皮中氮、磷、钾元素含量存在显著性差异,果肉中只有氮含量存在显著性差异,果肉中磷、钾含量吾显著性差异。本研究结果为香蕉的施肥调控管理以及市场定位提供了一定的参考价值。%The differences were determined in shape feature, quality and macronutrients of peel and pulp between Laos and Guangxi bananas under the same fertilization condition. The data can provide references for banana fertilization management and marketing. The results showed that there were no significant differences in shape feature and fruit quality, but Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in the ratio of peel and pulp, and better in peel luster. The content of macronutrients in banana peel showed significant difference, Laos banana was much higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen and potassium, but less in phosphorus. While in banana pulp Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen, but no differences in potassium and phosphorus. Therefore it was feasible to plant bananas in Laos, and gave some advices on overseas banana plantation investment.

  1. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  2. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  3. Banana-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations.

  4. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bananas from Hawaii. 318.13-22 Section 318.13-22... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the... from Hawaii with certification in accordance with § 318.13-3 if the bananas meet the...

  6. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  7. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  8. Predicting the Benefits of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C.; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N.; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J.; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response. PMID:22879960

  9. Bananas, a source of compounds with health properties

    OpenAIRE

    Parfait, Berthe; Aurore, Guylène

    2009-01-01

    Banana has an important place in human nutrition all over the world. It is interesting to analyse banana health preservation potentialities. The medicinal properties of banana are part of the folk medicine of all tropical countries. Bananas are used in special diets where ease of digestibility, low fat, minerals and vitamins are required. These special diets are used for babies, the elderly and patients with stomach problems, gout, and arthritis. Anti-ulcerogenic properties of banana are repo...

  10. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  11. Cultivo de bananas em diferentes áreas na ilha de Tenerife Banana production under different conditions in Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar a produção e a qualidade de bananas produzidas em diferentes condições de cultivo na ilha de Tenerife, foram estudadas três regiões da ilha (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal, onde se produzem bananas ao ar livre das cultivares Gruesa, Gran Enana e Laja. Nas áreas de Cueva del Polvo e Hoya Melleque, emprega-se o cultivo convencional e, na propriedade Canaria Forestal, pratica-se o orgânico. Os espaçamentos adotados foram de 1,67 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova; 1,3 x 3,0 m, com uma planta por cova, e 2,0 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova, respectivamente, para as propriedades em Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal. Diante dos dados observados, é possível verificar que as plantas da cv. Gran Enana apresentam maior altura e as da cv. Gruesa, maior espessura de pseudocaule. Também se pode inferir que, dentre as áreas e cultivares estudadas, não houve grande variabilidade nas características físicas dos frutos. A produtividade média encontrada foi de 99,8 t.ha-1, valor considerado adequado.Aiming to characterize the production and the banana quality produced in different plantation conditions of Tenerife Island, three regions of the island were studied (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal where bananas of Gruesa, Gran Enana and Laja cultivars are produced in open-air conditions. In Cueva del Polvo and Hoya Melleque the production was carried out in conventional management, while in Canaria Forestal the plants were carried out under organic system. Plants spacing was 1.67 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole; 1.3 x 3.0 m, with one plant per hole and; 2.0 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole, respectivitly to Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal. Our data show that plants of Gran Enana are higher and Gruesa plants have the thickest pseudostem. Differences were not found regarding the physical fruit characteristics and the average yield was 99.8 t.ha-1.

  12. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L. on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Premal Kapadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  13. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  14. Spatial distribution of banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a Cavendish banana plantation, Penang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUSTIN N. OKOLLE; MASHHOR MANSOR; ABU HASSAN AHMAD

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution of immatures of the banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) and their parasitisms from three major parasitoids were studied in a Cavendish banana plantation from April 2004 to December 2004. Infestation levels and parasitism ofE. thrax life stages were recorded from bunched plants (BP), flowering plants (FP), preflowered plants (PF),broad leaf followers (BLF) and narrow leaf followers (NLF), as well as on well managed and poorly managed plants. Mean numbers of the immatures and numbers parasitized from the nine blocks in the plantation were fitted to four dispersion indices. Significant numbers of E. thrax immatures and those parasitized by Ooencyrtus erionotae, Cotesia erionotae and Brachymeria albotibialis were recorded from BLF and PF; no eggs were found on BP and FP. Although infestation was higher on well managed plants, only larval parasitism was significandy different. Three of the four indices indicated that eggs and larvae were random while all the indices showed pupae to be clumped. Parasitized eggs and pupae were clumped (4/4 indices) while 3/4 indices revealed a random pattern for parasitized larvae.

  15. Economic Analysis of Tissue-cultured Banana and Sucker-propagated Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Alagumani, T.

    2005-01-01

    An economic analysis of tissue-cultured banana (TCB) and sucker-propagated banana (SPB) has been presented through studying their costs and returns. The factors influencing the costs of their production have been identified and resource-use efficiency has been studied. The risks in cultivation of tissue-cultured banana have been highlighted. The study has been conducted in the Theni district of Tamil Nadu using personal interview method. Probit model has been employed to find out the factor i...

  16. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  17. The Banana Industry, the Agricultural Sector and The Dominican Economy: Impacts of the Banana War

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Emaline; Pemberton, Carlisle; De Sormeaux, Afiya

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the banana dispute between the European Union (EU) and Latin American banana producers and the US on the supply of bananas from Dominica. It also looks at the future of the banana industry in light of the resolution of the dispute and the possibilities of the Fairtrade market. This examination is done through the analysis of the trends in supply, exports, prices and the contribution of the industry to the economy since the 1980s. The impact was further assess...

  18. Isolation of retro-transcribed RNA from in vitro Mycosphaerella fijiensis-infected banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, C M; Peraza-Echeverría, L; Islas-Flores, I R; Canto-Canché, B B; Grijalva-Arango, R

    2010-07-27

    High polyphenol and polysaccharide levels in plant tissues such as banana fruit and leaves constitute a significant challenge to the extraction of sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA required for cDNA library synthesis and molecular analysis. To determine their comparative effectiveness at eliminating polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins, three protocols for RNA extraction from in vitro banana plantlet leaves were tested: Concert(TM) Plant RNA isolation kit, a small-scale protocol based on Valderrama-Cháirez, and a modified version of the Valderrama-Cháirez protocol. RNA quantity and purity were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry using DEPC-treated water and Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Purity was greater using Tris-HCl. The Concert(TM) Plant protocol produced the poorest quality RNA. Reverse transcription into cDNAs from RNA isolated from in vitro banana plantlet leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis using the modified Valderrama-Cháirez protocol, followed by PCR using primers designed against gamma-actin from banana and M. fijiensis, yielded products of the anticipated size. In addition, this protocol reduced the processing time, lowered costs, used less expensive equipment, and could be used for other plants that have the same problems with high polyphenol and polysaccharide levels.

  19. Genomics of Banana and Plantain (Musa spp.), Major Staple Crops in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roux, N.; Baurens, F.C.; Dolezel, J.; Hribova, E.; Heslop-Harrison, P.; Town, C.; Sasaki, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Aert, R.; Remy, S.; Souza, M.T.; Lagoda, P.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter on Musa (banana and plantain) genomics covers the latest information on activities and resources developed by the Global Musa Genomics Consortium. Section 4.1 describes the morphology of the plant, its socio-economical importance and usefulness as an experimental organism. Section 4.2 d

  20. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  1. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  2. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayabalan, Sivalingam; Kalaiponmani, Kalaimughilan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Panchanathan, Radha; Muthuvelayoutham, Ramlatha; Kumar, Krish K; Balasubramanian, Ponnuswami

    2013-04-01

    One of the most severe viral diseases of hill banana is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a nanovirus transmitted by the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa. In this study, we reported the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on a highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease. The target of the RNA interference (RNAi) is the rep gene, encoded by the BBTV-DNA1. In order to develop RNAi construct targeting the BBTV rep gene, the full-length rep gene of 870 bp was polymerase chain reaction amplified from BBTV infected hill banana sample DNA, cloned and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The partial rep gene fragment was cloned in sense and anti sense orientation in the RNAi intermediate vector, pSTARLING-A. After cloning in pSTARLING-A, the cloned RNAi gene cassette was released by NotI enzyme digestion and cloned into the NotI site of binary vector, pART27. Two different explants, embryogenic cells and embryogenic cell suspension derived microcalli were used for co-cultivation. Selection was done in presence of 100 mg/L kanamycin. In total, 143 putative transgenic hill banana lines were generated and established in green house condition. The presence of the transgenes was confirmed in the selected putative transgenic hill banana lines by PCR and reverse transcription PCR analyses. Transgenic hill banana plants expressing RNAi-BBTV rep were obtained and shown to resist infection by BBTV. The transformed plants are symptomless, and the replication of challenge BBTV almost completely suppressed. Hence, the RNAi mediating resistances were shown to be effective management of BBTV in hill banana.

  3. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  4. Genetic and mycotoxigenic diversity of isolates belonging to the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex, and recovered from maize and banana in China

    OpenAIRE

    Munaut, Françoise; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Gourgue, Mélanie; Bivort, Céline; Qi, Yanxiang; Wu, Aibo Wu; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhang, Dabing; Van Hove, François; 12th European Fusarium Seminar

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of a research project aiming at detection and control of Fusarium and related mycotoxins in banana fruits and maize in China, plant samples were collected in four provinces. In the southern provinces of Hainan and Yunnan, cultivated and wild banana plants coexist, together with maize. In Hubei and Henan, the Fusarium diversity was investigated on maize at the end of the growing season. Beside 14 Fusarium species, an important number of isolates belonging to the Fusarium incarnatu...

  5. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  6. Selection and characterization of gamma ray induced Bunchy Top Virus resistant mutants in banana cv. Lakatan (Musa sp. AA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation coupled with in vitro technology was used to develop Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) resistance in banana cv. Lakatan (Musa sp. AA). A total of 6,012 plants regenerated from irradiated shoot cultures were subjected to BBTV artificial inoculation using the aphid vector (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coq.) in green house. From these, 64 mutant plants with varying degrees of resistance/tolerance reaction to BBTV were selected after 30 months of evaluation. The resistant mutant plants were induced from 5 to 30 Gy gamma rays. Twenty six plants showed no BBTV symptoms in both irradiated and first generation sucker plants (rated resistant). The other 38 plants showed limited BBTV symptoms (rated intermediate resistant). Yield and agronomic traits of some resistant plants were comparable to non-irradiated tissue culture plants. Shorter plant stature was also generated in some BBTV resistant mutant plants. First generation suckers from resistant plants were evaluated for second cycle stability of the resistance trait. (author)

  7. Space Curvature and the "Heavy Banana 'Paradox.'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Two ways to visually enhance the concept of space curvature are described. Viewing space curvature as a meterstick contraction and the heavy banana "paradox" are discussed. The meterstick contraction is mathematically explained. (KR)

  8. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    OpenAIRE

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS; FABRÍCIA QUEIROZ MENDES; MARIANA CRIVELARI DA CUNHA; MARIANA TEIXEIRA PIGOZZI; ANDRÉ MUNDSTOCK XAVIER DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L.) stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v) and a control (without coating). Propolis extracts were applied as 1) a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2) a wild type hydroalcoholic ...

  9. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  10. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  11. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  12. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  13. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  14. Correlações entre caracteres da planta e do cacho em bananeira (Musa spp Correlations among characters of the plant and of the bunch in banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2006-02-01

    quantify the relationships among characters development and yield attributes in flowering and harvesting periods of 13 banana (Musa spp. genotypes (varieties and hybrids, in Guanambi State of Bahia, Brazil. The varieties were Prata anã e Pacovan (AAB, Grande naine e Nanicão (AAA, and the hybrids PA42-44, PV42-85, PV42-142, PV42-68 e ST12-31 (AAAB e Ambrosia, Calipso, Bucaneiro e FHIA02 (AAAA, selected in Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. The characters analyzed were plant height; pseudostem perimeter; number of functional leaves in the flowering and in the harvesting; number of days from planting to flowering and to harvesting; number of days from flowering to harvesting; bunch weight, of raquis and of the hands; length and diameter of the peduncle; number of hands and fruits; weight of the second hand; weight, length and diameter of finger and peel thickness. The correlations among the weight of the bunch and the other studied characters, varied among the genotypes and cycles. The associations among the weight of the bunch and the characters of the plant, in a general were no significant, and among the weight of the bunch and the characters of the bunch significant and positive for most of the genotypes in the two cycles evaluated. The correlations among the characters involving all the genotypes along the two cycles was predominantly positive and no significant, however, the associations among the characters of the bunch were in majority significant, positive and with expressive values.

  15. MULTIPLICACIÓN DE HONGOS MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR (H.M.A Y EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN EN PLANTAS MICROPROPAGADAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MULTIPLICATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE FUNGI (AMF AND MYCORRHIZATION EFFECT IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF BANANA (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’ (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    host’ plants and substrates, and the effectiveness of the samples obtained from banana plants (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’. The average association of the HMA to the plants was 37,76 ± 21,86%, regarding this percentage, the plants ‘B’ (Brachiaria decumbens and ‘S’ (Sorgum vulgare favored gratly the association. Considering the substrate, the ‘S2’ (sand 50-soil 50 and the ‘S6’ (Vermiculite 50-soil 50 had associations significantly superior to treatments. In plants ‘S’ and ‘K’ (Pueraria phaseoloides and in substrate S1 (sand 30-soil 70, was found a higher number of spores. The combination plant-substrate that most favored the association was the plant B (used as a trap culture using substrates ‘S2’ and ‘S4’ (‘cascarilla de arroz’ 50-soil 50 and the production of spores were plants ‘K’ and ‘S’ in substrate ‘S1’. The general HMA association in banana plants coming from tissue crop was 48,74 ± 30,44; there were not found significant differences between plants with zero days and plants with 30 days already acclimated. The samples with inoculum diseases spread upon them which favored the association, were the ones coming from the banana agro-environment compared to the commercial samples and those from natural environments in Urabá. The greatest foliar dry and root weight was found on banana samplings applied with ‘I5’ (sample from agro-environment. For the growth variables there was not found any difference.

  16. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  17. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  18. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  19. 植物根际促生菌对香蕉幼苗生长及抗枯萎病效应研究%Effects of Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria on Growth and Controlling Fusarium-wilt Disease of Banana Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 彭智平; 杨少海; 于俊红; 黄继川; 吴雪娜; 杨林香

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究从香蕉根际土壤分离筛选的植物根际促生菌(PGPR)芽孢杆菌PAB-1、PAB-2菌株制剂对香蕉幼苗生长、养分吸收利用和香蕉枯萎病防治的效应研究。结果表明:试验处理56d后,施用植物根际促生菌菌剂的处理,株高、假茎围、地上部生物量、根长、根系生物量、总生物量、单株叶面积和叶绿素含量分别比对照增加18.5%~28.9%、17.0%~18.2%、16.8%~33.9%、41.5%~47.6%、65.5%~69.5%、24.8%~39.8%、24.0%~38.3%和30.0%~44.9%;施用PAB-2菌剂的处理,地上部氮、磷、钾、钙、镁养分吸收量分别比对照增加51.1%、46.1%、165.2%、7.4%和32.8%。接种香蕉枯萎病病原菌(FOC)的处理中,施用PGPR菌剂的香蕉叶片丙二醛含量显著低于只接种FOC4的,降低4.4%~10.6%;56d后香蕉枯萎病病情指数比只接种FOC4的降低12.5~31.3,防控效果达到18.8%~46.9%。施用PGPR菌剂能显著促进香蕉苗期植株生长,提高植株养分吸收,有效防控香蕉枯萎病发生。%Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR),which can promote the plant growth and yield,and inhibit plant pathogens,are microorganisms colonized in the plant rhizosphere.A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of PGPR on the growth of banana seedlings,absorption and utilization of nutrient and the suppression of the banana fusarium-wilt disease.The results showed that 56 days after treatments by PGPR,the differences of height,stem diameter,above-ground biomass,root length,root biomass,total biomass,leaf area per plant and leaf chlorophyll content of banana seedlings between treatment and control were remarkable increased by 18.5%-28.9%,17.0%-18.2%,16.8%-33.9%,41.5%-47.6%,65.5%-69.5%,24.8%-39.8%,24.0%-38.3%and 30.0%-44.9%,respectively.The absorptions of N,P2O5,K2O,CaO and MgO of seedlings treated by PAB-2 were higher than those of control,increased by 51.1%,46.1%,165.2%,7.4%,32.8%respectively

  20. Natural product of wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong: biopesticide to control the vector of banana blood disease bacterium in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N; Dharma, A; Efdi, M; Yuhendra; Eliesti, F

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the most important food crops in Indonesia. Its production is greater than any other agricultural commodity. With the population of 230 million in 2010, banana was consumed up to three million tons in this country. However, Banana Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB), one of the most devastating banana pathogens in the world, which is only found in Indonesia, threatens not only the growth of this plant but also the lives and the livelihoods for most of the Indonesian society. BDB is caused by a lethal bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype-4, which infects a wide range of bananas, from bananas used for consumption to wild bananas. In West Sumatera, the disease killed 1.40% of bananas in 1998, and then increased dramatically to 37.9% in 2003. The total banana production dropped to 62% in this province. The search for controlling the vector has led to the pre-investigation of Wild Zingiberaceae Elettariopsis slahmong C.K. Lim which has a stink bug odour similar to a methidathion insecticide. The plant was collected around the conservation area of Lembah Anal in West Sumatra. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of natural insecticides compound contained in E. slahmong against D. melanogaster. This study tested the effect of E. slahmong on the mortality, anti-feedant and repellent levels against Drosophila melanogaster, the vector of BDB. The essential oil of E. slahmong was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaves. We found that the extract of E. slahmong significantly affected the mortality of D. melanogaster of 30-40% and also acted as an antifeedant (with success rate of 73-93%) and repellent (with success rate of 99-99.6%). The long- term objective of this study is to develop green biopesticide to control BDB in Indonesia, based on an environmentally friendly pest management.

  1. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

  2. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  3. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container. PMID:24797132

  4. A Simulation Model Estimates of the Intercropping Advantage of an Immature-Rubber, Banana and Pineapple System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadu B. Jalloh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Intercropping has been shown to have many advantages but it is fallacious to conclude it is always a better cropping system. Little is known about a new double-hedgerow intercropping of rubber, banana and pineapple in relation to its effects on growth and yield of the component crops when compared to their monocrops. Simulation modeling offers a cheaper and faster alternative to explore cropping scenarios and estimate their productivity under a wide range of management and environmental conditions. This simulation study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the growth and yield of immature rubber, banana and pineapple intercrop and monocrop scenarios with the aid of an intercrop simulation model named SURHIS, as well as estimating the intercropping advantage. Approach: A FORTRAN computer model (SURHIS that simulated the daily light interception and utilization by immature-rubber, banana and pineapple intercropping system was used to simulate intercrop and monocrop scenarios to estimate potential Dry Matter Yield (DMY for all crops as well as fruit yields for banana and pineapple. The results of the model were tested for accuracy by comparing actual field experimental results with the aid of Mean Deviation (MD and Mean Absolute Error (MAE statistical analyses. Intercropping advantage was assessed using the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER analysis. Results: The model was representative or predicted DMY of the crops with sufficient accuracy. The LER analysis showed that the intercropping system had a dry matter yield productivity advantage of 81% more than monocrops of the component crops. The results also showed that the higher the Plant Population Density (PPD, the greater is the dry matter yield. It was also shown that banana and pineapple had no deleterious effect on the growth of rubber. Fruit weight per plant of banana and pineapple was reduced with increase in PPD for the monocrops. Measured average fresh fruit bunch weight for

  5. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Deguan Tan; Lili Fu; Bingyin Han; Xuepiao Sun; Peng Zheng; Jiaming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial grow...

  6. HIGH-FREQUENCY REGENERATION VIA DIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF AN ELITE RECALCITRANT MUSA (BANANA CVPURAKAL) BY USING SUCKER AS AN EXPLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar Choudhary; Suresh Tula; KM Path; Sandeep Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method for in vitro micro propagation and genetic transformation of plants are crucial for both basic and applied research. Bananas are important staple food crops for many people in developing countries. The development of efficient and rapid regeneration protocol for elite Indian banana variety could help improve the nutritional quality characteristics and biotic or abiotic stress tolerance. A callus based regeneration of plantlets was developed for indian culti...

  7. 云南元江山地香蕉无公害栽培%Pollution Free Cultivation of Banana in Mountainous Areas of Yuanjiang,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建辉; 李云生; 杨丽华; 马云飞; 周昆华

    2012-01-01

    元江是云南最适宜发展香蕉的区域之一,目前坝区香蕉种植开始往山地发展。山地土壤灌溉条件以及香蕉栽培的特殊性,导致山地香蕉生产难以产生较好的经济回报。通过近几年山地香蕉栽培实践,总结了一套山地香蕉无公害栽培关键技术,解决了山地香蕉栽培的特殊性与土壤水肥灌溉条件的矛盾。%Yuanjiang is one of the most suitable areas for banana production in Yunnan.Banana planting is developing towards the mountainous areas at present.The mountainous soil and irrigation conditions and the particularity of banana cultivation lead to difficulties to produce good economic return of banana production in mountainous areas.A set of key techniques were summarized for pollution free cultivation of banana in mountainous areas after several years practice of banana cultivation in mountainous areas,which solved the contradiction between particularity of banana cultivation in mountainous areas and conditions of soil,water,fertilizer and irrigation.

  8. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  9. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  10. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  11. Phenolic constituents in irradiated banana fruit tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Hom Tong'' banana fruits grown in Thailand irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 Krad and stored at 170C were used for analyses. The total phenolic compounds observed in irradiated fruits were higher than non-irradiated ones after harvested and 7 days of storage. The total phenolic components in the pulp of banana fruits were decreased during ripening when stored from 7-35 days. However, the phenolic constituents become increased again after 21 days of storage at the doses of 20 and 40 Krad due to the infected fruits by the fungus during the fruits approached to over ripe

  12. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  13. Ethanol Production from Banana Fruit and its Lignocellulosic Residues: Exergy and Renewability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Tropical countries such as Brazil and Colombia have the possibility of using their lands for growing vegetable products to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. The objective of this work is to apply exergy analysis to evaluate the renewability of anhydrous ethanol production from surplus banana fruit production and its residual biomass. The study takes into account all production stages: growing, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, and dehydration. It also considers the cogeneration plant and residues treatment. Four production routes were analyzed according to the biomass used as feedstock: banana pulp, banana fruit, hanging cluster or banana skin. Based on the exergy concept, performance indicators are proposed and calculated. In order to quantify the renewability of the ethanol production processes, a new indicator called “Renewability Performance Indicator” is defined and applied to the four ethanol production routes studied. The results show that when amilaceous material is used, better results than lignocellulosic material are obtained and four production processes studied must be classified as non-renewable.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  14. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  15. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Castro

    Full Text Available Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7, organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  16. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  17. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  18. Modelling the Crop Variety Demand of Semi-subsistence Households: Bananas in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Edmeades, Svetlana; Phaneuf, Daniel J.; Smale, Melinda; Renkow, Mitch

    2008-01-01

    We propose an approach to model the derived demand for crop varieties among semi-subsistence farmers in a developing economy, and apply it to smallholder banana producers in Uganda. We model variety planting decisions as being composed of an extensive margin decision to grow a subset of locally available varieties (variety choice); and an intensive margin decision about the scale or extent of variety cultivation per farm (variety demand). We estimate variety demand equations using a more comp...

  19. Impact of Tissue Culture Banana Technology on Farm Household Income and Food Security in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nassul S. Kabunga; Dubois, Thomas; Qaim, Matin

    2011-01-01

    While tissue culture (TC) technology for vegetative plant propagation is gradually gaining in importance in Africa, rigorous ex post assessments of welfare effects for smallholder farm households is lacking. Using recent survey data and accounting for self-selection in technology adoption, we analyze the impacts of TC banana technology on household income and food security in Kenya. To assess food security outcomes, we employ the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) – a tool that ha...

  20. Banana bunchy top virus in sub-Saharan Africa: investigations on virus distribution and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Hanna, R; Alabi, O J; Soko, M M; Oben, T T; Vangu, G H P; Naidu, R A

    2011-08-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) was first reported from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the 1950s, has become invasive and spread into 11 countries in the region. To determine the potential threat of BBTV to the production of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) in the sub-region, field surveys were conducted for the presence of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in the DRC, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon and Malawi. Using the DNA-S and DNA-R segments of the virus genome, the genetic diversity of BBTV isolates was also determined from these countries relative to virus isolates across the banana-growing regions around the world. The results established that BBTD is widely prevalent in all parts of DRC, Malawi, Angola and Gabon, in south and western part of Cameroon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of DNA-S and DNA-R indicate that BBTV isolates from these countries are genetically identical forming a unique clade within the 'South Pacific' phylogroup that includes isolates from Australia, Egypt, South Asia and South Pacific. These results imply that farmers' traditional practice of transferring vegetative propagules within and between countries, together with virus spread by the widely prevalent banana aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa, could have contributed to the geographic expansion of BBTV in SSA. The results provided a baseline to explore sanitary measures and other 'clean' plant programs for sustainable management of BBTV and its vector in regions where the disease has already been established and prevent the spread of the virus to as yet unaffected regions in SSA.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  2. Crescimento, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira-'Prata', submetida a diferentes doses de sódio e cálcio em solução nutritiva Growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana 'Prata' plants, exposed to different concentrations of sodium and calcium in nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA LAFETÁ DE MELO NEVES

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio vem sendo utilizado com o intuito de incrementar tolerância a sais nas plantas, pois sabe-se que a salinidade restringe o crescimento e a produtividade de muitas culturas. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de sódio e cálcio sobre o crescimento inicial, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira (Musa spp. 'Prata' (AAB. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 [ 4 doses de sódio ( 0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 e 4 de cálcio ( 2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1] e 3 repetições. A emissão total de folhas e o potencial osmótico das plantas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. O aumento dos níveis de sódio na solução promoveu redução significativa na massa fresca da parte aérea, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca das plantas. A presença de 5 mmol L-1 de Na na solução favoreceu as trocas gasosas. O aumento dos níveis de cálcio na solução promoveu a redução da massa fresca da parte aérea, altura e área foliar da bananeira-'Prata'.The Calcium has been used to increase salt tolerance in plants since salinity restricts growth and productivity in many crops. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effects of sodium and calcium application on the initial growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana (Musa spp. 'Prata' plants (AAB. The experimental layout was a 4 x 4 factorial with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. The factors tested were concentrations of sodium (0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 and calcium (2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1. The total emition of leaves and the osmotic potential of the plants were not influenced by the treatments. However, the increase in concentrations of sodium in the nutritive solution resulted in significant reduction of the fresh weight of aerial plant parts, height and leaf area of the plants, diameter of the pseudostem, and dry weight of the plants. The

  3. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

  4. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-22

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  5. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bressan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta, heliconia (Heliconia spp., red ginger (Alpinia purpurata, and banana (Musa sp.. Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  6. Dairy-Banana Integration and Organic Fertilizer Use in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamano

    2008-01-01

    An intensive dairy and crop farming system found in the East African highlands provides manure and urine, taken from stalls of improved dairy cattle, for crops such as banana. By using panel data of 894 rural households in 2003 and 2005 in Uganda, we find that the number of improved cattle per ha increases the organic fertilizer application on banana plots by 218 kilograms per ha. We also find that banana farmers applied more organic fertilizer on less fertile soils. Regarding banana yield, w...

  7. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  8. Parameter optimization and experiment of pneumatic holding part for banana crown cutting%香蕉落梳机气动夹持部件参数优化与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正波; 杨洲; 孙健峰; 薛坤鹏; 牛萌萌; 邱汉; 陈兆春; 朱卿创; 孙志全

    2016-01-01

    arc surface area of holding part, cylinder gas pressure and diameter of banana stalk. Linear regression analysis of orthogonal experiments results showed that the equivalent friction increased significantly to a peak value of 359.494 N when using rubber holding part with inner arc surface area of 1 885 mm2, banana stalk diameter of 69 mm and cylinder gas pressure of 0.5 MPa. There was no significant difference in equivalent friction between linear regression analysis result and actual value that was 375.975 N (P<0.05). These researches are helpful for the design of banana stalk clamping device in banana crown cutting machine and are also beneficial to the improvement and application of clamping methods and clamping devices for stemmed plants.

  9. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa.

  11. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited. PMID:26956665

  12. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  13. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.

  14. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. PMID:25476008

  15. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  16. Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants.

  17. Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants. PMID:24476152

  18. Avaliação agronômica de genótipos de bananeiras em condições subtropicais, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brasil Agronomic evaluation of banana plants genotypes in subtropical conditions, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura

    2013-03-01

    diseases, appropriate size and resistance to drought and cold, there are few cultivars with agronomic potential to be used commercially. Aiming to evaluate the vegetative development of banana genotypes at Vale do Ribeira (Brazil conditions the following materials were tested, separated into two genomic groups: AAAA (Bucaneiro, FHIA 02 and FHIA 17, and AAAB, subdivided according to the cultivar used in the breeding: Prata (BRS Garantida, FHIA 18, BRS FHIA Maravilha, BRS Platina and PA94-01; Pacovan (BRS Japira, BRS Pacovan Ken, PV79-34, PV94-01 and BRS Vitória; and Yangambi n.2 (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa and YB42-03. The cultivars Grande Naine (AAA, Pacovan (AAB, Prata anã (AAB and Yangambi (AAA present development, production and sensory characteristics similar to the evaluated genotypes, so they were used to compare to standards. During two cycles it was evaluated: height, pseudo stem diameter, number of active leaves (on blooming and in the harvest, the interval between planting and blooming and the interval between planting and harvest (days. It was calculated confidence intervals in different groups and types of bananas. According to the obtained data it can be concluded that genotypes from AAAB group with 'Paconvan' genitor cultivar are not suitable for cultivation in the region due to the plants height. The genotypes that have potential to be cultivated in Vale do Ribeira region are: AAAA (FHIA 02 and FHIA 17, AAAB group with 'Prata' genitor cultivar (FHIA 18, BRS Garantida and PA94-01 and with 'Yangambi n.2' genitor cultivar (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa and Yangambi.

  19. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  20. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  1. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  2. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  3. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  4. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  5. Efeitos do Banana streak virus no desenvolvimento de cultivares de bananeira Effects of banana streak virus on the development of banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos da infecção pelo BSV no crescimento de cinco cultivares de bananeira. Mudas micropropagadas das cultivares SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo e Pioneira foram inoculadas com BSV pela cochonilha Planacoccus citri Risso. Como controles utilizaram-se mudas não inoculadas e inoculadas com cochonilhas não virulíferas. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas, a área foliar e as massas da matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Os primeiros sintomas do BSV foram detectados 15 dias após a inoculação em todas as plantas inoculadas com o vírus. Houve diferenças estatísticas significativas nas variáveis analisadas, concluindo-se que o vírus afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas de todas as cultivares avaliadas.On this study, the BSV effects on five banana cultivars were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Micropropagated plants of cultivars SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo and Pioneira were inoculated with BSV using mealybug Planacoccus citri Risso as a vector. Controls plants were inoculated with non-viruliferous mealybugs or not inoculated. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and root and shoot dry mass were evaluated. Disease symptoms were first visible 15 days after plant inoculation with virus. Statistical differences were detected for the host growth variables evaluated. It was concluded that BSV affected significantly the growth of all studied cultivars.

  6. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  7. Purification and characterization of pathogenesis-related antifungal beta 1,3 glucanase from basrai banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathogenesis-related proteins have been described as proteins that are encoded by the plant genome and that are induced specifically in response to infections by pathogens. These represent a collection of unrelated protein families which function as part of the plant defense system. Pathogenesis-related antifungal protein has been isolated from the pulp of ripe Basrai bananas and purified through ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sephadex G- 75 gel filtration chromatography and electro-elution. The purified protein with acidic character (pI 6.81). has molecular weight of 34.5kDa, as determined by MALOI- TOF mass spectrometry. Mascot score obtained was 473 greater than 82, indicate extensive homology at a significant level (p.0.05) and the protein was identified as beta 1,3-glucanase with antifungal activity. It inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum demonstrating the potential role of Basrai banana antifungal protein to control fungal diseases in plants, animals and human. (author)

  8. Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xian; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC) is a causal agent of vascular wilt and leaf chlorosis of banana plants. Chloroses resulting from FOC occur first in the lowest leaves of banana seedlings and gradually progress upward. To investigate the responses of different leaf positions to FOC infection, hydroponic experiments with FOC inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Fusarium-infected seedlings exhibited a decrease in net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of all leaves. The wilting process in Fusarium-infected seedlings varied with leaf position. Measurements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(max) and visualization with transmission electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between chloroplast impairment and severity of disease symptoms. Furthermore, results of malondialdehyde content and relative membrane conductivity measurements demonstrated that the membrane system was damaged in infected leaves. Additionally, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were increased and total soluble phenolic compounds were significantly accumulated in the leaves of infected plants. The structural and biochemical changes of infected plants was consistent with plant senescence. As the FOC was not detected in infected leaves, we proposed that the chloroplast and membrane could be damaged by fusaric acid produced by Fusarium. During the infection, fusaric acid was first accumulated in the lower leaves and water-soluble substances in the lower leaves could dramatically enhance fusaric acid production. Taken together, the senescence of infected banana plants was induced by Fusarium infection with fusaric acid production and the composition of different leaf positions largely contribute to the particular senescence process.

  9. Progresso da sigatoka-negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso-Brasil Progress of black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis in banana plants after the bunch emergence in the district of Cáceres, Mato-Grosso-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Benedita Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A sigatoka-negra, causada pelo fungo Mycosphaerella fijiensis, pode causar 100% de perdas na produção das cultivares suscetíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o progresso da sigatoka-negra em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso. O experimento foi conduzido no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004 em plantios das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco, sendo esta última uma cultivar de plátano, do grupo Terra. As avaliações foram efetuadas a intervalos de 15 dias, quantificando-se, através de uma escala diagramática, a severidade da sigatoka-negra em todas as folhas de 5 plantas de cada cultivar, marcadas logo após a emissão das inflorescências. A partir dos dados coletados no campo, computaram-se: a severidade da doença na folha n.º 10 e o número de folhas viáveis. Considerou-se como folha viável as folhas sadias e aquelas com até 15% de área foliar lesionada. Os dados de temperatura e da umidade relativa foram registrados por um aparelho eletrônico instalado na área. A precipitação pluvial foi registrada na Estação meteorológica de Cáceres, distante 12 km do experimento. As condições climáticas foram favoráveis à sigatoka negra durante o ano todo e as plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco após a emissão do cacho, perderam totalmente as folhas antes dos frutos atingirem o pleno desenvolvimento, cujos prejuízos no primeiro semestre atingiram 100% de perdas na produção comercializável.The black sigatoka, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis may cause 100% of yield losses in susceptible cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the progress of the black sigatoka in banana plants after the bunch emergence, in the district of Cáceres, Mato Grosso State - Brazil. The experiment was carried out from February to December 2004, in banana cultivars "Grande Naine" and "Maçã", as well as plantain cultivar Farta Velhaco (Terra

  10. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana. PMID:27539368

  11. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H; Trivedi, Prabodh K

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana. PMID:27539368

  12. STUDIES ON VASCULAR INFECTION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CUBENSE RACE 4 IN BANANA BY FIELD SURVEY AND GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN REPORTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp. caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the most serious banana fungal diseases in the world. Understanding the infection process of Foc is important for development of effective ways in disease control. In order to follow infection and colonization of this pathogen from root to rhizome and pseudostem tissues of banana, a highly pathogenic strain FJAT-3076 of Foc race 4 (Foc4 was transformed with gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP and the fungus carrying gfp (FJAT-3076-GFP was used to inoculate banana plants (Cavendish cv. B.F.. After inoculation for 3 to 10 d, it was observed that the conidia and their germ-tubes had penetrated into epidermis of young roots. The hyphae were found inside the root xylem 10 d after inoculation in the rhizome and pseudostem xylem after inoculation for 17 d. All plants infected by Foc died in 24 d after inoculation. It was also observed that Foc had spread all over the xylem and part of hyphae reached the pseudostem surface. Hyphal population was found the highest in the pseudostem, lower in root and least in rhizome. Field survey confirmed that Foc4 were mostly present in the base of pseudostem and less in the rhizome. Thus, effective prevention of the Foc hyphae movement from the rhizome up to the pseudostem might delay or control banana wilt disease.

  13. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  14. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kenji Oi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the mass and relative humidity of the dried product. Three levels were used in selected variables, which corresponded to the completion of 27 experiments. In experiments in which they obtained the lowest values of relative humidity, the amounts of mass were also the lowest, while in experiments where they met the higher amounts of the levels of relative humidity ranged from the highest. Considering the industrial application, whose purpose is the low humidity and increased production of the product, test 22 was the most appropriate, and found 11% moisture and 4.33 g in mass.

  15. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZOU, Dongmei; PAN, Yongbo; Xu, Zhi; LUO, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world's third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana, but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision, publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards, it is fo...

  16. Necessity of mycorrhizal re-inoculation in the transplantation of banana in areas with precedent of inoculated canavalia with AMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Enrique Simó González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From being the banana, a mycotrophic crop and previous results on the potential of green manure inoculated as a way to mycorrhizal economic crops, this work was developed in order to assess whether a precedent Canavalia ensiformis cultivation, inoculated with efficient strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation, it is necessary the banana inoculation, ‘FHIA-18’ (AAAB cultivar in the transplant field. Four treatments were evaluated: a control without application of fertilizers and other organic-mineral fertilizers (100% FOM, both without canavalia and two other treatments that are used above canavalia inoculated AMF and half also received organic-mineral fertilizer applications: (50% FOM, one of which, the banana was reinoculated in the transplant field and the other one not. The experimental design used, was randomized blocks, with four replications. The experiment ended after three productive cycles (mother plant, stems 1 and 2. Canavalia inoculated treatments and 50 % of FOM, guaranteed high yields and satisfactory nutritional content similar to that received 100 % of FOM and significantly higher than those obtained with the control treatment. This together with the values of colonization percentages and pores at both high and inoculated treatments were no significant differences between them, indicated not only the effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation but rather green manure inoculation was successful to inoculate bananas and re-inoculation of the same was not needed on the transplant.

  17. Improvement of banana through biotechnology and mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols were standardized for in vitro propagation of several elite and diverse banana accessions using shoot tip explants. Tissue culture raised plants were field planted at multiple locations. Studies were undertaken for the induction of mutations using multiple shoot cultures of six selected cultivars, Shreemanti (AAA), Basrai (AAA), Lal Kela (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Karibale Monthan (ABB) and a wild diploid (BB). These shoot cultures were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays (0-100 Gy) and subcultured thrice (up to M1V3) to separate shimeras, followed by induction of rooting (M1V4). In general, the rate of multiplication had a negative association with the dose of gamma rays. Enhanced multiplication of shoots was noticed at lower doses. The proliferation of shoots was arrested beyond 50 Gy and a dose of 70 Gy was completely lethal for all the genotypes studied. The rooted plantlets were hardened in the green house and in the early stages of field growth, a few cholorophyll and morphological variants have been noticed. Preliminary studies have been made with DNA samples of different varieties and variants for DNA quality and restriction digestion. Studies are underway to characterize these using PCR based methods. (author)

  18. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  19. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  20. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  1. Solar energy profit on banana drying; Autilizacao da energia solar na secagem de bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowray, H.G.; Buckle, K.A.; Hamey, P.; Pavenayotin, P.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes a system for banana and other fruits drying using solar energy. This system, with capacity of 500 kg of fruit per time, use a plane solar collector device with 50 m deg 2 of area. The aspects of the cost of the solar unit and the performance of the system, when compared to the other drying devices was also shown 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Silicon Isotope Fractionation by Banana Under Continuous Nutrient and Silica Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfergelt, S.; Cardinal, D.; Henriet, C.; Delvaux, B.; André, L.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon is absorbed by plants as aqueous H4SiO4 with other essential nutrients, and precipitates in aerial parts of the plant as phytolith, a biogenic opal. Phytoliths are restored to the soil by decomposition of organic debris from plant material. The role of higher plants in the biogeochemical cycle of silicon is therefore major although it is still poorly studied. Biomineralization processes are known to fractionate the three stable silicon isotopes with a preferential uptake of light isotopes. Therefore, following some preliminary results from Douthitt (1982), and studies presented in recent conferences (Ziegler et al., 2002; Ding et al., 2003), we suspect that phytolith production by plants could also fractionate the silicon isotopes. Inversely, intensity of phytolith-related isotopic fractionations might contribute to a better understanding of the soil-plant silicon cycle. Our study focused on banana, a silicon accumulating plant (>1% Si, dry weight).Musa acuminata cv Grande Naine has been grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions (light, temperature, humidity, nutrients) during six weeks. The nutrient supply was kept constant: three batches of five plants were grown with a continuous nutrient solution flow of 5, 50 and 100 ppm SiO2 respectively. Si isotopic compositions were measured in the source solution, and in silica extracted from the various parts of banana (roots, pseudostems, midribs and petioles, leaves), using a Nu Plasma multicollector mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) operating in dry plasma mode. The results are expressed as δ 29Si relatively to the NBS28 standard, with an average precision of ± 0.03‰ . Silicon contents and morphological studies of phytoliths were also achieved. Banana δ 29Si varied between -0.18 and -0.76‰ with a source solution at -0.02‰ . Values of δ 29Si were less fractionated, relatively to the nutrient solution, in roots, where no phytoliths have been observed until now, than in upper parts of banana where

  3. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  4. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-01-01

    Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish) collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. ...

  5. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana.

  6. Successful rescue and field establishment of native banana varieties severely affected by rhizome rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basawantanahalli Saddappa Sreeramu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome rot disease caused by Erwinia spp. is emerging as a major problem in banana nurseries and young plantations worldwide. Management of the disease is possible only in the initial stages of development. Currently no method is available for rescuing plant material already infected with this pathogen. A total of 95 Nanjanagud Rasabale and 212 Elakki Bale suckers were collected from different growing regions of Karnataka, India. During nursery maintenance of these lines, severe Erwinia infection was noticed. We present a method to rescue infected plants and establish them under field conditions. Differences were noticed in infection severity amongst the varieties and their accessions. Field data revealed good establishment and growth of most rescued plants under field conditions. The discussed rescue protocol coupled with good field management practices resulted in 89.19 and 82.59 percent field establishment of previously infected var. Nanjanagud Rasabale and var. Elakki Bale plants, respectively.

  7. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  8. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Kagy; Maurice Wong; Henri Vandenbroucke; Christophe Jenny; Cécile Dubois; Anthony Ollivier; Céline Cardi; Pierre Mournet; Valérie Tuia; Nicolas Roux; Jaroslav Doležel; Xavier Perrier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banks...

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED; MAK CHAI; ROFINA YASMIN OTHMAN

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea) to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis) and highland banana (ssp. truncata) were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping a...

  10. Avaliação de variante somaclonal de porte baixo de bananeira 'Nanicão Jangada' (Musa sp em duas densidades Evaluation of a dwarf somaclonal variant of banana 'Nanicão Jangada' (Musa sp in two planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia da Costa Zonetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, sob duas densidades de plantio, um variante somaclonal de porte baixo de bananeira, comparando-o com a variedade Nanicão Jangada que lhe deu origem. Os materiais genéticos 'Nanicão Jangada'(controle e o variante somaclonal representado pelas seleções 224 e 225 de um ensaio anterior, foram avaliados nos espaçamentos 2,0m X 2,0m (densidade 2500 plantas ha-1 e 3,0m X 2,0m (1666plantas ha-1, na Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Campus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições, com utilização de mudas micropropagadas, sob irrigação por gotejamento, no período de dezembro de 1998 a março de 2001, com avaliação dos dois primeiros ciclos de produção. Constatou-se efeito da densidade e do ciclo sobre a produção estimada de frutos sendo que no cultivo mais denso, a média foi de 81,25 t.ha-1 no primeiro ciclo de produção e 67,93 t.ha-1 no segundo ciclo. No cultivo de menor densidade a produção estimada no primeiro ciclo foi de 51,35 t.ha-1 e 44,08 t.ha-1 no segundo. As seleções do variante de porte baixo apresentaram menor altura da planta e mostraram-se relativamente mais precoces e com produção semelhante a cv. Nanicão Jangada no primeiro ciclo. No segundo ciclo houve uma queda na produção do bananal, com maior intensidade para a seleção 225 do variante.A dwarf somaclonal variant of banana was evaluated under two planting densities. It was compared with the cultivar "Nanicão Jangada", the original clone from which the variant derived. The genotypes 'Nanicão Jangada'(control and the somaclone, represented by selections 224 and 225 from a previous experiment, were evaluated at spaced 2.0 m X 2.0 m (density of 2500 plants ha-1 and 3.0 m X 2.0 m (1666 plants ha-1 at the "Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP", Campus de Ilha Solteira, SP. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks with 5

  11. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  12. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. 'Xiangfen 1,' a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with 'Brazil' serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with 'Brazil,' 'Xiangfen 1' fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and 'Xiangfen 1' banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  13. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  14. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms......). The algebra is self-contained in that any term of the algebra specifying a transformation can be reduced to a constant catamorphism, before the transfor- mation is run. Thus, the algebra comes “for free” without sacrificing the strong safety and efficiency properties of constructive catamorphisms. The entire...... algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  15. In vitro digestibility of nutrients in bananas and in vivo digestibility, effectiveness of nitrogen use in pig’s diets based on green and ripe bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Cong, Oanh; Tran, Hiep; Le Huu, Hieu; Bindelle, Jérôme; Thewis, André; Vu Dinh, Ton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the nutritional value, in vitro digestibility and in vivo digestibility in growing pigs offered diets containing 15% green and ripe bananas in meal form. Results showed that dry matter content (DM,%) in banana fruit (at green, semi-ripe, ripe stages), banana flower and stem were 13.77, 12.59, 14.10, 7.53 and 7.83% respectively; Gross energy of bananas are from 3734 to 4115 kcal/kg DM; CP and NDF content of green banana were higher than that of semi-ripe and r...

  16. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found that briquettes produced with compaction pressure over 7 MPa passed both impact resistance and compressive strength tests. The density-pressure relationship and strength-pressure relationship over studied range were also developed and validated.

  17. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets. PMID:27052947

  18. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  19. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as ΔG, ΔS and ΔH were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L-1, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g-1 at 25 ± 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of ΔH and ΔS obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-1 and 1.37 J.mol''-1, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol-1 when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  20. Relação entre o tempo de enraizamento in vitro e o crescimento de plantas de bananeira na aclimatização Relationship between the in vitro rooting time and the growth of banana plants in the aclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do tempo de permanência em meio de enraizamento sobre o crescimento in vitro e ex vitro de plantas de bananeira. Como explantes, foram utilizadas brotações axilares provenientes do estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de ápices caulinares das cultivares Caipira (AAA, Preciosa (AAAB e Japira (AAAB. Para o enraizamento, empregou-se o meio MS reduzido a 50% da concentração de sais, adicionado de 30 g.L-1 de sacarose, 1 mg.L-1 de AIB e 6 g.L-1 de ágar. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x4, com três cultivares (Caipira, Preciosa e Japira e quatro períodos de enraizamento in vitro (7; 14; 21 e 28 dias, num total de 12 tratamentos. Ao final de cada período, a altura da parte aérea, o número e o comprimento de raízes foram avaliados, e as plantas, submetidas ao processo de aclimatização por 90 dias. Após esse período, as plantas foram avaliadas quanto à sobrevivência, número e comprimento de raízes, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca de raízes, parte aérea e total. De modo geral, observou-se que a fase de indução de raízes nas brotações de bananeira in vitro ocorreu até os 14 dias de cultivo em meio de enraizamento, havendo apenas crescimento em tamanho das raízes após esse período. Entre as cultivares, verificou-se que, com exceção do diâmetro de pseudocaule, a cultivar Caipira apresentou crescimento vegetativo in vitro e durante a aclimatização (altura de plantas, número e comprimento de raízes e massa seca da parte aérea, raízes e total superior às cultivares Preciosa e Japira. Após 21 dias de permanência em meio de enraizamento, a taxa de sobrevivência das plantas, observada em casa de vegetação, alcançou 100%, independentemente da cultivar testada.The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of the exposition time to rooting medium on the in vitro and ex vitro growth of banana plants. As explants, new axillaries

  1. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  2. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mollot

    Full Text Available Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI to identify 1 the DNA sequences of their prey, 2 the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops, and 3 the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP and a cover cropped plot (CCP in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  3. Desenvolvimento e produção de frutos de bananeira em resposta à adubação nitrogenada e potássica Development and production of fruits of banana plant as a response to nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDILSON CARVALHO BRASIL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adubação nitrogenada e potássica no desenvolvimento e produção da bananeira (Musa spp., cultivar Pioneira, em experimento conduzido no Município de Capitão Poço, PA, em Latossolo Amarelo, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 80, 160 e 240 g de N/planta/ano e 0, 150, 300 e 450 g de K2O/planta/ano. Como fontes de nutrientes, utilizaram-se uréia e cloreto de potássio. Os resultados de crescimento, até 240 dias do plantio, indicaram que apenas o N influenciou a circunferência do pseudocaule e a altura de planta, verificando-se que o modelo quadrático ajustou-se melhor a todas as variáveis avaliadas. No segundo ciclo de produção, a adição de K promoveu efeito quadrático no peso de cacho, peso de penca por cacho e peso médio de penca, com incrementos de 73, 76 e 39%, respectivamente, em relação à ausência de K. A aplicação de N promoveu aumento linear no peso de cacho e de pencas por cacho, com aumentos máximos de 32 e 30%, respectivamente, em relação a ausência do nutriente. No terceiro ciclo de produção, apenas o K influenciou no peso de cacho, peso de penca por cacho e peso médio de penca, com aumentos de 39, 40 e 26%, respectivamente.The effect of the N and K fertilization on the development and production of the banana plant (Musa spp., cv. Pioneira, was evaluated in an experiment carried out in Capitão Poço county, Pará State, Brazil, in a Yellow Latosol, using a randomized blocks design, in factorial arrangement of 4x4. The treatments were: 0, 80, 160 and 240 g of N per plant per year; 0, 150, 300 and 450 g of K2O per plant per year. Urea and potassium chloride were used as nutrient sources. The results of plant growth showed that there was effect of N on circumference of pseudostem and plant height. The quadratic model was better adjusted to all the variables. The results of production of the second cycle indicated that K increased

  4. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  5. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  6. Avaliação do ciclo e produção da planta-filha em função do manejo da planta-mãe em diferentes épocas do ano em bananeira Prata-Anã Evaluation of cycle and production of sucker plant in function of mother plant management in banana tree 'Prata Anã´

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Egídio Flori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do manejo da planta-mãe e da época de seleção das plantas-filha de bananeira 'Prata-Anã´ (Musa spp. na produção e no período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha. Utilizou-se um bananal comercial com cinco anos de idade, plantado no espaçamento de 3,5 m x 2,0 m. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os tratamentos nas parcelas foram: manejo 1 (M1 - família conduzida sem a planta-mãe, a qual foi retirada logo após a sua floração; manejo 2 (M2 - família conduzida com planta-mãe (manejo convencional. As subparcelas corresponderam a doze épocas de seleção das plantas-filha, selecionadas no estádio de chifrão, iniciando em fev./02 e finalizando em jan./03. As características avaliadas foram: a período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha (período em dias entre a data de seleção da planta-filha e a sua colheita; b massa do cacho das plantas-filha. Diante dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se: o manejo da planta-mãe não influenciou a massa do cacho da planta-filha; o manejo da planta-mãe alterou o período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha, sendo esse menor naquelas conduzidas sem a planta-mãe (M1; a época de seleção influenciou a massa do cacho e o período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of managing banana mother plants and time of selection of sucker on their productive characteristics, using the cultivar 'Prata Anã´ (Musa spp. genomic group AAB. The crop was planted in March 1997, spaced by 3.5 m x 2.0 m. An experimental area of 2.1 hectares was demarcated in February 2002. A split-plot design was used incorporating a completely random design with three replications. The plots consisted of five plants submitted to two managements: M1 - hill managed without the mother plant, which was removed right after flowering; M2 - hill managed with the mother

  7. The influence of gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of various doses of gamma radiation on shelf-life extension of Hom Tong banana stored at 170C, 200C, and 230C was described. Irradiated banana stored at 200C and 230C did not show any retardation in ripening. Doses from 20-40 Krad appeared to delay ripening of the banana stored at 170C for 3-5 days. No significant difference in weight losses between irradiated and non-irradiated banana was detected during storage

  8. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for.... Commercial production of bananas in the United States takes place in Hawaii, where most if not all of the... the place of production to remain eligible to export bananas to the United States. The NPPO of...

  9. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  10. 77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... establish low-prevalence places of production; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing... require bananas to be grown at places of production that are registered with the NPPO of the Philippines... place of production to remain eligible to export bananas to the United States. The NPPO of...

  11. Study of Banana Dehydration Using Sequential Infrared Radiation and Freeze-Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drying and quality characteristics of banana slices processed with a sequential infrared radiation and freeze-drying (SIRFD) method were investigated. To study the drying characteristics of bananas during the infrared (IR) and hot air predehydration, Cavendish bananas slices with 5 mm thickness...

  12. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSchubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I. In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the active odor components, use these compounds as stimuli and measure odor-induced Ca2+ signals in input and output neurons of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL, the first olfactory neuropil. We demonstrate that mixture interactions of a natural blend are very rare and occur only at the AL output level resulting in a surprisingly linear blend representation. However, the information regarding single components is strongly modulated by the olfactory circuitry within the AL leading to a higher similarity between the representation of individual components and the banana blend. This observed modulation might tune the olfactory system in a way to distinctively categorize odor components and improve the detection of suitable food sources. Functional GC-I thus enables analysis of virtually any unknown natural odorant blend and its components in their relative occurring concentrations and allows characterization of neuronal responses of complete neural assemblies. This technique can be seen as a valuable complementary method to classical GC/electrophysiology techniques, and will be a highly useful tool in future investigations of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical interactions.

  13. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  14. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  15. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  16. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  17. 海南香蕉产业风险及预警对策研究%Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕群; 曾小红; 方佳

    2011-01-01

    . The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees. And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech - training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  18. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF FHIA-01 (HYBRID DESSERT BANANA) PROPAGATED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND CONVENTIONAL SUCKER IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH; QUAIN MARIAN DORCAS; BAM RALPH KWAME; DARKEY SOLOMON KODJO

    2012-01-01

    Micro-propagated plants of FHIA-01 (exotic hybrid dessert banana) were grown and their shoot-tip cultures were produced following standard method. Suckers were taken from the same plants as with the shoot-tip culture samples. The design was the randomly complete block. The plant density was 1667 plants/ha. Plants were fertilized at the rate of 40t/ha poultry manure per year split over 3 equal applications. Statistical analysis of data was performed with ANOVA. The field performance of in vitr...

  20. Impacts of Low Temperature in winter on Banana Production and Yield Losing Evaluation in Guangxi Province%冬季低温对广西香蕉生产及产量损失影响评估初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世业; 谭宗琨; 包辉昌

    2012-01-01

    通过对广西香蕉生产代表县1980—2008年产量与冬季低温关系分析.结合2008/2009—2010/2011年冬季香蕉大田生产灾情调查验证,结果表明:香蕉遭受辐射型、平流型寒冻害影响后表观症状差异明显,且导致产量损失的关键气象因子与天气类型有关。在此基础上,补充和完善了香蕉寒冻害等级指标。%Based on the low temperature data in winter and the banana yields of banana planting representative counties during 1980-2008 ,combined with the Banana cold disaster investigation in the winter of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011, the relationship between the banana yields and winter low temperature was analyzed. It shows that there is an obvious difference in freeze injury symptoms when bananas suffered radiation-type and advection-type cold damage. The key meteorological factors causing banana's yield losses are related to weather situation. And the banana cold damage indicators are supplement and improved.

  1. Study of mutation breeding of banana, 'Kluai Khai'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is composed of three parts; (1) mutation induction through tissue culture, (2) study on rooting media, (3) experiment on colchicine treatment. Shoot tips isolated from suckers of a local banana cultivar, Kluai Khai were divided into four parts and propagated on MS medium supplemented with 15% coconut water and 5 mg/l BA. Subcultures were made every month until 200 plantlets were obtained. Shoots were irradiated with 0, 10, 20 or 30 Gy of gamma rays and cultured on either pH 5.6 of pH 6.1 medium. No proliferation was observed on pH 6.1 medium for all doses of gamma rays. On pH 5.6 medium, only the control and 10 Gy-treated explants proliferated. These were transferred to the field. However, only non-treated control plants survived. 'Kluai Khai' plantlets were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 Gy and cut longitudinally into two pieces. All were cultured on MS media supplemented with 15% coconut water, 2 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l NAA. Three media were tested for rooting: MS medium without growth regulators, MS medium with 1 mg/l NAA and MS medium with 1 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BA. All media were adjusted to pH 5.8. Observations were made after 4 weeks. The best rooting was achieved on MS medium without growth regulators. To examine the effect of induced polyploidization, in vitro plantlets of 'Kluai Khai' were treated with 0, 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm of colchine in MS medium for 24, 48, or 72 hours. The frequency of explant survival rate and adventitious bud initiation decreased with increasing concentrations of colchicine. Ploidy was determined by measurement of stomatal cells and chromosome counts. Plyploidy was not induced. 8 refs, 2 figs, 18 tabs

  2. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  3. Nitrogênio e potássio em bananeira via fertirrigação e adubação convencional-atributos químicos do solo Nitrogen and potassium application on banana plant by fertirrigation and conventional fertilization-soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Junqueira Teixeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em Pindorama (SP, no qual se avaliaram os efeitos da fertirrigação e da adubação convencional com N e K em alguns atributos químicos de solo sob cultivo com bananeira, durante dois ciclos de produção. Avaliaram-se a disponibilidade e a movimentação de nutrientes (P, K, Ca e Mg no perfil do solo, bem como outros atributos químicos (matéria orgânica, acidez e saturação por bases, por meio de amostragens realizadas na implantação do experimento e ao final do primeiro e segundo ciclos de produção. Os principais efeitos dos tratamentos foram no pH do solo e no teor de K+ trocável. A adubação, tanto aplicada via fertirrigação como na forma convencional, implicou incrementos na acidez do solo, principalmente até 20 cm de profundidade. Observou-se que o impacto da adubação via fertirrigação no pH do solo foi proporcional à dose. A adubação convencional também causou decréscimo no pH, especialmente na região mais próxima das plantas, refletindo o efeito da aplicação localizada dos fertilizantes. A aplicação de adubo sólido na superfície do solo determinou significativo acúmulo de K nas camadas até 20 cm e na região mais próxima ao pseudocaule das plantas. Os efeitos da adubação via fertirrigação foram mais difusos, visto que os adubos são espalhados numa área de solo maior do que a coberta pela adubação convencional.A field experiment was carried out in Pindorama (Sao Paulo State, Brazil in which it was evaluated the effects of N and K application through fertirrigation and conventional fertilization on soil chemical properties in a banana plantation, during two cycles of production. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg availability and movement in soil profile and some chemical properties (organic matter, pH and base saturation were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation and at the end of the first and second production cycles. The most important treatment

  4. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  5. Thermochemical characterization of banana leaves as a potential energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of semi-dried banana leaves are similar to the other biomass. • The semi-dried leaves present high release of energy under inert and oxidant atmosphere. • The energy released on pyrolysis and combustion can be used to dry the wet banana leaves. • The thermochemical conversion processes can reduce the waste volume significantly. • The banana leaves have potential to use as biomass through combustion and pyrolysis process. - Abstract: Wet and semi-dried banana leaves were characterized through elemental and proximate analyses, lignocellulosic fraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high heating value analysis to assess their use as biomass in generating energy through combustion; they were also assessed to determine the potential of obtaining value-added products through pyrolysis. The wet banana leaves had high moisture content of 74.7%. The semi-dried samples exhibited 8.3% moisture, 78.8% volatile solids, 43.5% carbon and a higher heating value of 19.8 MJ/kg. The nitrogen and sulfur contents in the banana leaves were very low. The semi-dried and wet leaves had hemicellulose and lignin contents close to other biomass fuels, and the semi-dried leaves had the lowest cellulose content, of 26.7%. The wet and semi-dried samples showed the same thermal events in oxidizing and inert atmospheres, but with distinctly different mass loss and energy release intensities. The chemical characteristics and the thermal behavior demonstrated by the semi-dried samples indicate their potential for use as biomass, with results similar to other agro-industrial wastes currently used

  6. In vitro mutation breeding for the development of bananas with resistance to race 4, Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985 the Queensland Department of Primary Industries initiated an in vitro mutation breeding program for banana improvement. The primary objective was to develop a banana that was resistant to race 4, Fusarium wilt which could effectively substitute for the Cavendish cultivars currently grown. Micropropagated bananas were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60Co source and the LD50 was established at 40 Gy. However, the optimal dose selected for irradiating explants was 20 Gy. At this dosage visual changes were apparent and plant survival, at 73%, was sufficiently high to make the technique practical on a larger scale. Over 20,000 plants have been evaluated in the field at our race 4 screening site and nursery at Wamuran in southeastern Queensland. Of the irradiated plants examined only the putative mutants from Dwarf Parfitt, an extra-dwarf variety of Cavendish, show potential as a race 4 resistant Cavendish cultivar. Plants are intermediate in height between Dwarf Cavendish and Williams, the industry standard. Preliminary results indicate the putative mutants are faster cycling and more cold tolerant than Williams. More importantly they also appear to retain the resistance to race 4 shown by the mother plant, Dwarf Parfitt. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  8. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  9. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  10. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  11. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on ripening, storage and biochemical parameters of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) popularly known as kadali (S) belongs to the family Musaceae is an economically important plant due to its nutritive fruit used as staple food all over the world. Several techniques have been employed to delay fruit ripening and softening by storing preclimacteric bananas in modified or controlled atmospheres. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended the usage up to 1.0 kGy of gamma irradiation for delaying the ripening in fruits. Irradiation significantly improved shelf life by inhibiting the fungal growth in strawberries. Hence, present work was undertaken to scrutinize the impact of gamma irradiation on the ripening, storage and the biochemical attributes of Musa paradisiaca L. variety kadali. Present work revealed that irradiation at 0.2 kGy and 0.3 kGy retained their organoleptic properties till 16th day of storage against under normal conditions. Nutritional parameters such as ascorbic acid content, soluble sugar and protein contents were significantly higher in irradiated fruits. Hence, lower dose of gamma irradiation could be successfully used in extending the shelf life and nutritional quality and delay the process of ripening in Musa paradisiaca L.

  13. QUALIDADE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DE AGUARDENTES DE POLPA DE BANANA E BANANA INTEGRAL SUBMETIDAS À HIDRÓLISE ENZIMÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Borges de Lima da SILVA; José Benício Paes CHAVES; Viviane Gomes LELIS; Letícia Mendonça ALVARENGA; Zuim, Diana Regazzi; Silva, Paulo Henrique Alves da

    2009-01-01

    A banana é a fruta de maior consumo anual per capita no Brasil, atingindo todas as camadas da população. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a hidrólise enzimática e comparar a qualidade físico-química e sensorial de aguardentes elaboradas com a polpa de banana e com a polpa e casca de banana (banana integral) Musa cavendishi, variedade prata. Foram realizadas análises de sólidos solúveis, açúcares redutores, amido e celulose para amostras de polpa de bana...

  14. Deep sequencing of banana bract mosaic virus from flowering ginger (Alpinia purpurata) and development of an immunocapture RT-LAMP detection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Borth, Wayne B; Lin, Birun; Dey, Kishore K; Melzer, Michael J; Shen, Huifang; Pu, Xiaoming; Sun, Dayuan; Hu, John S

    2016-07-01

    Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) has never been reported in banana plants in Hawaii. In 2010, however, it was detected in a new host, flowering ginger (Alpinia purpurata). In this study, we characterize the A. purpurata isolate and study its spread in flowering ginger in Hawaii. A laboratory study demonstrated that BBrMV could be transmitted from flowering ginger to its natural host, banana, therefore raising a serious concern about the potential risk to the rapidly growing banana industry of Hawaii. To quickly monitor this virus in the field, we developed a robust immunocapture reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (IC-RT-LAMP) assay. Deep sequencing of the BBrMV isolate from A. purpurata revealed a single-stranded RNA virus with a genome of 9,713 nt potentially encoding a polyprotein of 3,124 aa, and another predicted protein, PIPO, in the +2 reading-frame shift. Most of the functional motifs in the Hawaiian isolate were conserved among the genomes of isolates from one found in the Philippines and India. However, the A. purpurata isolate had an amino acid deletion in the Pl protein that was most similar to the Philippine isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of an eastern Pacific subpopulation that included A. purpurata was closest in genetic distance to a Southeast Asian subpopulation, suggesting frequent gene flow and supporting the hypothesis that the A. purpurata isolate arrived in Hawaii from Southeast Asia. PMID:27038825

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF FHIA-01 (HYBRID DESSERT BANANA PROPAGATED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND CONVENTIONAL SUCKER IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-propagated plants of FHIA-01 (exotic hybrid dessert banana were grown and their shoot-tip cultures were produced following standard method. Suckers were taken from the same plants as with the shoot-tip culture samples. The design was the randomly complete block. The plant density was 1667 plants/ha. Plants were fertilized at the rate of 40t/ha poultry manure per year split over 3 equal applications. Statistical analysis of data was performed with ANOVA. The field performance of in vitro propagated (tissue culture tetraploid banana (FHIA-01 plants was compared with that of sucker-derived plants. In vitro-propagated plants established and grew faster, taller (240 cm and bigger than the conventional sucker-derived plants. The former produced heavier bunches (39.1 t/ha and could be harvested earlier. They however produced smaller number of fingers than the conventional sucker-derived plants. Significant differences were observed between the plant height and plant girth (48.6 cm (at one metre above ground at harvest. No significant difference was observed in bunch weight, number of hands, number of fingers and the number of leaves at harvest. The nutrient used in the Tissue culture medium may have played a significant role in the growth vigour of FHIA-01. It may also be having an influence on the performance of the hybrid. This influence may improve the yield of the crop thus improving the economy of farmers.

  16. Characterization and isolation of a T-DNA tagged banana promoter active during in vitro culture and low temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windelinckx Saskia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation transgenic plants will require a more precise regulation of transgene expression, preferably under the control of native promoters. A genome-wide T-DNA tagging strategy was therefore performed for the identification and characterization of novel banana promoters. Embryogenic cell suspensions of a plantain-type banana were transformed with a promoterless, codon-optimized luciferase (luc+ gene and low temperature-responsive luciferase activation was monitored in real time. Results Around 16,000 transgenic cell colonies were screened for baseline luciferase activity at room temperature 2 months after transformation. After discarding positive colonies, cultures were re-screened in real-time at 26°C followed by a gradual decrease to 8°C. The baseline activation frequency was 0.98%, while the frequency of low temperature-responsive luciferase activity was 0.61% in the same population of cell cultures. Transgenic colonies with luciferase activity responsive to low temperature were regenerated to plantlets and luciferase expression patterns monitored during different regeneration stages. Twenty four banana DNA sequences flanking the right T-DNA borders in seven independent lines were cloned via PCR walking. RT-PCR analysis in one line containing five inserts allowed the identification of the sequence that had activated luciferase expression under low temperature stress in a developmentally regulated manner. This activating sequence was fused to the uidA reporter gene and back-transformed into a commercial dessert banana cultivar, in which its original expression pattern was confirmed. Conclusion This promoter tagging and real-time screening platform proved valuable for the identification of novel promoters and genes in banana and for monitoring expression patterns throughout in vitro development and low temperature treatment. Combination of PCR walking techniques was efficient for the isolation of candidate

  17. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  18. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  19. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  20. Integrating banana and ruminant production in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, Harry; Gourdine, Jean Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; Tournebize, Regis; Bassien-Capsa, Mylène; González-García, Eliel

    2012-08-01

    Using a mechanistic model, we compared five alternative farming systems with the purpose of transforming monoculture (MON) banana farms into mixed farming systems (MFS) with ruminants feeding banana by-products (leaves, pseudostems and nonmarketable fruits) and forage from the fallow land. The paper presents the main structure of the model (land surface changes, available biomass for animals, stocking rates, productive or reproductive indicators), and impact assessment (change in farm productivity) is discussed. Five MFS with typical local ruminant production systems were used to compare MON to the strategies using forage from fallow and/or integrating Creole cattle (CC), Creole goats (CG) or Martinik sheep (MS) into banana farming. One hectare MON shifted into an MFS allows a stocking rate of 1,184, 285, and 418 kg of live weight per hectare for CC, CG and MS, respectively. Banana by-products seem to be better valorized by the CC scenario. However, parameters such as length of the cycle, local prices for cattle, goat and sheep meat, work time and farmer's skills in ruminant management may have been taken into account by the farmer when choosing the ruminant species to rear.

  1. Impact of Diseases on Export and Smallholder Production of Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ma, Li Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15 of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cu

  2. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  3. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease dia

  4. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  5. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  6. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on Hom Tong banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research on the use of gamma irradiation to retard the ripening and extend the shelf life of bananas. The major concerns were the effects that irradiation would have on the nutritional content, the organoleptic properties and the pigment of the fruit

  8. Investigation on chilling affected banana plantations during early spring season and restoration strategies%2011年早春我国香蕉寒害调查及寒害后恢复对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贵美; 李小泉; 韦绍龙; 邹瑜; 牟海飞; 李朝生; 韦华芳; 张进忠

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解2011年早春低温对我国香蕉生产的影响,提出寒害后香蕉恢复生产的技术措施,为香蕉抗寒栽培提供技术支持.[方法]2011年3月9~16日对我国香蕉主产区广西、广东、海南、云南、福建进行分片区实地寒害调查,对挂果株及待生产用的大、中、小吸芽进行田间解剖分析诊断.[结果]挂果株受寒害影响较吸芽植株敏感,大、中、小吸芽抗寒能力依次增强;同纬度区域高海拔香蕉受寒害比低海拔严重;此次低温对广西中部区域香蕉影响最为严重,挂果株产量损失超过50%,且只能留中小型吸芽作为生产株;广东、海南区域香蕉受寒害影响最小,其他区域居中.[建议]采用覆盖天地膜过冬、喷水保湿、套袋护果御寒等措施;选留受寒害后萌发的吸芽为下造生产株,做好蕉园管理工作,促进吸芽早萌发、早定芽;选育抗寒品种.%[ Objective ]The experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of low temperature on banana yield during early spring season of the year 2011 in order to develop proper measures for recovering banana plantations after being injured, and to sustain banana production under cold temperature conditions. [Method]Investigations were carried out to observe the effects of chilling temperatures on banana plantations in main banana production regions viz., Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan, and Fujian from March 9th to March 16th, 2011. Large, middle and small sized banana suckers and fruited plants were dissected and diagnosed under field conditions. [Result]The results showed that the fruited banana plants were more sensitive to low temperature compared to suckers. Large sized suckers responded more imperceptibly in cold weather compared to the smaller ones. The chilling damages to banana plants were more severe at high altitude compared to low altitude at same latitude. Banana plantations in central areas of Guangxi were severly affected

  9. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  10. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  11. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Kagy

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome, more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC, with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to

  12. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Brink, van den Paul J.; Tedengren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and

  13. Singlet Molecular Oxygen Generation by Light-Activated DHN-Melanin of the Fungal Pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Black Sigatoka Disease of Bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel J Beltrán-García; Prado, Fernanda M.; Marilene S Oliveira; David Ortiz-Mendoza; Alexsandra C Scalfo; Adalberto Pessoa; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; White, James F.; Paolo Di Mascio

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absor...

  14. Risk zoning of cold damage to banana in Hainan Island%海南岛香蕉寒害风险区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海平; 王春乙; 张京红; 蔡大鑫; 刘少军; 车秀芬

    2013-01-01

    依据自然灾害风险分析理论和海南岛历年气候、DEM、耕地面积、香蕉种植面积和产量资料,借助GIS技术,对海南岛香蕉寒害的致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境敏感性、易损性和防寒抗灾能力进行了分析和区划,在此基础上建立了综合的香蕉寒害风险指数,并将该指数应用于海南岛香蕉寒害的风险区划.结果表明,海南岛中部为香蕉寒害高和次高风险区,东部和南部为香蕉寒害次低和低风险区,其余地区为中等风险区.%Based on risk analysis theory of natural disasters and data of climate,DEM,cultivated area,banana planting area and yield of Hainan Island over years and GIS technology,the hazard of disaster-causing factors,sensitivity of disaster-pregnant environments and vulnerability and disaster prevention ability against cold damage to banana in Hainan Island were analyzed and zoned.Furthermore,a comprehensive risk index model of cold damage to banana was constructed to divide the risk zone of cold damage to banana in Hainan Island.Results show that the highest and second-highest risk zones of cold damage to banana are located in the middle areas of Hainan Island,while the lowest and second-lowest risk zones are located in the eastern and southern areas.

  15. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  16. From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodomiro; Swennen, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA

  17. Banana skin: a novel material for a low-cost production of laccase

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Johann Faccelo Osma

    2008-01-01

    Laccases (benzenodiol: oxygen oxidoreductases; EC 1.10.3.2) are multicopper oxidases of wide substrate specificity mainly found in white-rot fungi, which are the only microorganisms able to degrade the whole wood components, but they are also expressed in bacteria and higher plants. Laccases are used currently in biotechnological processes because this enzyme oxidizes both phenolic and non-phenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. In this work banana skin has been selected as a supporting material for laccase produntion because of its high content in carbohydrates, which due to their organic nature are easily metabolized by the fungus. In addition, its content in ascorbic acid exerts an inhibitory effect against bacteria. The activity of the produced laccase is tested in decoloration studies.

  18. 基于单片机控制的香蕉秸秆粉碎机的设计%Research of Banana Stalk Crusher Based on Single Chip Microcomputer Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张燕

    2014-01-01

    In the production process of the banana planting , rational utilization of banana straw has become an important part of the banana industry , scale development .Banana planting industry in our country has been using the traditional manual processing of straw , which is a very hard work ,which requires a lot of manpower and greatly reduce the labor in-tensity of workers and improve the production efficiency .Therefore , there will be designed to provide a banana stalk crusher and a kind of efficient , practical set cutting , crushing one .The machine based on single chip microcomputer is full automatic control ,pressure sensor and step motor to realize the reasonable step motion , can better solve the problem of banana stalk crushing .%在香蕉种植生产过程中,香蕉秸秆的合理利用成为了香蕉产业化、规模化发展的重要组成部分。我国香蕉种植业一直采用传统的人工方式处理秸秆,既耗费大量的人力物力,又大大降低了生产效率且工人劳动强度高。为此,设计一种效率较高、实用性较强的集切割、粉碎一体的香蕉秸秆粉碎机。该机械基于单片机进行全程自动控制,压力传感器与步进电机合理配合实现各运动,能较好地解决香蕉秸秆粉碎的处理问题。

  19. Research of Banana Stalk Crusher Based on Single Chip Microcomputer Control%基于单片机控制的香蕉秸秆粉碎机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张燕

    2014-01-01

    In the production process of the banana planting , rational utilization of banana straw has become an important part of the banana industry , scale development .Banana planting industry in our country has been using the traditional manual processing of straw , which is a very hard work ,which requires a lot of manpower and greatly reduce the labor in-tensity of workers and improve the production efficiency .Therefore , there will be designed to provide a banana stalk crusher and a kind of efficient , practical set cutting , crushing one .The machine based on single chip microcomputer is full automatic control ,pressure sensor and step motor to realize the reasonable step motion , can better solve the problem of banana stalk crushing .%在香蕉种植生产过程中,香蕉秸秆的合理利用成为了香蕉产业化、规模化发展的重要组成部分。我国香蕉种植业一直采用传统的人工方式处理秸秆,既耗费大量的人力物力,又大大降低了生产效率且工人劳动强度高。为此,设计一种效率较高、实用性较强的集切割、粉碎一体的香蕉秸秆粉碎机。该机械基于单片机进行全程自动控制,压力传感器与步进电机合理配合实现各运动,能较好地解决香蕉秸秆粉碎的处理问题。

  20. Evaluation of Banana Hypersensitivity Among a Group of Atopic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia H.; El-Shennawy, Dina; Nasser, Manar W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the frequency of banana sensitization and allergy among a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to parental/self reports. Methods This is a case-control study included 2 groups of allergic children with and without history of banana allergy, each included 40 patients. They were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) using commercial banana allergen extract and prick-prick test (PPT) using raw banana, in addition to measuring the serum banana-specific IgE. Oral banana c...

  1. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  2. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, Michael W; Novák, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cytokinin (CK) levels of in vitro-cultured and greenhouse-acclimatized 'Williams' bananas treated with six aromatic CKs were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The underground parts had higher endogenous CK levels than the aerial parts. Control plantlets had more isoprenoid CKs while the aromatic-type CKs were predominant in all other regenerants. Following acclimatization of the control and 10 μM CK regenerants, there was a rapid decline in both isoprenoid and aromatic CK in the greenhouse-grown plants. Apart from the control and 6-(3-Methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (MemTTHP) treatment with higher level of isoprenoid CK, aromatic CK remain the predominant CK-type across all CK treatments. The most abundant CK forms were meta-topolin (mT) and benzyladenine (BA) in the micropropagated and acclimatized plants, respectively. Micropropagated plantlets had cis-Zeatin (cZ) as the major isoprenoid CK-type which was in turn replaced by isopentenyladenine (iP) upon acclimatization. On a structural and functional basis, 9-glucoside, a deactivation/detoxicification product was the most abundant and mainly located in the underground parts (micropropagation and acclimatization). The results establish the wide variation in metabolic products of the tested aromatic CKs during micropropagation and acclimatization. The findings are discussed with the possible physiological roles of the various CK constituents on the growth and development of banana plants.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Li; Shiyu Fu; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucian A. Lucia

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

  4. Nutritional potential of green banana flour obtained by drying in spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Vieira Bezerra; Antonio Manoel da Cruz Rodrigues; Edna Regina Amante; Luiza Helena Meller da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical composition of peeled and unpeeled green banana Cavendish (AAA) flour obtained by drying in spouted bed, aiming at adding nutritional value to food products. The bananas were sliced and crushed to obtain a paste and fed to the spouted bed dryer (12 cm height and T = 80 ºC) in order to obtain flour. The flours obtained were subjected to analysis of moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrates, total starch, resistant starch, fiber. The green banana flours, mainly unp...

  5. Total soluble solids from banana : evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Santos, Júlio C.; Izário Filho, Hélcio J.; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A.; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2009-01-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The ...

  6. Ex-Ante Adoption of New Cooking Banana (Matooke) Hybrids in Uganda Based on Farmers' Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth, Akankwasa; Gerald, Ortmann; Edilegnaw, Wale; Wilberforce, Tushemereirwe

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the research efforts to introduce the newly developed, improved banana ’Matooke’ hybrids to the farming communities in Uganda, to date no attempt has been made to document the likelihood of farmer adoption of these hybrid bananas in Uganda. The paper has analyzed farmers’ perceptions regarding the newly developed improved Matooke hybrid banana attributes in Uganda to ex ante understand farmers’ likelihood of adoption of these varieties. Descriptive statistics and data reducti...

  7. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how consumers feel about GM banana biosafety risks and the potential challenges for marketing the product. The study analyzes socio-demographic characteristics, awareness and attitudes of banana-consuming ...

  8. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  9. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25227688

  10. Recreating the Banana Grower: The Role of Private Certification Systems in the Windward Islands Banana Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haakon Aasprong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Private standards and certification schemes in agrifood networks tend to be de-scribed as neoliberal, suggesting that they share a common understanding of that which they seek to govern and the tools to be used. Although such certification systems do have many features in common, this article argues that much is to be learned by contrasting certification systems with regard to their ideational ground-ings. Through a historically grounded discussion of the adoption and implementa-tion of two certification systems – GLOBALGAP and Fairtrade – in the Wind-ward Islands banana industry, it is argued that there are important differences with regard to how the systems envision shared key concepts such as accountability, adaptability, professionalism and not least sustainability. These differences permeate the standards as well as their enforcement structures, demonstrating a flexibility in certification as governmental technology which is often overlooked. Moreover, the article explores how the certification systems’ governmental rationalities articulate with local understandings of the role of farmers and agriculture in the Windward Islands, arguing that the tension existing between the visions embedded in the systems mirrors a tension within these islands societies. This tension preceded the adoption of the certification systems and continues to influence their implementation today.

  11. 移动式全喂入香蕉茎秆纤维提取机的研制与试验%Development and experiment of full feeding and movable combined machine for banana stalk fiber extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜瑞; 梁栋; 李粤; 王超

    2015-01-01

    为了解决中国香蕉茎秆废弃物带来的环境污染、疾病传播、资源浪费以及火灾事故等问题,该文结合香蕉茎秆粗大、含水量高等特点,通过研究香蕉茎秆喂入、挤水、机械击打刮取等关键机构,设计出一台可移动式全喂入香蕉茎秆纤维提取机,整机主要由茎秆输送装置、喂入装置、滚扎装置、纤维刮取装置、出料装置等部分构成。样机性能试验表明:该机生产率为206.6 kg/h,香蕉茎秆纤维提取率为90.4%,香蕉茎秆纤维含杂率为16.2%,提取100 kg香蕉茎秆纤维能耗为22.3 kW·h,符合生产需求。该研究可为香蕉茎秆纤维提取机的设计提供技术参考,对促进中国热带农业区香蕉产业发展具有重要意义。%Banana is one of the four fruits. The annual banana production is 9×106 t in China, and the banana stem waste is 2.7×107 t. At present, the traditional way to process the banana stem, such as artificial cut, natural decay and dry burning method, is still adopted in the banana planting area in China. These methods not only cause time consuming, high cost and low benefit, but also probably lead to environmental pollution, disease spread, waste of resources, fire accidents and other problems. Meanwhile, banana stalk contains high-quality plant fiber that is lightweight and with strong permeability, which has high economic value and is suitable for the production of medium and top-grade products, such as suits, shirts, ties, and various decorations, as well as fine paper. But nowadays the researches most have focused on the fiber extraction and application of pineapple, corn stalk and cotton stalk, etc. Based on the above issues, we design the fully feeding and movable combined machine for banana stalk fiber extraction, which is mainly composed of conveying device, feeding device, rolling device, fiber extracting device, discharging device, output device and collection roller. Before the machine

  12. ESTUDO DA CORRELAÇÃO DOS TEORES DE P, K, Al, Ca e Mg NO SOLO, COM A ALTURA DE BANANEIRAS DO CULTIVAR “MARMELO”, NA EMISSÃO DO CACHO P, K, Al, Ca, AND Mg SOIL CORRELATION STUDY WITH BANANA PLANT HEIGHT CULTIVAR "MARMELO" IN THE BUNCH EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Passos de Castro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A bananeira do cultivar “Marmelo” vem, a cada dia, sendo a melhor opção para os bananicultores, que fornecem frutas às fábricas de doces. Com o aumento dos plantios deste cultivar, necessitou-se de dados concretos, na indicação de glebas, para a formação de bananais, tomando como base a análise do solo. Para isto tomaram-se 40 amostras, constituídas cada uma de 12 sub-amostras, ao redor de 40 touceiras de bananas. Estas touceiras foram escolhidas ao acaso, em um bananal de 2,5 ha, plantado no espaçamento de 3m x 3m, com idade de três anos. Para cada amostra analisaram-se os teores de P, K, Ca + Mg e Al, sendo estes correlacionados com a altura da bananeira correspondente, na emissão da inflorescência. Com base nas análises estatísticas concluiu-se que: a. Em caso de não se indicar adubação, o plantio só deve ser efetuado em solos com mais de 50 ppm. de K; b. A indicação de adubos fosfatados deverá ser feita apenas quando o teor de P no solo for menor que 1 ppm; c. O teor de Ca + Mg do solo deverá ser elevado para 2 (dois mE/100 ml, utilizando-se calcário dolomítico; d. O alumínio tóxico do solo deve ser totalmente neutralizado.

    For commercial banana production, flat fersain is preferable because farm implements and heavy machinery can move early in the fields, but in Goiás, flat land is generally of very low fertility. This study was undertaken to determine the growth of the “Marmelo” banana in this kind of poor soil, using correlations between analyses of soils and the heights of pseudo stems at flowering, and to suggest viable fertilization for its successful growth.

  13. Identification of Potential for Banana in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. MANTEL; ZHANG XUELEI; ZHANG GANLIN

    2003-01-01

    Land use alternatives are sought to boost agricultural income and productivity in Hainan Island, China.Regional differences exist in crop limitations, such as typhoon risk, low temperatures, poor soil fertility, and drought. In this study a crop zonation was made for a range of crops, among which is banana, as a way to: 1)establish areas for potential expansion for banana, and 2) identify limitations and options for crop and land management. A spatial soil and terrain database of Hainan Island (1:250 000) was linked to the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The qualitative models were verified by comparing suitability maps with actual land use. The results may support policy formulation on issues such as alternatives to current land use, assessment of best management practices, and the need for fertilizer programmes.

  14. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  15. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  16. 从a hand of bananas 说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞洛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 英语怎么说“一串香蕉”?我们可以说a bunch of bananas,也可以说a handof bananas.但是,后者更趋形象生动.名词hand在此起双重作用,它既表示“串”(bunch),相当汉语“量词”,又含有一种巧妙的比喻,bananas为本体,而hand则成了喻体.类似a hand of bananas的表达在英语中不为鲜见.如hand这样起双重作用的名词可作以下分类.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis and highland banana (ssp. truncata were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping and no distinguishing pattern was observed. The morphological characters found variable within these populations were related to developmental changes and mutations. The results ob tained in this study were not revolutionary. However, the survey of a large number of characters treated with multivariate techniques further sharpened the existing groupings of the Musa acuminata subspecies.

  18. Genetic improvement of bananas through in vitro mutation breeding in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty corms of the banana cultivar Gran Enano (AAA), collected from a commercial plantation, surface sterilized with 10% bleach (0.5% NaOCl), reduced in size, disinfected again with 2% bleach, and rinsed three times with sterile distilled water under aseptic conditions. Shoot tip explants (0.5 cm in length) were excised and immersed in antioxidant solution. Half of the explants were cultivated on the medium recommended by Novak et al., and half on the medium described by Sandoval. Fifty shoot tips from in vitro plantlets were treated with 0.5% (v/v) EMS for two hours at 30 deg. C, and rinsed three times with sterile distilled water. The explants were cultivated on MS + 1 mg/l BA and then transferred to MS + 4 mg/l BA. Material was transferred to test tubes with MS for root development. Rooted plantlets were hardened in a glasshouse for 12 weeks, placed in a nursery, and finally planted in the field at Los Diamantes Experimental Station. In this field location plants are exposed to natural inoculum an can be evaluated using the scale proposed by Stover as modified by Gaul. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed among the plants produced in vitro from EMS-treated shoot tips. After 11 months, 13 clones were selected for further evaluation due to their tolerance to black sigatoka. These clones were further propagated in order to establish a commercial planting for economic evaluation. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Mahouachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain” subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA and cinnamic acids (CA were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  20. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    OpenAIRE

    Nityananda Chakraborty; Balen Nandi

    2015-01-01

    Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be du...

  1. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  2. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M. [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  3. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  4. Primary Experiment of Foliwell TM-Garl Against Nematodes of Banana%无线美防治香蕉线虫试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 李钟明

    2014-01-01

    为了减轻香蕉线虫危害,研究了新型防线虫药剂---无线美对香蕉线虫病的防治效果及对香蕉植株外观的影响。结果表明:与常规药剂相比,无线美不但能有效防治香蕉线虫病,而且对香蕉的叶长、叶宽、茎粗及根系生长有促进作用。%In order to reduce the harm of nematodes for banana ,the control effects of new pesticide FoliwellTM-Garland on nematodes and plant appearance were studied .The results showed compared with normal pesticide , FoliwellTM-Garland could promote the growth of leaf length ,leaf width ,stem diameter and root of banana ,and could control nematodes effectively .

  5. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  6. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  7. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement. PMID:27144345

  8. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp. Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sardos

    Full Text Available Banana (Musa sp. is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility. An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement.

  9. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  10. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anuchita Moongngarm; Wanassanun Tiboonbun; Mai Sanpong; Pimpila Sriwong; Laongdao Phiewtong; Rattanapon Prakitrum; Nattipon Huychan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS) content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity ...

  11. Physicochemical Properties and Nutritional Compositions of Foamed Banana Powders (Pisang Awak, Musa sapientum L.) Dehydrated by Various Drying Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Phisut NAKNAEN; Phantipha CHAROENTHAIKIJ; Paramaporn KERDSUP

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and nutritional compositions of foamed banana powders, as affected by various drying methods. The foaming process of banana puree was undertaken by using whey protein concentrate (5 %) as a foaming agent. After that, the banana foam was dehydrated by various drying methods, including hot air drying, vacuum drying, and freeze drying. Unfoamed banana puree dried by hot air drying was used as the control treatment. All...

  12. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomeng; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38) had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT) under long day (LD) conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD) for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage); however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants. PMID:27486844

  13. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiguang; Miao, Hongxia; Yu, Xiaomeng; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38) had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT) under long day (LD) conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD) for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage); however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants. PMID:27486844

  14. Analysis of micronuclei of the oral epithelium in workers of a banana zone exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following study was realized with workers of the zone of Guapiles (Limon, Costa Rica), to determine the possible damage to the genetic material occasioned by labour exhibition to pesticides. The presence of micronuclei in cells of the oral epithelium was used as a biomarcador of effect . Besides, an analysis of frequency of other abnormalities was made in the nucleus of the epithelial cells, which can be an indication of genotoxicity or cytotoxicity. The group of women exposed to pesticides (cases) was formed by workers of packing plants of different independent banana states. The group of women who constituted the group of control were persons that neither them nor their spouses or companions had never worked at agricultural labours and that had not lived inside a banana estate. The samples of the controls were gathered not only from women who are employed at the Hospital of Guapiles, but also from patients who were expecting to be attended in the external consultation of the same hospital, or, in the Healthy Child consultation in the health center of the same city. It is the first time that a study of control-case is done in the country to detect genotoxicidad, using micronuclei of the oral epithelium (MNOE) as a biomarcador. The participants were interviewed to obtain information about his or her customs and family history that could be relevant for the study. The preparation and the analysis of the cells of the oral epithelium of every individual was done in the laboratories of the Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA), of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Although there are indications of cytotoxic and genotoxicity in the controls showed by an increase of the frequencies of other nuclear abnormalities, the results demonstrated that there is not a significant increase in MNOE's frequency between the group of cases and of controls. (Author)

  15. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Crous, Pedro W.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  16. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Salvucci, Anthony; Crous, Pedro W; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-08-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  17. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  18. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  19. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  20. Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address

  1. Screening the banana biodiversity for drought tolerance: can an in vitro growth model and proteomics be used as a tool to discover tolerant varieties and understand homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine eVanhove

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for research aimed at understanding drought tolerance, screening for drought tolerant varieties and breeding cops with an improved water use efficiency. Bananas and plantains are a major staple food and export product with a worldwide production of over 135 million tonnes per year. Water however is the most limiting abiotic factor in banana production. A screening of the Musa biodiversity has not yet been performed. We at KU Leuven host the Musa International Germplasm collection with over 1200 accessions. To screen the Musa biodiversity for drought tolerant varieties, we developed a screening test for in vitro plants. Five varieties representing different genomic constitutions in banana (AAAh, AAA, AAB, AABp and ABB were selected and subjected to a mild osmotic stress. The ABB variety showed the smallest stress induced growth reduction. To get an insight into the acclimation and the accomplishment of homeostasis, the leaf proteome of this variety was characterized via 2D DIGE. After extraction of the leaf proteome of 6 control and 6 stressed plants, 2600 spots could be distinguished. A PCA analysis indicates that control and stressed plants can blindly be classified based on their proteome. One hundred and twelve proteins were significantly more abundant in the stressed plants and eighteen proteins were significantly more abundant in control plants (FDR α 0.05. Twenty four differential proteins could be identified. The proteome analysis clearly shows that there is a new balance in the stressed plants and that the respiration, metabolism of ROS and several dehydrogenases involved in NAD/NADH homeostasis play an important role.

  2. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening.

  3. 香蕉茎杆收集预处理模式研究%Study on Desiccation and Collection Models for Banana Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继武; 李乐

    2015-01-01

    该研究对香蕉茎杆采用了8种干燥脱水处理和3种香蕉茎杆收集模式试验,结果显示将样品经粉碎、压缩后置于滤网上室外晾晒的干燥脱水效果最佳,含水率从90.5%降至19.93%,重量减轻了75.2%;储存3~6个月,含水率在17%~20%,容积降低至原来鲜品的30%~40%,基本上达到了干燥储存的要求。据此初步形成了香蕉植株-锯倒-粉碎-压榨-运输-干燥-储存的香蕉茎杆、干燥脱水集中收集的模式,为下一步企业对香蕉茎杆资源化利用奠定了一定的基础。%ln this study, 8 kinds of desiccation models and 3 kinds of col ection models were studied for banana stems. The results showed that the crushing-com-pression-air drying processing model showed the best desiccation effect for banana stems. Under this desiccation model, the moisture content was reduced from 90.5%to 19.93% with weight reduced by 75.2%; after 3 to 6 months of storage, the mois-ture content was stil remained within 17%-20%, and the volume was decreased to 30%-40% of the original volume of fresh banana stems. This desiccation model made banana stems basical y meet the requirements by drying storage. The plant-cutting down-crushing-compression-transportation-desiccation-storage production model was initial y developed for desiccation and col ection of banana stems, which would lay a certain foundation for the utilization of banana stem resource by enterprises.

  4. Detecting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil and symptomless banana tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana produc

  5. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  6. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl

  7. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  8. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  9. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  10. 巴西香蕉苗静置水培营养液配方的初步筛选%Screening of the Nutrient Solution Formulas for Static Hydroponics of Banana (Musa AAA Cavendish Subgroup 'Brazil') Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小娟; 杨腊英; 谢德啸; 周端咏; 魏巍; 郭利佳; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    采用静置水培法,使用4种不同的营养液配方,并以清水培养和椰糠基质栽培为对照,对巴西香蕉苗进行生长比较试验。结果表明:在香蕉苗增加的生物量方面,BXM配方(巴西木植物营养液)处理与椰糠栽培的差异不显著,但与日本园试配方、Hoagland植物营养液配方、1/2 MS培养基营养元素配方和清水培养的差异显著;在株高和叶面积方面,均以椰糠栽培的最大,BXM配方处理的居次,接下来依次是Hoagland植物营养液配方、日本园试配方、1/2 MS培养基配方和清水培养。综上所述,在这4种营养液配方中,BXM配方是巴西香蕉苗生长的最适营养液配方。%In order to study water culture techniques, growths of the banana (Musa AAA cavendish subgroup cv. Brazil) plantlets under the static culture and substrate culture were 'compared. Four nutrient solutions including Hoagland solution, Murashige and Skoog (1/2MS) solution, BXM solution and RSYY solution were used to culture banana plantlets, which grew in tap water or in substrate culture (pearlite as substrate). The data showed that banana plantlets grew well in the four tested nutrient solutions, and there was a significant increase in biomass of the banana plantlets grew in static nutrient solution over that in tap water. Among the four nutrient solutions, the biomass of the banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution was next to that in substrate (pearlite) culture, and was significantly more than that in Hoagland solution, 1/2MS solution and RSYY solution. The indexes such as plant height and leaf area of banana plantlets that grew in BXM solution were largest among the four nutrient solutions, and then that grew in Hoagland solution, RSYY solution and MS solution reduced in turn. In conclusion, the banana plantlets grew best in BXM solution among the four nutrient solutions. So BXM solution is suggested, when growing banana plantlets in water culture.

  11. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  12. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  13. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  14. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  15. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  16. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  17. Secagem de bananas prata e d'água por convecção forçada Drying of banana prata and banana d'água by forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de variáveis como cultivar, formato (cilindro e disco, branqueamento e condições do ar aquecido (temperatura: 50 e 70 ºC e velocidade: 0,14 e 0,42 m/s sobre o comportamento de secagem convectiva de bananas com uso de modelagem matemática. As bananas foram desidratadas em secador de bandejas e pesada em intervalos pré-determinados. O modelo exponencial foi bem ajustado às curvas de secagem (R²: 0,98-0,99, mostrando que os fatores mais influentes sobre a taxa de secagem foram a temperatura, a velocidade do ar e o branqueamento. De acordo com as constantes cinéticas apresentadas pelo modelo recomenda-se a secagem de banana, em qualquer dos formatos estudados, nas seguintes condições: para banana-prata, uso de branqueamento e secagem a 50 ºC/0,42 m/s; e para banana-d'água, sem uso de branqueamento e secagem a 70 ºC/0,42 m/s.The influence of variables such as cultivar, shape (cylinder and disc, blanching, and heated air conditions (temperatures of 50 and 70 ºC and velocities of 0.14 and 0.42 m/s on convective drying behavior of bananas using mathematical modeling. The bananas were dehydrated in a tray dryer and were weighed in predetermined periods of time. The exponential model showed good agreement with the drying curves (R²: 0.98-0.99 indicating that the factors that influenced the drying rate the most were temperature, air velocity, and blanching. According to the kinetics constants obtained with the model, the drying of bananas is recommended, including all shapes investigated under the following conditions: banana prata, blanching and drying at 50 ºC/0.42 m/s; and banana d'água, no blanching and drying at 70 ºC/0.42 m/s.

  18. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  19. Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; S. Baharuddin

    2012-01-01

    A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

  20. Physiological responses in the banana plantlets treateds with strobilurinsRespostas fisiológicas em mudas de banananeira tratadas com estrobilurinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivia Helena Modenese-Gorla da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are reports that strobilurin besides having a fungicide effect can promote physiologic benefits to the plants. However, this effect on banana plants was not studied yet. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of strobirulins on the physiology of banana plantlets. For this purpose, cultivar Grand Naine banana plantlets were transferred to pots containing substrate and kept in a nursery with 50% shading. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments (water, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin and five replications. The treatments were applied at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting at a dose 100 g a. i. ha-1 with manual spray. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, shoot dry matter in strobilurin treated plants were higher than the untreated plants, however, the effect of fungicide treatment was different, being the most pronounced effect of pyraclostrobin compared to azoxystrobin. Plants treated with pyraclostrobin had higher leaf area, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content of leaf total nitrogen than the plants treated with azoxystrobin and water, which did not differ. Strobilurins affect the physiology of the banana plantlets differently, the effect being more pronounced by pyraclostrobin.Há relatos de que estrobilurinas, além de atuarem como fungicida, promovem benefícios fisiológicos às plantas. Assim sendo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de estrobirulinas na fisiologia de mudas de bananeira. Para tal, mudas micropropagadas da cultivar Grand Naine foram repicadas para vasos contendo substrato e mantidas em viveiro a 50% de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (água, azoxistrobina e piraclostrobina e cinco repetições. As estrobirulinas foram aplicadas com pulverizador manual aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a repicagem, na dose de 100 g i. a. ha-1. A altura da planta, di

  1. Functional analysis of DNA 4 coding region from a Chinese Zhangzhou isolate of banana bunchy top virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The DNA 4 coding region of banana bunchy top virus from a Chinese Zhangzhou isolate (BBTV-ZZ) is cloned by PCR. The sequencing analysis shows that it is 351 nucleotides long and it putatively encodes a protein of 116 amino acids. On the basis of a plant binary vector pBin438, the plant expression vector pBBTV-4B harboring the BBTV-ZZ DNA 4 coding region has been constructed and then transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. Xanthi nc) by a Agrobacterium-mediated procedure. Under insect-free condition, movement-defective mutant of CMV-Fny strain (CMV-Fny-△MP) is mechanically inoculated on the lower leaves of transgenic plants. Systemic symptoms with different degrees of severity are developed in the upper uninoculated leaves of transgenic plants at 12 days postinoculation (dpi), while no symptoms can be seen in the uninoculated leaves of untransformed plants at any time. Accumulation of CMV-Fny is detected on the upper uninoculated leaves of transgenic plants, but is not on that of untransformed plants by indirect double antibody sandwich enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The results reveal that transgenic plants have acquired the property of cell-to-cell movement and systemic spread of CMV-Fny-△MP. This suggests that the protein encoded by BBTV-ZZ DNA 4 might have function of viral movement protein.

  2. Research advances in comprehensive utilization of banana by-products%香蕉副产品综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈石; 周红玲; 陈丽娜; 郑加协; 林加根

    2012-01-01

    China is a big banana-planting country.Banana stems and leaves and other by-products are important crop resources for future development,but there still have not formed a mature technology for processing and utilization.In this paper,some means for processing and utilization of banana by-products were reviewed,such as returning it to field directly,composting it as organic fertilizer,using it as fiber material,utilizing it as a resource,as feedstuff,as medium for edible fungi,and so on.%中国是香蕉种植大国,香蕉茎叶等副产品是一种很有开发潜力的农作物资源,但还没有形成一套成熟的处理和利用技术。该文阐述了香蕉茎叶等副产品在直接还田、堆制有机肥料、纤维利用、资源化、饲料化和食用菌培养基等方面的处理和利用研究进展。

  3. 香蕉茎叶资源的开发利用研究%Development and Utilization of Banana Stalk-Leaves Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永智; 王树明; 杨芩

    2012-01-01

    根据我国香蕉资源丰富而茎叶等副产物利用不够充分的情况,结合国内外研究现状,阐述香蕉茎叶资源的开发利用研究情况及有待研究解决的问题。香蕉茎叶可以作为有机肥料、栽培食用菌、生产饲料、粗纤维加工、医用等,还是开发生物质能的优质原料,是有待大力开发的农作物资源。%On the basis of the facts that banana stalk and leaves resources were abundant and the utilization of them was not full in China,combining with research situations both at home and aborad,this paper summarized the present situation of development and utilization of banana stalk and leaves,pointed out the some problems to be solved.Banana stalk and leaves could be used as organic fertilizer,planting mushroom,forage grass,crude fiber processing,the medical an so on.It could be also used as quality raw materials to develop biomass energy so that it was a resource that should be fully used.

  4. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityananda Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be due to increased sytheses of the enzymes. In an in vitro culture, the fungus exhibited some peroxidase but no polyphenoloxidase activity.

  5. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  6. An Electrostatic Lens to Reduce Parallax in Banana Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Esch, P; Medjoubi, K; Esch, Patrick Van; Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Medjoubi, Kadda

    2005-01-01

    Cylindrical "banana" gas detectors are often used in fixed-target experiments, because they are free of parallax effects in the equatorial plane. However, there is a growing demand to increase the height of these detectors in order to be more efficient or to cover more solid angle, and hence a parallax effect starts to limit the resolution in that direction. In this paper we propose a hardware correction for this problem which reduces the parallax error thanks to an applied potential on the front window that makes the electrostatic field lines radially pointing to the interaction point at the entrance window. A detailed analytical analysis of the solution is also presented.

  7. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  8. Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in...

  9. A novel source of biofertilizer from feather biomass for banana cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-07-01

    Feather waste is a promising protein biomass available as by-product from poultry processing was found to be rich in peptides, amino acids, and minerals like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper. Soil and foliar application of these products, besides representing a sustainable solution to the problem of feather disposal, may also represent an effective strategy to tackle the environmental effluence. As a consequence, they were also found to be very attractive in elevating the protein, amino acids, reducing sugar, total chlorophyll, and proline content of plants. On the other side, fertilizing effect enhanced the antioxidant potential of banana fruit which was assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine. This was associated with considerably higher antioxidant contents like total phenolics and flavonoids. Therefore, the application of this organic amendment could promote and improve the agro-ecosystem, human health; soil biological activities, and at the same time enhance the production of plant or products rich in bioactive substances.

  10. Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from banana starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F

    2002-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, banana maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of banana glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of banana glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of banana glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. Banana starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of banana maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products.

  11. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value. PMID:24876653

  12. Adição de torta de mamona em substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira Effect of addition of castor bean pie in substrates in acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Novais Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira que oferecem qualidade genética e fitossanitária, favorecendo o desenvolvimento, instalação e uniformidade do pomar, é importante para a exploração comercial da bananicultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição da torta de mamona nos substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira da cv. Willians. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, sendo 2 substratos e 5 dosagens de torta de mamona (0; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g vaso-1. O substrato Vivatto Slim Plus® possibilitou o melhor desenvolvimento das plantas na aclimatação. Não são recomendadas doses superiores a 12 g planta-1 de torta de mamona misturadas ao substrato na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira.The use of micropropagated banana tree seedlings offer genetic and phytosanitary qualities, favoring the development, installation and uniformity of the yield and it is very important for the commercial exploration of banana fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor oil plant pie added to the substrate in the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. 'Willians'. It was use the completely randomized, with 10 treatments, being 2 substrates and 5 dosages of castor oil plant pie (0; 6; 12; 18 and 24 g for each recipient. The substrate Vivatto Slim Plus® showed the best development of the plants in acclimatization processes. Dosages above 12 g of castor oil plant pie for each plant are not recommended mixed to the substrate in the acclimatization of banana tree seedlings

  13. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  14. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  15. The correlation between soil factors and the occurrence of banana fusarium wilt%蕉园土壤因子与香蕉枯萎病发病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓; 李勤奋; 侯宪文; 武春媛; 李光义; 洪葵

    2012-01-01

    , available phosphorus, available copper, available iron, available boron and exchangeable calcium were in healthy plots were more than 1.5 times of diseased ones. For the same diseased plots, the soil pH of rhizosphere soil gradually increased with increasing of infection grade of banana plant, while the concentrations of available phosphorus and available boron gradually decreased with increasing of infection grade of banana plant. It was concluded that properly applying phosphate and boron fertilizer contribute to the suppression of banana fusarium wilt in banana plantations.

  16. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  17. 恩泰克26在灌溉施肥中对香蕉产量和品质的影响%Effect of ENTEC Stabilized Nitrogen on the Yield and Quality of Banana under Fertigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖焱波; 万其宇; 葛旭

    2012-01-01

    田间研究了灌溉施肥中加入硝化抑制剂稳定性氮肥对香蕉产量和品质的影响.结果表明:恩泰克稳定性氮肥处理香蕉单株产量25.2kg/株,折合产量54.8×103 kg/hm2,比对照增产11.0%;香蕉果指数比对照增加15个/株;处理的香蕉可食部分、可溶性糖和Vc指标略高于对照;新型硝化抑制剂3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐在灌溉施肥中具有广阔的应用前景.%Ecological nitrogen technology (ENTEC), a stabilized fertilizer with a nitrate inhibitor, can reduce nitrogen application rate by less nitrate leaching and save labor in European for many crops. In order to reduce nitrogen rate and save labor input in China's banana production, a field experiment was carried out in Nanning to investigate the effects of ENTEC on the yield increase of banana and its quality improvement, and the benefits and coat analysis was estimated thereafter. The results showed that ENTEC increased banana yields over traditional fertilizers management by 11%, the rate of nitrogen from ENTEC applied is less than that from traditional fertilizers at 200 g N per plant. Although cost of ENTEC is higher than that of traditional fertilizers, the benefit of ENTEC is also higher which compensates for the higher input cost of ENTEC, In summary, that fertilized banana with ENTEC is economical viable which offers a new perspective for banana nutrients management under fertigation.

  18. Occurrence and identification of reniform nematode disease of banana seedling%香蕉假植苗肾形线虫病的发生与病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峡; 张锦恒; 张绍升

    2012-01-01

    据调查,福建省漳州市香蕉组培假植苗普遍遭受肾形线虫侵染.通过观察形态特征,该病原线虫被鉴定为肾状肾形线虫,这是国内首次发现该线虫侵染香蕉组培假植苗.肾形线虫以未成熟雌虫侵染香蕉幼嫩的根组织,虫体前部插入皮层取食,后部在根组织外发育肥大;香蕉肾形线虫成熟雌虫通常为半内寄生,有时完全埋生于根组织内;受侵染的香蕉假植苗根系萎缩、变黑腐烂,地上部植株矮小、生长不良.%Investigation of disease on banana seedling in Zhangzhou, Fujian showed.that banana seedling was seriously infected by reniform nematode. The pathogenetic nematode was identified as Rotylenchulus reniformis based on morphological characteristics, and banana seedling infected by R. reniformis was first reported in China. Immature female was the infective stage of reniforra nematode. On penetration, only the anterior part of the body embedded within the cortical tissue of root, and the posterior part of the body swelled to form a typical kidney-shape out of the root tissue; the mature female of R. reniformis on banana was semi-endoparasite, but sometimes, it could be completely wrapped in root tissue; the infected root of banana seedling was atrophic, black and rotton, and aboveground of the plant was stunted and hypogenetic.

  19. Research progress in chilling injury of banana and its cultivation techniques against chilling%香蕉寒害及防寒栽培技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟海飞; 吴代东; 邹瑜; 林贵美; 张进忠

    2012-01-01

    Banana, sensitive to temperature, is vulnerable to chilling. Accordingly chilling resistance research, chilling forecast and prevention of banana is a long-standing critical challenge of banana production in China. Definition, symptoms and physiology of chilling injury together with meteorology and chilling-resistant cultivation measures were re-viewed based on relevant literaiure in recent 30 years. Key issues in this regard were described as follows: The first, critical concepts concerning banana chilling injury were mixed-up; the second, allogenic. materials could not he used to improve chilling resistance capability in practical production; the third, banana production was mainly distributed in less-suitable planting areas; the fourth, unbalance existed in banana demand and supply after cold injury; and the last, lack of cold-resistant banana cullivars. A series of corresponding countemeasures were put forward in order to provide references for chilling injury research, chilling resistance cultivation , post-disaster production recovery and chilling resistant varieties breeding.%香蕉对温度极为敏感,抗寒性差,香蕉抗寒的研究和预测防御是我国香蕉生产长期存在的关键性难题.文章参考近30年的有关文献,对香蕉的寒害定义、寒害症状、寒害生理学、气象学、防寒栽培措施等进行综述,指出我国香蕉寒害研究存在关键概念混淆、实际生产尚不能应用外源物质提高香蕉抗寒能力、香蕉生产主要分布于种植的次适宜区、香蕉寒害后产供失衡、缺乏抗寒品种等问题,并针对存在的问题提出了相应对策,以期为香蕉寒害的研究、防寒栽培、灾后恢复生产及抗寒品种选育提供参考依据.

  20. Pineapple and banana pectins comprise fewer homogalacturonan building blocks with a smaller degree of polymerization as compared with yellow passion fruit and lemon pectins: implication for gelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Beda M

    2009-04-13

    Pectins are viewed as multiblock cobiopolymers of different pectic polysaccharides, notably, homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). Furthermore, on the basis of HGs isolated from different (pectins from) dicot cell walls, HG is supposed to have an average degree of polymerization (DP) of approximately 100 irrespective of the plant source. To validate or invalidate these suppositions, pectins from both monocot (pineapple and banana) and dicot (yellow passion fruit and lemon) cell walls were examined. The results show that all the extracted pectins comprise HGs as well as type I and II arabinogalactan side chain-containing RGs I, but of significantly (p properties of pectin.

  1. Avaliação de genótipos de banana à sigatoca-amarela na amazônia ocidental Evaluation of the bananas genotypes to yellow sigatoka in ocidental amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Siviero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de genótipos de banana em relação à Mycosphaerella musicola foi avaliada em condições naturais de infecção. Foram avaliadas 24 plantas de cada genótipo. As cultivares 'Pacovan' e 'Prata-anã' atuaram como fonte de inóculo do patógeno. A avaliação da doença foi realizada com uso de uma escala de notas variando de 1 (plantas sem sintomas até 8 (folhas velhas e novas com sintomas, obtendo-se o índice de doença pela média ponderada das notas. As cultivares 'Mysore' e 'Nam' e o híbrido 'PA 12-03' foram classificados como suscetíveis ao patógeno. Os demais genótipos 'Yangambi km5', 'Thap Maeo', 'Pelipita', 'Pioneira', 'JV 03-15' e 'PV 03-44' foram classificados como resistentes ao patógeno.The reactions of hybrids and cultivars of banana were evaluated in response to Mycosphaerella musicola in field conditions. A total of twenty-four plants of each genotype were evaluated using 'Pacovan' and 'Prata-anã' cultivars as the source pathogen. The disease response was ranged from 1 to 8, where 1 represented a weak attack with few or no symptoms and 8 when lesions were observed both in young and old leaves. Disease index (DI was calculated for each genotype by multiplying the number of plant with the same scoring by the score and dividing the total by 24 (total mumber of one genotypes. The highest DIs were verified for susceptible genotypes, 'Nam', 'Mysore' and hybrid 'PA 12-03'. 'Yangambi km5', 'Thap Maeo', 'Pelipita', 'Pioneira', 'JV 03-15' and 'PV 03-44' were classified as resistant in our test.

  2. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    In order to optimise the conditions for improved production of the banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis in the farms, effect of salinity on growth and survival was studied for 4 weeks using hatchery reared juveniles. Survival was very poor in salinity...

  3. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source.

  4. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain uncle

  5. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  6. Feeding of banana (Musa spp.) plantation wastes for fast pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd

    2013-05-01

    Using the pyrolysis process, agricultural residue such as banana waste can be converted into bio-char, bio-oil, and gases. The fast pyrolysis process of banana wastes on the available 150g/h rig requires particle size reduction. The particle size of less than 150μm constitutes 50% and particles in the 150-250μm ranges make up 28% of the distribution of particle size of banana leaves. The particle size of less than 150μm makes up 52% and particles in the 150-250μm ranges constitute 28% of the distribution of particle size for banana pseudo-stem. A new gravity chute feeder is also designed for this fast pyrolysis system. A series of feeding tests were conducted using this new feeder. The advantages and limitations will be presented. A comparison with the previously designed feeder will be discussed.

  7. Prediction of banana quality indices from color features using support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeifar, Alireza; Bakhshipour, Adel; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Banana undergoes significant quality indices and color transformations during shelf-life process, which in turn affect important chemical and physical characteristics for the organoleptic quality of banana. A computer vision system was implemented in order to evaluate color of banana in RGB, L*a*b* and HSV color spaces, and changes in color features of banana during shelf-life were employed for the quantitative prediction of quality indices. The radial basis function (RBF) was applied as the kernel function of support vector regression (SVR) and the color features, in different color spaces, were selected as the inputs of the model, being determined total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and firmness as the output. Experimental results provided an improvement in predictive accuracy as compared with those obtained by using artificial neural network (ANN). PMID:26653423

  8. DEM simulation of particle flow on a single deck banana screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chusheng; Wang Hong; Zhao Yuemin; Zhao Lala; Dong Hailin

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical study of particle flow on a banana screen deck using the discrete element method (DEM) was presented in this paper.The motion characteristics and penetrating mechanisms of particles on the screen deck were studied.Effects of geometric parameters of screen deck on banana screening process were also investigated.The results show that when the values of inclination of discharge and increment of screen deck inclination are 10° and 5° respectively,the banana screening process get a good screening performance in the simulation.The relationship between screen deck length and screening efficiency was further confirmed.The conclusion that the screening efficiency will not significantly increase when the deck lengthL ≥430 mm (L/B ≥3.5) was obtained,which can provide theoretical basis for the optimization of banana screen.

  9. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  10. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    SilkeSachse; MarcoSchubert

    2014-01-01

    Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I). In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the...

  11. The banana code—natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Marco; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly's olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I). In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the...

  12. Market access and agricultural production : the case of banana production in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bagamba, F.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the development of the banana sub-sector in central and southwesternUganda. The study analyses smallholder household response to production constraints (crop pests and diseases, soil constraints) and development of product markets and off-farm employment opportunities. The study was carried out in centr...

  13. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  14. A 4-month-old baby boy presenting with anaphylaxis to a banana: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Food allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children and recent studies suggest increased prevalence of both food allergy and anaphylaxis. Among foods, fruits are rarely implicated as the cause of anaphylaxis. Furthermore, anaphylaxis to fruit in the first months of life is rare. Although banana allergy has been well described in adults, there are only two case reports of anaphylaxis to banana in children. Case presentation A 4-month-old Hispanic baby boy with a histo...

  15. Enhanced production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bijay Kumar SETHI; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was implemented in solid-state (SSF) and liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF) for biosynthesis of pectinase. Amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues, finger millet waste, broken rice, banana peels (BP), apple pomace (AP) and orange peels, banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.; Family: Musaceae) was most suita...

  16. Impact of tissue culture banana technology in Kenya: A difference-in-difference estimation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kikulwe, Enoch M.; Nassul S. Kabunga; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Most micro-level studies on the impact of agricultural technologies build on cross-section data, which can lead to unreliable impact estimates. Here, we use panel data covering two time periods to estimate the impact of tissue culture (TC) banana technology in the Kenyan small farm sector. TC banana is an interesting case, because previous impact studies showed mixed results. We combine propensity score matching with a difference-in-difference estimator to control for selection bias and accou...

  17. Banana Cultivar Mapping and Constraints Identification With Farmers in Southwest Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southwest Kenya is one of the major banana growing ares of Kenya and contributes about 40% of the country's production. Banana is an important crop in Kenya providing the small-scale resource poor farmers with food and the much-needed income. In southwest Kenya, Banana is a priority crop that is grown in a wide range of farms from backyard gardens to medium farms. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRP) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) were conducted between January, 1996 and December 1997. The overall objective was to identify major constraints in specific areas, rank them with farmers and determine suitable interventions. The RRA and PRA revealed that farmers grow banana as a pure stand, intercropped with crops like maize, beans and groundnuts, in addition along the contour lines for soil conservation purpose. Diverse banana cultivars are grown in the region, of which some are localised while others are widespread. The major cultivars grown include 'Ekeganda', Kisukari', 'Ng'ombe' and 'Pisang Awak'. Pisang Awak was found prevalent in drier areas of Kendu Bay (LM3) and very cold areas of Bomet (LH1). Ekeganda is the most popular cooking type while Kisukari is a dessert type and is the second most popular banana cultivar in the region. Some of the constraints cut across the AEZs and include a complex of pests and diseases, poor orchard management, soil exhaustion because of land pressure, lack of superior cultivars and socioeconomic factors such as poor infrastructure. Panama disease, nematodes and banana weevil are prevalent at the medium and lower AEZs while moles are menace in the upper midlands and highland areas. To address some of the major constraints, on-farm banana cultivar evaluation trials were initiated in four AEZs namely LM3-4, LH1, UM1 and LM2, respectively. Monitoring and evaluation of these cultivars by both researchers, extension and farmers is on-going

  18. Storage stability of banana chips in polypropylene based nanocomposite packaging films

    OpenAIRE

    Manikantan, M. R.; Sharma, Rajiv; Kasturi, R.; Varadharaju, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposite films of 15 different compositions of nanoclay, compatibilizer and thickness were developed and used for packaging and storage of banana chips. The effect of nanocomposite films on the quality characteristics viz. moisture content (MC), water activity (WA), total color difference(TCD), breaking force (BF), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value(PV), total plate count (TPC) and overall acceptability score of banana chips under ambient condit...

  19. Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens as Biofertilizer in Secondary Hardening of Tissue Cultured Banana Var. Poovan

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ramesh; V. Ramassamy

    2015-01-01

    The present study brings out the effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens in secondary hardening of tissue cultured banana var.Poovan. Two concentrations (1% & 2%) of liquid medium grown Pseudomonas fluorescens (3×109 cells/ml) were used in borewell water and the growth performance of the banana plantlets was assessed. Seven different growth parameters were studiedviz. shoot weight, height and girth, leaf length, leaf width, no. of leaves and chlorophyll content. Best results were obtained in1%Pseu...

  20. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales): Insight into Plastid Monocotyledon Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Martin; Franc-Christophe Baurens; Céline Cardi; Jean-Marc Aury; Angélique D'Hont

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Banana (genus Musa) is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-)specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads e...

  1. Microbial biotransformation of polyphenols during in vitro colonic fermentation of masticated mango and banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dorrain Y; Hodson, Mark P; Williams, Barbara A; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-15

    Mango and banana cell structures, which survived in vivo mastication and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, were fermented in vitro for 48h. For both fruits, flavonoids and phenolic acids were liberated and underwent microbial metabolism involving ring fission, dehydroxylation and decarboxylation. UHPLC-PDA/Q-ToF-MS profiles revealed rapid degradation (72-78%) of most intact precursors (epicatechin and several unidentified compounds) within 10h, before the exponential phase of the cumulative gas production. Concomitant formation of catabolites (e.g. 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) occurred within 4-8h, while metabolism of catechin derivative and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid continued slowly for at least 48h, suggesting intact plant cell walls can be a controlling factor in microbial susceptibility. Untargeted PCA and OPLS-DA demonstrated clear classifications in the compositional fruit type and compound profiles as a function of time. Clusters and distinct discriminating compounds were recognised, which could lead to subsequent biomarker identification for establishing differences in polyphenol microbial metabolism of various fruit matrices. PMID:27080899

  2. ''In vitro'' mutation breeding methodology for Fusarium wilt resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Besides ''in vivo'' methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA/USP is also using ''in vitro'' methods for mutation breeding to obtain resistance to Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense in the banana cultivar ''Maca''. A protocol has been established for the ''in vitro'' development of shoot tips, obtained from plants in the field or already cultivated under in vitro'' conditions. For both cases, only one culture medium was used during all steps of ''in vitro'' cultivation. New buds were formed and these buds grew and developed to form roots. The medium was composed of macro and micro nutrients, with added Morel vitamines, BAP (5 mg/l), saccharose (30 g/l) and agar (6.5 g/l), at pH 5.7. Cultures were allowed to grow in a controlled environment at 27 deg. C and 16 h illumination. Shoot tips which originated from ''in vitro'' plantlets, were cut longitudinally down the middle. This was done to avoid a tendency of regeneration of the original tissue instead of the formation of new lateral buds. To resolve the chimerism resulting when mutagenic treatment is applied to shoot tips, there is a need of vegetative propagation of new lateral buds. Selection can then be done at M1V4 generation. Once the protocol was established, the gamma ray sensitivity was determined. The dose that produced a 50% decrease in the number of new lateral buds was around 40 Gy and this dose will be utilised. The methodology was completed by soil inoculation with Fusarium of young plants 15 cm in height, obtained from ''in vitro'' cultures. After 3 weeks all inoculated plants showed symptoms of wilt, demonstrating the possibility of screening. The method is now being utilised on a large scale in an attempt to induce a resistant mutant. (author)

  3. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Juhua Liu; Jing Zhang; Wei Hu; Hongxia Miao; Jianbin Zhang; Caihong Jia; Zhuo Wang; Biyu Xu; Zhiqiang Jin

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 ex...

  4. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species.

  5. Characterization of banana, potato, and rice starch blends for their physicochemical and pasting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika B. Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were studied to assess their suitability as an alternate for chemically modified starches. The blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were prepared in the respective ratio of 1:3:2, 3:2:1, and 2:1:3. The blend with higher proportion of banana and rice starches (BPR-213 showed highest water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity. The blend with higher proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed highest swelling power at 95°C but lowest water solubility at 95°C among other starch blends. The blend made with higher amount of potato starch (BPR-132 had significantly higher paste clarity than other blends (p < 0.05. The potato starch had significantly higher least gelation concentration than all other starches and their blends (p < 0.05. The banana starch and blend with highest proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed significantly lesser percent syneresis and thus highest freeze–thaw stability. Potato starch as well as it blends with greater amount of potato starch (BPR-132 showed highest value for peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and final viscosity than other blends.

  6. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  7. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  8. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed. PMID:27041291

  9. Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched banana biofibre resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, banana fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the banana fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic banana fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich banana residues and fibres; major user's of banana fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of banana biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement. PMID:26001493

  10. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857

  11. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min. PMID:19082923

  12. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  13. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Minardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 = 100 gr of phosphate rock, B2 = 200 gr phosphate rock, and B3 = 300 gr of phosphate rock. The third factor is application method, which is consisted of M1 = directly applied into the soil. M2 = incubated before applied into the soil. The observation of soil includes: soil pH, soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, total-N, total-P, available-P and the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Result shows that available-P in the Alfisols is very low. The interaction amongs the treatment significantly affect the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Banana corm extract and phosphate rock applied directly into the soil increase soil pH.

  14. Water extraction variability in the banana root zone affects the reliability of water balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of soil water extraction from the root zone affect soil water balance determination. The number of sensors installed in the root zone in studies addressing water balance is still set arbitrarily. This study provided an investigation of the water extraction process by banana (Musa spp. roots by (i determining the variability of water extraction from the banana tree root zone, (ii detecting differences in the estimation of evapotranspiration (ET by the soil water balance method when the number of soil profiles monitored in the roots zone varies, (iii and; determining the minimum number of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR probes needed to obtain ET precision and accuracy similar to that determined by a drainage lysimeter. The field experiment was conducted in Cruz das Almas, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, where a drainage lysimeter was installed on a banana plantation. The water extraction in the banana root zone was quantified by the water content variations monitored in 72 points by TDRs, with measurements at 15-min intervals. The variability of water extraction in the banana root zone was medium to high. The range of variability affects the reliability of the crop evapotranspiration calculation by the soil water balance method. To prevent an overestimation of banana evapotranspiration, the water extraction in the soil profile must be monitored with at least 16 TDR probes installed at a minimum distance of 0.9 m and a minimum depth of 0.7 m.

  15. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  16. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  17. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  18. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.

  19. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  20. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.

  1. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small dif...

  2. Banana Republic公司重塑自我

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路易斯·李; 肖前

    2004-01-01

    对马卡·汉森来说,去年的假日销售旺季是考验她能否成为时装趋势预言家的一场初试。51岁的汉森于去年6月被任命为Banana Republic公司的总裁,当时她认定美利奴羊毛弹性针织衫市场上最叫卖的颜色是蓝色。事实证明,她错了。汉森说:“苔绿色才是最畅销的,而我们的货却准备不足。”

  3. Use of abaca and banana fibers for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some previous researches show the potential of natural fibers for the production of filters, as these materials are commonly used in the production of tea bags or filters for tobacco. This paper focuses on the use of banana and abaca fiber for water purification, showing thus their capacity for heavy metals adsorption; on the other hand, since the filtering media used is formed by natural materials, microbiological analysis was carried out, ensuring that no organic pollution happens during the filtering process. This research has been approached with cupper and iron (Cu2+ and Fe2+, being both materials commonly used in water supply systems. Spanish regulation allows maximum levels of 2 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2 mg/L for Fe2+. Two types of vegetable fibers were used: banana fiber from Canary Islands and abaca fiber from Ecuador. Also different length fibers have been used, studying that way the effect of the superficial area on the adsorptive of ions on natural material. The amount of fiber used has also been varied, from 5 to 20 g per 100mL of water sample. Concentration of the metallic ions has also been modified, i.e.: 2, 4 and 6 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/L for Fe2+. Ions were either studied separately or when both were present in concentrations mentioned above. It has been shown that both types of fiber show ability for metallic content reduction in water, without introducing microbial pollution in treated samples.

  4. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ogbonna Emerole; K. Charles Osondu; O. Chidozie Anyiro; O. Alexan Orji

    2013-01-01

    This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert) banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists) and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April) and rain season (May-October)...

  5. Sensory and chemical interactions of food pairings (basmati rice, bacon and extra virgin olive oil) with banana

    OpenAIRE

    Traynor, Mark; Burke, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hannon, John; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study aimed to investigate food pairings as an important sensory phenomenon in order to determine how different components in the selected food pairings affect and interact with other components. Three novel food pairings (banana and bacon, banana and olive oil, and banana and rice) were selected. A conjoint approach utilising qualitative (organic volatile analysis and descriptive sensory analysis) and quantitative (comparable semi quantitative organic volatile analysis and af...

  6. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  7. Resfriamento de banana-prata com ar forçado Forced-air cooling of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÁRBARA TERUEL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as curvas de resfriamento de banana-prata (Musa balbisiana Colla e os valores do tempo de meio e sete oitavos de resfriamento, partindo do cálculo da Taxa Adimensional de Temperatura. Os frutos foram resfriados num sistema com ar forçado a 7ºC, umidade relativa de 87,6±3,8%, e velocidade do ar entre 1 e 0,2 m/s. Aplicou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, usando um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois fluxos de ar (fatores e duas embalagens (níveis, para um nível de significância de 10%. Os fluxos de ar foram 1.933 a 1.160 m³/h, e as embalagens se diferenciaram pela porcentagem de área de abertura disponível para a ventilação (40 e 3,2%. Foi constatada uma diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento, tanto quando aplicadas as duas taxas de ar como quando usadas as duas embalagens. O menor tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a maior taxa de ar (1.933 m³/h com a embalagem de maior área de aberturas (40%. O maior tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a menor taxa de ar (1160 m³/h com a embalagem de 3,2% de área efetiva de abertura. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o tempo de resfriamento depende, em grande medida, da taxa de ar e do tipo de embalagem usada. O tempo de resfriamento variou em média entre 117 a 555 min, dependendo do tratamento aplicado. Não se constatou diferença significativa nas perdas de massa entre os diferentes tratamentos.This work presents the cooling curves for bananas Prata, (Musa balbisiana Colla, and determinates half-cooling and seven-eight cooling times and the cooling rate. Bananas were kept in a cold room with a forced-air system at 7ºC and RH = 87.6±3.8%. The experiment was conducted in a 2x2 factorial design, to test the effects of two flow rates (factors of air passing through the product, and two types of boxes (levels. The statistical analysis was performed at p<0.10. The air flow rates were 1933

  8. Origins and domestication of cultivated banana inferred from chloroplast and nuclear genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Feng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1 and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome. Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome and M. schizocarpa (S-genome, respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly

  9. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  10. Análise do comércio de bananas em Lavras: Minas Gerais Analysis of banana trade in Lavras: Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A participação de Lavras na oferta de banana no mercado local é muito pequena, considerando-se que o Brasil é o segundo país maior produtor com 6,6 milhões de toneladas e Minas Gerais é o quarto entre os Estados produtores dessa fruta. Visando a quantificar a participação de Lavras e região na oferta de banana no mercado local, realizou-se esse trabalho em duas etapas: 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. A aplicação mensal de questionários nos principais estabelecimentos comerciais de hortifruti e feiras - livre de Lavras, permitiu conhecer o volume comercializado, procedência e perdas das principais cultivares de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que em 2002/2003 foram comercializados 945,24 t e em 2004/2005 foi de 1.001,98 t. Desse volume, 6,56% em 2002/2003 e 14,62% em 2004/2005 tiveram como origem Lavras. O consumo per capita anual manteve-se em torno de 11,8 kg nos dois períodos pesquisados. As bananas tipo 'Prata', foram as mais comercializadas nas duas etapas, 54,7% no primeiro período e 58,7% no segundo, sendo que 7,91% e 18,35% , respectivamente, tiveram como origem Lavras. O volume de banana 'Marmelo' e do tipo 'Nanicão', foram de 1,91% e 28,4%, respectivamente, sendo que 84,0% da 'Marmelo' e 3,43% da tipo 'Nanicão' na segunda etapa foram procedentes de Lavras. A banana 'Maçã' teve uma redução de 125,30 t para 107,47 t, correspondendo a 13,26%, sendo que a oferta dessa cultivar, originada de Lavras, manteve-se em 13,8%. As bananas 'Maçã' e 'Marmelo' apresentaram as menores perdas, 3,56% e 4,78% e as dos tipos 'Prata'e 'Nanicão'as maiores perdas, 9,39% e 10, 75%, respectivamente.The participation of Lavras in the banana production offered to the local commerce is still very low considering that Brazil is the second banana producer of the world, with a production around 6.6 ton/year and per-capita consumption of 24.4 kg/year. Minas Gerais ranks in the fifth place among the most important Brazilian state producers. This

  11. Induction of banana Fusarium Wilt disease with biocontrol bacteria and pathogen by inoculation%接种生防菌和病原菌对香蕉抗枯萎病的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛玉潇; 贾慧升; 王国芬; 刘磊; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    Banana vitroplants of 4--5 leaves were inoculated in different ways with two biocontrol bacteria Bacillus subtilis strains A5-6 and C10-1 and the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen (Foc4) to observe their changes of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activities in leaves, which are related to plant tolerance to the disease. The PPO, POD and PAL activities in the leaves of the banana plants were determined by using the physiological and biochemical methods. The banana plants inoculated with the strains A5 -6 and C10-1 separately showed higher leaf PPO, POD and PAL activities than those inoculated with the sterile water control, and the banana plants inoculated with mixture of the biocontrol bacteria and Foc4 pathogen had higher leaf PPO, POD and PAL activities than those inoculated with Foc4 alone.%使用2株生防枯草芽孢杆菌A5-6,C10-1和香蕉枯萎病病原菌(Foc4),以不同的接种方式对4~5叶香蕉组培苗进行根部接种,以苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)这3种与植物抗病性密切相关的酶活性变化为指标,研究植物产生抗性的时间和强度的变化趋势。结果表明,经过生防菌A5-6和C10-1诱导处理的叶片PAL,POD,PPO的活性均高于对照(CK),生防菌和病原菌混合接种处理的POD和PPO酶活峰值高于生防菌和病原菌单独接种的处理。

  12. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  13. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  14. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Beltrán-García

    Full Text Available In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg. Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg, a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg. A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  15. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Prado, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Marilene S; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H G; White, James F; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  16. Proteomic analysis of conidia germination in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 reveals new targets in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway for controlling Fusarium wilt of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Ming; Yang, Qiao-Song; He, Wei-Di; Li, Chun-Yu; Yang, Jing; Zuo, Cun-Wu; Gao, Jie; Sheng, Ou; Lu, Shao-Yun; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Conidial germination is a crucial step of the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), a most important lethal disease of banana. In this study, a total of 3659 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based comparative proteomic approach, of which 1009 were differentially expressed during conidial germination of the fungus at 0, 3, 7, and 11 h. Functional classification and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the majority of the differentially expressed proteins are involved in six metabolic pathways. Particularly, all differential proteins involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated, indicating the importance of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway to the conidial germination of Foc TR4. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and in vitro growth inhibition assay by several categories of fungicides on the Foc TR4 were used to validate the proteomics results. Four enzymes, C-24 sterol methyltransferase (ERG6), cytochrome P450 lanosterol C-14α-demethylase (EGR11), hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (ERG13), and C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (ERG25), in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway were identified and verified, and they hold great promise as new targets for effective inhibition of Foc TR4 early growth in controlling Fusarium wilt of banana. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the first comprehensive study on proteomics profiling of conidia germination in Foc TR4. It provides new insights into a better understanding of the developmental processes of Foc TR4 spores. More importantly, by host plant-induced gene silencing (HIGS) technology, the new targets reported in this work allow us to develop novel transgenic banana leading to high protection from Fusarium wilt and to explore more effective antifungal drugs against either individual or multiple target proteins of Foc TR4.

  17. Economic modelling of plant germplasm collections in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Godden, David P.; Kennedy, John O.S.; Kambuou, Rosa N.

    1997-01-01

    Papua New Guinea has major ex situ field collections of plant genetic material in its major staple food crops (aibika, banana, cassava, sago, sweet potato, taro, yams). The PNG Government has become concerned at the cost of maintaining these collections. With limited germplasm conservation resources available, difficult choices must be made as to which plants to maintain. What resources should be devoted to maintaining plant genetic diversity in the wild or in collections. How should these re...

  18. Avaliação econômica da elaboração de banana-passa proveniente de cultivo orgânico e convencional Economic evaluation of dried banana production of the organic and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Bittencourt; Marlene R. Queiroz; Silvia A. Nebra

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foi realizada a avaliação econômica da produção de banana-passa de uma agroindústria localizada no município de Guaraqueçaba - PR. Foi avaliado o processamento da banana-passa convencional e da banana orgânica produzida na região, comparando-se os indicadores de viabilidade econômica. A banana-passa orgânica é exportada para a Europa e a banana-passa convencional é comercializada na região de Curitiba - PR. Ambos os processamentos apresentaram viabilidade econômica positiva, a...

  19. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.

  20. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  1. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  2. Effect of banana on blood pressure of hypertensive individuals: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension or high blood pressure is a critical condition which can strain the heart, injure blood vessels, leads to augment the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, and if untreated may cause death. Several herbal approaches have been made to treat hypertensive individuals. Banana is a well known tropical fruit with little known anti hypertensive properties. The objective of this research was to investigate changes in blood pressure after consuming banana among the hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct this research. Data was collected by questionnaire and personal interviewing. Two ripened bananas (Musa acuminata were provided to each subject for 20 days. Blood pressures of the participants were taken before and after the experimentation. Results Most of the subjects were in the age group >60 years followed by 30-40 years and 51-60 years. 57.1% of the respondents were female. Noticeable changes observed in the pre and post experimentation results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after banana consumption. Conclusion Results of this research strongly supports that banana contains phytochemicals, thus its intake significantly reduces blood pressure among hypertensive individuals. However, more clinical studies in human are still required that may provide evidence of efficacy.

  3. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  4. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production.

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on banana 'nanica' (Musa sp., group AAA) irradiated in pre climacteric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work verified the effect of gamma radiation on physical and chemical parameters of banana 'nanica', analyzing possible alterations on the period of conservation and the possibility of commercial irradiation aiming the exportation. The results had demonstrated that the radiations had not produced effect on pH and total acidity. However, the bananas of the 'control group' and those that had received 0,75 kGy, had presented greater maturation degree and, radiated with 0,30 kGy, had presented greater firmness. In accordance with the results of the organoleptic analysis, can be perceived that the bananas most mature, especially of the 'control group', had had greater acceptance. The bananas of treatments 0,30 and 0,60 kGy had had minors notes for presenting minor maturation stadium. Knowing that the irradiation in adequate dose and fruits of good quality brings benefits to the storage and the process of exportation, we conclude that the dose most appropriate for the control of the maturation of the 'nanica' banana is 0,30 kGy. (author)

  6. Achieving asepsis of banana leaves for the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Banana leaf is used in many centers in India during the care of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and other extensive blistering disorders. Sepsis is an important cause of death in TEN patients and use of banana leaf may be a source of such infection. Aims: We conducted this study to detect the bacterial flora of the banana leaf and to examine various methods of rendering the leaf aseptic. Methods: Five pieces of banana leaf, 2 x 2 cm in size, were cultured separately in blood agar as follows: One piece was heated over a flame and one was soaked in boiling water and one was autoclaved. Methylated spirit was applied over one piece and ignited. One piece was placed on the media, ′as is.′ The Petri dishes were incubated examined after 48 h. Results: All the pieces except the autoclaved specimen of the leaf grew coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS when aseptic precautions were not maintained and aerobic spore bearers when all aseptic measures were subsequently instituted during the procedure. Conclusion: We recommend measures to prevent possible transmission of bacterial infection by the leaf. Autoclaved and aseptically handled banana leaves may be used to reduce chance of infection in the treatment of TEN.

  7. Effect of Banana Fibers on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Compressed Earth Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the built environment in developing countries is a major challenge in the 21st century. The use of local materials in construction of buildings is one of the potential ways to support sustainable development in both urban and rural areas. Building with Compressed Earthen Blocks (CEBs is becoming more popular due to their low cost and relative abundance of materials. The proposed Green-Compressed Earth Block (GCEB consists of ordinary CEB ingredients plus Banana fibers, which will be the focus of this study. Banana fibers are widely available worldwide as agricultural waste from Banana cultivation. Banana fibers are environmentally friendly and present important attributes, such as low density, light weight, low cost, high tensile strength, as well as being water and fire resistant. This kind of waste has a greater chance of being utilized for different application in construction and building materials. This focused on the use of banana fiber and its effect on the compressive and flexural strength in CEB. The deflection at the mid-span of the blocks studied was calculated using the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT. The results of this study will highlight general trends in the strength properties of different soil mixes for CEBs. These efforts are necessary to ensure that GCEB technology becomes more widely accepted in the world of building materials and is considered a reliable option for providing low-cost housing.

  8. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  9. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  10. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  11. ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR BANANA CROP VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DE MANEJOS NUTRICIONAIS NA CULTURA DE BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Seiko Tsutsui Esperancini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper fertilizing management, in order to optimize fruit quality and yield, is a relevant stage on the production process to the rural entrepreneur profitability. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of five nutrient management practices for banana crop, Cavendish cultivars, in the Médio Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The effective operational cost (EOC and total operational cost (TOC structures and three profitability indicators were used. Significant differences were observed among the management systems, and the system that resulted in major economic advantage to the producer provided an average profit rate 25.6% higher than other treatments, with total net revenue about 29.5% higher than other management types. The unitary cost was lower for the most profitable nutrient management practice, although the yield was 9.5% lower than the management system that presented the highest yield levels.

    KEY-WORDS: Musa sp.; banana crop; fertilization; production cost; profitability.

    O manejo adequado da adubação, visando à otimização da produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, é uma etapa representativa do processo produtivo para rentabilidade do empreendedor rural. Neste contexto, objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica de cinco tipos de manejo nutricional de bananeiras de cultivares do subgrupo Cavendish, na região do Médio Paranapanema (SP, em 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas estruturas do custo operacional efetivo (COE e custo operacional total (COT e três indicadores de rentabilidade. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre os manejos, sendo que o sistema de manejo que resultou em maior vantagem econômica para o produtor proporcionou índice médio de lucratividade 25,6% superior aos demais

  12. Banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S I Torgova; T A Geivandova; O Francescangeli; A Strigazzi

    2003-08-01

    3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a new type of liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with asymmetrical five-membered heterocycle as a central unit. They have a bent shape and are very convenient model-compounds for studying the dependence of the LC properties on the molecular design. We have also synthesized and investigated ‘banana-shaped’ 1,2,4-oxadiazoles using the ester groups as the linkage units. The new compounds exhibit spontaneous polarization in the smectic phase, even if there is no chiral group in the molecules. Preliminary experimental data suggest the presence of spontaneous polarization in the nematic phase as well. In order to study the structural properties of the LC phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on powder samples have been carried out. Based on the XRD data, a model of the structural arrangement of the bent molecules in the smectic phase is provided, which accounts for the macroscopic spontaneous polarization as well as the ferroelectric switching behavior.

  13. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.

  14. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297

  15. Flame resistant cellulosic substrate using banana pseudostem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardancy was imparted in cellulosic cotton textile using banana pseudostem sap (BPS, an eco-friendly natural product. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied in pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics. Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analysed in terms of limiting oxygen index (LOI, horizontal and vertical flammability. Fabrics treated with the non-diluted BPS were found to have good flame retardant property with LOI of 30 compared to the control fabric with LOI of 18, i.e., an increase of 1.6 times. In the vertical flammability test, the BPS treated fabric showed flame for a few seconds and then, got extinguished. In the horizontal flammability test, the treated fabric showed no flame, but was burning only with an afterglow with a propagation rate of 7.5 mm/min, which was almost 10 times lower than that noted with the control fabric. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the chemical composition by FTIR, SEM and EDX, besides the pure BPS being characterized by EDX and mass spectroscopy. The fabric after the treatment was found to produce stable natural khaki colour, and there was no significant degradation in mechanical strengths. Based on the results, the mechanism of imparting flame retardancy to cellulosic textile and the formation of natural colour on it using the proposed BPS treatment have been postulated.

  16. Problems in Deep Processing of Banana in China%我国香蕉深加工问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解明明; 柯佑鹏

    2013-01-01

    Only deep processing the banana is the main approach to develop banana industry. This paper states the nutritive value and economic value of banana, reviews the progress of deep processing the banana, indicates the major problems about deep processing the banana, and put forward the development countermeasures.%发展香蕉深加工是发展香蕉产业的重要途径.本文阐述香蕉的营养价值和经济价值,综述香蕉深加工研究进展,指出香蕉深加工中存在的问题,并提出发展对策.

  17. Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.

  18. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  19. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  20. Pemanfaatan Kulit Pisang Hasil Fermentasi Rhyzopus oligosporus dalam Ransum Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ayam Pedaging (UTILIZING OF FERMENTED BANANA PEELS BY RHYZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS IN RATION ON GROWTH OF BROILER)

    OpenAIRE

    Theresia Nur Indah Koni; Jublina Bale-Therik; Pieter Rihi Kale

    2013-01-01

    An experiment has  conducted to investigate the effect level of fermented banana peels by Rhyzopusoligosporus   in  ration to growth of broiler. The experiment was designed use Completely RandomizedDesign with four treatments: as a control ration (0%  fermented banana peel); 5% fermented banana peel;10%  fermented banana peel; 15% fermented banana peel, with four replicates. There were six ayampedagings a weeks with average   weight  112.30 ± 2.74 g in each replicate. The result there was a 1...

  1. Características morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar de plantas variantes e não variantes somaclonais de bananeiras (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivadas in vitro Morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaf epidermis of variant plants and somaclonal non-variants of banana trees (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Araújo Lacerda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variação somaclonal corresponde ao aparecimento de plantas anormais durante o processo de multiplicação in vitro, principalmente relacionada à estatura, no caso o gigantismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi averiguar as diferenças morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar na tentativa de diferenciar as plantas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou uma diferença significativa entre o diâmetro polar dos estômatos da 'Prata-anã' não variante e suas variantes, ambas em condições in vitro, observando-se que o mesmo não ocorre para as plantas in vivo. O número médio de estômatos é menor nas plantas variantes somaclonais, porém sem diferenças significativas a não ser para a planta PIII. A descamação de cera é evidente somente nas plantas variantes de ambos os materiais (in vitro e in vivo. Conclui-se que os caracteres morfoanatômicos da epiderme foliar, como densidade estomática, diâmetro estomático polar e a uniformidade da cera atuam como marcadores morfológicos para caracterizar as plantas micropropagadas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais para a característica gigantismo.Somaclonal variation corresponds to the emergence of abnormal plants during the process of multiplication in vitro, mainly related to stature, in the case the gigantism. The aim of this work was to discover morphoanatomical differences of the leaf epidermis in an attempt to differentiate plants of "Prata-anã" from their somaclonal variants. Analysis by scanning electronic microscopy showed significant difference between the polar diameter of the stomata of the "Prata-anã" non-variant and its variants, both in vitro. The same does not happen for plants in vivo. The average number of stomata is lower in the somaclonal variant plants, but without significant differences except for plant PIII. Wax peeling is only evident in the variant plants of both the

  2. Multivariate Modelling of the Canary Islands Banana Output. The Role of Farmer Income Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González-Concepción

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest importer of bananas and the only major managed market in the international banana trade. Spain is the main banana producer within the European Union (EU, followed by France and Portugal. In all these countries the fruit is grown in overseas islands situated in tropical or sub-tropical areas and bananas are a pillar of the economic, social and environmental balance of these regions. Spanish production comes from the Canary Islands, an insular environment located in the Atlantic Ocean more than 1000 km south of the Iberian Peninsula and near the northwest coast of Africa. In the context of high production costs and strong competition from Latin American imports, the compensatory aid that local farmers have been receiving from the EU since 1993 has helped the archipelago to maintain its agricultural position while constituting a main support from an economic, social and landscaping standpoint. This research analyses the Canary Islands banana output evolution through the use of certain multivariate dynamic models that consider the influence of past production costs, past farmer income and future expectations, including a sensitivity analysis. We consider annual data time series on production, perceived prices and production costs for the period 1938-2002. Model predictions are contrasted using data for the period 2003-2006, thus spanning a wide period of time that includes key points such as the 1993 reform and the introduction of the 2006 reform. The empirical work highlights, as do all EU norms, the importance of maintaining adequate farmer income expectations to assure subsistence banana production.

  3. 大型香蕉筛横梁断裂问题的研究与解决方案%Study on breaking of crossbeam of large-scale banana screen and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二锋; 王新文

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale banana screen is applied in the process of classification, desliming, medium remov ing and dewatering, etc. In the actual application, such problems of the large-scale banana screen appear as breaking of crossbeam, cracking of side plate, staving of spring, etc. Among these problems, breaking of cross beam is the most common, and it has seriously influenced the normal production in coal preparation plants. With BLS3661 large-scale banana screen serving as example, the breaking of crossbeam is studied, and solu tions are proposed.%大型香蕉筛应用在选煤厂分级、脱泥、脱介和脱水作业等工艺环节中.在实际应用中,大型香蕉筛出现了横梁断裂、侧板裂纹及弹簧压断等诸多问题,其中横梁断裂最尤为突出,严重影响了选煤厂的正常生产.以BLS3661大型香蕉筛为例,对大型香蕉筛横梁断裂的问题进行了研究,并提出了解决方案.

  4. The Control of Harvesting Bananas off-peak in Baise Youjiang River and Its Technical Measures%百色右江河谷香蕉错峰采收的控制及技术措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何寒; 黄岚; 康林

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of bananas during the growth and development stage and the influence of natural environment on it, combining with the advantages of resources in Baise Youjiang River, making reasonable arrangement to the banana production in the area and implementing scientific planting management technology, to make the listing period of ba-nanas away from the harvest time of other regions and guarantee production yield as well as maintain the stability of bananas’ market.%  依据香蕉生长发育特性及自然环境对其的影响,结合百色右江河谷气候优势资源,对百色右江河谷区域内的香蕉生产进行合理的安排,并实施科学的种植管理技术,使百色右江河谷香蕉的上市期避开全国各香蕉产区的采收期,保证增产稳产的同时亦保持其市场的稳定性。

  5. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Sanderson Bellamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and environmental standards set by RA and their certifying body, the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN. This study was one of the first, independent studies of the environmental impact of some of the principles set by RA and SAN. The study focuses on insect and bird diversity as an indicator of ecosystem health. Five RA certified farms, six non-RA certified farms, and five organic certified farms were sampled. The data was analyzed with RDA multivariate analyses and Monte Carlo permutation tests. The results showed that RA certified farms had less insect diversity compared to non-RA certified farms and that both farm types had less insect diversity than organic farms. There was little difference between RA and non-RA certified farms with regards bird community composition. Thus, organic farming conserves biodiversity, while alternative environmental labels (e.g. a Rainforest alliance seal may not have any visible positive effect on in-farm biodiversity. This study points to the need for improvements in SAN certification standards to achieve improved environmental conditions.

  6. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS DA FARINHA DE BANANA (Musa sp.) OBTIDA POR MEIO DE SECAGEM NATURAL

    OpenAIRE

    João Miguel de Moraes Neto; Luiza Eugênia da M. Rocha Cirne; Juarez Paz Pedroza; Mozaniel Gomes da Silva

    1998-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivando-se obter farinha de baixo custo e seu possível aproveitamento como alimento adicional para as crianças das creches e escolas da zona rural, banana verde e madura foram submetidas a secagem natural, durante 18 horas. As bananas maduras sofreram secagem adicional em estufa a 60ºC, durante 24 horas; posteriormente, avaliou-se a composição química da farinha por meio das análises de cinzas, carboidratos totais, açúcares redutores e proteínas. A análise estatística revelou que, ...

  7. Citric acid production by Koji fermentation using banana peel as a novel substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Sivakumar, Nallusamy

    2010-07-01

    The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters that affect citric acid production such as moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum level and incubation time were quantified. Moisture (70%), 28 degrees C temperature, an initial pH 3, 10(8) spores/ml as inoculum and 72h incubation was found to be suitable for maximum citric acid production by A. niger using banana peel as a substrate.

  8. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  9. Effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in F1 hybrid calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Ichijho, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in calves was investigated. Twenty Fl hybrid calves were used in this study (treated group n=10, control group n=10). Banana (2 g/kg BW) was administered to the calves for 5 days. Leukocyte subsets were examined on days 0, 5, 10, and 15. The numbers CD3+, (CD3+)CD45R-, and (CD3+)TcR+ cells significantly increased between day 0 and day 5 in the treated group (Pbanana to calves increased T-lymphocytes, suggesting it might be possible to enhance protective functions against infections.

  10. What do global p-modes tell us about banana cells?

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    We have calculated the effects of giant convection cells also know as sectoral rolls or banana cells, on p-mode splitting coefficients. We use the technique of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory formulated by Lavely & Ritzwoller in order to estimate the frequency shifts. A possible way of detecting giant cells is to look for even splitting coefficients of 'nearly degenerate' modes in the observational data since these modes have the largest shifts. We find that banana cells having an azimuthal wave number of 16 and maximum vertical velocity of 180 m/s cannot be ruled out from GONG data for even splitting coefficients.

  11. Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Slesak, Günther; Mounlaphome, Kaisouksavanh; Inthalad, Saythong; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the significance and risk factors of bowel obstruction caused by the consumption of wild bananas (BOWB) in Laos. Of six patients with BOWB in Luang Namtha, North Laos, five required enterotomy for phytobezoars. All had eaten wild banana (WB) seeds. Of 227 other patients/relatives: 91.2% had eaten WB; 46.3% had also eaten the seeds and 45.4% knew of complications resulting from eating WB; 42.3% were aware of the complications of ingesting the seeds (constipation [37.9%], append...

  12. 百通推出全新Banana Peel投影仪电缆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,创新的百通Banana Peel投影仪电缆5788AV和6788AV隆重推出。其采用复合电缆,专门设计用于支持室内音频/视频(A/V)的高性能安装。产品灵活且采用百通Banana Peel构造的专利技术,可在当今高科技楼宇逐房多媒体系统安装施工中为安装者带采方便。

  13. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L. for Adsorption Procion Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-05-01

    cellulose. The morphology of cellulose more homogenous than kepok banana peel powder. It was observed that the optimum adsorption of Procion dye by cellulose was on the initial concentration of 30 mg/L, pH solution of 5 and contact time within 30 minutes. The obtained result that cellulose has removal percentage to adsorp Procion dye more higher than kepok banana peel powder. The adsorption equilibrium showed the Langmuir isotherm was described well for adsorption process (R2 = 0.991 than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.922.

  14. Differential response of banana cultivars to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection for Chitinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Chitanase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs

  15. The research on the ability of detached banana leaves to absorb and metabolize aqueous formaldehyde%离体香蕉叶片吸收和代谢甲醛能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚传娇; 陈丽梅

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the ability of detached banana leaves to absorb and metabolize aqueous formaldehyde (HCHO) was investigated. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb the aqueous HCHO, but the uptake rate for the low concentration (2 mmol·L-1) of HCHO was greater than that for the high concentration (6 mmol·L-1 ) of HCHO. 13C-NMR analysis indicated that H13 CHO in banana leaves could be converted into non-toxic compounds include [U-13 C]-glucose, [U-13 C]-fructose, [3-13 C]~serine and [5-13 C]-citrate through three putative metabolic pathways, with the production of a small amount of [2, 4-13C]-citrate and [2, 3-13C]-alanine. The results demonstrated that application of discarded banana leaves could effectively remove liquid formaldehyde pollution and could provide a reference for exploring HCHO metabolism in other higher plants.%以废弃离体香蕉叶片为材料,研究其吸收和代谢液体甲醛(HCHO)的能力.结果表明:香蕉叶片能有效地吸收液体HCHO,对低浓度(2 mmol·L-1)HCHO的吸收速率较高浓度(6 mmol·L-1)快.磁共振(13C-NMR)分析发现H13CHO在离体香蕉叶片可以通过3种途径转化为无毒[U-13C]-葡萄糖、[U-13C]-果糖、[3-13C]-丝氨酸和[5-13C]-柠檬酸,同时还产生少量的[2,4-13C]-柠檬酸和[2,3-13C]-丙氨酸.

  16. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  17. 香蕉枯萎病诱导抗性的小区试验%Field Plot Test on Induced Resistance of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 李静; 唐碧桃

    2012-01-01

    In the field plot test, banana plants were treated with Fusarium moniliforme,saturated limewater and sterile water respectively and inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum 7 days later; and the activity of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismu-tase (SOD), catalase (CAT)were determined. The results showed that limewater could induce resistance of banana to Fusarium oxysporum. Complex infection of both F. Oxysporum and F. Moniliforme aggravated diseases occurrence.%在田间小区栽培的香蕉苗上,接种串珠镰刀菌(Fusarium moniliforme)、喷施饱和石灰水和无菌水7d后,接种尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum),测定过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果表明,饱和石灰水能够诱导香蕉植株对尖孢镰刀菌产生抗性,串珠镰刀菌与尖孢镰刀菌复合侵染,加重了病害的发生.

  18. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  19. 海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病研究%Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt by Marine Bacterium AiL3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 唐桢强; 何红; 谢江辉

    2013-01-01

    The indoor experiment and field test of Marine bacterium AiL3 were carried out to study the effect on the suppression of the banana Fusarium-wilt disease and the growth of banana seedlings. The results showed that the number of leaves, the plant height, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the tested banana plants were promoted significantly after innoculated with strain AiL3 in indoor and field tests compared to the control treatment. The control efficacies of AiL3 against Fusarium Wilt was 100% with the test indoor for six months. The control efficacies were 72.71% and 46.32% after 8 months with the indoor test and field test, respectively. It was suggested that the bacterial strain AiL3 could control the banana Fusarium wilt and promote growth of banana.%采用室内盆栽和大田小区试验对海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病作用及对香蕉的促生效果进行测定.结果表明:菌株处理后盆栽试验和大田试验中的香蕉苗叶片数、株高、光合速率和蒸腾速率等均明显高于对照;AiL3菌株盆栽试验处理6个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果达100%,大田小区试验菌株处理8个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果分别为72.71%和46.32%.表明AiL3菌株对香蕉植株有一定的防病促生作用.

  20. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  1. Consumo de massas, biodiversidade e fitomelhoramento da banana de exportação 1920 a 1980 Mass markets, biodiversity and breeding improvements of export bananas 1920-1980

    OpenAIRE

    John Soluri

    2008-01-01

    A exportação de banana, na América, foi constituída sob uma base genética extremamente limitada: ao longo de setenta anos, uma só variedade de banana, a Gros Michel, foi praticamente a única a ser vendida nos mercados norte-americanos. Esta variedade produzia grandes cachos, resistentes ao transporte, e dotados de um sabor e de uma casca que os consumidores norte-americanos identificavam como pertencentes a uma banana de qualidade. Entretanto, a Gros Michel também se mostrou muito suscetível ...

  2. Trapping Effect of Baxi Banana(Musa AAA Cavendish)Pseudostem on Two Banana Weevil Species%巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科明; 许桂莺; 彭正强

    2015-01-01

    This study is to determine the effect of Baxi banana pseudostem as attractant to two banana weevil species , and to provide theoretical guidance for control of banana weevil species. Field traps of pseudostem to banana weevils weredeployed for the analysis,meanwhile,indoor selection response of banana weevil to Baxi banana pseudostem was conducted by using double pitfall olfactometer. Significant trapping effects of Baxi banana pseudostem on two ba⁃nana weevils were found by field trapping and number of the trapped banana weevils in five and ten days reaching 8.3~11.3 and 14.7~18.0 individuals per trap,respectively.Indoor selection response results showed that both the two banana weevils showed significant selection effect to the Baxi banana pseudostem when compared with blank control. Baxi banana pseudostem could be used to control the two banana weevil species.%为明确巴西蕉假茎对香蕉假茎象甲和香蕉球茎象甲的诱捕效果,为利用巴西蕉假茎防治香蕉象甲这一农业防治措施提供理论依据,采用假茎田间诱捕试验及室内选择反应试验,研究了巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果。田间诱捕试验结果表明,巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲具有有效的诱捕作用,其5d和10d的诱捕量分别达8.3~11.3和14.7~18.0头/诱捕器;室内选择反应试验结果表明,与空白对照相比,2种香蕉象甲对巴西蕉假茎均表现出显著的选择趋性。因此,巴西蕉假茎可用于蕉园香蕉象甲的诱捕防治。

  3. 基于产量的海南省香蕉寒害风险分析与区划%Cold-damage risk analysis and division of banana production in Hainan Province of South China based on yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡大鑫; 王春乙; 张京红; 刘少军

    2013-01-01

    根据海南省1990-2010年的香蕉产量数据,采用线性滑动平均、回归分析、信息扩散等方法,建立了香蕉理论收获面积模型,实现了寒害与其他气象灾害减产率的分离,构建了香蕉产量寒害危险性评价模型,结合地区间种植规模的差异,开展了海南省香蕉产量寒害风险区划.结果表明:海南省香蕉产量寒害危险性较高的区域主要存在于北部、中部和西部,其中儋州的危险等级为全岛最高,南部、东南部和西南部的危险性较低;种植规模较大的地区主要分布在北部和西部的沿海市县;风险以低级别为主,五指山的风险最高,澄迈、海口和昌江略低,东部沿海地区和南部三亚的风险最低,基本不受寒害影响.%Based on the banana production data of Hainan Province in 1990-2010,and by using the methods of linear moving average,regression analysis,and information diffusion,a model for calculating the theoretical harvest area of banana was developed,which could distinguish the relative contribution of cold weather hazard to the reduction rate of banana yield from other weather hazards.Then,the model of the cold-damage risk assessment for banana production was developed,and the risk division of banana production in Hainan Province was conducted.The results showed that the higher dangerous regions of banana cold-damage were located in the north,middle,and west parts of Hainan Island,and the danger rank was the highest in Danzhou.The lower hazard areas were mainly located in the south,southeast,and southwest parts.However,banana was widely planted in the northern and western coastal cities/counties.In most parts,the cold-damage risk was at low level.The risk was the highest in Wuzhishan,followed by in Chengmai,Haikou and Changjiang,and the lowest in east coastal areas and Sanya,where the banana production was almost not affected by cold weather hazard.

  4. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

  5. Women with metabolic syndrome improve antrophometric and biochemical parameters with green banana flour consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of green banana flour (GBF may promote health benefits, such as, decreased appetite, weight loss, glycemic control, intestinal function and lipid profile improvement, aging delay, cancer and heart disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green banana flour consumption on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in overweight women. Methods: The glycemic index of flour in the study was determined. The effects of consumption of 20 g of green banana flour/day on weight, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, body composition, hemoglobin, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, liver function and energy intake were evaluated in 25 overweight women for 45 days. Results: The glycemic index of the flour under study was classified as low. Reduction (p < 0.05 in systolic blood pressure, hip circumference and fasting glucose levels were found in women who had metabolic syndrome criteria. Conclusions: Consumption of green banana flour (20 g/day for 45 days did not promote weight loss or changes in body composition in overweight women. It was noted, however, decreased hip circumference. Significant health parameter improvements were also noted in individuals with metabolic syndrome, which showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose.

  6. Asymmetric banana-shaped liquid crystals with two different terminal alkoxy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, R.; Cuypers, R.; Giesbers, M.; Koudijs, A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Two series of asymmetric banana-shaped compounds have been synthesized and studied. In the 1,3-phenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoyloxy)]benzoate series the lack of symmetry was derived solely from the difference in length of the two terminal alkoxy chains. In the 3,4'-biphenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoy

  7. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Pfennig, S.; Brink, van den P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple planta

  8. Detection of Bacterial Wilt Pathogen and Isolation of Its Bacteriophage from Banana in Lumajang Area, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardian Susilo Addy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease on banana is an important disease in Lumajang District and causes severe yield loss. Utilizing bacteriophage as natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria has been widely known as one of the control strategies. This research was aimed at determining the causing agent of bacterial wilt on banana isolated from Lumajang area, to obtain wide-host range bacteriophages against bacterial wilt pathogen and to know the basic characteristic of bacteriophages, particularly its nucleic acid type. Causative agent of bacterial wilt was isolated from symptomatic banana trees from seven districts in Lumajang area on determinative CPG plates followed by rapid detection by PCR technique using specific pair-primer. Bacteriophages were also isolated from soil of infected banana crop in Sukodono District. Morphological observation showed that all bacterial isolates have similar characteristic as common bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, detection of FliC region in all isolates confirmed that all isolates were R. solanacearum according to the presence of 400 bp of FliC DNA fragment. Moreover, two bacteriophages were obtained from this experiment (ϕRSSKD1 and ϕRSSKD2, which were able to infect all nine R. solanacearum isolates. Nucleic acid analysis showed that the nucleic acid of bacteriophages was DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid.

  9. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how cons

  10. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the ma

  11. Water quality under intensive banana production and extensive pastureland in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arya, D.R.; Geissen, V.; Ponce-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Becker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intensive banana production with high mineral-fertilizer application and of extensive pastures were compared regarding water quality in a lowland region of SE Mexico. We monitored NO, NO, and PO43– concentrations in groundwater (80 m depth), subsurface water (5 m depth), and surface w

  12. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts.

  13. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana fusarium wilt pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1a (TEF-1a) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, comp

  14. Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, S S; Patel, P R; Patel, S S; Nikam, S D; Rane, T U; Sayyed, R Z

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.

  15. Market access and agricultural production : the case of banana production in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the d

  16. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of mating-type loci of Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Crous, P.W.; Zwiers, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The devastating Sigatoka disease complex of banana is primarily caused by three closely related heterothallic fungi belonging to the genus Mycosphaerella: M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Previous phylogenetic work showing common ancestry led us to analyze the mating-type loci of these Myc

  18. Same Disease—different research strategies: Bananas and Black Sigatoka in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordoba, D.M.; Jansen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal disease epidemics have the potential to bring about drastic innovations. However, in the case of the Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) fungus in bananas, producers and international traders are still awaiting a breakthrough in crop protection research. Using the cases of Brazil and Co

  19. DNA polymorphisms in banana and sugar cane varieties revealed by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane is the fourth most important cash crop of Pakistan and is grown on 1 million hectares of land, with a total production of 37 million tonnes. It does not flower under existing environmental conditions. Sugar cane is vegetatively propagated and the national breeding programmes is restricted to the adaptation and multiplication of exotic varieties. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish polymorphisms among various local sugar cane varieties. DNA from the varieties L-118, L-116, BL-4, BF-162, Col-44, Col-54, Triton and Puri was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ten nucleotide primers. The amplification profiles of all the sugar cane varieties were compared and the polymorphisms detected. DNA was isolated from the embryogenic calli of sugar cane subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (0, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 krad) and salt stresses (NaCl: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and was amplified with random primers to detect the polymorphisms introduced by stress. The banana is another important vegetatively propagated crop in Pakistan. DNA isolation from micropropagated banana was optimized and RAPD analysis performed on several clones of the banana variety Williams. The level of genetic variability revealed from calli and vegetatively propagated sugar cane and banana by RAPD analysis is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.