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Sample records for banana pith biossorcao

  1. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  2. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  3. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  4. Antibiosis of the pith maize to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordás, B; Butrón, A; Soengas, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2002-10-01

    Thirteen inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with different levels of stem resistance to the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides Lefevbre were evaluated in the field and the laboratory to determine the antibiotic resistance to this pest. Inbreds CM151, CO125, and EP39 had antibiotic pith as well as stem resistance, so the pith could play a role in stem resistance. Inbreds A509, F473, and PB130 did not have antibiotic pith but had stem resistance; therefore, other mechanisms could confer stem resistance. Finally, the inbred MS1334 had antibiotic pith and did not show stem resistance; thus, other factors could compensate the effect of the pith. Therefore, although pith antibiotic compound seems to play a role in the defense against S. nonagrioides attack, it is not the only possible mechanism of defense.

  5. Chromium removal from electroplating wastewater by coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Chayabutra, Supanee

    2007-03-22

    Coir pith is a by-product from padding used in mattress factories. It contains a high amount of lignin. Therefore, this study investigated the use of coir pith in the removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater by varying the parameters, such as the system pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The maximum removal (99.99%) was obtained at 2% (w/v) dosage, particle size <75microm, at initial Cr(VI) 1647mgl(-1), system pH 2, and an equilibrium time of 18h. The adsorption isotherm of coir pith fitted reasonably well with the Langmuir model. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of coir pith at 15, 30, 45 and 60 degrees C was 138.04, 197.23, 262.89 and 317.65mgCr(VI)g(-1) coir pith, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated an endothermic process and the adsorption process was favored at high temperature. Desorption studies of Cr(VI) on coir pith and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) suggested that most of the chromium bound on the coir pith was in Cr(III) form due to the fact that the toxic Cr(VI) adsorbed on the coir pith by electrostatic attraction was easily reduced to less toxic Cr(III). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry analysis indicated that the carbonyl (CO) groups and methoxy (O-CH(3)) groups from the lignin structure in coir pith may be involved in the mechanism of chromium adsorption. The reduced Cr(III) on the coir pith surface may be bound with CO groups and O-CH(3) groups through coordinate covalent bonding in which a lone pair of electrons in the oxygen atoms of the methoxy and carbonyl groups can be donated to form a shared bond with Cr(III).

  6. Chromium removal from electroplating wastewater by coir pith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suksabye, Parinda [The Joint School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Pracha-Utit Road, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Thiravetyan, Paitip [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo. 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)]. E-mail: paitip.thi@kmutt.ac.th; Nakbanpote, Woranan [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo. 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Chayabutra, Supanee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Silpaorn University, 6 Rajamankhanai Road, Amphoe Muang, Nakorn Pathom Province, Bangkok 73000 (Thailand)

    2007-03-22

    Coir pith is a by-product from padding used in mattress factories. It contains a high amount of lignin. Therefore, this study investigated the use of coir pith in the removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater by varying the parameters, such as the system pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The maximum removal (99.99%) was obtained at 2% (w/v) dosage, particle size <75 {mu}m, at initial Cr(VI) 1647 mg l{sup -1}, system pH 2, and an equilibrium time of 18 h. The adsorption isotherm of coir pith fitted reasonably well with the Langmuir model. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of coir pith at 15, 30, 45 and 60 deg. C was 138.04, 197.23, 262.89 and 317.65 mg Cr(VI) g{sup -1} coir pith, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated an endothermic process and the adsorption process was favored at high temperature. Desorption studies of Cr(VI) on coir pith and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) suggested that most of the chromium bound on the coir pith was in Cr(III) form due to the fact that the toxic Cr(VI) adsorbed on the coir pith by electrostatic attraction was easily reduced to less toxic Cr(III). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry analysis indicated that the carbonyl (C=O) groups and methoxy (O-CH{sub 3}) groups from the lignin structure in coir pith may be involved in the mechanism of chromium adsorption. The reduced Cr(III) on the coir pith surface may be bound with C=O groups and O-CH{sub 3} groups through coordinate covalent bonding in which a lone pair of electrons in the oxygen atoms of the methoxy and carbonyl groups can be donated to form a shared bond with Cr(III)

  7. Use of coir pith particles in composites with Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, Gisela Azevedo Menezes; Vieira, Jhonatas Augusto Rocha; Barreto, Ledjane Silva

    2013-12-15

    Brazil is the fourth largest world's producer of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Coconut crops generate several wastes, including, coir pith. Coir pith and short fibers are the byproducts of extracting the long fibers and account for approximately 70% of the mature coconut husk. The main use of coir pith is as an agricultural substrate. Due to its shape and small size (0.075-1.2 mm), this material can be considered as a particulate material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of coir pith as an aggregate in cementitious composites and to evaluate the effect of the presence of sand in the performance of these composites. Some composites were produced exclusively with coir pith particles and other composites with coir pith partially substituting the natural sand. The cementitious composites developed were tested for their physical and mechanical properties and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of coir pith particles addition in cement paste and sand-cement-mortar. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by multiple comparisons of the means by Tukey's test that showed that the composites with coir pith particles, with or without natural sand, had similar mechanical results, i.e., means were not statistically different at 5% significance level. There was a reduction in bulk density and an improved post-cracking behavior in the composites with coir pith particles compared to conventional mortar and to cement paste. These composites can be used for the production of lightweight, nonstructural building materials, according to the values of compressive strength (3.97-4.35 MPa) and low bulk density (0.99-1.26 g/cm(3)).

  8. Treated Coconut Coir Pith as Component of Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Koňáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with utilization of raw and treated coir pith as potential component of cementitious composites. The studied material is coir pith originating from a coconut production. Its applicability as cement mixture component was assessed in terms of the physical properties of concrete containing different amount of coir pith. Basic physical properties, compressive and bending strength, and hygric transport characteristics as well as thermal properties belong among the studied characteristics. It was proved that the concrete with 5% (by mass of cement of this waste material shows appropriate physical properties and it gives rise to an applicable material for building structures. Generally, the coir pith can be regarded as lightening additive. When 10% of coir pith was added, it has led to higher deterioration of properties than what is acceptable since such dosing is greatly increasing the total porosity. The influence of chemical treatment of coir pith was evaluated as well; both tested treatment methods improved the performance of cementitious composites while the acetylation was somewhat more effective the treatment by NaOH.

  9. Let's Go Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  10. Mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption by coir pith studied by ESR and adsorption kinetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Nakajima, Akira; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Baba, Yoshinari; Nakbanpote, Woranan

    2009-01-30

    The oxidation state of chromium in coir pith after Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution was investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). To elucidate the mechanism of chromium adsorption on coir pith, the adsorption studies of Cr(VI) onto lignin, alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith were also studied. ESR signals of Cr(V) and Cr(III) were observed in coir pith adsorbed Cr(VI) at solution pH 2, while ESR spectra of lignin extracted from coir pith revealed only the Cr(III) signal. In addition, ESR signal of Cr(V) was observed in alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith adsorbed Cr(VI). These results confirmed that lignin in coir pith reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) while alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(V). The Cr(V) signal exhibited in ESR of alpha-cellulose and holocellulose might be bound with glucose in cellulose part of coir pith. In addition, xylose which is main in pentosan part of coir pith, indicated that it is involved in form complex with Cr(V) on coir pith. The adsorption kinetic of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution on coir pith was also investigated and described well with pseudo second order model. ESR and desorption experiments confirmed that Cr(VI), Cr(V) and Cr(III), exist in coir pith after Cr(VI) adsorption. The desorption data indicated that the percentage of Cr(VI), Cr(V) and Cr(III) in coir pith were 15.63%, 12.89% and 71.48%, respectively.

  11. Mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption by coir pith studied by ESR and adsorption kinetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suksabye, Parinda [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Pracha-Utit Road, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Nakajima, Akira [Division of Chemistry, Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889 1692 (Japan); Thiravetyan, Paitip [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo.8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)], E-mail: paitip.thi@kmutt.ac.th; Baba, Yoshinari [Department of applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, University of Miyazaki, Gakuen-Kibabadai, Miyazaki 889 2192 (Japan); Nakbanpote, Woranan [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo.8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2009-01-30

    The oxidation state of chromium in coir pith after Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution was investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). To elucidate the mechanism of chromium adsorption on coir pith, the adsorption studies of Cr(VI) onto lignin, {alpha}-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith were also studied. ESR signals of Cr(V) and Cr(III) were observed in coir pith adsorbed Cr(VI) at solution pH 2, while ESR spectra of lignin extracted from coir pith revealed only the Cr(III) signal. In addition, ESR signal of Cr(V) was observed in {alpha}-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith adsorbed Cr(VI). These results confirmed that lignin in coir pith reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) while {alpha}-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(V). The Cr(V) signal exhibited in ESR of {alpha}-cellulose and holocellulose might be bound with glucose in cellulose part of coir pith. In addition, xylose which is main in pentosan part of coir pith, indicated that it is involved in form complex with Cr(V) on coir pith. The adsorption kinetic of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution on coir pith was also investigated and described well with pseudo second order model. ESR and desorption experiments confirmed that Cr(VI), Cr(V) and Cr(III), exist in coir pith after Cr(VI) adsorption. The desorption data indicated that the percentage of Cr(VI), Cr(V) and Cr(III) in coir pith were 15.63%, 12.89% and 71.48%, respectively.

  12. Bananas go paraelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: peter.lunkenheimer@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2008-05-14

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  13. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  14. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  15. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  16. Going Bananas over The Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With a market of nearly $5 billion a year, the banana is the world's most popular fruit, and the most important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize. Banana businesses are economic pillars in many tropical countries, providing millions of jobs for rural residents. But, for much of its history, the banana industry was notorious for destructive…

  17. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...... effects that produce positive externalities in banana output...

  18. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  19. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  20. Prototheca associated with banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, R S

    1985-06-01

    Prototheca stagnora was found to be a habitant of older harvested banana (Musa sapientum) and plantain (M. paradisiaca) stumps while P. wickerhamii colonized fresh Musa sp. stumps and flower bract water of Heliconia sp. While Prototheca sp. were known to habituate woody plants, this is the first evidence that herbaceous plants also serve as habitats.

  1. The Effect of Sunlight in Parenchyma Pith Cells Diameter of Manihot esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, D.; Aziz, D. N.; Astuti, W.; Nuraeni, E.

    2017-03-01

    Sunlight is one of the factors that effect on the grow of a plant. Manihot esculenta is one of the plants that easily found in Indonesia because its role as staple food. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between sunlight the grow of parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Independent variable in this research is sunlight, and dependent variable is the parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Data was collected is in qualitative and quantitative form. Qualitative data gotten gained by morphology observation. The parenchyma pith cells of Manihot esculenta that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux, morphologically has hexagon, cell walls thick, solid state, and regular composition. Meanwhile, the parenchyma pith cells that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) has a hexagon shape, thin cell walls thin, soft state, and irregular composition. Qualitative data suported by quantitative data. The size of parenchyma pith cells diameter that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux 96,4 µm. While, the stem parenchyma pith cells diameter empulur that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) is 129,8 µm.

  2. Utilisation of industrial wastes-flyash and coir pith for cultivation of commercial aromatic crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanungo, S.P.; Mukherjee, P.S.; Rout, S.K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2000-07-01

    Coconut pith is a waste material produced during extraction of coir fibre from its husk. For every ton of fibre about two tones of coir dust is produced which occupies a large space due to its low density (p = 0.2 gm/cc) and is a growing environmental problem in the rural sector. Due to its fluffy nature and organic constituents, it has all the properties to be used as a soil conditioner especially where soil has low after retention capacity. However, pith lacks soil nutrients especially trace elements, which are present in fly ash - another industrial waste. Fly ash has poor water retention capacity and thus coir pith is a complimentary additive for fly ash to be used as a soil substitute. In the course of the present investigation fly ash and pith mixed at various proportions were used to study the growth and yield of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii), an essential oil bearing plant. Plant growth and yield parameters were observed to be significantly higher in pots containing different levels of coir pith as compared to fly ash alone. Enhanced and early flowering on application of pith are important findings for significant implications in agriculture. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  4. Cr(VI) adsorption from electroplating plating wastewater by chemically modified coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-07-15

    Coir pith samples were chemically modified by grafting with acrylic acid for the removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater. The presence of acrylic acid on the coir pith surface was verified by a scanning electron microscope with an electron dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The carbonyl groups (C==O) from the carboxylic acids (COOH) increased on the coir pith surface after grafting with acrylic acid. In addition, the thermal stability of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith also improved. The optimum conditions for grafting the acrylic acid on the coir pith consisted of 2 M acrylic acid and 0.00125 M ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN, as an initiator). The maximum Cr(VI) removal (99.99 ± 0.07%) was obtained with the following conditions: a 1.3% (w/v) dosage of acrylic acid-grafted coir pith, a system pH of 2, a contact time of 22 h, a temperature of 30 °C, a particle size of <150 μm and an initial Cr(VI) of 1,171 mg l(-1). At system pH of 2, Cr(VI) in the HCrO(4)(-) form can be adsorbed with acrylic acid-grafted coir pith via an electrostatic attraction. The adsorption isotherm of 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith exhibited a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of the 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was 196.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent, whereas for coir pith without grafting, the maximum Cr(VI) removal was 165.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent. The adsorption capacity of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith for Cr(VI) was higher compared to the original coir pith. This result was due to the enhancement of the carbonyl groups on the coir pith surface that may have involved the mechanism of chromium adsorption. The X-ray absorption near edged structure (XANES) and desorption studies suggested that most of the Cr(III) that presented on the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was due to the Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III) on the adsorbent surface. FTIR

  5. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%).

  6. Mechanistic studies on the binding of Acid Yellow 99 on coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Motiar R; Ray, Manju; Guha, Arun K

    2011-02-01

    The interaction of Acid Yellow 99 (AY 99) with coir pith has been investigated in aqueous medium to understand the mechanism of adsorption and explore the potentiality of this biomass towards controlling pollution resulting from textile dyes. The obtained results establish that one gram of coir pith can adsorb 442.13 mg of AY 99. The adsorption process is found to be a function of pH of the solution, the optimum pH value being 2.0. The process follows Langmuir-Freundlich dual isotherm model. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrates that on dye adsorption the biomass develops uneven and irregular surface. X-ray diffraction study indicates incorporation of the dye into the micropores and macropores of the adsorbent and thereby enhancing its degree of crystallinity. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemical modification of the functional groups establish that binding of AY 99 on coir pith occurs through electrostatic and complexation reaction.

  7. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  8. The effect of different levels of sunflower head pith addition on the properties of model system emulsions prepared from fresh and frozen beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Karakaya, Mustafa; Tiske, Sümeyra Sultan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sunflower head pith on the functional properties of emulsions was studied by using a model system. Oil/water (O/W) model emulsion systems were prepared from fresh and frozen beef by the addition of the pith at five concentrations. Emulsion capacity (EC), stability (ES), viscosity (EV), colour and flow properties of the prepared model system emulsions were analyzed. The pith addition increased the EC and ES and the highest EC and ES values were reached when 5% of pith added; however, further increase in the pith concentration caused an inverse trend in these values. Fresh beef emulsions had higher EC and ES values than did frozen beef emulsions. One percent pith concentration was the critic level for the EV values of fresh beef emulsions. EV values of the emulsions reached a maximum level at 5% pith level, followed by a decrease at 7% pit level.

  9. Power generation using coir-pith and wood derived producer gas in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673 601, Kerala State (India)

    2006-10-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used for heating purposes and as supplementary or sole fuel in internal combustion engines. In this study, the potential of coir-pith and wood chips as the feedstock for gasifier is analyzed. The performance of the gasifier-engine system is analyzed by running the engine for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The system is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum diesel savings and lower emissions in the dual fuel mode operation while using coir-pith and wood chips separately. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual fuel mode of operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine while using wood chips in the dual mode operation is higher than that of coir-pith. The CO emission is higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to that of diesel mode. In the dual fuel mode of operation, the higher diesel savings is achieved while using wood chips as compared to that of coir-pith. The comparison of the performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine with diesel engine is also described. (author)

  10. Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suksabye, Parinda [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Pracha-Utit Road, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Thiravetyan, Paitip [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo.8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)], E-mail: paitip.thi@kmutt.ac.th; Nakbanpote, Woranan [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo.8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater by coir pith was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as bed depth (40-60 cm) and flow rate (10-30 ml min{sup -1}). At 0.05 C{sub t}/C{sub 0}, the breakthrough volume increased as flow rate decreased or a bed depth increased due to an increase in empty bed contact time (EBCT). The bed depth service time model (BDST) fit well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve, while the simulation of the whole curve using non-linear regression analysis was effective using the Thomas model. The adsorption capacity estimated from the BDST model was reduced with increasing flow rate, which was 16.40 mg cm{sup -3} or 137.91 mg Cr(VI) g{sup -1} coir pith for the flow rates of 10 ml min{sup -1} and 14.05 mg cm{sup -3} or 118.20 mg Cr(VI) g{sup -1} coir pith for the flow rates of 30 ml min{sup -1}. At the highest bed depth (60 cm) and the lowest flow rate (10 ml min{sup -1}), the maximum adsorption reached 201.47 mg Cr(VI) g{sup -1} adsorbent according to the Thomas model. The column was regenerated by eluting chromium using 2 M HNO{sub 3} after adsorption studies. The desorption of Cr(III) in each of three cycles was about 67-70%. The desorption of Cr(III) in each cycle did not reach 100% due to the fact that Cr(V) was present through the reduction of Cr(VI), and was still in coir pith, possibly bound to glucose in the cellulose part of coir pith. Therefore, the Cr(V) complex cannot be desorbed in solution. The evidence of Cr(V) signal was observed in coir pith, {alpha}-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith using electron spin resonance (ESR)

  11. Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakbanpote, Woranan

    2008-12-15

    The removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater by coir pith was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as bed depth (40-60cm) and flow rate (10-30ml min(-1)). At 0.05 C(t)/C(0), the breakthrough volume increased as flow rate decreased or a bed depth increased due to an increase in empty bed contact time (EBCT). The bed depth service time model (BDST) fit well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve, while the simulation of the whole curve using non-linear regression analysis was effective using the Thomas model. The adsorption capacity estimated from the BDST model was reduced with increasing flow rate, which was 16.40mg cm(-3) or 137.91mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 10ml min(-1) and 14.05mg cm(-3) or 118.20mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 30ml min(-1). At the highest bed depth (60cm) and the lowest flow rate (10mlmin(-1)), the maximum adsorption reached 201.47mg Cr(VI)g(-1) adsorbent according to the Thomas model. The column was regenerated by eluting chromium using 2M HNO(3) after adsorption studies. The desorption of Cr(III) in each of three cycles was about 67-70%. The desorption of Cr(III) in each cycle did not reach 100% due to the fact that Cr(V) was present through the reduction of Cr(VI), and was still in coir pith, possibly bound to glucose in the cellulose part of coir pith. Therefore, the Cr(V) complex cannot be desorbed in solution. The evidence of Cr(V) signal was observed in coir pith, alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith using electron spin resonance (ESR).

  12. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  13. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  14. Lead and Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Medium Using Coir Pith as Adsorbent: Batch and Fixed bed Column Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.W.P.K. Amarasinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Coir pith was used as an alternative to commonly available adsorbents for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. Batch and fixed bed column experiments were conducted to study adsorption characteristics of Cd and Pb onto coir pith. Coir pith is an effective adsorbent for Pb and Cd removal. The adsorbent dose, metal ion concentration and the solution pH affects the degree of adsorption. The maximum adsorption was observed at solution pH values above 5. The equilibrium data was satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Pb showed higher adsorption capacity compared to Cd under the experimental conditions. Kinetic studies revealed that Pb and Cd uptake was fast within first 10 to 15 min of contact time and data fits to pseudo second-order model. Breakthrough curve data fits to linear Bed Depth Service Time (BDST model and bed capacities for Pb and Cd were 41 and 28 mg/g of coir pith respectively.

  15. 搜索Banana Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>国内没有Banana Republic的专营店,但这并不意味着你买不到它家的货品,渠道有二:其一,是去淘宝上寻找,超级强悍的淘宝网,点Banana Republic关键词,你能找到许多售卖原单货甚至美国代购货的店铺,价格平实,唯一的缺点就是不能试衣,Banana Republic尺码偏大,在购买时尽量比平时穿的尺码小一号。其二,就是去遍布青岛大街小巷的外贸服装店购买,笔者曾在许多家碰到过Banana Repubkic的原单货,但这就需要讲究机缘了,而我们写此文的目的之一也是希望读者今后在遇见这个品牌的原单货后,当机立断拿下,毕竟,"香蕉共和国"的货品在国内还是难得一遇的!

  16. Hanging angles of two electrostatically repelling pith balls of different masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuc G.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2011-09-01

    An analytic solution can be derived for the angles of two mutually repelling charged pith balls of unequal mass hanging from strings from a common point of attachment. Just as in the equal-mass case, a cubic equation is found for the square of the sine of either angle, and an approximation can be used to avoid Cardano's formula for small angles. These results extend a standard problem treated in introductory undergraduate courses in electricity and magnetism.

  17. Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, D; Namasivayam, C

    2007-01-01

    Varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature carried out the potential feasibility of thermally activated coir pith carbon prepared from coconut husk for removal of methylene blue. Greater percentage of dye was removed with decrease in the initial concentration of dye and increase in amount of adsorbent used. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye on coir pith carbon was a gradual process. Lagergren first-order, second-order, intra particle diffusion model and Bangham were used to fit the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubnin-Radushkevich, and Tempkin isotherm. The adsorption capacity was found to be 5.87 mg/g by Langmuir isotherm for the particle size 250-500 microm. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 and 60 min for 10 and 20 mg/L and 100 min for 30, 40 mg/L dye concentrations, respectively. A maximum removal of 97% was obtained at natural pH 6.9 for an adsorbent dose of 100 mg/50 mL and 100% removal was obtained for an adsorbent dose of 600 mg/50 mL of 10 mg/L dye concentration. The pH effect and desorption studies suggest that chemisorption might be the major mode of the adsorption process. The change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) of coir pith carbon was estimated as 117.20 J/mol/K and 30.88 kJ/mol, respectively. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of methylene blue on coir pith carbon.

  18. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd contaminated soil (Vertisol using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L. was investigated. The alleviation potential of Prosopis charcoal and Coir pith on the negative effects of Cd in soil was evaluated in pot culture experiments with Vigna radiata as the test plant, a Cd accumulator. Cadmium addition to soil resulted in accumulation of Cd in all plant parts of V. radiata predominantly in roots. The influence of Cd in the presence and absence of organic amendments on the various biological and chemical parameters of the soil, on the levels of Cd accumulation and on the growth attributes of V. radiata has been assessed. Among the organic amendments, Prosopis charcoal was found to be more effective in reducing the bioavailable levels of Cd in the soil artificially spiked with Cd in graded concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg g-1 and its accumulation in V. radiata, thus resulting in an increase in the root, leaf and stem biomass. Coir pith, however, was effective in increasing the total mycorrhizal colonization of roots and second in reducing Cd levels in plants. Therefore, Prosopis charcoal was considered best for stabilization of Cd in soil.

  19. Uranium removal from aqueous solution by coir pith: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Verma, Rakesh; Lali, Arvind; Sudersanan, M

    2005-07-01

    Basic aspects of uranium adsorption by coir pith have been investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of different experimental parameters such as final solution pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption time, temperature and various concentrations of uranium on uptake were evaluated. Maximum uranium adsorption was observed in the pH range 4.0-6.0. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium. The equilibrium data fitted well to both the equilibrium models in the studied concentration range of uranium (200-800 mg/l) and temperatures (305-336 K). The coir pith exhibited the highest uptake capacity for uranium at 317 K, at the final solution pH value of 4.3 and at the initial uranium concentration of 800 mg/l. The kinetics of the adsorption process followed a second-order adsorption. The adsorbent used proved to be suitable for removal of uranium from aqueous solutions. 0.2 N HCl was effective in uranium desorption. The results indicated that the naturally abundant coir pith of otherwise nuisance value exhibited considerable potential for application in removal of uranium from aqueous solution.

  20. Coir pith of the green coconut in the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Raquel Almeida; Yamaura, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: quequelll_monteiro@yahoo.com.br; myamaura@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Industrial segments as plant of mining, hospitals and university generate considerable volumes of radioactive wastewater containing uranium. The increasing development of the use of the nuclear energy to lead away to an expansion of the sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, but it leads to security problems and it appears the necessity of control of the removing of uranium and radioactive effluent treatments. Researches evaluate if the technique of the biosorption would promote an alternative process with attractive characteristics of cost-benefit. The residual biomass from agricultural activities has been studied and used as adsorbent of metals and organic composts by low cost, abundance and for being biodegradable. In this work, it is presented the efficiency of the coir pith for the adsorption of ions UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The coir pith is a by-product of the harvest of the coconut, a renewable natural source. The study was accomplished using the batch techniques. The influence from pH 2 to 5, the dose of the coir pith, equilibrium time and the models of kinetic reaction were investigated. It was verified that the adsorption increased with the increase of pH and of the dose. The equilibrium time was of 30 min and the best correspondence with the model of pseudo second-order was observed. The results obtained has been promising, so use as adsorbent of metallic ions represents an economic alternative in relation to the conventional treatment of effluent. (author)

  1. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions and sewage using natural and surface modified coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K Anoop; Haridas, Ajit

    2008-04-01

    Iron impregnated coir pith (CP-Fe-I) can be effectively used for the removal of phosphate from aqueous streams and sewage. Iron impregnation on natural coir pith was carried out by drop by drop addition method. The effect of various factors such as pH, initial concentration of phosphate, contact time and adsorbent dose on phosphate adsorption was studied by batch technique. The pH at 3.0 favored the maximum adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions. The effect of pH on phosphate adsorption was explained by pH(zpc), phosphate speciation in solution and affinity of anions towards the adsorbent sites. A comparative study of the adsorption of phosphate using CP-Fe-I and CP (coir pith) was made and results show that the former one is five to six times more effective than the latter. Kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm model. Column studies were conducted to examine the utility of the investigated adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from continuously flowing aqueous solutions.

  2. Esterified coir pith as an adsorbent for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, U S; Sudersanan, M

    2008-04-01

    Coir pith was chemically modified for the adsorption of cobalt(II) ions from aqueous solution. Chemical modification was done by esterification using succinic anhydride followed by activation with NaHCO(3) in order to improve the adsorption of Co(II). Adsorptive removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution onto modified coir pith was evaluated in batch studies under varying conditions of agitation time and metal ion concentration to assess the kinetic and equilibrium parameters. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well for the sorption of Co(II) onto modified coir pith. Sorption kinetics showed that the loading of Co(II) by this material was quite fast under ambient conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models provided excellent fits for the adsorption data, with R(2) of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. After esterification, the maximum Co(II) sorption loading Q(0); was greatly improved. It is evident that chemically modified adsorbent exhibits better Co(II) removal capability than raw adsorbent suggesting that surface modification of the adsorbent generates more adsorption sites on its solid surface for metal adsorption. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 1.0N HCl.

  3. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water.

  4. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers...

  5. Banana Fibers – Variability and Fracture Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana fibers obtained from the stem of banana plant (Musa sapientum have been characterised for their diameter variability and their mechanical properties, with a stress on fracture morphology. The nature of representative stress strain curves and fracture at different strain rates have been analysed through SEM.

  6. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  7. Lead and Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Medium Using Coir Pith as Adsorbent: Batch and Fixed bed Column Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.W.P.K. Amarasinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Coir pith was used as an alternative to commonly available adsorbents for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. Batch and fixed bed column experiments were conducted to study adsorption characteristics of Cd and Pb onto coir pith. Coir pith is an effective adsorbent for Pb and Cd removal. The adsorbent dose, metal ion concentration and the solution pH affects the degree of adsorption. The maximum adsorption was observed at solution pH values above 5. The equilibrium data was satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Pb showed higher adsorption capacity compared to Cd under  the experimental conditions. Kinetic studies revealed that Pb and Cd uptake was fast within first 10 to 15 min of contact time and data fits to pseudo second-order model. Breakthrough curve data fits to linear Bed Depth Service Time (BDST model and bed capacities for Pb and Cd were 41 and 28 mg/g of coir pith respectively.Key words: adsorption, heavy metals, coir pith

  8. Removal and recovery of cobalt from aqueous solutions by adsorption using low cost lignocellulosic biomass--coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Sudersanan, M; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, Umashankar

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of low-cost lignocellulosic biosorbent-coir pith, for removal of cobalt (II) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption studies has been explored herein. Adsorption characteristics of coir pith were investigated systematically by varying the experimental parameters such as, solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature. The studies revealed that optimum adsorption of cobalt onto coir pith occurred in the pH range of 4.0 - 7.0. Sorption kinetics of cobalt was found to be quite rapid under ambient conditions and the process followed second-order kinetics. The experimental data have been analyzed using non-linearized forms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherms for mathematical description of the process. Desorption studies showed that the quantitative recovery of Co (II) from the spent coir pith was achieved by using 0.5 N HCl. The suitability of this adsorbent for real situation has been observed, when complete removal of cobalt from nuclear power plant coolant water was obtained. The present studies successfully demonstrated the use of coir pith as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions.

  9. Kinetic study of the prehydrolysis of bagasse pith with hydrochloric acid in an agitated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villan Guerra, J.; Iglesias, R.G.; Lopez Planes, R.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrolysis of bagasse pith at 90-100 degrees with 0.25 N HCl gave sugar in 22% yield after 120 min. With 0.5 N HCl, the yield was 28% after 240 min. The specific constants of pentosan decomposition and of sugar formation were calculated, and the kinetic parameters (frequency factor, activation energy, and order of acid concentration) were determined. The pentosan decomposition constants were higher and the activation energies lower than literature values for hydrolysis with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.

  10. Adsorptive removal of 2-chlorophenol by low-cost coir pith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2003-03-17

    Adsorption of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, 2-CP concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Adsorption equilibrium reached at 40, 60, 80 and 100 min for 2-CP concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/l, respectively. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Freundlich isotherm. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of 2-CP. Desorption studies showed that chemisorption plays a major role in the adsorption process.

  11. Feynman motives of banana graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

  12. Surfactant modified coir pith, an agricultural solid waste as adsorbent for phosphate removal and fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Kumar, M V Suresh

    2005-10-01

    The surface of coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was modified using a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and the modified coir pith was investigated to assess the capacity for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. Optimum pH for maximum phosphate adsorption was found to be 4.0. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption obeyed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of coexisting anions has also been studied. The feasibility of using spent adsorbent as fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release was also investigated.

  13. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Ana

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves; Silvia Nietsche; Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira; Manoel Xavier de Oliveira Júnior; Roberto Célio Antunes Júnior; Carlos Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    Prata Ana is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible to several pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Ana cv. in the first and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments and four replications. lit an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found on Thap Maeo and Caip...

  14. Free phenols in maize pith and their relationship with resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, R; Malvar, R A; Baamonde, M D; Revilla, P; Souto, X C

    2005-08-01

    The stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) is the most important insect pest of maize, Zea mays L., in northwestern Spain. Among the metabolites present in maize, phenolic compounds could play an important role in resistance. The objective of this work was to determine whether a relationship between phenols and the amount of resistance exists. Amounts of free phenolic compounds in the pith of 13 inbred maize lines that differ in resistance were measured. The phenolic compounds identified were p-coumaric acid, cafeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, chorogenic acid, sinapic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillin. The amount of free p-coumaric acid was correlated with the resistance level. Higher quantities of p-coumaric in the pith could contribute to general resistance to stem borer attack. Jointly with ferulic acid, p-coumaric could provide resistance mechanisms through cell wall fortification and lignification. The other compounds showed no or an unclear relationship with resistance. The vanillic acid showed a decreased tendency after silking, when maize is most attractive for S. nonagrioides, suggesting this acid could act as a chemoattractant for S. nonagrioides larvae or adults. Future studies that focus on these phenolic compounds could be useful in understanding S. nonagrioides resistance.

  15. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhy, K; Selvapathy, P

    2006-07-01

    The removal efficiency of activated carbon prepared from coir pith towards three highly used reactive dyes in textile industry was investigated. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption of dyes increased with an increase in contact time and carbon dose. Maximum de-colorisation of all the dyes was observed at acidic pH. Adsorption of dyes was found to follow the Freundlich model. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed first order and the values of the Lagergren rate constants of the dyes were in the range of 1.77 x 10(-2)-2.69 x 10(-2)min(-1). The column experiments using granular form of the carbon (obtained by agglomeration with polyvinyl acetate) showed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in bed depth and decrease of flow rate. The bed depth service time (BDST) analysis carried out for the dyes indicated a linear relationship between bed depth and service time. The exhausted carbon could be completely regenerated and put to repeated use by elution with 1.0M NaOH. The coir pith activated carbon was not only effective in removal of colour but also significantly reduced COD levels of the textile wastewater.

  16. Removal of molybdate from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-01

    Removal and recovery of molybdate from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl2 activated carbon developed from coir pith. Studies were conducted to delineate the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, molybdate concentration, pH and temperature. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q0) was found to be 18.9 mg molybdate/g of the adsorbent. Adsorption followed second order kinetics. Studies were performed at different pH values to find out the pH at which maximum adsorption occurred. The pH effect and desorption studies showed that ion exchange and chemisorption mechanism were involved in the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG0, DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 for the adsorption were evaluated. Effect of foreign ions on adsorption of molybdate has been examined. The results showed that ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon was effective for the removal and recovery of molybdate from water.

  17. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  18. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  19. Extrasynaptic location of alpha-2 and noninnervated beta-2 adrenoceptors in the vascular system of the pithed normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, B.; Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The receptors involved in the pressor and tachycardic effects of catecholamines applied systemically or released from sympathetic nerve endings were compared. Intravenously administered (-)-epinephrine activated alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors as demonstrated in pithed rats, using

  20. Effects of the selective β1-adrenoceptor antagonist, nebivolol, on cardiovascular parameters in the pithed normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, J.; Fruh, C.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1990-01-01

    In the pithed rat we investigated the cardiovascular properties of d,l-nebivolol and its enantiomers. We used the increase in heart rate elicited by (-)-adrenaline and (-)-noradrenaline as a model for studying β1-adrenoceptors. A leftward shift of the logarithmic dose-pressor response curve of (-)-a

  1. β-Adrenoceptor blocking properties of dl-nebivolol and its enantiomers in the pithed normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, J.; Fruh, C.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1991-01-01

    In the pithed normotensive rat, the effects of dl-nebivolol and its enantiomers on the (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine)- and electrical stimulation-induced increases in heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were investigated. dl-Nebivolol dose-dependently (10-7to 10-5mol/kg intravenously) a

  2. Engineering a lignocellulosic biosorbent--coir pith for removal of cesium from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Harshala; Sudersanan, M

    2010-02-01

    A novel method of engineering lignocellulosic biosorbent- coir pith (CP) by incorporation of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF), also referred to as Prussian blue analogue (PBA) inside its porous matrix is reported. Structural characterization confirmed the successful synthesis of NiHCF in the coir pith matrix. Sorption capacity of coir pith (CP) before and after loading of NiHCF was investigated for cesium (Cs) in batch equilibrium studies. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process was rapid and saturation was attained within 30 min. The applicability of non linear Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich Peterson isotherms was examined for the experimental data. The present studies revealed that there was nearly 100% increase in the sorption capacity of CP after its surface modification with NiHCF. Owing to its low cost, fast sorption kinetics and high uptake capacity, coir pith loaded with NiHCF (CP-NiHCF) seems to be one of the most promising biosorbents for recovery of cesium from liquid nuclear wastes.

  3. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  4. Putative role of pith cell wall phenylpropanoids in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Butron, Ana; Arnason, John T; Reid, Lana M; Souto, Xose C; Malvar, Rosa A

    2006-03-22

    The stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) is the most important insect pest that attacks maize, Zea mays L., in northwestern Spain. Host plant resistance to this borer was investigated in relation to the cell wall phenylpropanoids content in the pith. Eight inbred lines that differ in resistance were analyzed. Three major simple phenolic acids, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids, and three isomers of diferulic acid, 8-5', 8-O-4', and 8-5'b (benzofuran form), were identified. The amount of all these compounds was correlated with the resistance level in the genotypes, with the resistant inbreds having the highest concentrations. The role of these compounds in cell wall fortification and lignification is well-documented, suggesting their possible intervention in S. nonagrioides resistance. Future studies that focus on these compounds could be useful to enhance S. nonagroides resistance.

  5. A reinvestigation of EXAFS and EPR spectroscopic measurements of chromium(VI) reduction by coir pith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suksabye, Parinda [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Dusit Rajabhat University, 10300 (Thailand); Worasith, Niramon; Thiravetyan, Paitip [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok (Thailand); Nakajima, Akira [Division of Chemistry, Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 8891692 (Japan); Goodman, Bernard A., E-mail: bernard_a_goodman@yahoo.com [Health and Environment Department, Unit of Environmental Resources and Technologies, Austrian Institute of Technology, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    New measurements using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques are consistent with Cr in the Cr(III) oxidation state as the main product from the adsorption of Cr(VI) on coir pith. These confirm the previous X-ray measurements, but differ from the results of previous EPR studies, which indicated that Cr(V) was the main form of Cr. The reason for this discrepancy is the presence of a broad signal from Cr(III) in an unsymmetrical environment that was missed previously; the Cr(V) component is in fact only a minor reaction product. As a result of this problem with spectral acquisition and interpretation, some simple recommendations are presented for conducting EPR investigations on natural systems.

  6. Uptake of dyes by a promising locally available agricultural solid waste: coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Radhika, R; Suba, S

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption of rhodamine-B and acid violet by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. The adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity was found to be 2.56 mg and 8.06 mg dye per g of the adsorbent for rhodamine-B and acid violet, respectively. Adsorption of dyes followed first order rate kinetics. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of acid violet and alkaline pH was favorable to rhodamine-B. Desorption studies showed that alkaline pH was favorable for the desorption of acid violet and acidic pH was favorable for the desorption of rhodamine-B.

  7. A reinvestigation of EXAFS and EPR spectroscopic measurements of chromium(VI) reduction by coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Worasith, Niramon; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakajima, Akira; Goodman, Bernard A

    2010-08-15

    New measurements using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques are consistent with Cr in the Cr(III) oxidation state as the main product from the adsorption of Cr(VI) on coir pith. These confirm the previous X-ray measurements, but differ from the results of previous EPR studies, which indicated that Cr(V) was the main form of Cr. The reason for this discrepancy is the presence of a broad signal from Cr(III) in an unsymmetrical environment that was missed previously; the Cr(V) component is in fact only a minor reaction product. As a result of this problem with spectral acquisition and interpretation, some simple recommendations are presented for conducting EPR investigations on natural systems.

  8. Adsorption characteristics of cadmium(II) onto functionalized poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-grafted coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, Thayyath Sreenivasan; Divya, Lekshmi; Rijith, Sreenivasan

    2010-07-01

    This study explored the feasibility of utilizing a novel adsorbent, poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-grafted coconut coir pith with carboxyl functionality (PGCP-COOH) for the removal of cadmium(II) from water and wastewater. Maximum removal of 99.9% was observed for an initial concentration of 25 mg/L at pH 6.0 and adsorbent dose of 2.0 g/L. The first-order reversible kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model were resulted in high correlation coefficients and described well the adsorption of Cd(II) onto PGCP-COOH. The complete removal of 22.4 mg/L Cd(II) from fertilizer industry wastewater was achieved by 2.0 g/L PGCP-COOH. The reusability of the PGCP-COOH for several cycles was demonstrated using 0.1 M HCl solution.

  9. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  10. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  11. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  12. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  13. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  14. Removal and recovery of molybdenum from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Surfactant-Modified coir pith, a lignocellulosic polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namasivayam, Chinnaiya [Environmental Chemistry Division, Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Sureshkumar, Molagoundanpalayam Venkatachalam [Department of Chemistry, PARK College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2009-01-15

    Coconut coir pith, a lignocellulosic polymer, is an unwanted by-product of the coir fiber industry. The pith was used as a biosorbent for the removal of Molybdenum(VI) after modification with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The optimum pH for maximum adsorption of Mo(VI) was found to be 3.0. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin Radushkevich isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data and the system was seen to follow all three isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was found to be 57.5 mg g{sup -1}. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption generally obeyed a second-order kinetic model. Desorption studies showed that the recovery of Mo(VI) from the spent adsorbent was feasible. The effect of foreign anions on the adsorption of Mo(VI) was also examined. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT AND PARTICLE SIZE ON BULK DENSITY, POROSITY, PARTICLE DENSITY AND COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION OF COIR PITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.I.Neethi Manickam,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coir pith can be used as fuel in loose form or in briquettes. Bulk density, coefficient of friction, porosity and particle density affects densification and combustion of coir pith. The moisture content and particle size ranges were 10.1 to 60.2%w.b. and 0.098 to 0.925mm respectively. Porosity was varied from 0.623 to 0.862 and the particle density was varied from 0.939 to 0.605 gm/cc for the above ranges of moisture content and particle size. Bulk density was in the range of 0.097 to 0.341gm/cc. The coefficient of friction against mild steel was in the range of 0.5043 to 0.6332. Models were developed to find out bulk density, porosity, particle density and coefficient of friction for different moisture content and particle size.

  16. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  17. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  18. Comparison of alkali treatments for efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kankan; Li, Lulu; Long, Liangkun; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-05-01

    Two separate temperature and time ranges were respectively conducted for optimizing release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith by NaOH pretreatment using response surface methodology. Two desirable pretreatment conditions were selected as follows: 37°C, 2% NaOH and 12h, and 100°C, 1.75% NaOH and 37min in the low and high temperature ranges, respectively. Under these conditions, the enzymatic glucose yields were 85.6% and 90.4% respectively, whereas p-coumaric acid yields were 95.1% and 98.1% respectively. The final recovery of esterified p-coumaric acid reached 82.8% and 87.4% respectively after further separation with HP-20 resin. Interestingly, strong linear correlations exist between p-coumaric acid release with glucan saccharification yield and lignin dissolution. These results indicate that sorghum pith could be an attractive source for natural p-coumaric acid and efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith can be achieved by mild NaOH pretreatment.

  19. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  20. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios.

  1. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  2. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  3. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  4. Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water by coir pith carbon: equilibrium and rate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2004-07-01

    Batch mode studies were conducted to study the removal of phenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) and Pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solution on coir pith carbon by adsorption process under varying experimental conditions such as agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Kinetics of adsorption obeyed second order rate equation and the rate constant was found to be in the range 0.0098-0.0672, 0.0949-0.8801 and 0.172-0.305 g/mg/min for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively. Equilibrium adsorption data follow Langmuir isotherm for phenol and PCP and the adsorption capacities were found to be 48.3 mg and 3.7 mg/g, respectively. For TCP, adsorption followed Freundlich isotherm only. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of all the chlorophenols. Studies on pH effect and desorption show that chemisorption seems to play a major rule in the adsorption process. The positive values of H0 24.99, 18.69, and 8.907 kJ/mol for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively, confirm the endothermic nature of adsorption.

  5. Interplanting banana at high densities with immature rubber crop for improved water use

    OpenAIRE

    Harischandra Lakshman Rodrigo, Vitharanage; Maeve Stirling, Clare; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Kusum Samarasekera, Renuka; Dharmasiri Pathirana, Pathiranage

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Consumptive water use of the rubber/banana intercropping systems was assessed. Five systems were tested; sole rubber (R) and banana (B) crops and three intercrops comprising additive series of one (BR), two (BBR) and three (BBBR) rows banana to one row of rubber. Planting density of rubber remained constant across the treatments, hence the rate of transpiration associated closely with the planting density of banana with ca. 140% increase from banana-rubber to banana-ba...

  6. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  7. Development of coconut pith chars towards high elemental mercury adsorption performance - Effect of pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Khairiraihanna; Saman, Norasikin; Song, Shiow Tien; Cheu, Siew Chin; Kong, Helen; Mat, Hanapi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, chars from coconut pith (CP) were prepared aiming for superior adsorption towards elemental mercury (Hg(o)). The yield, proximate analysis, textural characteristics, surface functional groups and elemental composition analyses of the chars produced at pyrolysis temperature of 300 °C, 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C were compared. The surface area, pore volume, ash and carbon content of chars increased, while the yield and moisture content decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The changing of physical and chemical properties of the chars produced at variety pyrolysis temperature was much effect on the Hg(o) adsorption performance and definitely provides important information on the Hg(o) adsorption mechanism. The highest Hg(o) adsorption capacity was observed for CP900 (6067.49 μg/g), followed by CP700 (2395.98 μg/g), CP500 (289.76 μg/g), CP300 (1.68 μg/g), and CP (0.73 μg/g). The equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-second order best described the kinetic data of the Hg(o) adsorption onto CP and CP300. For chars produced at higher pyrolysis temperature, however, the pseudo-zero order and pseudo-second order fitted well for the adsorption and breakthrough regions, respectively. The Hg(o) adsorption capacity of chars obtained from high pyrolysis temperature of CP significantly outperformed the commercial activated carbon (Darco KB-B) as well as superior to chars reported in the literature indicating the CP can be used as a precursor for preparation of chars as elemental mercury adsorbents.

  8. THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STARCH FROM SAGO BARUK PITH (Arenga microcarpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Irma Momuat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sago Baruk (Arenga microcarpha is one of endemic crop type of Archipelago of Sangihe Talaud, North Sulawesi and potential as source bioactivities including antioxidant. The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of starch sago baruk which was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate. The sago trunks pith was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate at room temparature for 1 hour. After that, starch of sago baruk were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash crude fiber and charbohydrate and total phenolic and tannin condensed content. Antioxidant activity of each sago flour were evaluated in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. After that, the starch was characterized by IR spectroscopic technique. The sequential extraction result indicated percentage yield of starch I and starch II were 41.39% and 38.21%. The chemical characteristics of starch I revealed that percentage protein, ash, crude fibre and fat were below 1% than starch II especially protein and fiber crude. The starch I had highest total phenolic and tannin condensed content than starch II and starch K. The starch I also showed the highest free radical scavenging activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical than starch II and starch K. The result also showed that starch I has strongest total antioxidant capacity than starch II and starch K at all concentration level. Antioxidant activity of three starch increased with the increase in concentration of the samples. The three starch showed of hidroxy (OH, carbonyl (C=O, ether (C-O and aliphatic group (C-C. It is concluded that starch sago baruk especially the starch I are very rich in antioxidant substituens.

  9. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  10. Divergent selection for ester-linked diferulates in maize pith stalk tissues. Effects on cell wall composition and degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Bunzel, Mirko; Santiago, Rogelio

    2012-11-01

    Cross-linking of grass cell wall components through diferulates (DFAs) has a marked impact on cell wall properties. However, results of genetic selection for DFA concentration have not been reported for any grass species. We report here the results of direct selection for ester-linked DFA concentration in maize stalk pith tissues and the associated changes in cell wall composition and biodegradability. After two cycles of divergent selection, maize populations selected for higher total DFA (DFAT) content (CHs) had 16% higher DFAT concentrations than populations selected for lower DFAT content (CLs). These significant DFA concentration gains suggest that DFA deposition in maize pith parenchyma cell walls is a highly heritable trait that is genetically regulated and can be modified trough conventional breeding. Maize populations selected for higher DFAT had 13% less glucose and 10% lower total cell wall concentration than CLs, suggesting that increased cross-linking of feruloylated arabinoxylans results in repacking of the matrix and possibly in thinner and firmer cell walls. Divergent selection affected esterified DFAT and monomeric ferulate ether cross link concentrations differently, supporting the hypothesis that the biosynthesis of these cell wall components are separately regulated. As expected, a more higher DFA ester cross-coupled arabinoxylan network had an effect on rumen cell wall degradability (CLs showed 12% higher 24-h total polysaccharide degradability than CHs). Interestingly, 8-8-coupled DFAs, previously associated with cell wall strength, were the best predictors of pith cell wall degradability (negative impact). Thus, further research on the involvement of these specific DFA regioisomers in limiting cell wall biodegradability is encouraged.

  11. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  12. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: Removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl{sub 2} activated coir pith carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namasivayam, C. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India)]. E-mail: cnamasi@yahoo.com; Sangeetha, D. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India)

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl{sub 2} activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl{sub 2} activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water.

  13. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  14. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  15. Determinants of Banana Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Ruben, R.; Rufino, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is genetic transformation of the cooking banana. Genetic t

  16. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  17. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced sp

  18. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  19. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  20. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  1. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  2. Effect of Potassium on Ultrastructure of Maize Stalk Pith and Young Root and Their Relation to Stalk Rot Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-juan; HE Ping; JIN Ji-yun

    2010-01-01

    To study the mechanism of potassium(K)application on improvement of maize resistance to stalk rot at cellular level,scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were used to observe the effect of K on the ultrastructure of maize stalk pith tissue and young root tip cell influenced by K and pathogen.In K deficient treatment,parenchyma cells of stalk pith had abnormal structure,and the cell wall between upper and lower adjacent cell was damaged,resulting in the loss of connections between vascular cells and insufficient supporting capacity.However,an improved K nutrition helped to keep a quite tight arrangement of root cell with thick cell wall,and prevent the invasion of pathogen effectively.Moreover,K treated root cell had abundant golgi apparatus,which could excrete large amount of secretions to degrade mycelium.Papillary and highly electronic intensity dot were accumulated at the invading point to prevent the development of the mycelium.Improved K nutrition could increase the resistant ability of maize plant to stalk rot,through keeping cell structure stability,preventing the expansion of intracellular space to reduce the chances of pathogen invasions,and through reinforcing cell wall and formation of intercellular and intracellular material to restrict further development of pathogen in host cell.

  3. Role of 5-HT7 receptors in the inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Cristina; García-Pedraza, José Ángel; García, Mónica; Villalón, Carlos M; Morán, Asunción

    2014-10-01

    The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the modulation of vascular tone has been widely documented. Indeed, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats induces vasodepressor responses by activation of CGRP receptors. This study investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptors in the inhibition of the rat vasodepressor sensory outflow. Male Wistar pithed rats were pretreated with i.v. continuous infusions of hexamethonium and methoxamine, followed by physiological saline or AS-19 (a 5-HT7 receptor agonist). Then, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord resulted in frequency-dependent decreases in DBP. The infusions of AS-19, as compared to those of saline, inhibited the vasodepressor responses induced by electrical stimulation without affecting those to i.v. bolus injections of exogenous α-CGRP. This inhibition by AS-19 was abolished by the antagonists pimozide (5-HT7) or sulfisoxazole (ETA), but not by indomethacin (COX1/2) or losartan (AT1), at doses that did not affect per se the electrically-induced vasodepressor responses. Interestingly, glibenclamide (an ATP-dependent K(+) channel blocker) attenuated these vasodepressor responses. The present results suggest that AS-19-induced inhibition of the rat vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow is mainly mediated by 5-HT7 receptors via endothelin release, with the possible involvement of ATP-dependent K(+) channels.

  4. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  5. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  6. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  7. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  8. Processing of Banana Flour Using a Local Banana as Raw Materials in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value in the process into banana flour (BF. Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a. Janten, b. Kepok Manado, c. Muli and d, Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like. Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36% followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%, Kepok Manado (20% and Muli (16-17%. The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%, Kepok Manado (4.961% and Janten (3.732%, whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%, followed Janten (54%, Raja Nangka (43.25% and the lowest of Muli (42.85%. The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%, fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%, carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%, ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%, crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897 and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%. The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92, (texture = 5.69, and (flavor = 5.31 and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.

  9. Stomatal density and responsiveness of banana fruit stomates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Brun, W A

    1966-01-01

    Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host.

  10. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of adsorption of phosphate onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2004-12-15

    Phosphate removal from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl(2)-activated carbon developed from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Studies were conducted to delineate the effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, phosphate concentration, pH, and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 5.1 mg/g. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The removal was maximum in the pH range 3-10. pH effect and desorption studies showed that adsorption occurred by both ion exchange and chemisorption mechanisms. Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of foreign ions on adsorption shows that perchlorate, sulfate, and selenite decreased the percent removal of phosphate.

  11. Banana Wars and the Multiplicity of Conflicts in Commodity Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Jansen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – In the Shadows of State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador, 1900-1995, by S. Striffler. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2002. – Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by S. Striffler and M. Moberg. Durham: Duke U.P., 2003. – Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute, edited by T.E. Josling and T.G. Taylor. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2003. – Smart Alliance: How a Global Corporation and Environmental Activists Transformed a Tarnished Brand, by J.G. Taylor and P.J. Scharlin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. – Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade: A Caribbean Perspective, by G. Myers. London: Zed, 2004. – The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934, by L.D. Langley. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Revised 2002, first published in 1983.

  12. Banana orbits in elliptic tokamaks with hole currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2015-03-01

    Ware Pinch is a consequence of breaking of up-down symmetry due to the inductive electric field. This symmetry breaking happens, though up-down symmetry for magnetic surface is assumed. In previous work Ware Pinch and banana orbits were studied for tokamak magnetic surface with ellipticity and triangularity, but up-down symmetry. Hole currents appear in large tokamaks and their influence in Ware Pinch and banana orbits are now considered here for tokamaks magnetic surfaces with ellipticity and triangularity.

  13. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  14. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  15. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  16. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  17. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  18. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  19. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  20. Presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors are involved in the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response during septic shock in pithed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewski, Grzegorz; Malinowska, Barbara; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    Our study was undertaken to investigate whether bacterial endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects the neurogenic vasopressor response in rats in vivo by presynaptic mechanisms and, if so, to characterize the type of presynaptic receptor(s) operating in the initial phase of septic shock.In pithed and vagotomized rats treated with pancuronium, electrical stimulation (ES) (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 10 s) of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers or intravenous bolus injection of noradrenaline ...

  1. Further evidence for differences between cardiac atypical β-adrenoceptors and brown adipose tissue β3-adrenoceptors in the pithed rat

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska, Barbara; Schlicker, Eberhard

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown (Malinowska & Schlicker, 1996) that the atypical β-adrenoceptor involved in the positive chronotropic effect of the so-called non-conventional partial β-adrenoceptor agonists CGP 12177 and cyanopindolol in the pithed rat possesses properties markedly different from those observed for β3-adrenoceptors in the literature. In the present study, we have directly compared the pharmacological properties of the atypical cardiostimulant β-adrenoceptor and of the β3-adrenocepto...

  2. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  4. COMPONENTS OF CELL WALL, ENZYME ACTIVITY IN PEDICEL AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BANANAS TO FINGER DROP

    OpenAIRE

    GLORIA ANNABELL COBEÑA RUIZ; LUIZ CARLOS CHAMHUM SALOMÃO; DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA; SEBASTIÃO TAVARES DE REZENDE; LEILA CRISTINA ROSA DE LINS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A major problem in post-harvest handling of bananas is the individual detachment of the fruit from the hands. This study aimed to establishing the relationship between carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity in the pedicel region of three cultivars of bananas, resistant and susceptible to natural dropping, during post-harvest ripening, and the susceptibility of bananas to finger dropping. Cultivars ‘Terra’ (plantain, AAB group) and ‘Prata’ (banana, AAB group) triploids and th...

  5. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  6. "Banana-mania." Gender Politics in Yoshimoto Banana's Works and Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Mekkin Guðmundsdóttir Beck 1988

    2011-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana, a popular female writer in Japan, writes stories about Japanese adolescents finding their way in Japan. A great majority of them are female and must face a culture where there are basically separate worlds for men and women, the domestic and the corporate. The characters do not seem to experience this even if it is evident in the texts. Banana’s writing shows that women and men have a real hard time relating to each other, resulting in alienation in their divided worlds. Her...

  7. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia de Maria Borges; Joelma Pereira; Eliseu Marlônio Pereira de Lucena

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp.) verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fra...

  8. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  9. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  10. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  11. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  12. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  13. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  14. First report offusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubensetropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  15. Arsenic(V) removal from aqueous solutions using an anion exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, T S; Unnithan, Maya R

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a new anion exchanger (AE) prepared from coconut coir pith (CP), for the removal of arsenic(V) [As(V)] from aqueous solutions was evaluated in this study. The adsorbent (CP-AE) carrying dimethylaminohydroxypropyl weak base functional group was synthesized by the reaction of CP with epichlorohydrin and dimethylamine followed by treatment of hydrochloric acid. IR spectroscopy results confirm the presence of -NH(+)(CH(3))(2)Cl(-) group in the adsorbent. XRD studies confirm the decrease of crystallinity in CP-AE compared to CP, and it favours the protrusion of the functional group into the aqueous medium. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the efficiency of the adsorbent on As(V) removal. Maximum removal of 99.2% was obtained for an initial concentration of 1 mgl(-1) As(V) at pH 7.0 and an adsorbent dose of 2 gl(-1). The kinetics of sorption of As(V) onto CP-AE was described using the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium isotherms were determined for different temperatures and the results were analysed using the Langmuir equation. The temperature dependence indicates an exothermic process. Utility of the adsorbent was tested by removing As(V) from simulated groundwater. Regeneration studies were performed using 0.1N HCl. Batch adsorption-desorption studies illustrate that CP-AE could be used to remove As(V) from ground water and other industrial effluents.

  16. Removal of chromium(VI) from water and wastewater using surfactant modified coconut coir pith as a biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Sureshkumar, M V

    2008-05-01

    Coconut coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was used as biosorbent for the removal of chromium(VI) after modification with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was found to be 2.0. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) occurred to a slight extent during the removal. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data and the system followed all the three isotherms. The adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was found to be 76.3 mg g(-1), which is higher or comparable to the adsorption capacity of various adsorbents reported in literature. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption obeyed second order and Elovich model. Thermodynamic parameters such as delta G0, delta H0 and delta S0 were evaluated, indicating that the overall adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Effects of foreign anions were also examined. The adsorbent was also tested for the removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating effluent.

  17. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K S M; Banat, I M; Thahira, J; Thayumanavan, Tha; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS.

  18. Kinetic studies of adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2005-09-01

    The adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon developed from coir pith was investigated to assess the possible use of this adsorbent. The influence of various parameters such as agitation time, thiocyanate concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature has been studied. Adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q0) was found to be 16.2 mg g(-1) of the adsorbent. The per cent adsorption was maximum in the pH range 3.0-7.0. pH effect and desorption studies showed that ion exchange and chemisorption mechanism are involved in the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG0, DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 for the adsorption were evaluated. The negative values of DeltaH0 confirm the exothermic nature of adsorption. Effects of foreign ions on the adsorption of thiocyanate have been investigated. Removal of thiocyanate from ground water was also tested.

  19. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, K.S.M.; Banat, I.M.; Thahira, J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom). Biotechnology Group; Thayumanavan, T.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. [Bharathiar University, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS. (author)

  20. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  1. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  2. LONDON Banana RepubliC登陆欧洲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕燕

    2008-01-01

    <正>美国的casual n’chic品牌Banana Republic终于登陆欧洲。近日第一家欧洲分店在伦敦的Regent Street开幕,占地17,000平方呎的三层高旗舰店将成为Banana Republic进军欧洲市场的试点。这一次的扩张,对GAP来说,也是一个很大的考验,因为此时正值美、英两国经济不景气。究竟,Banana Republic能否在英国的同类品牌中脱颖而出,成为下一个

  3. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Slamet Minardi; Sri Hartati1); Hery Widijanto; Defi Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 =...

  4. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vanessa.uehara@usp.br, e-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com, e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved...

  6. Differential characteristics in the chemical composition of bananas from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-12-18

    The contents of moisture, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, glucose, fructose, total sugars, and total and insoluble fiber were determined in cultivars of bananas (Gran Enana and Pequeña Enana) harvested in Tenerife and in bananas (Gran Enana) from Ecuador. The chemical compositions in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the chemical composition, except for insoluble fiber content. Variations of the chemical composition were observed in the bananas from Tenerife according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors), farming style (conventional and organic), and region of production (north and south). A highly significant (r = 0.995) correlation between glucose and fructose was observed. Correlations of ash and protein contents tend to separate the banana samples according to origin. A higher content of protein, ash, and ascorbic acid was observed as the length of the banana decreased. Applying factor analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife. An almost total differentiation (91.7%) between bananas from Tenerife and bananas from Ecuador was obtained by selecting protein, ash, and ascorbic acid content and applying stepwise discriminant analysis. By selecting the bananas Pequeña Enana and using discriminant analysis, a clear separation of the samples according to the region of production and farming style was observed.

  7. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  8. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  9. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  10. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  11. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species o

  12. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  13. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  14. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  15. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease dia

  16. Impact of Diseases on Export and Smallholder Production of Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploetz, R.C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ma, Li Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15 of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cu

  17. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  18. Integrating banana and ruminant production in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, Harry; Gourdine, Jean Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; Tournebize, Regis; Bassien-Capsa, Mylène; González-García, Eliel

    2012-08-01

    Using a mechanistic model, we compared five alternative farming systems with the purpose of transforming monoculture (MON) banana farms into mixed farming systems (MFS) with ruminants feeding banana by-products (leaves, pseudostems and nonmarketable fruits) and forage from the fallow land. The paper presents the main structure of the model (land surface changes, available biomass for animals, stocking rates, productive or reproductive indicators), and impact assessment (change in farm productivity) is discussed. Five MFS with typical local ruminant production systems were used to compare MON to the strategies using forage from fallow and/or integrating Creole cattle (CC), Creole goats (CG) or Martinik sheep (MS) into banana farming. One hectare MON shifted into an MFS allows a stocking rate of 1,184, 285, and 418 kg of live weight per hectare for CC, CG and MS, respectively. Banana by-products seem to be better valorized by the CC scenario. However, parameters such as length of the cycle, local prices for cattle, goat and sheep meat, work time and farmer's skills in ruminant management may have been taken into account by the farmer when choosing the ruminant species to rear.

  19. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  20. Quality Characteristics of Dried Bananas Produced with Infrared Radiation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning of fruits during drying is a major quality concern. The enzyme polyphenol oxidase has been found to be the main cause of browning in bananas. Infrared radiation (IR) drying could be used to minimize enzymatic browning hence eliminating the need for pre-treatments. This study was to inves...

  1. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1 (TEF-1) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, compri

  2. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group) a

  3. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  4. Pharmacological Evidence that Histamine H3 Receptors Mediate Histamine-Induced Inhibition of the Vagal Bradycardic Out-flow in Pithed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica; García-Pedraza, José Ángel; Villalón, Carlos M; Morán, Asunción

    2016-02-01

    In vivo stimulation of cardiac vagal neurons induces bradycardia by acetylcholine (ACh) release. As vagal release of ACh may be modulated by autoreceptors (muscarinic M2 ) and heteroreceptors (including serotonin 5-HT1 ), this study has analysed the pharmacological profile of the receptors involved in histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats. For this purpose, 180 male Wistar rats were pithed, artificially ventilated and pre-treated (i.v.) with 1 mg/kg atenolol, followed by i.v. administration of physiological saline (1 ml/kg), histamine (10, 50, 100 and 200 μg/kg) or the selective histamine H1 (2-pyridylethylamine), H2 (dimaprit), H3 (methimepip) and H4 (VUF 8430) receptor agonists (1, 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg each). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (3, 6 and 9 Hz; 15 ± 3 V and 1 ms) of the vagus nerve resulted in frequency-dependent bradycardic responses, which were (i) unchanged during the infusions of saline, 2-pyridylethylamine, dimaprit or VUF 8430; and (ii) dose-dependently inhibited by histamine or methimepip. Moreover, the inhibition of the bradycardia caused by 50 μg/kg of either histamine or methimepip (which failed to inhibit the bradycardic responses to i.v. bolus injections of acetylcholine; 1-10 μg/kg) was abolished by the H3 receptor antagonist JNJ 10181457 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). In conclusion, our results suggest that histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats is mainly mediated by pre-junctional activation of histamine H3 receptors, as previously demonstrated for the vasopressor sympathetic out-flow and the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic (calcitonin gene-related peptide) out-flow.

  5. Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Mwaka, Henry; Tripathi, Jaindra Nath; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce Kateera

    2010-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is the most devastating disease of banana in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. The disease is very destructive, infecting all banana varieties, including both East African Highland bananas and exotic types of banana. In the absence of natural host plant resistance among banana cultivars, the constitutive expression of the hypersensitivity response-assisting protein (Hrap) gene from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to BXW. Transgenic lines expressing the Hrap gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of two banana cultivars: 'Sukali Ndiizi' and 'Mpologoma'. These lines were characterized by molecular analysis, and were challenged with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum to analyse the efficacy of the Hrap gene against BXW. The majority of transgenic lines (six of eight) expressing Hrap did not show any symptoms of infection after artificial inoculation of potted plants in the screenhouse, whereas control nontransgenic plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study demonstrates that the constitutive expression of the sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. We describe the development of transgenic banana varieties resistant to BXW, which will boost the arsenal available to fight this epidemic disease and save livelihoods in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa.

  6. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  7. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  8. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  9. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Brink, van den Paul J.; Tedengren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and

  10. 玉米秸秆皮穰分离机械运行参数优化试验%Optimized test of running parameter on rind-pith separation equipment for corn stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德福; 于克强; 陈争光

    2013-01-01

    为有效适应各季节玉米秸秆的皮穰分离加工及确定玉米秸秆皮穰分离机的运行参数,该文针对作者所设计的玉米秸秆皮穰分离机,在已经结构参数优化的基础上,又对除叶机构与剥穰机构进行了运行试验研究。通过多因素正交旋转组合试验确定除叶机构与剥穰机构的关键运行参数,结果表明:影响除叶率的显著因素是U型齿板底宽和秸秆喂入速度,齿辊转速有影响但不显著;影响剥穰率的主要因素及其顺序为秸秆喂入速度、剥穰辊转速、剥穰刀与支撑板间距。并通过综合已有研究及样机试验结果,确定主要运行参数为秸秆喂入速度1.2~1.3 m/s,除叶齿辊旋转线速度大于5 m/s,剥穰辊旋转线速度大于5.8 m/s时,该分离机对各季节玉米秸秆进行皮穰分离加工的适用性较好,且其生产率大于0.5 t/h,除叶率大于97.6%,剥穰率大于95.7%。%With the development of agriculture in China, the total annual production of straw is over 700 million tons, including more than 200 million tons of corn stalk. In general, corn stalk was utilized as the common domestic fuel and livestock feed, and the remaining straw was burned in fields in the past, which led to waste of resources and pollution of environment. With economic development, technological progress, and the growing demand for resources (including energy resources), valuable utilization of corn stalk is emphasized at home and abroad, such as separately using rind, pith and leaves to achieve maximum value according to their different chemical compositions. Therefore, rind-pith separation equipment for corn stalk has been developed in China. So far, the separating quality, adaptability, operational reliability and productive efficiency of rind-pith separation equipment for corn stalk are still low. Further research is needed, including deeply researching and developing the key mechanisms for rind-pith

  11. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  12. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of casing materials made from spent mushroom substrate and coconut fibre pith for use in production of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Pardo-Gonzalez, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The agronomic performance of different proportions of mixtures of coconut fibre (CF) pith and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was studied for their use as casing material in mushroom cultivation. After chemical and biological characterisation of the casing substrates qualitative and quantitative production parameters were evaluated in a cycle of Agaricus production. An increase in the proportion of SMS reduced the number of carpophores and overall yield; while the first flush was delayed, mushroom size tended to increase and the mushrooms had a higher dry matter content and a better texture, although their colour was worse. Combinations of CF pith and SMS of 4:1 and 3:2 (v/v) gave biological efficiencies of 92.9 and 82.6 kg 100 kg-1 compost, respectively. These values compare well with that obtained from the commercial casings used as a control. The high electrical conductivity of the mixture containing the highest proportion of SMS would limit its use. However, the results indicate the viability of reusing SMS as an ingredient of casing material for mushroom cultivation. This alternative could be considered to partially replace the organic substrates normally used for mushroom cultivation, with the double advantage of decreasing cost and reducing the environmental impact of waste disposal. Additional key words: alternative casing, compost reuse, mushroom cultivation. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Identification of genes up-regulated in dedifferentiating Nicotania glauca pith tissue, using an improved method for constructing a subtractive cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, E; Dominy, P J; Geri, C; Kaiser, K; Sentry, J; Milner, J J

    1993-12-11

    Pith explants of Nicotiana glauca grown in vitro in synthetic medium supplemented with 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4 D), are induced to dedifferentiate. Treatment with actinomycin D within the first 4-8 h of culture (but not later) is lethal and the explants die, implying a requirement for de novo transcription. The genes expressed during the initial period of culture are presumably critical for subsequent cell survival and proliferation, but so far their identity is unknown. We have constructed a subtractive cDNA library, enriched in sequences more abundant in dedifferentiating tissue than in pith. The subtractive library contains approximately seven major species, two of which, NGSUB7 and NGSUB8, are highly abundant. In Northern blots, these two hybridized to mRNA species whose abundance increased significantly but transiently during the first 4 to 8 h of culture. The sequence of NGSUB7 showed no significant homology at a nucleotide or derived amino acid level with any previously reported sequence. NGSUB8 however, showed significant homology over part of the derived amino acid sequence to several yeast and bacterial proteins with DNA binding function. We propose that the two recombinants represent transcripts from two novel genes edeA and edeB, which are expressed early in dedifferentiation.

  15. Pharmacological characterization of the inhibition by moxonidine and agmatine on the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Puc, Luis E; Villalón, Carlos M; Ramírez-Rosas, Martha B; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Lozano-Cuenca, Jair; Gómez-Díaz, Benjamín; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Centurión, David

    2009-08-15

    This study analysed the inhibition produced by the agonists moxonidine (imidazoline I(1) receptors>alpha(2)-adrenoceptors) and agmatine (endogenous ligand of imidazoline I(1)/I(2) receptors), using B-HT 933 (6-ethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-oxazolo[4,5-d]azepin-2-amine dihydrochloride; alpha(2)-adrenoceptors) for comparison, on the rat cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow. Male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared to stimulate the cardiac sympathetic outflow or to receive i.v. bolus of exogenous noradrenaline. Sympathetic stimulation or noradrenaline produced, respectively, frequency-dependent and dose-dependent tachycardic responses. I.v. continuous infusions of moxonidine (3 and 10 microg/kg min), agmatine (1000 and 3000 microg/kg min) and B-HT 933 (30 and 100 microg/kg min) inhibited the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but not those to noradrenaline. The cardiac sympatho-inhibition by either moxonidine (3 microg/kg min) or B-HT 933 (30 microg/kg min) was not modified by i.v. injections of saline or the antagonists AGN192403 [(+/-)-2-endo-Amino-3-exo-isopropylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride; 3000microg/kg; imidazoline I(1) receptors] or BU224 (2-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl)quinoline hydrochloride; 300 microg/kg; imidazoline I(2) receptors) and abolished by rauwolscine (300 microg/kg; alpha(2)-adrenoceptors). At the same doses of these compounds, the sympatho-inhibition to moxonidine (10 microg/kg min) and agmatine (1000 microg/kg min) was: (1) not modified by saline, AGN192403 or BU224; (2) partially blocked by rauwolscine or the combination of rauwolscine plus BU224; and (3) abolished by the combination of rauwolscine plus AGN192403. These results demonstrate that the cardiac sympatho-inhibition to: (1) 3 microg/kg min moxonidine or 30 microg/kg min B-HT 933 involves alpha(2)-adrenoceptors; and (2) 10 microg/kg min moxonidine or 1000 microg/kg min agmatine involves alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and imidazoline I(1) receptors.

  16. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  17. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  18. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  19. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  20. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  1. Fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of Thai bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawan Banditpuritat and Rungthip Kawaree

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aril extracts of three Thai banana varieties, namely “Kluai Khai”(KK, “Kluai Namwa”(KN and “Kluai Hom”(KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. GC-MS data were used to identify 5 methyl esters of each banana extract after transesterification. The most prominent components found in KK, KN and KH were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (43.17, 29.18, 30.57 % respectively, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (35.93, 30.46, 39.68 % respectively, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (14.35, 36.10, 21.82 % respectively, 9-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3.76, 3.34, 3.32 % respectively and octadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.79, 0.92, 4.60 % respectively. The antioxidant activity of the crude oils was evaluated using DPPH method.

  2. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  3. Identification of Potential for Banana in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. MANTEL; ZHANG XUELEI; ZHANG GANLIN

    2003-01-01

    Land use alternatives are sought to boost agricultural income and productivity in Hainan Island, China.Regional differences exist in crop limitations, such as typhoon risk, low temperatures, poor soil fertility, and drought. In this study a crop zonation was made for a range of crops, among which is banana, as a way to: 1)establish areas for potential expansion for banana, and 2) identify limitations and options for crop and land management. A spatial soil and terrain database of Hainan Island (1:250 000) was linked to the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The qualitative models were verified by comparing suitability maps with actual land use. The results may support policy formulation on issues such as alternatives to current land use, assessment of best management practices, and the need for fertilizer programmes.

  4. 从a hand of bananas 说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋飞洛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 英语怎么说“一串香蕉”?我们可以说a bunch of bananas,也可以说a handof bananas.但是,后者更趋形象生动.名词hand在此起双重作用,它既表示“串”(bunch),相当汉语“量词”,又含有一种巧妙的比喻,bananas为本体,而hand则成了喻体.类似a hand of bananas的表达在英语中不为鲜见.如hand这样起双重作用的名词可作以下分类.

  5. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed.

  6. A study of Yoshimoto Banana : Focusing on expression of sense

    OpenAIRE

    李, 銀炯

    2003-01-01

    Yoshimoto Banana's 'expression of sense' is based on human five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching). And her 'expression of sense' seems to be connected to the theme of her works by describing or implying mood, consciousness and feeling. 'Expression of sense' can reveal the individuality of a writer more than any other lingual expression because it is based on human subjectivity. In that point of view, I considered how her 'expression of sense'(which intend to bring great ef...

  7. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M. [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  8. α1-Adrenoceptor-mediated Ca2+-entry from the extracellular fluid and Ca2+-release from intracellular stores: No role for α(1A,B)-adrenoceptor subtypes in the pithed rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwietert, H.R.; Mathy, M.-J.; Wilhelm, D.; Wilffert, B.; Pfaffendorf, M.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    1. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in the pithed rat preparation two subtypes of the α1-adrenoceptor are linked to two different signal transduction mechanisms, both of which contribute to vasoconstriction, one facilitating Ca2+-entry from the extracellular fluid (α(1A)) and one

  9. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  10. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  11. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  12. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  13. Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mukwa Fama Tongo, Lyna; Muengula, Marcel; Zinga, I; Kalonji, Adrien; Iskra-Caruana, M.L.; Bragard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting produc- tion and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiol- ogical survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers’ fields for two consecutive sea- sons coverin...

  14. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  15. Inhibitory H3 receptors on sympathetic nerves of the pithed rat: activation by endogenous histamine and operation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, G; Malinowska, B; Buczko, W; Schlicker, E

    1997-02-01

    Our previous results demonstrate the occurrence of presynaptic inhibitory histamine H3 receptors on sympathetic neurons innervating resistance vessels of the pithed rat. The present study, in which new H3 receptor ligands with increased potency and selectivity (imetit, clobenpropit) were used, was designed to further explore the role of H3 receptors in the regulation of the rat cardiovascular system. In particular we were interested whether these receptors may be activated by endogenous histamine and whether they are detectable in an experimental model of hypertension. All experiments were performed on pithed and vagotomized rats treated with rauwolscine 1 mumol/kg. In normotensive Wistar rats the electrical (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 20 s) stimulation of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres increased diastolic blood pressure by about 35 mmHg. Two H3 receptor agonists, R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine and imetit, inhibited the electrically induced increase in diastolic blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect (about 25%) was obtained for R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine at about 10 mumol/kg and for imetit at about 1 mumol/kg. Two H3 receptor antagonists, thioperamide 1 mumol/kg and clobenpropit 0.1 mumol/kg, attenuated the inhibitory effect of imetit. The neurogenic vasopressor response was increased by about 15% by thioperamide 1 mumol/kg and clobenpropit 0.1 mumol/kg and decreased by 25% by the histamine methyltransferase inhibitor metoprine 37 mumol/kg. R-(-)-alpha-Methylhistamine, imetit, thioperamide, clobenpropit and metoprine did not affect the vasopressor response to exogenously added noradrenaline 0.01 mumol/kg (which increased diastolic blood pressure by about 40 mmHg). Metoprine had only a very low affinity for H3 binding sites (labelled by 3H-N alpha-methylhistamine; pKi 4.46). In pithed Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, electrical (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 10 s) stimulation increased diastolic blood pressure by 28

  16. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. 2. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. 3. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1-80 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT(1) receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) and the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. 4. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 microg kg(-1)) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 microg kg(-1)) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg(-1)), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg(-1)). 5. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5-20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) but neither the rodent 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor

  17. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  18. Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address

  19. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  20. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  1. Avaliação de clones de banana Cavendish Evaluation of cavendish banana clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Na bananeira ocorrem variações somaclonais em taxa muito superior ao que se observa na maioria das outras culturas, provavelmente em função da instabilidade mitótica. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar clones de bananeira Cavendish coletados em diferentes locais. Os clones Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063 coletados em São Paulo, Santa Catarina e Bahia foram avaliados no Lote 54-P da Thelo Produção Agropecuária (Grupo Plena, no Projeto Jaíba, Etapa 1, no município de Matias Cardoso-MG. Avaliaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de brotos, peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos e de pencas por cacho, comprimento e circunferência do fruto e número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita. Observou-se grande similaridade nas características dos clones. No entanto, os resultados obtidos permitem a recomendação dos clones N. IAC Abóbora Verde e G.N. Williams.Somaclonal variations occur in bananas at greater rates compared to other crops, probably due to mitotic instability. The objective of the present research was to evaluate Cavendish banana clones collected from different sites. The 'Grand Naine' clones (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 and 'Nanicão' (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 and N. SC-063 collected from the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Bahia, were evaluated at the Station 54-P of the Thelo Agricultural Production (Plena Group, in the Jaíba Project, Stage 1, in the city of Matias Cardoso-MG. The characteristics of the plant as height and pseudostem circumference, number of live leaves at flowering and harvesting, number of shoots, weight of bunch and hand, number of fruits and hands per bunch, fruit length and

  2. Production of spores of Trichoderma harzianum on sugar cane molasses and bagasse pith in solid state fermentation for biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rodríguez-León

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of spores from Trichoderma harzianum No 53 using sugar cane bagasse pith as solid matrix and sugar cane molasses as carbon and energy source. Different nitrogen sources such as urea, (NH42SO4 , NH4H2PO4 and (NH42HPO4 were added in the media to test their effect on spores production. Among these, urea was found most useful that resulted high no of spores (1x10(9/gDM. The influence of temperature and initial moisture of the substrate was studied through a 2² experimental plan design. No statistical differences were found within the range of 30-35ºC and 60-70% for temperature and moisture respectively. The biotechnological parameters of the process were derived from the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR pattern, which corresponded to the order of 10(9spores/g moist material. The specific growth rate, maintenance coefficient and the yield based on O2 consumption were 0.108 h-1, 0.001 g.O2/g.biomass.h and 2.7 g biomass/g O2 consumed, respectively.Esporos de Tricoderma harzianum Nº 53 foram produzidos por fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando bagaço de cana como suporte e melaço de cana como fonte de carbono. Diferentes fontes de nitrogênio foram testadas (uréia, (NH42 SO4 , NH4H2PO4 e (NH42HPO4 na produção de esporos. As mais elevadas concentrações de esporos (10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido foram obtidas utilizando a uréia como fonte de nitrogênio. O efeito da temperatura e umidade inicial foram estudadas através da utilização da planificação experimental utilizando um modelo 2². Não foi encontrada diferença estatística na produção de esporos na faixa de temperatura compreendida entre 30-35 ° C e umidade inicial de 60-70%. Os parâmetros biotecnológicos foram determinados através da taxa de oxigênio consumido (OUR correspondente a uma produção de 10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido. A taxa de crescimento especifico, coeficiente de manutenção e rendimento foram

  3. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  4. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  5. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  6. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  7. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl

  8. Detecting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil and symptomless banana tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana produc

  9. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for...; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing season; Harvesting only of hard green...

  10. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  11. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  12. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), m

  13. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single satisfa

  14. First report of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 causing panama disease in cavendish bananas in Pakistan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordoñez, N.; García-Bastidas, F.; Laghari, H.B.; Akkary, M.Y.; Harfouche, E.N.; Awar, al B.N.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused byFusarium oxysporumf. sp.cubense(Foc), poses a great risk to global banana production. Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Foc, which affects Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana cultivars (Ploetz 2006), was confirmed for the first time outside Southeast Asia in Jord

  15. Is phosphodiesterase inhibition arrhythmogenic? Electrophysiologic effects in pithed rats and in normoxic and hypoxic rabbit atria of enoximone, a new cardiotonic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Williams, E M

    1987-02-01

    The positive inotropic and chronotropic actions of enoximone were confirmed. At concentrations within the clinical range, enoximone prolonged the chronotropic and hypotensive action of isoproterenol in pithed rats. Very high doses of both enoximone and isoproterenol caused ventricular fibrillation in only one of six rats. In isolated rabbit atria, the maximum frequency at which pacing stimuli were followed 1:1 was increased by enoximone, and atrial flutter was consistently induced, then terminated by greatly suprathreshold stimulation. Enoximone significantly shortened action potential duration (APD), but did not exacerbate the APD-shortening induced by hypoxia. Since such hypoxia-induced shortening occurred in the presence of glucose 11 mmol/L and oxygen 20%, it was concluded that it was unlikely to have been caused by the opening of ATP-regulated potassium channels. These animal experiments suggest that enoximone, at concentrations encountered clinically in humans, does not have any electrophysiologic actions that would be likely to increase the probability of arrhythmias.

  16. Instrumental Characterization Of Coir PITH By XRD, FTIR and SEM After Radium Adsorption From Aqueous Solution Under The Presence Of Humic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laili, Zalina; Omar, Muhamat; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Ibrahim, Mohd Zaidi; Yahaya, Mohd Yusri; Murshidi, Julie Andrianny

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption interactions of radium (Ra) ions onto coir pith (CP) under the presence of humic acid (HA) in the aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. XRD, IR and SEM characterization of the CP has revealed differences in the native CP and Ra ions loaded CP under the presence of HA in the aqueous solution. The X-Ray patterns showed that crystalline structure of the loaded CP exhibited a decrease in crystalline structure at around 49°-51° compared with unloaded CP. Characterization by IR revealed that participation of some surface functional groups during the Ra adsorption. SEM images for the morphological studies showed that there were slightly changes of the CP surfaces after the adsorption process.

  17. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  18. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels.

  19. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  20. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Banana (AA Diploids with Contrasting Levels of Black and Yellow Sigatoka Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most banana cultivars are susceptible to many diseases, whereas Sigatoka leads to greatest yield losses. One of the strategies to overcome this disease is thorough banana genetic breeding which consists in the obtainment of improved (AA diploids which are then crossed with triploids obtaining (AAAB tetraploid disease resistant bananas also presenting other important agronomic characteristics. The prior knowledge of the genetic diversity of (AA diploids, is therefore considered indispensable in order to direct the crosses being made. The objective of the present work was to analyze the genetic diversity of 20 (AA banana diploids with contrasting levels of reaction to yellow and black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella musicola and M. fijensis, respectively, using molecular markers. From the dendrogram data it is shown that a great number of experimental hybrids can be obtained from the combination of genetically different diploids, therefore making the banana genetic breeding program more efficient regarding its objectives.

  2. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  3. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  4. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  5. Secagem de bananas prata e d'água por convecção forçada Drying of banana prata and banana d'água by forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de variáveis como cultivar, formato (cilindro e disco, branqueamento e condições do ar aquecido (temperatura: 50 e 70 ºC e velocidade: 0,14 e 0,42 m/s sobre o comportamento de secagem convectiva de bananas com uso de modelagem matemática. As bananas foram desidratadas em secador de bandejas e pesada em intervalos pré-determinados. O modelo exponencial foi bem ajustado às curvas de secagem (R²: 0,98-0,99, mostrando que os fatores mais influentes sobre a taxa de secagem foram a temperatura, a velocidade do ar e o branqueamento. De acordo com as constantes cinéticas apresentadas pelo modelo recomenda-se a secagem de banana, em qualquer dos formatos estudados, nas seguintes condições: para banana-prata, uso de branqueamento e secagem a 50 ºC/0,42 m/s; e para banana-d'água, sem uso de branqueamento e secagem a 70 ºC/0,42 m/s.The influence of variables such as cultivar, shape (cylinder and disc, blanching, and heated air conditions (temperatures of 50 and 70 ºC and velocities of 0.14 and 0.42 m/s on convective drying behavior of bananas using mathematical modeling. The bananas were dehydrated in a tray dryer and were weighed in predetermined periods of time. The exponential model showed good agreement with the drying curves (R²: 0.98-0.99 indicating that the factors that influenced the drying rate the most were temperature, air velocity, and blanching. According to the kinetics constants obtained with the model, the drying of bananas is recommended, including all shapes investigated under the following conditions: banana prata, blanching and drying at 50 ºC/0.42 m/s; and banana d'água, no blanching and drying at 70 ºC/0.42 m/s.

  6. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  7. Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

    2009-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

  8. An Electrostatic Lens to Reduce Parallax in Banana Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Esch, P; Medjoubi, K; Esch, Patrick Van; Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Medjoubi, Kadda

    2005-01-01

    Cylindrical "banana" gas detectors are often used in fixed-target experiments, because they are free of parallax effects in the equatorial plane. However, there is a growing demand to increase the height of these detectors in order to be more efficient or to cover more solid angle, and hence a parallax effect starts to limit the resolution in that direction. In this paper we propose a hardware correction for this problem which reduces the parallax error thanks to an applied potential on the front window that makes the electrostatic field lines radially pointing to the interaction point at the entrance window. A detailed analytical analysis of the solution is also presented.

  9. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−26 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Uganda, 21−43 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Burundi and 25−53 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Rwanda). The major causes of poor yields are declining soil fertility and soil moisture stress. In order to ...

  10. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  11. Folded isometric deformations and banana-shaped seedpod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones.

  12. Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from banana starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F

    2002-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, banana maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of banana glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of banana glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of banana glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. Banana starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of banana maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products.

  13. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-05

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption.

  14. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  15. Cultivo de bananas em diferentes áreas na ilha de Tenerife Banana production under different conditions in Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar a produção e a qualidade de bananas produzidas em diferentes condições de cultivo na ilha de Tenerife, foram estudadas três regiões da ilha (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal, onde se produzem bananas ao ar livre das cultivares Gruesa, Gran Enana e Laja. Nas áreas de Cueva del Polvo e Hoya Melleque, emprega-se o cultivo convencional e, na propriedade Canaria Forestal, pratica-se o orgânico. Os espaçamentos adotados foram de 1,67 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova; 1,3 x 3,0 m, com uma planta por cova, e 2,0 x 5,0 m, com duas plantas por cova, respectivamente, para as propriedades em Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque e Canaria Forestal. Diante dos dados observados, é possível verificar que as plantas da cv. Gran Enana apresentam maior altura e as da cv. Gruesa, maior espessura de pseudocaule. Também se pode inferir que, dentre as áreas e cultivares estudadas, não houve grande variabilidade nas características físicas dos frutos. A produtividade média encontrada foi de 99,8 t.ha-1, valor considerado adequado.Aiming to characterize the production and the banana quality produced in different plantation conditions of Tenerife Island, three regions of the island were studied (Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal where bananas of Gruesa, Gran Enana and Laja cultivars are produced in open-air conditions. In Cueva del Polvo and Hoya Melleque the production was carried out in conventional management, while in Canaria Forestal the plants were carried out under organic system. Plants spacing was 1.67 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole; 1.3 x 3.0 m, with one plant per hole and; 2.0 x 5.0 m, with two plants per hole, respectivitly to Cueva del Polvo, Hoya Melleque and Canaria Forestal. Our data show that plants of Gran Enana are higher and Gruesa plants have the thickest pseudostem. Differences were not found regarding the physical fruit characteristics and the average yield was 99.8 t.ha-1.

  16. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  17. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  18. Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Garcia, E; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-09-01

    Banana flour (BF) was obtained from unripe banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) and characterized in its chemical composition. Experimental bread was formulated with BF flour and the product was studied regarding chemical composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. The chemical composition of BF showed that total starch (73.36%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) were the highest constituents. Of the total starch, available starch was 56.29% and resistant starch 17.50%. BF bread had higher protein and total starch content than control bread, but the first had higher lipid amount. Appreciable differences were found in available, resistant starch and indigestible fraction between the bread studied, since BF bread showed higher resistant starch and indigestible fraction content. HI-based predicted glycemic index for the BF bread was 65.08%, which was significantly lower than control bread (81.88%), suggesting a "slow carbohydrate" feature for the BF-based goods. Results revealed BF as a potential ingredient for bakery products containing slowly digestible carbohydrates.

  19. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  20. Pharmacological profile of the 5-HT-induced inhibition of cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats: correlation with 5-HT1 and putative 5-ht5A/5B receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión,David; Vázquez, Erika; Arulmani, Udayasankar; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2003-01-01

    Continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) inhibit the tachycardiac responses to preganglionic (C7-T1) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine. The present study identified the pharmacological profile of this inhibitory action of 5-HT.The inhibition induced by intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT (5.6 μg kg−1 min−1) on sympathetically induced tachycardiac responses remained unaltered after i.v. treatment with saline or the antagonists GR 127935 (5...

  1. Spatial distribution of banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a Cavendish banana plantation, Penang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUSTIN N. OKOLLE; MASHHOR MANSOR; ABU HASSAN AHMAD

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution of immatures of the banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) and their parasitisms from three major parasitoids were studied in a Cavendish banana plantation from April 2004 to December 2004. Infestation levels and parasitism ofE. thrax life stages were recorded from bunched plants (BP), flowering plants (FP), preflowered plants (PF),broad leaf followers (BLF) and narrow leaf followers (NLF), as well as on well managed and poorly managed plants. Mean numbers of the immatures and numbers parasitized from the nine blocks in the plantation were fitted to four dispersion indices. Significant numbers of E. thrax immatures and those parasitized by Ooencyrtus erionotae, Cotesia erionotae and Brachymeria albotibialis were recorded from BLF and PF; no eggs were found on BP and FP. Although infestation was higher on well managed plants, only larval parasitism was significandy different. Three of the four indices indicated that eggs and larvae were random while all the indices showed pupae to be clumped. Parasitized eggs and pupae were clumped (4/4 indices) while 3/4 indices revealed a random pattern for parasitized larvae.

  2. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  3. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  4. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  5. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between...... pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus......-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re...

  6. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source.

  7. DEM simulation of particle flow on a single deck banana screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chusheng; Wang Hong; Zhao Yuemin; Zhao Lala; Dong Hailin

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical study of particle flow on a banana screen deck using the discrete element method (DEM) was presented in this paper.The motion characteristics and penetrating mechanisms of particles on the screen deck were studied.Effects of geometric parameters of screen deck on banana screening process were also investigated.The results show that when the values of inclination of discharge and increment of screen deck inclination are 10° and 5° respectively,the banana screening process get a good screening performance in the simulation.The relationship between screen deck length and screening efficiency was further confirmed.The conclusion that the screening efficiency will not significantly increase when the deck lengthL ≥430 mm (L/B ≥3.5) was obtained,which can provide theoretical basis for the optimization of banana screen.

  8. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology.

  9. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  10. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain uncle

  11. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION TYPE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BANANA STARCH

    OpenAIRE

    D. Guerra-DellaValle; M. M. Sánchez-Rivera; P.B. Zamudio-Flores; G. Méndez-Montealvo; L.A. Bello-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Isolation of non-conventional starches has increased in the last decade; chemical modification of these no conventional starches may produce starches with improved physicochemical and functional properties that are not available from commercial starches. Banana starch was acetylated and oxidized and the thermal, pasting and rheological characteristics were evaluated. The low carbonyl and carboxyl groups might be due to the starch source. The acetylated banana starch obtained had a low degree ...

  12. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.

  13. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  14. Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker.

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ratna Djuita; Rita Megia

    2010-01-01

    Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker. The research aims todetect genomic integrity of in vitro irradiated banana using microsatellite marker. These studies were done on bananacv. Pisang Mas irradiated by 15 Gy of gamma ray. The DNA was isolated from each accesion following Dixie.Amplification of DNA products were done by Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR 2400 using ten primers, and thenelectroforesis in agarose 1%. Finally a vertical polyacrylamide gel...

  15. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  16. A Comparison of Banana Fiber Insulation with Biodegradable Fibrous Thermal Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Krishpersad Manohar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental concern about the disposal of discarded thermal insulation focused research in developing new and innovative biodegradable materials to facilitate and improve the thermal demands of society. Banana fiber is a lignocellulose material derived from the discarded tree trunk and can be a cheap, abundantly available, reliable, biodegradable and renewable raw material source. Thermal conductivity measurements on 50.4 mm thick slab-like banana fiber specimens showed characteristics cons...

  17. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  18. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Lemchi, J.; Onyeka, U.; Tenkouano, A.

    2001-01-01

    Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome) were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet) on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration...

  19. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  20. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  1. High-efficiency phenotyping for vitamin A in banana using artificial neural networks and colorimetric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in Brazil and an important source of minerals, vitamins and carbohydrates for human diet. The characterization of banana superior genotypes allows identifying those with nutritional quality for cultivation and to integrate genetic improvement programs. However, identification and quantification of the provitamin carotenoids are hampered by the instruments and reagents cost for chemical analyzes, and it may become unworkable if the number of samples to be analyzed is high. Thus, the objective was to verify the potential of indirect phenotyping of the vitamin A content in banana through artificial neural networks (ANNs using colorimetric data. Fifteen banana cultivars with four replications were evaluated, totaling 60 samples. For each sample, colorimetric data were obtained and the vitamin A content was estimated in the ripe banana pulp. For the prediction of the vitamin A content by colorimetric data, multilayer perceptron ANNs were used. Ten network architectures were tested with a single hidden layer. The network selected by the best fit (least mean square error had four neurons in the hidden layer, enabling high efficiency in prediction of vitamin A (r2 = 0.98. The colorimetric parameters a* and Hue angle were the most important in this study. High-scale indirect phenotyping of vitamin A by ANNs on banana pulp is possible and feasible.

  2. The Use of Extract Banana Corm and Phosphate Rock to Increase Available-P in Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Minardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the approprite formula and applied method of banana corm and phosphate rock on available-P in Alfisols. The research was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors. The first factor is the dosage of banana corm extract, which is consisted of: E1 = 100 ml of banana corm extract, E2 = 200 ml of banana corm extract, and E3 = 300 ml of banana corm extract. The second factor is the dosage of the phosphate rock which is consisted of B1 = 100 gr of phosphate rock, B2 = 200 gr phosphate rock, and B3 = 300 gr of phosphate rock. The third factor is application method, which is consisted of M1 = directly applied into the soil. M2 = incubated before applied into the soil. The observation of soil includes: soil pH, soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, total-N, total-P, available-P and the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Result shows that available-P in the Alfisols is very low. The interaction amongs the treatment significantly affect the population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Banana corm extract and phosphate rock applied directly into the soil increase soil pH.

  3. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  4. Characterization of banana, potato, and rice starch blends for their physicochemical and pasting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika B. Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were studied to assess their suitability as an alternate for chemically modified starches. The blends of banana, potato, and rice starches were prepared in the respective ratio of 1:3:2, 3:2:1, and 2:1:3. The blend with higher proportion of banana and rice starches (BPR-213 showed highest water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity. The blend with higher proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed highest swelling power at 95°C but lowest water solubility at 95°C among other starch blends. The blend made with higher amount of potato starch (BPR-132 had significantly higher paste clarity than other blends (p < 0.05. The potato starch had significantly higher least gelation concentration than all other starches and their blends (p < 0.05. The banana starch and blend with highest proportion of banana starch (BPR-321 showed significantly lesser percent syneresis and thus highest freeze–thaw stability. Potato starch as well as it blends with greater amount of potato starch (BPR-132 showed highest value for peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and final viscosity than other blends.

  5. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  6. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  7. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  8. Fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in bananas light up blue halos of cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Breakdown of chlorophyll is a major contributor to the diagnostic color changes in fall leaves, and in ripening apples and pears, where it commonly provides colorless, nonfluorescent tetrapyrroles. In contrast, in ripening bananas (Musa acuminata) chlorophylls fade to give unique fluorescent catabolites (FCCs), causing yellow bananas to glow blue, when observed under UV light. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of the blue fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites to signal symptoms of programmed cell death in a plant. We report on studies of bright blue luminescent rings on the peel of very ripe bananas, which arise as halos around necrotic areas in ‘senescence associated’ dark spots. These dark spots appear naturally on the peel of ripe bananas and occur in the vicinity of stomata. Wavelength, space, and time resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the luminescent areas to be monitored on whole bananas. Our studies revealed an accumulation of FCCs in luminescent rings, within senescing cells undergoing the transition to dead tissue, as was observable by morphological textural cellular changes. FCCs typically are short lived intermediates of chlorophyll breakdown. In some plants, FCCs are uniquely persistent, as is seen in bananas, and can thus be used as luminescent in vivo markers in tissue undergoing senescence. While FCCs still remain to be tested for their own hypothetical physiological role in plants, they may help fill the demand for specific endogenous molecular reporters in noninvasive assays of plant senescence. Thus, they allow for in vivo studies, which provide insights into critical stages preceding cell death. PMID:19805212

  9. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  10. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  11. Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Modified Banana Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Mehrasbi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heavy Metals in Water resources is one of the most important environmental problems of countries. Up to now various methods of removing of these metals is considered, which is including using of low prices materials. In this study the potential of banana shells was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions such as Pb and Cd from aqueous solution. "nMaterials and Methods: Banana shells were pretreated separately with 0.4 mol/L NaOH, 0.4 mol/L HNO and distilled water and their adsorption ability were compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of the initial ion concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. Adsorption isotherms of metal ions on adsorbents were determined and correlated with common isotherm equations such as Lungmuir, Freundlich and BET models."nResults: The maximum adsorption capacities were achieved by alkali modified banana shells (36 mg/g for Pb and by acidic modified banana shells (16 mg/g for Cd. Experimental results showed that the best pH for adsorption was 6 and the adsorption values decreased with lowering pH. Isotherm models indicated best fit for Freundlich model for modified banana shells."nConclusion: In comparing the parameters of models, it was observed that the capacity of banana shells for adsorption of lead is higher  than for adsorption of cadmium, but the adsorption of  cadmium is stronger than the adsorption of lead.

  12. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.

  13. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp. in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old and very small in size (less than 1 ha. Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5% whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  14. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small dif...

  15. Banana Republic公司重塑自我

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路易斯·李; 肖前

    2004-01-01

    对马卡·汉森来说,去年的假日销售旺季是考验她能否成为时装趋势预言家的一场初试。51岁的汉森于去年6月被任命为Banana Republic公司的总裁,当时她认定美利奴羊毛弹性针织衫市场上最叫卖的颜色是蓝色。事实证明,她错了。汉森说:“苔绿色才是最畅销的,而我们的货却准备不足。”

  16. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  17. Impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Kema, Gert H J; Ma, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. Exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (MMT). Transnational exporters market fruit of the Cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. In contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often for domestic markets, with minimal inputs. Diseases are serious constraints for export as well as smallholder production. Although black leaf streak disease (BLSD), which is present throughout Asian, African, and American production areas, is a primary global concern, other diseases with limited distributions, notably tropical race 4 of Fusarium wilt, rival its impact. Here, we summarize recent developments on the most significant of these problems.

  18. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira̵...

  19. Perceptions and outlook on intercropping coffee with banana as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J. A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...

  20. Purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through saccharification of delignified coir pith to glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, P; Divya, Jose; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    The study describes purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through bioconversion of delignified coir pith to fermentable glucose. The purified processive endoglucanase (AS-HT-Celuz A) and β-glucosidase (AS-HT-Celuz B) were found to have molecular mass of ≈78-kDa and 43-kDa respectively with optimum endoglucanase (35.63U/ml), total cellulase (28.15FPU/ml) and β-glucosidase (15.19U/ml) activities at 40°C/pH 6. The unique feature of AS-HT-Celuz A is the multiple substrate specificity and processivity towards both amorphous and crystalline cellulose. Zymogram indicated both endo and exoglucanase activities residing in different binding sites of a single protein exhibiting sequential synergy with its own β-glucosidase. Accordingly, the identified enzymes could be implemented as synergistic cellulases for complete cellulose saccharification which still considered an unresolved issue in bio-refineries.

  1. Mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirudhan, T.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India)], E-mail: tsani@rediffmail.com; Divya, L.; Ramachandran, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India)

    2008-09-15

    A new adsorbent (PGCP-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto coconut coir pith, CP (a coir industry-based lignocellulosic residue), using potassium peroxydisulphate as an initiator and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titrations. The ability of PGCP-COOH to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed using batch adsorption technique under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Hg(II) and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range 5.5-8.0. Adsorption process was found to follow first-order-reversible kinetics. An increase of ionic strength of the medium caused a decrease in metal removal, indicating the occurrence of outer-sphere surface complex mechanism. The equilibrium data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model (R{sup 2} = 0.99; {chi}{sup 2} 1.81). The removal efficiency was tested using chlor-alkali industry wastewater. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted for comparison using a commercial carboxylate-functionalized ion exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50. Regeneration experiments were tried for four cycles and results indicate a capacity loss of <9.0%.

  2. Mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, T S; Divya, L; Ramachandran, M

    2008-09-15

    A new adsorbent (PGCP-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto coconut coir pith, CP (a coir industry-based lignocellulosic residue), using potassium peroxydisulphate as an initiator and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titrations. The ability of PGCP-COOH to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed using batch adsorption technique under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Hg(II) and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range 5.5-8.0. Adsorption process was found to follow first-order-reversible kinetics. An increase of ionic strength of the medium caused a decrease in metal removal, indicating the occurrence of outer-sphere surface complex mechanism. The equilibrium data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model (R(2)=0.99; chi(2)=1.81). The removal efficiency was tested using chlor-alkali industry wastewater. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted for comparison using a commercial carboxylate-functionalized ion exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50. Regeneration experiments were tried for four cycles and results indicate a capacity loss of <9.0%.

  3. Use of abaca and banana fibers for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some previous researches show the potential of natural fibers for the production of filters, as these materials are commonly used in the production of tea bags or filters for tobacco. This paper focuses on the use of banana and abaca fiber for water purification, showing thus their capacity for heavy metals adsorption; on the other hand, since the filtering media used is formed by natural materials, microbiological analysis was carried out, ensuring that no organic pollution happens during the filtering process. This research has been approached with cupper and iron (Cu2+ and Fe2+, being both materials commonly used in water supply systems. Spanish regulation allows maximum levels of 2 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2 mg/L for Fe2+. Two types of vegetable fibers were used: banana fiber from Canary Islands and abaca fiber from Ecuador. Also different length fibers have been used, studying that way the effect of the superficial area on the adsorptive of ions on natural material. The amount of fiber used has also been varied, from 5 to 20 g per 100mL of water sample. Concentration of the metallic ions has also been modified, i.e.: 2, 4 and 6 mg/L for Cu2+ and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/L for Fe2+. Ions were either studied separately or when both were present in concentrations mentioned above. It has been shown that both types of fiber show ability for metallic content reduction in water, without introducing microbial pollution in treated samples.

  4. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-20

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  7. Resfriamento de banana-prata com ar forçado Forced-air cooling of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÁRBARA TERUEL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as curvas de resfriamento de banana-prata (Musa balbisiana Colla e os valores do tempo de meio e sete oitavos de resfriamento, partindo do cálculo da Taxa Adimensional de Temperatura. Os frutos foram resfriados num sistema com ar forçado a 7ºC, umidade relativa de 87,6±3,8%, e velocidade do ar entre 1 e 0,2 m/s. Aplicou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, usando um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois fluxos de ar (fatores e duas embalagens (níveis, para um nível de significância de 10%. Os fluxos de ar foram 1.933 a 1.160 m³/h, e as embalagens se diferenciaram pela porcentagem de área de abertura disponível para a ventilação (40 e 3,2%. Foi constatada uma diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento, tanto quando aplicadas as duas taxas de ar como quando usadas as duas embalagens. O menor tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a maior taxa de ar (1.933 m³/h com a embalagem de maior área de aberturas (40%. O maior tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a menor taxa de ar (1160 m³/h com a embalagem de 3,2% de área efetiva de abertura. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o tempo de resfriamento depende, em grande medida, da taxa de ar e do tipo de embalagem usada. O tempo de resfriamento variou em média entre 117 a 555 min, dependendo do tratamento aplicado. Não se constatou diferença significativa nas perdas de massa entre os diferentes tratamentos.This work presents the cooling curves for bananas Prata, (Musa balbisiana Colla, and determinates half-cooling and seven-eight cooling times and the cooling rate. Bananas were kept in a cold room with a forced-air system at 7ºC and RH = 87.6±3.8%. The experiment was conducted in a 2x2 factorial design, to test the effects of two flow rates (factors of air passing through the product, and two types of boxes (levels. The statistical analysis was performed at p<0.10. The air flow rates were 1933

  8. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  9. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  10. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  11. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  12. Banana-associated microbial communities in Uganda are highly diverse but dominated by Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Bettina; Müller, Henry; Smalla, Kornelia; Mpiira, Samuel; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 10(9) gene copy numbers g(-1)). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations.

  13. Efeitos do Banana streak virus no desenvolvimento de cultivares de bananeira Effects of banana streak virus on the development of banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos da infecção pelo BSV no crescimento de cinco cultivares de bananeira. Mudas micropropagadas das cultivares SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo e Pioneira foram inoculadas com BSV pela cochonilha Planacoccus citri Risso. Como controles utilizaram-se mudas não inoculadas e inoculadas com cochonilhas não virulíferas. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas, a área foliar e as massas da matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Os primeiros sintomas do BSV foram detectados 15 dias após a inoculação em todas as plantas inoculadas com o vírus. Houve diferenças estatísticas significativas nas variáveis analisadas, concluindo-se que o vírus afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas de todas as cultivares avaliadas.On this study, the BSV effects on five banana cultivars were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Micropropagated plants of cultivars SH 3640, FHIA 18, Caipira, Thap Maeo and Pioneira were inoculated with BSV using mealybug Planacoccus citri Risso as a vector. Controls plants were inoculated with non-viruliferous mealybugs or not inoculated. Plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and root and shoot dry mass were evaluated. Disease symptoms were first visible 15 days after plant inoculation with virus. Statistical differences were detected for the host growth variables evaluated. It was concluded that BSV affected significantly the growth of all studied cultivars.

  14. Análise do comércio de bananas em Lavras: Minas Gerais Analysis of banana trade in Lavras: Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A participação de Lavras na oferta de banana no mercado local é muito pequena, considerando-se que o Brasil é o segundo país maior produtor com 6,6 milhões de toneladas e Minas Gerais é o quarto entre os Estados produtores dessa fruta. Visando a quantificar a participação de Lavras e região na oferta de banana no mercado local, realizou-se esse trabalho em duas etapas: 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. A aplicação mensal de questionários nos principais estabelecimentos comerciais de hortifruti e feiras - livre de Lavras, permitiu conhecer o volume comercializado, procedência e perdas das principais cultivares de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que em 2002/2003 foram comercializados 945,24 t e em 2004/2005 foi de 1.001,98 t. Desse volume, 6,56% em 2002/2003 e 14,62% em 2004/2005 tiveram como origem Lavras. O consumo per capita anual manteve-se em torno de 11,8 kg nos dois períodos pesquisados. As bananas tipo 'Prata', foram as mais comercializadas nas duas etapas, 54,7% no primeiro período e 58,7% no segundo, sendo que 7,91% e 18,35% , respectivamente, tiveram como origem Lavras. O volume de banana 'Marmelo' e do tipo 'Nanicão', foram de 1,91% e 28,4%, respectivamente, sendo que 84,0% da 'Marmelo' e 3,43% da tipo 'Nanicão' na segunda etapa foram procedentes de Lavras. A banana 'Maçã' teve uma redução de 125,30 t para 107,47 t, correspondendo a 13,26%, sendo que a oferta dessa cultivar, originada de Lavras, manteve-se em 13,8%. As bananas 'Maçã' e 'Marmelo' apresentaram as menores perdas, 3,56% e 4,78% e as dos tipos 'Prata'e 'Nanicão'as maiores perdas, 9,39% e 10, 75%, respectivamente.The participation of Lavras in the banana production offered to the local commerce is still very low considering that Brazil is the second banana producer of the world, with a production around 6.6 ton/year and per-capita consumption of 24.4 kg/year. Minas Gerais ranks in the fifth place among the most important Brazilian state producers. This

  15. Presynaptic cannabinoid CB(1) receptors are involved in the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response during septic shock in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, Grzegorz; Malinowska, Barbara; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2004-06-01

    1. Our study was undertaken to investigate whether bacterial endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects the neurogenic vasopressor response in rats in vivo by presynaptic mechanisms and, if so, to characterize the type of presynaptic receptor(s) operating in the initial phase of septic shock. 2. In pithed and vagotomized rats treated with pancuronium, electrical stimulation (ES) (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 10 s) of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers or intravenous bolus injection of noradrenaline (NA) (1-3 nmol x kg(-1)) increased the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by about 30 mmHg. Administration of LPS (0.4 and 4 mg x kg(-1)) under continuous infusion of vasopressin inhibited the neurogenic vasopressor response by 25 and 50%, respectively. LPS did not affect the increase in DBP induced by exogenous NA. 3. The LPS-induced inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist SR 141716A (0.1 micromol x kg(-1)), but not by the CB(2) receptor antagonist SR 144528 (3 micromol x kg(-1)), the vanilloid VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine (1 micromol x kg(-1)) or the histamine H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit (0.1 micromol x kg(-1)). The four antagonists by themselves did not affect the increase in DBP induced by ES or by injection of NA in rats not exposed to LPS. 4. We conclude that in the initial phase of septic shock, the activation of presynaptic CB(1) receptors by endogenously formed cannabinoids contributes to the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response.

  16. Avaliação econômica da elaboração de banana-passa proveniente de cultivo orgânico e convencional Economic evaluation of dried banana production of the organic and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Bittencourt; Queiroz,Marlene R. de; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foi realizada a avaliação econômica da produção de banana-passa de uma agroindústria localizada no município de Guaraqueçaba - PR. Foi avaliado o processamento da banana-passa convencional e da banana orgânica produzida na região, comparando-se os indicadores de viabilidade econômica. A banana-passa orgânica é exportada para a Europa e a banana-passa convencional é comercializada na região de Curitiba - PR. Ambos os processamentos apresentaram viabilidade econômica positiva, a...

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  18. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  19. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  20. Soil water requirements of tissue-cultured Dwarf Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, V. D.; Tumber, R.; Masarirambi, M. T.; Mutukumira, A. N.

    The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In terms of consumption, the banana fruit is ranked high yet there has not been much research particularly in relation to water requirements for propagules produced by tissue culture. In recent years, tissue culture banana planting material has become increasingly important due to its vigorous growth and high yields. The objective of this study was to investigate optimum soil water requirements of tissue-cultured banana. Dwarf Cavendish tissue-cultured plantlets grown in pots in a greenhouse were subjected to four irrigation regimes at 100% ETm, 85% ETm, 65% ETm, and 40% ETm. Plant parameters measured were leaf number, plant height, pseudo-stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf index, leaf colour, and plant vigour. Soil water potential measurements were also made over a three-month period. Differences between irrigating at 100% ETm and 85% ETm were not significantly ( P plant height, and plant height, compared to 65% and 40% ETm treatments. Pseudo-stem girth was highest from the 100% ETm compared to the other treatments. Economic yields of banana may be obtained with irrigation regimes ranging between 100% ETm and 85% ETm.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in percolation fluxes in a tropical Andosol influenced by banana cropping patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Lacas, J.-G.; Sansoulet, J.

    2007-03-01

    SummarySpatial variability in percolation fluxes was studied in field plots cropped with banana plants, which induce very heterogeneous rainfall partitioning at the soil surface, with high subsequent infiltration in Andosols. Percolation fluxes were measured for just over a year at 1-7 day intervals in eight wick (WL) and gravity lysimeters (GL) that had been buried in the soil at a depth of 60 cm. The results revealed that WL captured unsaturated fluxes while GL only functioned after ponding occurred. The percolation flux measurements were highly biased with both systems, i.e. overpercolation with WL and underpercolation with GL. Percolation fluxes seemed, however, to be mainly unsaturated in the soil types studied. High percolation flux variability was noted on a plot scale, which could be explained by the vegetation structure: total percolation flux (WL) was 2.1-fold higher under banana plants; saturated percolation flux (GL) was 7-fold higher under banana plants and almost absent between banana plants. Eighty-eight per cent of the total variance in percolation flux could be explained by the rainfall intensity under the banana canopy, calculated while taking the rainfall partitioning by the vegetation and the initial water status into account. The number of lysimeters required for assessing percolation flux in a field plot can be reduced by taking the spatial patterns of the flux boundary conditions into account.

  2. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production.

  3. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  4. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

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    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  5. Effect of banana on blood pressure of hypertensive individuals: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Nepal

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    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension or high blood pressure is a critical condition which can strain the heart, injure blood vessels, leads to augment the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, and if untreated may cause death. Several herbal approaches have been made to treat hypertensive individuals. Banana is a well known tropical fruit with little known anti hypertensive properties. The objective of this research was to investigate changes in blood pressure after consuming banana among the hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct this research. Data was collected by questionnaire and personal interviewing. Two ripened bananas (Musa acuminata were provided to each subject for 20 days. Blood pressures of the participants were taken before and after the experimentation. Results Most of the subjects were in the age group >60 years followed by 30-40 years and 51-60 years. 57.1% of the respondents were female. Noticeable changes observed in the pre and post experimentation results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after banana consumption. Conclusion Results of this research strongly supports that banana contains phytochemicals, thus its intake significantly reduces blood pressure among hypertensive individuals. However, more clinical studies in human are still required that may provide evidence of efficacy.

  6. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

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    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  7. Experimental study of bamboo using banana and linen fibre reinforced polymeric composites

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    Ramachandran M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural fibres such as bamboo, jute, banana, coir, linen and the like in Fibre Reinforced Polymeric (FRP composites have become so vital due to their high effective stiffness and strength, availability, low cost, specific strength, better dimensional stability and mechanical properties, eco-friendly and biodegradable as compared with synthetic fibres. The interest in natural fibre reinforced polymeric composites is rapidly springing up in terms of research and industrial applications. The increased applications of these natural fibres in such composites are a proof to this claim. The paper deals with the detailed study of bamboo fibre, banana fibre and linen fibre cut into 2−4 mm of length with epoxy resin having random orientations. Various tests like Impact test (IZOD and CHARPY test, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test and Rockwell Hardness test were conducted on 10 specimens of bamboo epoxy resin composite, bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite and bamboo−linen epoxy resin composite. It is analysed and proved that bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite shows better results in Impact test with values of 4 Joules for Izod test and 5 Joules for Charpy test and in FTIR test, compatibility of fibres with polymers in bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite are the best while bamboo−linen epoxy resin composite shows better result in Rockwell hardness test with value of 40 RHN.

  8. Achieving asepsis of banana leaves for the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis

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    Srinivas C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Banana leaf is used in many centers in India during the care of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and other extensive blistering disorders. Sepsis is an important cause of death in TEN patients and use of banana leaf may be a source of such infection. Aims: We conducted this study to detect the bacterial flora of the banana leaf and to examine various methods of rendering the leaf aseptic. Methods: Five pieces of banana leaf, 2 x 2 cm in size, were cultured separately in blood agar as follows: One piece was heated over a flame and one was soaked in boiling water and one was autoclaved. Methylated spirit was applied over one piece and ignited. One piece was placed on the media, ′as is.′ The Petri dishes were incubated examined after 48 h. Results: All the pieces except the autoclaved specimen of the leaf grew coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS when aseptic precautions were not maintained and aerobic spore bearers when all aseptic measures were subsequently instituted during the procedure. Conclusion: We recommend measures to prevent possible transmission of bacterial infection by the leaf. Autoclaved and aseptically handled banana leaves may be used to reduce chance of infection in the treatment of TEN.

  9. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

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    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of preserving fresh-cut banana immersed in sweetened fruit juice for relatively longer periods, favoring commercialization. This type of conservation, although widely used in Brazil for fruit salads, consists of a more complex system in a physiological basis, requiring adjustment of the solution parameters, such as sugar concentration, pH and acidity, considering the viability and freshness of the plant tissue. In this short review, we discuss some experimental data and present a new method for preserving fresh-cut banana. Reduction of enzymatic activity, either in temporary dipping treatment or permanent immersion of banana slices is regarded as a key factor for maintaining its quality during cold storage.

  10. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.

  11. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  12. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

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    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  13. Effect of Banana Fibers on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Compressed Earth Blocks

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    Marwan Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the built environment in developing countries is a major challenge in the 21st century. The use of local materials in construction of buildings is one of the potential ways to support sustainable development in both urban and rural areas. Building with Compressed Earthen Blocks (CEBs is becoming more popular due to their low cost and relative abundance of materials. The proposed Green-Compressed Earth Block (GCEB consists of ordinary CEB ingredients plus Banana fibers, which will be the focus of this study. Banana fibers are widely available worldwide as agricultural waste from Banana cultivation. Banana fibers are environmentally friendly and present important attributes, such as low density, light weight, low cost, high tensile strength, as well as being water and fire resistant. This kind of waste has a greater chance of being utilized for different application in construction and building materials. This focused on the use of banana fiber and its effect on the compressive and flexural strength in CEB. The deflection at the mid-span of the blocks studied was calculated using the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT. The results of this study will highlight general trends in the strength properties of different soil mixes for CEBs. These efforts are necessary to ensure that GCEB technology becomes more widely accepted in the world of building materials and is considered a reliable option for providing low-cost housing.

  14. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  15. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

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    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  16. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  17. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Banana by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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    R. Paranthaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of endosulfan, carbendazim, chloropyripos in 10 banana samples in southern area of Tamilnadu, India (hill banana, karpuravalli, monthan, nendran, ney poovan, pachanadan, poovan, rasthali, red banana, robusta was investigated. Approach: In 7 samples, Carbendazim was found at concentrations ranging from 0.002-0.11 mg kg-1. In three samples, carbendazim was not found, whereas endosulfan, chloropyripos was not detected in any sample. Results: Analysis was carried out using HPLC-UV and samples were confirmed by GC-MS. The seven samples contained carbendazim that not exceeded the FAO/WHO codex alimentarius standards for MRLs (Maximum Residue Limit values of carbendazim pesticide on banana (whole is 1.0 mg kg-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the HPLC results carbendazim is finding in Hill banana (0.007 mg kg-1, Monthan (0.019 mg kg-1, Nendran (0.002 mg kg-1, Pachanadan (0.007 mg kg-1, Poovan (0.016 mg kg-1, Rasthali (0.017 mg kg-1 and Robusta (0.11 mg kg-1 and carbendazim is not finding Karpuravalli, Ney poovan and Red banana. Endosulfan, Chloropyrifos and Carbendazim in Robusta Banana sample are identified by matching their retention times and characteristic ion. TIC chromatogram for a positive Robusta Banana sample.

  18. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

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    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  19. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  20. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  1. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA. Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we found this cultivator cum entrepreneur diversified his land productivity. The monthly income generated from selling banana fruits, suckers and rubber seedlings were 30.2 %, 39.9% and 29.9% of his total farm income, respectively. The cultivator provide a novel insight in managing banana farm by introducing new techniques of planting, fertilization regime and diversification of income in his banana farm intercropped with rubber seedlings.

  2. Problems in Deep Processing of Banana in China%我国香蕉深加工问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解明明; 柯佑鹏

    2013-01-01

    Only deep processing the banana is the main approach to develop banana industry. This paper states the nutritive value and economic value of banana, reviews the progress of deep processing the banana, indicates the major problems about deep processing the banana, and put forward the development countermeasures.%发展香蕉深加工是发展香蕉产业的重要途径.本文阐述香蕉的营养价值和经济价值,综述香蕉深加工研究进展,指出香蕉深加工中存在的问题,并提出发展对策.

  3. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.

  4. Flame resistant cellulosic substrate using banana pseudostem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardancy was imparted in cellulosic cotton textile using banana pseudostem sap (BPS, an eco-friendly natural product. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied in pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics. Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analysed in terms of limiting oxygen index (LOI, horizontal and vertical flammability. Fabrics treated with the non-diluted BPS were found to have good flame retardant property with LOI of 30 compared to the control fabric with LOI of 18, i.e., an increase of 1.6 times. In the vertical flammability test, the BPS treated fabric showed flame for a few seconds and then, got extinguished. In the horizontal flammability test, the treated fabric showed no flame, but was burning only with an afterglow with a propagation rate of 7.5 mm/min, which was almost 10 times lower than that noted with the control fabric. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the chemical composition by FTIR, SEM and EDX, besides the pure BPS being characterized by EDX and mass spectroscopy. The fabric after the treatment was found to produce stable natural khaki colour, and there was no significant degradation in mechanical strengths. Based on the results, the mechanism of imparting flame retardancy to cellulosic textile and the formation of natural colour on it using the proposed BPS treatment have been postulated.

  5. Pseudo-Stem Banana Fibers: Characterization and Chromium Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Becker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, pseudo-stems of the banana tree were collected, characterized and used as adsorbent materials for the removal of the chromium ions from aqueous solution. The characterization of pseudo-stems by FTIR suggests the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The predominant groups were carbonyls (0.312 ± 0.010 mmol g–1 adsorbent, phenols (0.237 ± 0.021 mmol g–1 adsorbent, lactones (0.041 ± 0.003 mmol g–1 adsorbent and basic groups (0.096 ± 0.006 mmol g–1 adsorbent. The textural propriety of the adsorbent, surface area, pore volume and pore diameter were found to be 0.383 m2 g–1, 0.003525 cm3 g–1 and 368.3 Å, respectively. The pHpzc value was found 7.5 and so the adsorption assays of chromium removal from solution were more efficiently at acidic pH values. The experiments show that approximately 95% and 78% of the Cr (VI was removed from solution by untreated and treated fiber, respectively, in 300 minutes of the contact time.

  6. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mpon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007 with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% respectively. Modification of the fibres was carried out by grafting ethyl acrylate in the presence of ammonium nitrate cerium(IV. Optimisation of the copolymerisation reaction conditions was studied by measuring the rate of conversion, the rate of grafting and the grafting efficiency. The results showed that at low values of ceric ion concentration (0.04 M, at ambient temperature, after three hours and at a concentration of 0.2 M ethyl acrylate, maximum values of the parameters cited were obtained.

  7. Banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S I Torgova; T A Geivandova; O Francescangeli; A Strigazzi

    2003-08-01

    3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a new type of liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with asymmetrical five-membered heterocycle as a central unit. They have a bent shape and are very convenient model-compounds for studying the dependence of the LC properties on the molecular design. We have also synthesized and investigated ‘banana-shaped’ 1,2,4-oxadiazoles using the ester groups as the linkage units. The new compounds exhibit spontaneous polarization in the smectic phase, even if there is no chiral group in the molecules. Preliminary experimental data suggest the presence of spontaneous polarization in the nematic phase as well. In order to study the structural properties of the LC phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on powder samples have been carried out. Based on the XRD data, a model of the structural arrangement of the bent molecules in the smectic phase is provided, which accounts for the macroscopic spontaneous polarization as well as the ferroelectric switching behavior.

  8. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.

  9. Broadening of mesophase temperature range induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA temperature ranges in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower temperature ranges of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions temperatures (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase range for application in industry.

  10. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  11. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  12. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  13. Multivariate Modelling of the Canary Islands Banana Output. The Role of Farmer Income Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González-Concepción

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest importer of bananas and the only major managed market in the international banana trade. Spain is the main banana producer within the European Union (EU, followed by France and Portugal. In all these countries the fruit is grown in overseas islands situated in tropical or sub-tropical areas and bananas are a pillar of the economic, social and environmental balance of these regions. Spanish production comes from the Canary Islands, an insular environment located in the Atlantic Ocean more than 1000 km south of the Iberian Peninsula and near the northwest coast of Africa. In the context of high production costs and strong competition from Latin American imports, the compensatory aid that local farmers have been receiving from the EU since 1993 has helped the archipelago to maintain its agricultural position while constituting a main support from an economic, social and landscaping standpoint. This research analyses the Canary Islands banana output evolution through the use of certain multivariate dynamic models that consider the influence of past production costs, past farmer income and future expectations, including a sensitivity analysis. We consider annual data time series on production, perceived prices and production costs for the period 1938-2002. Model predictions are contrasted using data for the period 2003-2006, thus spanning a wide period of time that includes key points such as the 1993 reform and the introduction of the 2006 reform. The empirical work highlights, as do all EU norms, the importance of maintaining adequate farmer income expectations to assure subsistence banana production.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  15. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  16. What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Sanderson Bellamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and environmental standards set by RA and their certifying body, the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN. This study was one of the first, independent studies of the environmental impact of some of the principles set by RA and SAN. The study focuses on insect and bird diversity as an indicator of ecosystem health. Five RA certified farms, six non-RA certified farms, and five organic certified farms were sampled. The data was analyzed with RDA multivariate analyses and Monte Carlo permutation tests. The results showed that RA certified farms had less insect diversity compared to non-RA certified farms and that both farm types had less insect diversity than organic farms. There was little difference between RA and non-RA certified farms with regards bird community composition. Thus, organic farming conserves biodiversity, while alternative environmental labels (e.g. a Rainforest alliance seal may not have any visible positive effect on in-farm biodiversity. This study points to the need for improvements in SAN certification standards to achieve improved environmental conditions.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  18. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  19. Effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in F1 hybrid calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Ichijho, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in calves was investigated. Twenty Fl hybrid calves were used in this study (treated group n=10, control group n=10). Banana (2 g/kg BW) was administered to the calves for 5 days. Leukocyte subsets were examined on days 0, 5, 10, and 15. The numbers CD3+, (CD3+)CD45R-, and (CD3+)TcR+ cells significantly increased between day 0 and day 5 in the treated group (Pbanana to calves increased T-lymphocytes, suggesting it might be possible to enhance protective functions against infections.

  20. Comparative study on the mechanical properties of banana and sisal woven rovings polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faizur Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber polymer composites are widely used in many applications. Banana and sisal woven rovings reinforced polyester composites were manufactured by hand lay-up technique. The woven rovings were modified chemically by alkali treatment to enhance the mechanical properties. Tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength were evaluated for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% volume fractions of both woven rovings. The results of banana and sisal woven rovings composites were compared and it indicated that sisal woven rovings with higher volume fractions reveals better mechanical strength.

  1. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast genome and paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C

    1994-03-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as markers to determine the transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in diploid banana crosses. Progenies from two controlled crosses were studied with heterologous cytoplasmic probes. This analysis provided evidence for a strong bias towards maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Musa acuminata. These results suggest the existence of two separate mechanisms of organelle transmission and selection, but no model to explain this can be proposed at the present time. Knowledge of the organelle mode of inheritance constitutes an important point for phylogeny analyses in bananas and may offer a powerful tool to confirm hybrid origins.

  2. What do global p-modes tell us about banana cells?

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    We have calculated the effects of giant convection cells also know as sectoral rolls or banana cells, on p-mode splitting coefficients. We use the technique of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory formulated by Lavely & Ritzwoller in order to estimate the frequency shifts. A possible way of detecting giant cells is to look for even splitting coefficients of 'nearly degenerate' modes in the observational data since these modes have the largest shifts. We find that banana cells having an azimuthal wave number of 16 and maximum vertical velocity of 180 m/s cannot be ruled out from GONG data for even splitting coefficients.

  3. Effect of enzymatic clarifier complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA on the quality of banana juice

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Helena Cardoso; Hilary Castle de Menezes; Marisa de Nazaré Hoelz Jackix; Elisabeth Borges Gonçalves

    1999-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi observado o efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA, adicionados na proporção de 0,03% v/p sobre purê de banana (Musa cavendishii), em condições amenas de hidrólise (40ºC, 15 minutos) visando determinar a qualidade, aqui representada pelos indicadores: rendimento; viscosidade; Brix; pH; composição centesimal; contagens de bolores e leveduras e de mesófilos, e propriedades sensoriais de cor, aroma, sabor e corpo dos sucos de banana clarificados. O s...

  4. 百通推出全新Banana Peel投影仪电缆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,创新的百通Banana Peel投影仪电缆5788AV和6788AV隆重推出。其采用复合电缆,专门设计用于支持室内音频/视频(A/V)的高性能安装。产品灵活且采用百通Banana Peel构造的专利技术,可在当今高科技楼宇逐房多媒体系统安装施工中为安装者带采方便。

  5. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L. for Adsorption Procion Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-05-01

    cellulose. The morphology of cellulose more homogenous than kepok banana peel powder. It was observed that the optimum adsorption of Procion dye by cellulose was on the initial concentration of 30 mg/L, pH solution of 5 and contact time within 30 minutes. The obtained result that cellulose has removal percentage to adsorp Procion dye more higher than kepok banana peel powder. The adsorption equilibrium showed the Langmuir isotherm was described well for adsorption process (R2 = 0.991 than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.922.

  6. Citric acid production by Koji fermentation using banana peel as a novel substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Sivakumar, Nallusamy

    2010-07-01

    The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters that affect citric acid production such as moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum level and incubation time were quantified. Moisture (70%), 28 degrees C temperature, an initial pH 3, 10(8) spores/ml as inoculum and 72h incubation was found to be suitable for maximum citric acid production by A. niger using banana peel as a substrate.

  7. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  8. Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Modified Banana Shell

    OpenAIRE

    MR Mehrasbi; Z Farahmand kia

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Heavy Metals in Water resources is one of the most important environmental problems of countries. Up to now various methods of removing of these metals is considered, which is including using of low prices materials. In this study the potential of banana shells was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions such as Pb and Cd from aqueous solution. "nMaterials and Methods: Banana shells were pretreated separately with 0.4 mol/L NaOH, 0.4 mol/L HNO and distilled wate...

  9. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 1. Morphological and compositional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.) in relation to consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Olivier; Dufour, Dominique; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-09

    The morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics of 23 unripe cultivated varieties of Colombian Musaceae were assessed. Fresh pulp dry matter helped to discriminate the following consumption subgroups: FHIA dessert hybrids (hydes: 24.6%) plantains (pl: 41.1%). Banana flour starch content on dry basis (db) varied from 74.2 to 88.2% among the varieties, with: pl: 86.5% > cook and hycook: 84% > des: 81.9% > hydes: 79.7% (p plantain subgroup (5.6), which also had lower titratable acidity than those of the cooking banana and FHIA groups with 7.9, 13.6, and 15.6 mEq H(+)/100 g db, respectively (p plantain subgroup in relation to stakeholder and the consumer preferences.

  10. Expression and distribution of extensins and AGPs in susceptible and resistant banana cultivars in response to wounding and Fusarium oxysporum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunli; Fan, Wei; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Fabrice, Musana Rwalinda; Xie, Ling; Ma, Juan; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2017-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is soil-borne disease of banana (Musa spp.) causing significant economic losses. Extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell wall components important for pathogen defence. Their significance for Foc resistance in banana was not reported so far. In this study, two banana cultivars differing in Foc sensitivity were used to monitor the changes in transcript levels, abundance and distribution of extensins and AGPs after wounding and Foc inoculation. Extensins mainly appeared in the root cap and meristematic cells. AGPs recognized by JIM13, JIM8, PN16.4B4 and CCRC-M134 antibodies located in root hairs, xylem and root cap. Individual AGPs and extensins showed specific radial distribution in banana roots. At the transcript level, seven extensins and 23 AGPs were differentially expressed between two banana cultivars before and after treatments. Two extensins and five AGPs responded to the treatments at the protein level. Most extensins and AGPs were up-regulated by wounding and pathogen inoculation of intact plants but down-regulated by pathogen attack of wounded plants. Main components responsible for the resistance of banana were MaELP-2 and MaPELP-2. Our data revealed that AGPs and extensins represent dynamic cell wall components involved in wounding and Foc resistance. PMID:28218299

  11. Trapping Effect of Baxi Banana(Musa AAA Cavendish)Pseudostem on Two Banana Weevil Species%巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科明; 许桂莺; 彭正强

    2015-01-01

    This study is to determine the effect of Baxi banana pseudostem as attractant to two banana weevil species , and to provide theoretical guidance for control of banana weevil species. Field traps of pseudostem to banana weevils weredeployed for the analysis,meanwhile,indoor selection response of banana weevil to Baxi banana pseudostem was conducted by using double pitfall olfactometer. Significant trapping effects of Baxi banana pseudostem on two ba⁃nana weevils were found by field trapping and number of the trapped banana weevils in five and ten days reaching 8.3~11.3 and 14.7~18.0 individuals per trap,respectively.Indoor selection response results showed that both the two banana weevils showed significant selection effect to the Baxi banana pseudostem when compared with blank control. Baxi banana pseudostem could be used to control the two banana weevil species.%为明确巴西蕉假茎对香蕉假茎象甲和香蕉球茎象甲的诱捕效果,为利用巴西蕉假茎防治香蕉象甲这一农业防治措施提供理论依据,采用假茎田间诱捕试验及室内选择反应试验,研究了巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲的诱捕效果。田间诱捕试验结果表明,巴西蕉假茎对2种香蕉象甲具有有效的诱捕作用,其5d和10d的诱捕量分别达8.3~11.3和14.7~18.0头/诱捕器;室内选择反应试验结果表明,与空白对照相比,2种香蕉象甲对巴西蕉假茎均表现出显著的选择趋性。因此,巴西蕉假茎可用于蕉园香蕉象甲的诱捕防治。

  12. Indexação biológica de genótipos de bananeira para o Banana streak virus Germplasm biological indexing for Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma (BAG de bananeira é a base do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi indexar os acessos do BAG para o vírus das estrias da bananeira (Banana streak virus, BSV. Cada amostra foliar, coletada dos 220 acessos do BAG foi utilizada na inoculação de três plantas de bananeira 'Caipira' produzidas por micropropagação. As plantas foram inoculadas, através da cochonilha vetora Planococcus citri Risso, fornecendo-se um acesso de aquisição de 24 horas e de transmissão de 48 horas. Como controle positivo e negativo foram utilizadas plantas previamente analisadas por PCR, quanto a presença de BSV. Entre 15 e 70 dias após a inoculação, as plantas indicadoras apresentaram os primeiros sintomas. Desta forma, verificou-se que 44 dos 220 acessos estavam infectados com BSV.The Germplasm Active Bank (BAG of banana is the base of the genetic breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. The objective of this work was to index the accessions of the BAG for Banana streak virus (BSV. Each sample collected in the 220 accessions of BAG was used to inoculate three 'Caipira' banana plants, produced by micropropagation. The plants were inoculated using the mealybug Planococcus citri Risso as vector. The vector being allowed an access of acquisition of 24 hours and 48 hours of transmission. Plants were previously analysed by PCR for the presence or absence of BSV were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Between 15 and 70 days after inoculation the test plants showed the first disease symptoms. Using this methodology, it was observed that 44 of the 220 accesses were infected with BSV.

  13. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L. on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Premal Kapadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  14. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560...

  15. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  16. Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUYU SURYASARI POERBA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poerba YS, Ahmad F (2010 Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 11: 118-123. This study was done to assess the molecular diversity of 36 accessions (18 cultivars of the plantain and cooking bananas (Musa acuminata x M. balbisiana, AAB, ABB subgroups based on Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR markers and to determine genetic relationships in the bananas. RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting of these banana varieties was carried out by five primers of RAPDs and two primers of ISSRs. RAPD primers produced 63 amplified fragments varying from 250 to 2500 bp in size. 96.82% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. ISSR primers produced 26 amplified fragments varying from 350 bp to 2000 bp in size. The results showed that 92.86% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. The range of genetic distance of 18 cultivars was from 0.06-0.67.

  17. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  18. Identification of genes involved in the response of banana to crown rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Frettinger, Patrick; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc; Lepoivre, Philippe; Jijakli, Haissam

    2011-01-01

    Variations in banana susceptibility to crown rot disease have been observed but the molecular mechanisms underlying these quantitative host-pathogen relationships are still unknown. This study was designed to compare gene expression between crowns of banana fruit showing a high susceptibility (S(+)) and crowns showing a low susceptibility (S(-)) to the disease. Comparisons were performed at two situation times: i) between crowns (S(+) and S(-)) collected 1 h before inoculation and ii) between crowns (S+ and S-) collected 13 days after inoculation. Gene expression comparisons were performed with cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and results were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Among genes identified as differentially expressed between S(+) and S(-) crowns, two were involved in signal transduction, three in proteolytic machinery, two had similarity to pathogenesis-related protein 14, one to a CCR4-associated factor protein, and one to a cellulose synthase. Paradoxically, the overexpression of the cellulose synthase gene was associated with banana showing a high susceptibility in both pre- and post-inoculation situations. Finally, the cDNA-AFLP identified a gene that seems to be associated with the quantitative banana responses to crown rot disease; this gene encodes a dopamine-β-monooxygenase, which is involved in the catecholamine pathway. To our knowledge, this work is the first to address both pre- and post-infection gene expression with the same host-pathogen combination and distinct susceptibility levels.

  19. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. α- and β-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of α-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas.

  20. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana fusarium wilt pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1a (TEF-1a) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, comp

  1. Market access and agricultural production : the case of banana production in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the d

  2. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  3. Analisis Psikologis Tokoh Utama Dalam Novel “Kitchen” Karya Banana Yoshimoto

    OpenAIRE

    Arista, Dwi

    2014-01-01

    Pada umumnya dalam karya sastra, sastrawan selalu memasuki pengalaman dalam karyanya dan memiliki kebebasan dalam menentukan watak tokohnya. Karena itu setiap tokoh memiliki kondisi psikologis yang berbeda-beda. Salah satu karya sastra yang akan ditelaah tokoh utamanya adalah novel Kitchen yang dittulis oleh Banana Yoshimoto. Novel ini menginspirasikan bahwa dalam hidup dibutuhkan perjuangan dan kedewasaan dalam menentukan sikap. Dalam novel ini diceritakan bagaim...

  4. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the ma

  5. Effect of storage time on the retrogradation of banana starch extrudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Ottenhof, M-A; Agama-Acevedo, E; Farhat, I A

    2005-02-23

    Starch was isolated from banana starch and the retrogradation phenomenon was studied using diverse techniques, including an enzymatic measurement. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) showed that the sample stored for 7 h presented small peaks and when the storage time increased the peaks increased in intensity. The type of diffraction pattern found in banana extrudates is typical of the A-type crystal polymorph. The crystallinity index from the diffractograms, showed a plateau after approximately 20 h of storage. The short-range order measurement with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that banana starch retrogradation reached a maximum value at approximately 11 h of storage, a value that agrees with the results obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), because the maximum enthalpy value (approximately 5 J/g) was calculated in the stored sample for 8 h, without changes in the stored samples for more time. Retrograded resistant starch values did not change after 12 h of storage, obtaining the maximum starch retrogradation level. FTIR, DSC, and the enzymatic technique showed the changes at the molecular level in starch during storage; in the case of WAXS, they determine the long-range order that explains the differences found in the starch retrogradation pattern measurement in banana starch.

  6. Allometric growth relationships of East Africa highland bananas (Musa AAA-EAHB) cv. Kisansa and Mbwazirume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Corbeels, M.; Kaizzi, C.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Highland bananas are an important staple food in East Africa, but there is little information on their physiology and growth patterns. This makes it difficult to identify opportunities for yield improvement. We studied allometric relationships by evaluating different phenological stages of highland

  7. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  8. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  9. Asymmetric banana-shaped liquid crystals with two different terminal alkoxy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, R.; Cuypers, R.; Giesbers, M.; Koudijs, A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Two series of asymmetric banana-shaped compounds have been synthesized and studied. In the 1,3-phenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoyloxy)]benzoate series the lack of symmetry was derived solely from the difference in length of the two terminal alkoxy chains. In the 3,4'-biphenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoy

  10. Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wu PEI; Shi-Kai CHEN; Rui-Ming WEN; Shang YE; Jia-Qin HUANG; Yong-Qiang ZHANG; Bing-Shan WANG; Zhi-Xing WANG; Shi-Rong JIA

    2005-01-01

    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtaintransgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL genethat is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development ofPanama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plantsdeveloped typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysisdemonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level ofHL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenicplants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particlebombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can causeresistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.

  11. Nutritional potential of green banana flour obtained by drying in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vieira Bezerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition of peeled and unpeeled green banana Cavendish (AAA flour obtained by drying in spouted bed, aiming at adding nutritional value to food products. The bananas were sliced and crushed to obtain a paste and fed to the spouted bed dryer (12 cm height and T = 80 ºC in order to obtain flour. The flours obtained were subjected to analysis of moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrates, total starch, resistant starch, fiber. The green banana flours, mainly unpeeled, are good sources of fiber and resistant starch with an average of 21.91g/100g and 68.02g/100g respectively. The protein content was found in an average of 4.76g/100g, being classified as a low biological value protein with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. The results showed that unpeeled green banana flour obtained by spouted bed drying can be a valuable tool to add nutritional value to products in order to increase their non-digestible fraction.

  12. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how cons

  13. Water quality under intensive banana production and extensive pastureland in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arya, D.R.; Geissen, V.; Ponce-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Becker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intensive banana production with high mineral-fertilizer application and of extensive pastures were compared regarding water quality in a lowland region of SE Mexico. We monitored NO, NO, and PO43– concentrations in groundwater (80 m depth), subsurface water (5 m depth), and surface w

  14. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  15. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts.

  16. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  17. Detection of Bacterial Wilt Pathogen and Isolation of Its Bacteriophage from Banana in Lumajang Area, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardian Susilo Addy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease on banana is an important disease in Lumajang District and causes severe yield loss. Utilizing bacteriophage as natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria has been widely known as one of the control strategies. This research was aimed at determining the causing agent of bacterial wilt on banana isolated from Lumajang area, to obtain wide-host range bacteriophages against bacterial wilt pathogen and to know the basic characteristic of bacteriophages, particularly its nucleic acid type. Causative agent of bacterial wilt was isolated from symptomatic banana trees from seven districts in Lumajang area on determinative CPG plates followed by rapid detection by PCR technique using specific pair-primer. Bacteriophages were also isolated from soil of infected banana crop in Sukodono District. Morphological observation showed that all bacterial isolates have similar characteristic as common bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, detection of FliC region in all isolates confirmed that all isolates were R. solanacearum according to the presence of 400 bp of FliC DNA fragment. Moreover, two bacteriophages were obtained from this experiment (ϕRSSKD1 and ϕRSSKD2, which were able to infect all nine R. solanacearum isolates. Nucleic acid analysis showed that the nucleic acid of bacteriophages was DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid.

  18. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Pfennig, S.; Brink, van den P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple planta

  19. Isolation of retro-transcribed RNA from in vitro Mycosphaerella fijiensis-infected banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, C M; Peraza-Echeverría, L; Islas-Flores, I R; Canto-Canché, B B; Grijalva-Arango, R

    2010-07-27

    High polyphenol and polysaccharide levels in plant tissues such as banana fruit and leaves constitute a significant challenge to the extraction of sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA required for cDNA library synthesis and molecular analysis. To determine their comparative effectiveness at eliminating polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins, three protocols for RNA extraction from in vitro banana plantlet leaves were tested: Concert(TM) Plant RNA isolation kit, a small-scale protocol based on Valderrama-Cháirez, and a modified version of the Valderrama-Cháirez protocol. RNA quantity and purity were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry using DEPC-treated water and Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Purity was greater using Tris-HCl. The Concert(TM) Plant protocol produced the poorest quality RNA. Reverse transcription into cDNAs from RNA isolated from in vitro banana plantlet leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis using the modified Valderrama-Cháirez protocol, followed by PCR using primers designed against gamma-actin from banana and M. fijiensis, yielded products of the anticipated size. In addition, this protocol reduced the processing time, lowered costs, used less expensive equipment, and could be used for other plants that have the same problems with high polyphenol and polysaccharide levels.

  20. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  1. Ethanol Production from Banana Fruit and its Lignocellulosic Residues: Exergy and Renewability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Tropical countries such as Brazil and Colombia have the possibility of using their lands for growing vegetable products to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. The objective of this work is to apply exergy analysis to evaluate the renewability of anhydrous ethanol production from surplus banana fruit production and its residual biomass. The study takes into account all production stages: growing, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, and dehydration. It also considers the cogeneration plant and residues treatment. Four production routes were analyzed according to the biomass used as feedstock: banana pulp, banana fruit, hanging cluster or banana skin. Based on the exergy concept, performance indicators are proposed and calculated. In order to quantify the renewability of the ethanol production processes, a new indicator called “Renewability Performance Indicator” is defined and applied to the four ethanol production routes studied. The results show that when amilaceous material is used, better results than lignocellulosic material are obtained and four production processes studied must be classified as non-renewable.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  2. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  3. Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, S S; Patel, P R; Patel, S S; Nikam, S D; Rane, T U; Sayyed, R Z

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.

  4. [Diversity of soil bacterial community in banana orchards infected with wilt disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Xiao-yu; Zhou, Deng-bo; Tan, Xin; Gao, Zhu-fen; Zhang, Xi-yan; Qi, Chun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Six soil samples including 3 wilt disease-infected samples and 3 disease-free samples were collected from the banana orchards in 3 areas in Lingao County, Hainan Province of South China. The soil physical and chemical properties were determined by conventional methods, and the diversity of soil bacterial community was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Then, the relationships between the soil bacterial community composition and the soil physical and chemical properties were investigated. In the same areas, most of the soil physical and chemical properties were poorer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards, with the most obvious difference in soil available P content and pH. The T-RFLP analysis showed the diversity of soil bacterial community was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards. The lengths of the dominant T-RFs in the 3 areas were 144, 147 and 233 bp, respectively. Through the comparison with phylogenetic assignment tool, it was deduced that the dominant species in the 3 areas were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus and Eubacterium ruminantium. The distribution of most T-RFs was related to the soil alkaline hydrolyzable N, available K, available P and water content, and the relative abundance of most T-RFs was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.

  5. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.

  6. Performance of five cooking banana accessions at the National Germplasm Repository under limestone soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of cooking bananas from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami were used for evaluation under local edaphic and environmental conditions. The number of pseudostems per mat, height at fruiting, and cycling time were determined during the first fruiting cycle, and bunch number and b...

  7. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with s

  8. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas.

  9. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were le

  10. Senescent spotting of banana peel is inhibited by modified atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa cavendishii [Musa acuminata] AA Group cv. Sucrier) were placed in trays and held at 29-30 degreesC. Covering the trays with 'Sun wrap' polyvinyl chloride film prevented the early senescent peel spotting, typical for this cultivar. Carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations within

  11. Effect of beta-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A source. However the studies  on  carotenoid from yellow  banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum  level in group treated with  of β - carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/ dL , was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of   control group ( 22.08 ± 1.35 mg /dL . β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  12. Effect of β-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A sources. However the studies on carotenoid from yellow banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. The β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum level in group treated with of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/dL, was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of control group (22.08 ± 1.35 mg/dL. The β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  13. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  14. Women with metabolic syndrome improve antrophometric and biochemical parameters with green banana flour consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of green banana flour (GBF may promote health benefits, such as, decreased appetite, weight loss, glycemic control, intestinal function and lipid profile improvement, aging delay, cancer and heart disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green banana flour consumption on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in overweight women. Methods: The glycemic index of flour in the study was determined. The effects of consumption of 20 g of green banana flour/day on weight, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, body composition, hemoglobin, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, liver function and energy intake were evaluated in 25 overweight women for 45 days. Results: The glycemic index of the flour under study was classified as low. Reduction (p < 0.05 in systolic blood pressure, hip circumference and fasting glucose levels were found in women who had metabolic syndrome criteria. Conclusions: Consumption of green banana flour (20 g/day for 45 days did not promote weight loss or changes in body composition in overweight women. It was noted, however, decreased hip circumference. Significant health parameter improvements were also noted in individuals with metabolic syndrome, which showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the devastating Black Sigatoka pathogen of bananas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Adibon, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Zwiers, L.H.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola en M. eumusae veroorzaken de Sigatoka-ziekte in banaan. Op dit moment is de toepassing van fungiciden de enige optie om deze ziekte te bestrijden. Het PRPB (Pesticide Reduction Program for Banana) investeert in de ontwikkeling van technieken voor de genotype- en

  16. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  17. Fungi obtained on various media from soil under banana trees near Logos in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ihnatowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the soil samples collected from beneath various banana plant, Musa paradisiaca L., 96 different species of soil fungi were isolated on medium: Ohio-Agar, Littmans-Agar, Martins Rose Bengal-Agar and identified. Four species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated by means of To-Ka-Va trap-hair method.

  18. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  19. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  20. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  1. Optimization of extraction parameters on the antioxidant properties of banana waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Yee Toh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18–33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extrac- tion parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel. Materials and methods. Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA, Pisang Berangan (PB, and Pisang Mas (PM were investigated. The best extrac- tion parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0–100% v/v, extraction time (1–5 hr, and extraction temperature (25–60°C for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB assays at optimum extrac- tion conditions. Results. Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best

  2. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  3. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sye Chee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic com- pounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. Material and methods. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, total oxidation value (TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and free fatty acid (FFA content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. Results. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Conclusions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the ap- plication of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  4. Banana bunchy top virus in sub-Saharan Africa: investigations on virus distribution and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Hanna, R; Alabi, O J; Soko, M M; Oben, T T; Vangu, G H P; Naidu, R A

    2011-08-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) was first reported from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the 1950s, has become invasive and spread into 11 countries in the region. To determine the potential threat of BBTV to the production of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) in the sub-region, field surveys were conducted for the presence of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in the DRC, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon and Malawi. Using the DNA-S and DNA-R segments of the virus genome, the genetic diversity of BBTV isolates was also determined from these countries relative to virus isolates across the banana-growing regions around the world. The results established that BBTD is widely prevalent in all parts of DRC, Malawi, Angola and Gabon, in south and western part of Cameroon. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of DNA-S and DNA-R indicate that BBTV isolates from these countries are genetically identical forming a unique clade within the 'South Pacific' phylogroup that includes isolates from Australia, Egypt, South Asia and South Pacific. These results imply that farmers' traditional practice of transferring vegetative propagules within and between countries, together with virus spread by the widely prevalent banana aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa, could have contributed to the geographic expansion of BBTV in SSA. The results provided a baseline to explore sanitary measures and other 'clean' plant programs for sustainable management of BBTV and its vector in regions where the disease has already been established and prevent the spread of the virus to as yet unaffected regions in SSA.

  5. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  6. COMPONENTS OF CELL WALL, ENZYME ACTIVITY IN PEDICEL AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BANANAS TO FINGER DROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA ANNABELL COBEÑA RUIZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A major problem in post-harvest handling of bananas is the individual detachment of the fruit from the hands. This study aimed to establishing the relationship between carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity in the pedicel region of three cultivars of bananas, resistant and susceptible to natural dropping, during post-harvest ripening, and the susceptibility of bananas to finger dropping. Cultivars ‘Terra’ (plantain, AAB group and ‘Prata’ (banana, AAB group triploids and the ‘Prata Graúda’ (banana, AAAB group tetraploid were used. The experiment was distributed in split plots, with three plots (cultivars and five subplots (peel color stages in a completely randomized design with three replications and three fruits per sample unit. ‘Terra’ showed resistance to dropping, even though the fruit were ripe, unlike ‘Prata Graúda’, which, starting from the fifth stage (yellow fruit with green tips, exhibited high susceptibility to dropping. At all ripening stages, the ‘Terra’ had the highest dry mass levels. In turn, the ‘Prata Graúda’ always maintained the lowest levels. The ‘Terra’ showed decreasing levels of pectins during ripening, whereas starch remained high even in the ripe fruit. About the enzymes studied, the results confirmed the increased resistance of the ‘Terra’ to dropping, allowing to conclude that polygalacturonase (PG and pectinametylesterase (PME are the key enzymes for the solubilization of the cell wall that accompanies ripening, thus playing a critical role in inducing natural dropping. The high susceptibility of the ’Prata Graúda’ to dropping is associated with the high activity of PG and PME and the low levels of dry mass; the greater resistance of the ‘Terra’ to dropping is related to higher accumulation of dry mass and starch in the pedicel.

  7. Pesticides in blood from spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) downstream of banana plantations in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul B C; Woudneh, Million B; Ross, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) are fish-eating crocodilians that inhabit freshwater habitat in tropical regions of the Americas. To assess the exposure of caiman to pesticides from banana plantations, the authors collected whole blood samples (30 mL) from 14 adult caiman that were captured in the North Atlantic region of Costa Rica. Blood samples were analyzed for 70 legacy- and current-use pesticides and breakdown products using newly developed ultra-trace, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Caiman accumulated pesticides ranked by concentration as dieldrin > permethrin > mirex > 4,4'-DDE > alpha-endosulfan > heptachlor epoxide > oxychlordane > heptachlor > cypermethrin. Caiman within the high-intensity banana crop watershed of Rio Suerte had higher pesticide burdens relative to other more remote locations (F = 12.79; p = 0.00). Pesticide concentration decreased with distance from upstream banana plantations in this river system (F = 20.76; p = 0.00). Caiman body condition was negatively correlated with total pesticide concentrations (F = 6.23; p = 0.02) and with proximity to banana plantations (F = 5.05; p = 0.04). This suggests that either pesticides elicited toxic effects in caiman, resulting in diminished overall health, or that the quantity or quality of their prey was reduced by pesticides downstream of plantation waterways. The authors' results indicate that pesticide use in banana plantations is impacting a high trophic level species inhabiting one of the most important wilderness areas in Costa Rica (Tortuguero National Park).

  8. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Sujakhu, Nani M; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops.

  9. 香蕉采收技术现状及机械化生产对策%Current Situation of Banana Harvest Techniques and Countermeasures for Banana Harvest Mechanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮哲; 朱立学; 马稚昱

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the current situations of production mechanization and nondestructive harvest technology of bananas both at home and abroad, and comparing the application of several domestic modes for banana harvest, this thesis explores the harvest mode that is suitable for banana industry in China and then proposes some countermeasures for the harvest and post-harvest commercialization of bananas.%通过分析国内外当前香蕉生产机械化程度与无损采收技术,对比国内几种采收技术模式的应用情况,讨论适合中国香蕉产业发展的采收模式,并就香蕉采收与采后商品化处理提出了对策。

  10. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  11. The use of principle component and cluster analyses to differentiate banana pulp flours based on starch and dietary fiber components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah Bin; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Yong, Yeoh Shin; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    Flour prepared from green and ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for total starch, digestible starch, resistant starch, total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber. Principle component analysis identified only one component responsible for explaining 83.83% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fiber components data to indicate that ripe banana flour had different characteristics from the green. Cluster analysis applied on similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters of green and ripe banana to indicate difference in behaviors according to the stages of ripeness. In conclusion, starch and dietary fiber components could be used to discriminate between flour prepared from fruits of different stage of ripeness. Results are also suggestive of the potential of green as well as the ripe banana flour as functional ingredients in food.

  12. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer.

  13. Effects of high CO2 treatment on green-ripening and peel senescence in banana and plantain fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mu-bo; TANG Lu-ping; ZHANG Xue-lian; BAI Mei; PANG Xue-qun; ZHANG Zhao-qi

    2015-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa, AAA group, cv. Brazil) peel fails to ful y degreen but the pulp ripens normal y at temperatures above 24°C. This abnormal ripening, known as green-ripening, does not occur in plantains (Musa, ABB group, cv. Dajiao). Based on the fact that un-completely yel owing was also observed for bananas in poorly ventilated atmospheres, in the present study, the effect of high CO2 with regular O2 (21%) on banana ripening was investigated along with that on plantains at 20°C. The results showed that high CO2 conferred different effects on the color changing of bananas and plantains. After 6 d ripening in 20%CO2, plantains ful y yel owed, while bananas retained high chlorophyl content and stayed green. In contrast to the differentiated color changing patterns, the patterns of the softening, starch degradation and soluble sugar accumulation in the pulp of 20%CO2 treated bananas and plantains displayed similarly as the patterns in the fruits ripening in regular air, indicating that the pulp ripening was not inhibited by 20%CO2, and the abnormal ripening of bananas in 20%CO2 can be considered as green ripening. Similar expression levels of chlorophyl degradation related genes, SGR, NYC and PaO, were detected in the peel of the control and treated fruits, indicating that the repressed degreening in 20%CO2 treated bananas was not due to the down-regulation of the chlorophyl degradation related genes. Compared to the effect on plantains, 20%CO2 WUHDWmHQW GHOD\\HG WKH GHFOLQH LQ WKH FKORURSK\\O ÀRUHVFHQFH Fv/Fm) values and in the mRNA levels of a gene coding smal subunit of Rubisco (SSU), and postponed the disruption of the ultrastructure of chloroplast in the peel tissue of bananas, indicating that the senescence of the green cel s in the exocarp layer was delayed by 20%CO2, to more extent in bananas than in plantains. High CO2 reduced the ethylene production and the expression of the related biosynthesis gene, ACS, but elevated the respiration rates in both

  14. Cadmium biosorption by Aspergillus niger; Biossorcao de cadmio pelo Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.P.; Barros Junior, L.M.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmilson@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosorption is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals from even very dilute aqueous solutions. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as a chemical substance, as an ion exchanger of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. Some of the biomass types come as a waste by-product of large-scale industrial fermentations (the mold Rhizopus or the bacterium Bacillus subtilis). Other metal-binding biomass types, certain abundant seaweeds (particularly brown algae e.g. Sargassum, Ecklonia), can be readily collected from the oceans. These biomass types, serving as a basis for metal biosorption processes, can accumulate in excess of 25% of their dry weight in deposited heavy metals: Pb, Cd, U, Cu, Zn, even Cr and others. Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. (author)

  15. A Novel Approach Towards Sustainable Banana Farming Intercropped with Rubber by A Smallholder – A Profitable Source of Income Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara Thevan Krishnan; Suhaimi Othman; Amir Husni

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2009-2010, the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia introduced Abandoned Land Development Project (ACDA). Under this project, abandoned lands are replanted with crops of economic value. The cultivator of this case study was one of the participants of ACDA project. With the subsidies provided by the Government of Malaysia, the cultivator established a banana farm. Conventionally, the cultivator’s main source of income should be generated from selling the banana fruit. However, we fo...

  16. Expression patterns of ethylene biosynthesis genes from bananas during fruit ripening and in relationship with finger drop

    OpenAIRE

    HUBERT, Olivier; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana finger drop is defined as dislodgement of individual fruits from the hand at the pedicel rupture area. For some banana varieties, this is a major feature of the ripening process, in addition to ethylene production and sugar metabolism. The few studies devoted to assessing the physiological and molecular basis of this process revealed (i) the similarity between this process and softening, (ii) the early onset of related molecular events, between the first and fourth ...

  17. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayabalan, Sivalingam; Kalaiponmani, Kalaimughilan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Panchanathan, Radha; Muthuvelayoutham, Ramlatha; Kumar, Krish K; Balasubramanian, Ponnuswami

    2013-04-01

    One of the most severe viral diseases of hill banana is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a nanovirus transmitted by the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa. In this study, we reported the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on a highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease. The target of the RNA interference (RNAi) is the rep gene, encoded by the BBTV-DNA1. In order to develop RNAi construct targeting the BBTV rep gene, the full-length rep gene of 870 bp was polymerase chain reaction amplified from BBTV infected hill banana sample DNA, cloned and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The partial rep gene fragment was cloned in sense and anti sense orientation in the RNAi intermediate vector, pSTARLING-A. After cloning in pSTARLING-A, the cloned RNAi gene cassette was released by NotI enzyme digestion and cloned into the NotI site of binary vector, pART27. Two different explants, embryogenic cells and embryogenic cell suspension derived microcalli were used for co-cultivation. Selection was done in presence of 100 mg/L kanamycin. In total, 143 putative transgenic hill banana lines were generated and established in green house condition. The presence of the transgenes was confirmed in the selected putative transgenic hill banana lines by PCR and reverse transcription PCR analyses. Transgenic hill banana plants expressing RNAi-BBTV rep were obtained and shown to resist infection by BBTV. The transformed plants are symptomless, and the replication of challenge BBTV almost completely suppressed. Hence, the RNAi mediating resistances were shown to be effective management of BBTV in hill banana.

  18. Pesticide residues in heterogeneous plant populations, a model-based approach applied to nematicides in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Philippe; Chabrier, Christian; Malézieux, Eric

    2007-03-21

    Nematicides are widely used to control plant-parasitic nematodes in intensive export banana (Musa spp.) cropping systems. Data show that the concentration of fosthiazate in banana fruits varies from zero to 0.035 g kg-1, under the maximal residue limit (MRL=0.05 mg kg-1). The fosthiazate concentration in fruit is described by a Gaussian envelope curve function of the interval between pesticide application and fruit harvest (preharvest interval). The heterogeneity of phenological stages in a banana population increases over time, and thus the preharvest interval of fruits harvested after a pesticide application varies over time. A phenological model was used to simulate the long-term harvest dynamics of banana at field scale. Simulations show that the mean fosthiazate concentration in fruits varies according to nematicide application program, climate (temperature), and planting date of the banana field. This method is used to assess the percentage of harvested bunches that exceed a residue threshold and to help farmers minimize fosthiazate residues in bananas.

  19. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Streptomyces sp. ON RHIZOSPHERE PLANT BANANA (Musa paradiasica IN PENDEM VILLAGE JEMBRANA REGENCY BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Kawuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pendem village in Jembrana regency is one of the banana plantation in Bali. Now a days banana plants were attack by bacterial wilt disease with the symptoms of wilting plants, brown spots on the vessel banana stems and fruit to rot and dry. Control of use of chemical fertilizers can cause bad impact on environment and also can not control the disease. Streptomyces bacteria are bacteria that are capable of producing enzymes and antibiotics that can be used as biocontrol agents of several diseases in plants. The purpose of this research is to isolate and identify the bacteria Streptomyces from rhizosphere of banana plants without symptoms in the village Pendem Jembrana regency. The method of isolation of Streptomyces using Platting method, Streptomyces isolated from soil rhizosphere of banana plants without symptoms or health plant. Soil was taken by digging near rooting bananas plant about 15 cm from the ground and and the sample was growth on media Humic Vitamin Agar (HVA and Yeast Extract Malt Agar (ISP4. Identification macros-copically and microscopically and biochemical test using determination key book guide to the Classification and Identification of the Actinomycetes and Their antibiotics of Lechevalier and Waksman (1973. Result showed it was found 9 Streptomyces isolate; Streptomyces sp.1, Streptomyces sp. 2, Streptomyces sp.3, sp.4 Streptomyces, Streptomyces sp.5 sp.6, Streptomyces sp 7, Streptomyces sp.8 and Streptomyces sp.9. Nine isolates of Streptomyces sp. will be tested against the bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum ,the bacteria that causes bacterial wilt disease.

  20. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson S. Nomura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB and ‘Caipira’ (AAA banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four fertilization doses of N and K2O (no fertilization; 175 and 285 kg ha-1 year-1; 350 and 570 kg ha-1 year-1; 525 and 855 kg ha-1 year-1. The most adequate fertilizer recommendation for ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ cultivars was 150% of the standard recommendation for banana (525 kg ha-1 year-1 of N and 855 kg ha-1 year-1 of K2O in both production cycles, promoting adequate growth and production, since most of the evaluated characteristics showed linear responses with the increase in the fertilization doses. ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ require higher amounts of N and K than that recommended for the banana crop in the São Paulo State, in order to express their productive potential.

  1. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  2. Quality Differences of Laos and Guangxi Bananas%老挝与广西香蕉品质差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 刘志强; 方昭; 张学娟; 王金乔; 迟志广; 李宝深

    2015-01-01

    研究老挝琅勃拉邦与广西在同一施肥条件香蕉在果指特征、品质指标以及果皮、果肉中氮、磷、钾元素含量的差异,结果发现:外观性状与内在品质无显著性差异,老挝香蕉瓤皮比高于广西香蕉,且果皮色泽比广西香蕉好;老挝香蕉与广西香蕉果皮中氮、磷、钾元素含量存在显著性差异,果肉中只有氮含量存在显著性差异,果肉中磷、钾含量吾显著性差异。本研究结果为香蕉的施肥调控管理以及市场定位提供了一定的参考价值。%The differences were determined in shape feature, quality and macronutrients of peel and pulp between Laos and Guangxi bananas under the same fertilization condition. The data can provide references for banana fertilization management and marketing. The results showed that there were no significant differences in shape feature and fruit quality, but Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in the ratio of peel and pulp, and better in peel luster. The content of macronutrients in banana peel showed significant difference, Laos banana was much higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen and potassium, but less in phosphorus. While in banana pulp Laos banana was significantly higher than Guangxi banana in nitrogen, but no differences in potassium and phosphorus. Therefore it was feasible to plant bananas in Laos, and gave some advices on overseas banana plantation investment.

  3. 香蕉育苗技术的推广应用%Extension and Utilization of Seedling Breeding Technique for Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永壮; 符运柳; 刘以道; 覃和业

    2011-01-01

    介绍健康、优质香蕉组培苗一、二级苗的培育技术,以促进香蕉产业的健康发展。%Based on many years of practical experience in the production of banana seedlings,author now is introducing the seedling cultivation technology on health and quality of banana tissue culture to promote the healthy development of the banana industry.

  4. Respiratory Contribution of the Alternate Path during Various Stages of Ripening in Avocado and Banana Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, A; Laties, G G

    1978-08-01

    The respiration of fresh slices of preclimacteric avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass) and banana (Musa cavendishii var. Valery) fruits is stimulated by cyanide and antimycin. The respiration is sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid in the presence of cyanide but much less so in the presence of antimycin. In the absence of cyanide the contribution of the cyanide-resistant pathway to the coupled preclimacteric respiration is zero. In uncoupled slices, by contrast, the alternate path is engaged and utilized fully in avocado, and extensively in banana. Midclimacteric and peak climacteric slices are also cyanide-resistant and, in the presence of cyanide, sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid. In the absence of uncoupler there is no contribution by the alternate path in either tissue. In uncoupled midclimacteric avocado slices the alternate path is fully engaged. Midclimacteric banana slices, however, do not respond to uncouplers, and the alternate path is not engaged. Avocado and banana slices at the climacteric peak neither respond to uncouplers nor utilize the alternate path in the presence or absence of uncoupler.The maximal capacities of the cytochrome and alternate paths, V(cyt) and V(alt), respectively, have been estimated in slices from preclimacteric and climacteric avocado fruit and found to remain unchanged. The total respiratory capacity in preclimacteric and climacteric slices exceeds the respiratory rise which attends fruit ripening. In banana V(alt) decreases slightly with ripening.The aging of thin preclimacteric avocado slices in moist air results in ripening with an accompanying climacteric rise. In this case the alternate path is fully engaged at the climacteric peak, and the respiration represents the total potential respiratory capacity present in preclimacteric tissue. The respiratory climacteric in intact avocado and banana fruits is cytochrome path-mediated, whereas the respiratory climacteric of ripened thin avocado slices comprises

  5. Role of pre-junctional CB1, but not CB2 , TRPV1 or GPR55 receptors in anandamide-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2014-03-01

    Stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses mediated by CGRP release. Interestingly, endocannabinoids such as anandamide (which interacts with CB1 , CB2 , TRPV1 and GPR55 receptors) can regulate the activity of perivascular sensory nerves in dural blood vessels by modulating CGRP release. Yet, as no publication has reported whether this mechanism is operative in the healthy systemic vasculature, this study has specifically analysed the receptors mediating the potential inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists anandamide (non-selective), JWH-015 (CB2 ) and lysophosphatidylinositol (GPR55) on the rat vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow (an index of systemic vasodilatation). Healthy pithed rats were pre-treated with consecutive i.v. continuous infusions of hexamethonium, methoxamine and the above agonists. Electrical spinal (T9 -T12 ) stimulation of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow or i.v. injections of α-CGRP produced frequency-dependent or dose-dependent vasodepressor responses. The infusions of anandamide in a dose-dependent manner inhibited the vasodepressor responses by electrical stimulation (remaining unaffected by JWH-015 or lysophosphatidylinositol), but not those by α-CGRP. After i.v. administration of antagonists, the inhibition by 3.1 μg/kg min anandamide was: (i) potently blocked by 31-100 μg/kg NIDA41020 (CB1 ), (ii) unaffected by 180 μg/kg AM630 (CB2 ), 31 μg/kg cannabidiol (GPR55) or 31-100 μg/kg capsazepine (TRPV1) and (iii) slightly blocked by 310 μg/kg AM630. The above doses of antagonists were enough to block their respective receptors. These results suggest that anandamide-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow is mainly mediated by pre-junctional activation of CB1 receptors, with no pharmacological evidence for the role of CB2 , TRPV1 or GPR55 receptors.

  6. MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DE CLONES DE BANANA cv. TERRA EM BIORREATOR DE IMERSÃO TEMPORÁRIA MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANA TERRA USING TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EURICO EDUARDO PINTO DE LEMOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas micropropagadas de banana têm sido ofertadas ao mercado com o intuito de suprir a demanda de uma fruticultura cada vez mais tecnificada. Os preços mais elevados deste tipo de muda têm sido um dos maiores entraves ao seu uso. Vários são os fatores que oneram o seu preço final: mão-de-obra especializada, necessidade de laboratórios bem equipados, estrutura de aclimatização apropriada, baixa taxa de multiplicação de algumas variedades, etc. O presente trabalho relata a micropropagação de bananeiras cv. Terra, utilizando biorreatores de imersão temporária, com o objetivo de aumentar a taxa de multiplicação e diminuir os custos de produção das mudas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o ciclo de imersão de 4 horas e a renovação do meio de cultura aos 30 dias foram essenciais para uma maior produção de biomassa e crescimento dos explantes. A composição do meio de cultura influenciou o desenvolvimento dos explantes de banana cultivados nos biorreatores. Explantes cultivados em meio MS + 3mg/L de BAP com renovação para MS básico, após 30 dias, apresentaram maior produção de biomassa e alta taxa de multiplicação. Comparando-se o biorreator de imersão temporária com o sistema tradicional em semi-sólido, observou-se que, no primeiro, as microplantas apresentaram maior comprimento, produção de biomassa de 2,86 vezes maior e 2,20 vezes mais brotos do que no sistema tradicional.Banana seedlings has been micropropagated and sold to the producers to supply a rather competitive fruit crop market. This high quality propagule has usually a higher price in the market than field propagated seedlings. Several factors contribute to its final costs: need of specialized labour, need of well equipped laboratory and acclimatization structure, low multiplication rate of some varieties etc. The work presented here reports the development of a new way to micropropagate banana var. Terra, a known slow seedling producing variety

  7. Ensaio de proficiência para análise de ditiocarbamatos em polpa de banana Proficiency assay of the dithiocarbamates in banana pulp analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Pinto Bastos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A proficiency assay of the determination of dithiocarbamate pesticide residues in banana was carried out. Fourteen laboratories participated in this study. Homogeneity and stability testing were performed by INCQS on the samples sent to the laboratories. Analytical results supplied by the pesticide residues laboratory of the VWA/KvW, Amsterdam, Holland, were used to define the designated value for the thiram concentration in the study samples. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the participating laboratories had satisfactory results. Efforts are needed to improve the precision of the analytical results and to decrease the number of false negative results observed.

  8. Mathematical modelling of the thin layer solar drying of banana, mango and cassava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody- Abidjan, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Gbaha, Prosper [Laboratoire d' Energie Nouvelle et Renouvelable, Institut National Polytechnique, Felix HOUPHOUET - BOIGNY de Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast)

    2009-10-15

    The main objectives of this paper are firstly to investigate the behaviour of the thin layer drying of plantain banana, mango and cassava experimentally in a direct solar dryer and secondly to perform mathematical modelling by using thin layer drying models encountered in literature. The variation of the moisture content of the products studied and principal drying parameters are analysed. Seven statistical models, which are empirical or semi-empirical, are tested to validate the experimental data. A non-linear regression analysis using a statistical computer program is used to evaluate the constants of the models. The Henderson and Pabis drying model is found to be the most suitable for describing the solar drying curves of plantain banana, mango and cassava. The drying data of these products have been analysed to obtain the values of the effective diffusivity during the falling drying rate phase. (author)

  9. Characterisation of metabolic profile of banana genotypes, aiming at biofortified Musa spp. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cristine Vanz; Amorim, Vanusia Batista de Oliveira; Ramlov, Fernanda; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva; Donato, Marcela; Maraschin, Marcelo; Amorim, Edson Perito

    2014-02-15

    The banana is an important, widely consumed fruit, especially in areas of rampant undernutrition. Twenty-nine samples were analysed, including 9 diploids, 13 triploids and 7 tetraploids, in the Active Germplasm Bank, at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, to evaluate the bioactive compounds. The results of this study reveal the presence of a diversity of bioactive compounds, e.g., catechins; they are phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potential and antitumour activity. In addition, accessions with appreciable amounts of pVACs were identified, especially compared with the main cultivars that are currently marketed. The ATR-FTIR, combined with principal components analysis, identified accessions with distinct metabolic profiles in the fingerprint regions of compounds important for human health. Likewise, starch fraction characterisation allowed discrimination of accessions according to their physical, chemical, and functional properties. The results of this study demonstrate that the banana has functional characteristics endowing it with the potential to promote human health.

  10. Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Csilla; David, Leontin; Chiş, Vasile; Pînzaru, Simona Cintă

    2014-02-15

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78 mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit.

  11. Life-threatening neurovascular injuries associated with recreational use of "banana" boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Rosenthal, Guy; Benifla, Mony; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-09-01

    Banana boat rides are a popular form of recreation worldwide. Recommendations that speed should not exceed 15 mph, passengers should wear protective gear, and an observer should be present on the towing boat are generally ignored. Medical personnel at tourist venues and general practitioners may not be attuned to the risk of serious injury. We present our experience in the management carotid- and vertebral artery dissections sustained by 44- and 23-year-old males during banana boat rides. In both cases, the dissections were misdiagnosed until patients presented to the Emergency Department two days after injury. In the first patient, medical management failed and endovascular treatment was required due to neurological deterioration. In patient two, anticoagulation therapy prevented embolic sequelae. Boat operators, passengers, and the medical personnel who are first to see these patients should be aware of the risk of arterial dissection to facilitate early detection of these potentially life-threatening injuries.

  12. The Influence of the Negative Radial Electric Field on the Orbit of Banana Particles in Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuwen; Zhang Xiaoding; Zhang Tao; Yao Ruohe

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the patterns of influence of the negative radial electric field on the drift displacement and trajectory of charged particles, for it is essential for further investigation into the transitional mechanism of L-H Mode. In the light of superposition between the poloidal velocity of charged particles and theE ×B drift caused by the negative radial electric field, the paper offers a theoretical analysis and value simulations. Under the action of different radial electric fields, results have been obtained in regard to changes in the velocity of charged particles (mainly ions), patterns of changes in drift displacement, regional change of banana particles, and features of transition and change between trajectories of transiting particles and banana particles.

  13. A photo-driven dual-frequency addressable optical device of banana-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Prasad, S., E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Lakshmi Madhuri, P.; Hiremath, Uma S.; Yelamaggad, C. V. [Centre for Soft Matter Research, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560 013 (India)

    2014-03-17

    We propose a photonic switch employing a blend of host banana-shaped liquid crystalline molecules and guest photoisomerizable calamitic molecules. The material exhibits a change in the sign of the dielectric anisotropy switching from positive to negative, at a certain crossover frequency of the probing field. The consequent change in electric torque can be used to alter the orientation of the molecules between surface-determined and field-driven optical states resulting in a large change in the optical transmission characteristics. Here, we demonstrate the realization of this feature by an unpolarized UV beam, the first of its kind for banana-shaped molecules. The underlying principle of photoisomerization eliminates the need for a second driving frequency. The device also acts as a reversible conductance switch with an order of magnitude increase of conductivity brought about by light. Possible usage of this for optically driven display devices and image storage applications is suggested.

  14. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  15. Information flows and social externalities in a Tanzanian banana growing village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the role of social networks as facilitators of information flows and banana output increase. Based on a village census, full information is available on the socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmers' kinship group members, neighbours and informal insurance group members. The census data enable us to use individual specific reference groups and include exogenous group controls to tackle standard difficulties related to identification and omitted variables bias when analysing social effects. For the survey village of Nyakatoke in Tanzania the results suggest that information flows exist within all types of groups analysed but output externalities are limited to kinship groups. Using networks may offer scope for effective information flows on agricultural techniques, but our evidence suggests that not just any local network will have a social externality impact, requiring a clear understanding of local social networks for maximum impact.

  16. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana.

  17. Physicochemical studies on starches isolated from plantain cultivars, plantain hybrids and cooking bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, G.; Akoni, S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria)); Swennen, R. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Tropical Husbandry)

    1992-04-01

    Starches from mature, unripe fruit pulp of plantain cultivars (Musa supp., AAB group) representing the wide variability in Africa, tetraploid and diploid plantain hybrids and starchy cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB group) were isolated and characterised. In general, studies revealed very compact irregularly shaped and sized granules, with low amylose content (9.11-17.16%), highly resistant to bacterial {alpha}-amylase attack; Brabender amylograms showed very restricted swelling type patterns with great stability and negligible retrogradation. Results indicate that differences in physico-chemical properties exist amongst the three Musa fruit group starches. Plantains represent a chemical/molecular homogeneous group, but heterogeneous for granule structure. Ploidy level affected hybrid properties. ABB cooking bananas starches exhibited highly pronounced restricted swelling and high gelatinisation and pasting temperatures, indicating a more ordered, very strongly bonded granule structure; chemical and physical properties varied considerably within the ABB genotype. (orig.).

  18. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900 exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  19. Nonactivated and activated biochar derived from bananas as alternative cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haoran; Deng, Lifang; Qi, Yujie; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Tang, Jiahuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m(2) and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  20. Anti-cancer potential of banana flower extract: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varalakshmi Kilingar Nadumane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana (Musa paradisiaca flower is rich in phytochemicals (vitamins, flavonoids, proteins and has antioxidant properties. The anti-cancer activity of banana flower extract has been evaluated on the cervical cancer cell line HeLa. The antiproliferative effects were evaluated by MTT assay. The extract was further purified by TLC and characterized by LC-MS method. The ethanol extract had significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cells with an IC50 of 20 µg/mL. By thin layer chromatography we could isolate three fractions out of which fraction 2 had exhibited maximum anti-proliferative effects with an IC50 value of <10 µg/mL. By LC-MS analysis, bioactive fraction was found to have an m/z value of 224.2 indicating it as a novel one.

  1. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuwang; Li, Qing; Yan, Huiling; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT) and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H2O2. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis. PMID:27618038

  2. Status of weeds as reservoirs of plant parasitic nematodes in banana fields in Martinique

    OpenAIRE

    Quénéherve, Patrick; Chabrier, C.; Auwerkerken, Annemie; Topart, Patrick; Martiny, Bernard; Marie Luce, S.

    2006-01-01

    During a survey of the nematodes associated with weeds in banana fields in Martinique, 41 weed species in 37 genera from 20 plant families were collected to extract nematodes from the roots. Results of this survey showed that 24 weed species were hosts of Radopholus similis, 23 were hosts of Helicotylenchus spp., 13 were hosts of Pratylenchus spp., 13 were hosts of Hoplolaimus seinhorsti, 29 were hosts of Meloidogyne spp. and 24 were hosts of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The presence of the burr...

  3. Distinct silicon and germanium pathways in the soil-plant system: Evidence from banana and horsetail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvigne, C.; Opfergelt, S.; Cardinal, D.; Delvaux, B.; André, L.

    2009-06-01

    Plants strongly impact the continental silicon cycle by taking up Si and precipitating opal phytoliths which are recycled into the soil. Studying Ge incorporation, a chemical analog of Si, relative to Si may provide a useful tracer of Si pathways. However, Ge uptake and transport through plants and the impact on Ge/Si of phytoliths remain poorly understood. Here, we report Ge uptake and accumulation and Ge/Si fractionation in all plant parts and solutions from: (1) hydroponic banana, (2) in situ sampled banana, and (3) horsetails. We further combine these data with δ29Si from banana plants. Our data reconcile opposite conclusions drawn from previous studies on Ge uptake and pathways. No discrimination of Ge occurred at the root-solution interface. Banana and horsetails were shown to accumulate Ge in roots: a previous study provided evidence of low Ge/Si ratios in root phytoliths which contrasts with high bulk Ge/Si ratios in roots we report here. This suggests that Ge is organically trapped in roots. Consequently, shoots display lower Ge/Si ratios, without fractionation between shoot parts since Ge would follow transpiration stream as silicon, and is not discriminated between shoot parts. This contrasts with the two-step discrimination against heavy Si isotopes, at the root-solution interface, and then within the shoots. The soil composition (clays versus Fe oxides) has a leading role on the Ge/Si signatures of plants which may in turn impact on the Si and Ge fluxes to the global ocean.

  4. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Roderick

    Full Text Available A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI values for a banana (Musa spp. field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  6. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses.

  7. Probiotic properties, sensory qualities, and storage stability of probiotic banana yogurts

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; ÇETİN, Bülent; TURGUT, Tamer; GÜRSES, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The quality properties of probiotic yogurt samples made with banana marmalade (BM), which can be a probiotic product, were examined. Yogurt samples were produced from cow milk inoculated with yogurt cultures and probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and an equal mixture of the 2 strains), and then 15% BM was added to each yogurt sample. Acidity, pH, bacteria counts, and sensory analysis of the yogurt samples were investigated on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 du...

  8. Radurisation of bananas under commercial conditions: Pt. 1. Increased storage life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J. (Nuclear Development Corp. of South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Pelindaba, Pretoria)

    1984-03-01

    In a large scale trial with bananas, a doubling of storage life in the ripening rooms (from 14 to 29 d) was achieved using irradiation treatment to an average dose of 0,85 kGy. Both colour development and fruit softening were significantly reduced in the irradiated fruits compared with the untreated batch. A slight phytotoxic effect to the fruit was noticed at the dose of 0,85 kGy.

  9. Radurization of bananas under commercial conditions: Pt. 2. Shelf- or market-life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thord-Gray, R.S.; Strydom, G.J. (Nuclear Development Corp. of South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Pelindaba, Pretoria)

    1984-04-01

    In two large-scale commercial trials with bananas, a 2 to 4 d extension in marketable life was achieved by radurisation at a dose of 0,60 kGy. The criteria for marketability were based primarily on skin colour and fruit firmness. It was also observed that browning associated with the handling of ripe fruit was significantly less in the radurised fruits.

  10. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  11. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuwang Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxins (Trxs are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H2O2. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis.

  12. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  13. The EU-Caribbean Trade Relationship Post-Lisbon: The Case of Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Constant Laforce

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a legal perspective, the Lisbon Treaty changes over the European Union’s (EU common agricultural policy (CAP and their impact on developing countries. The study focuses particularly on the Caribbean region of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group, which signed an Economic Partnership Agreement with the EU in 2008, and will use bananas as the exemplar commodity. The Lisbon Treaty which entered into force in December 2009 has brought important institutional changes within the EU and altered the distribution of responsibility over European policies. The European Parliament (EP now exercises legislative functions ‘jointly’ with the Council over fields falling outside EU trade policy but which often have trade-related impacts. This is the case of the CAP which is now a shared rather than an exclusive competence policy area. The EU is an important market for developing countries’ export of agricultural food products. However, there is a risk that the EP positions, pressured by consumer opinion, could influence the negotiating process leading to the reinforcement of the EU’s protectionist agriculture policy. This subject is of high importance given the end of the so-called ‘banana war’ in 2009 against the EU banana import regime, allowing better access for Latin American countries’ bananas to the EU market. This article argues that ACP countries will not be affected by the EU internal changes post-Lisbon. They have managed to legally maintain special trade arrangements with the EU under the Economic Partnership Agreements, which provide them with favourable trading conditions, particularly for agricultural food products.

  14. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  15. Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2012-07-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 μL L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process.

  16. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haoran Yuan; Lifang Deng; Yujie Qi; Noriyuki Kobayashi; Jiahuan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900...

  17. Characterization of some physicist, mechanics and chemistries properties in the banana (Musa spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Modesto Martínez Hernández; Tania de la Caridad Bermúdez Camacho

    2016-01-01

    The present work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of the banana (Musa spp.). For its investigation, they took samples in the Municipal Company of Cultivos Varios, municipality Taguasco, provinces of Sancti-Spíritus. They were carried out rehearsals related to some physical, mechanical and chemical variables as: pH, oBrix, total regular acids, static coefficients of friction and mechanical impact damages deal with the established norms. The objective of ...

  18. Factors Influencing the Spread of Cooking Banana Processing Methods in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Lemchi, IJ.; Onyeka, U.

    2001-01-01

    In collaboration with Shell and Agip oil companies, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture carried out a training campaign on the methods of processing cooking bananas (i/lusa ssp., ABB genome) among farmers in Southeast Nigeria. This study examined the factors that have influenced the spread of the processing knowledge from farmers who were initially trained by the institutions. Data were collected from a random sample of 232 respondents using structured questionnaire. Results s...

  19. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; N. Manickam; V. Srinevasan; S. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  20. The influence of alkali treatment on banana fibre’s mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Mejía Osorio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of banana fibre (Musa Paradisiaca. Fibres were extracted from the pseudostem by a defibring machine; they were mercerised and modified by 5% NaOH (w/v alkali treatment. Morphological characterisation showed that treated fibres’ surface was rougher than that of untreated fibres. Mechanical characterisation indicated that Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength and strain became decreased by increasing both treated and untreated fibres’ diameter.

  1. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  2. Neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity with effects of finite banana width for finite aspect ratio tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaing, K. C.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity has been developed to model transport phenomena, especially, toroidal plasma rotation for tokamaks with broken symmetry. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the results of the numerical codes in the large aspect ratio limit. The theory has since been extended to include effects of finite aspect ratio and finite plasma β. Here, β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the magnetic field pressure. However, there are cases where the radial wavelength of the self-consistent perturbed magnetic field strength B on the perturbed magnetic surface is comparable to the width of the trapped particles, i.e., bananas. To accommodate those cases, the theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity is further extended here to include the effects of the finite banana width. The extended theory is developed using the orbit averaged drift kinetic equation in the low collisionality regimes. The results of the theory can now be used to model plasma transport, including toroidal plasma rotation, in real finite aspect ratio, and finite plasma β tokamaks with the radial wavelength of the perturbed symmetry breaking magnetic field strength comparable to or longer than the banana width.

  3. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ABACA-GLASS-BANANA FIBRE REINFORCED HYBRID COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. VENKATASUBRAMANIAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites comprising of natural and synthetic fibres with phenolic resin is one of the present composite manufacturing techniques for achieving enhanced mechanical properties. In this study Abaca-banana-glass composites has been fabricated and its mechanical properties were analysed. Tensile, flexural and impact strength were investigated in the process of mechanical characterisation. Matrix material used is a phenolic resin of Ortho-Phthalic acid. The manufacture of the composite is done by hand layup technique where the fibre content is varied through volume fraction of 0.4 to 0.5. Setup is arranged in such a way that glass fibre is arranged on the top and bottom layers of the laminate which adds up strength and produces a better surface finish, where in the natural fibre is sandwiched in intermediate layers within the glass fibre. Fibre orientation and the detailed internal structure of matrix were studied by using SEM photography. The results showed that Abaca-banana-glass hybrid composite has better tensile property, Banana-glass composite has the best flexural property and Abaca-glass composite has the best impact property. The results obtained show a substantial increase in mechanical properties and hence these hybrid composites can be used as an effective alternative for synthetic fibres and can be used as an alternate for different industrial application.

  4. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  5. Storage at low temperature differentially affects the colour and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-03-01

    Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05).

  6. Use of competitive PCR to assay copy number of repetitive elements in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurens, F C; Noyer, J L; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1996-11-27

    Banana is one of the most important subtropical fruit crops. Genetic improvement by traditional breeding strategies is difficult and better knowledge of genomic structure is needed. Repeated sequences are powerful markers for genetic fingerprinting. The method proposed here to determine the copy number of nuclear repetitive elements is based on competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and can also be used for quantifying cytosolic sequences. The reliability of this method was investigated on crude preparations of total DNA. Variations due to the heterogeneity of crude DNA extracts showed that a single locus reference is needed for accurate quantification. A mapped microsatellite locus was used to normalize copy number measurements. Copy number assay of repetitive elements using this method clearly distinguishes between the two banana subspecies investigated: Musa acuminata spp. banskii and M. acuminata spp. malaccensis. Two repetitive sequence families, pMaCIR1115 and pA9-26, were assayed that cover up to 1% of the M. acuminata genome. Their copy number varied up to six fold between the two subspecies. Furthermore, sequence quantification showed that mitochondrial genomes are present in crude leaf-extracted banana DNA at up to 40 copies per cell.

  7. How yellow is your banana? Toddlers' language-mediated visual search in referent-present tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Johnson, Elizabeth; McQueen, James M; Huettig, Falk

    2013-06-01

    What is the relative salience of different aspects of word meaning in the developing lexicon? The current study examines the time-course of retrieval of semantic and color knowledge associated with words during toddler word recognition: At what point do toddlers orient toward an image of a yellow cup upon hearing color-matching words such as "banana" (typically yellow) relative to unrelated words (e.g., "house")? Do children orient faster to semantic matching images relative to color matching images, for example, orient faster to an image of a cookie relative to a yellow cup upon hearing the word "banana"? The results strongly suggest a prioritization of semantic information over color information in children's word-referent mappings. This indicates that even for natural objects (e.g., food, animals that are more likely to have a prototypical color), semantic knowledge is a more salient aspect of toddler's word meaning than color knowledge. For 24-month-old Dutch toddlers, bananas are thus more edible than they are yellow.

  8. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns.

  9. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana (Musa acuminata) Preservation Using X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana (Musa Acuminata) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10-14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10-14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure.

  10. Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ratna Djuita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomic Integrity Detection of In Vitro Irradiated Banana Using Microsatellite Marker. The research aims todetect genomic integrity of in vitro irradiated banana using microsatellite marker. These studies were done on bananacv. Pisang Mas irradiated by 15 Gy of gamma ray. The DNA was isolated from each accesion following Dixie.Amplification of DNA products were done by Perkin Elmer Gene Amp PCR 2400 using ten primers, and thenelectroforesis in agarose 1%. Finally a vertical polyacrylamide gel electroforesis was run and the products werevisualized by silver staining. The result shown that among the primers tested, eight primers produced clear, discrete,and reproducible bands. Number of DNA band exhibited ranging from one to two, following the ploidy level of pisangMas which is a diploid banana cultivar (AA. One band suggest homozygote allele while two bands showedheterozygote allele. Out of eight primers, six primers produced different allele among irradiated, in vitro, and in vivocontrol plant. Meanwhile, for the other two primers the allele were monomorph for all the accessions examined.Genomic modification was observed at all irradiated plants. The modification can happened at zygosity of certain allelethat may change from heterozygote to homozygote or vice versa. While modification in allele size that underlyinggenomic instability could be caused by several genetic events such as deletion, insertion, and amplification ofnucleotides.

  11. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Miskam, Muhamad Azman [Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450–650 °C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00–3.00 s. The particle size was set at 224-400 µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  13. Paracoccus burnerae (HOMOPTERA; PLANOCOCCIDAE AS A VECTOR OF Banana streak virus

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    Muturi S M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Banana streak virus ( BSV is a causative agent of the banana streak disease (BSD which causes considerable damage to banana production in tropical countries. The virus is vectored by several mealy bug species. However, the competence of the oleander mealy bug ( Paracoccus burnerae , in the transmission of BSV is unknown. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA technique was used to select both diseased and healthy plantlets fo r transmission experiments. RCA was conducted on viruliferous instars of P . burnerae and virus - inoculated plantlet DNA samples. The results revealed that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV . However, during hot conditions (24 - 30ºC, the insect was unable to acq uire and transmit BSV . Under cool conditions (9 - 20ºC, a minimum of 6 h of feeding time was necessary for P . burnerae instars to become viruliferous. These results indicate that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV and transmission efficiency depends on the ambi ent temperature and the feeding time.

  14. Performance of Public and Non-Public Organisations in the Dissemination of Cooking Bananas in Nigeria

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    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the performance of public (POs and non-public (NPOs organisations in the dissemination of cooking bananas in Southeast Nigeria. Cooking bananas were introduced in the area as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease on plantains. Eight POs and 4 NPOs carried out the dissemination exercise. In all, about 55, 000 cooking banana suckers were distributed in about 700 villages to about 30, 000 farmers. NPOs out-performed POs in the dissemination exercise ; they accounted for about 90 % of suckers distributed, as well as about 80 % of villages and 99 % of farmers reached with the crop. Without the involvement and the efforts of the NPOs, the majority of the farmers and villages would not have obtained the crop. Unfortunately, the distribution of suckers by NPOs was limited to villages within the areas where they carry out their main activities, i. e. oil exploration/exploitation. As a resuit, more than 80 % of suckers distributed in the region were concentrated in the states of Bayelsa and Rivers. For a more even distribution of the newly developed hybrid plantains a key recommendation of the study is the involvement in the dissemination exercise of as many church and village groups as possible, especially in areas where NPOs do not operate.

  15. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

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    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  16. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd; Miskam, Muhamad Azman

    2015-04-01

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer.(STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450-650°C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00-3.00s. The particle size was set at 224-400µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  17. Numerical and experimental analysis on tensile properties of banana and glass fibers reinforced epoxy composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A SHADRACH JEYASEKARAN; K PALANI KUMAR; S RAJARAJAN

    2016-11-01

    In present day scenario, moving towards an environment friendly material is a key issue for manufacturing industries in order to provide suitable alternatives for the existing conventional materials. Natural fibers have higher economic impact and miniature in density when compared to glass fibers while making composites. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as high as glass fibers, their specific properties are comparable. In this paper a study has been carried out to find the tensile characteristics of hybrid composite made by intruding unidirectional banana and glass fibers into epoxy resin mixture. The hand lay-up method of fabrication was employed in preparing the composites of unidirectional glass fiber (UGF) and unidirectional banana/glass fiber (U B/G F). Tensile properties of the composites are verified using ANSYS. It is observed from the findings that the numerical analysis is found to be higher than experimental analysis. Hybridization of banana fiber shows better tensile properties. It is evident from the result that, comparatively equal displacement is obtained for the varying load for both the composites. The surface morphology of the tested composites is analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  18. Antioxidant potential of banana: Study using simulated gastrointestinal model and conventional extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Anjali; Patel, Vinayak

    2015-07-01

    Most reports on fruit antioxidant capacities are based on extraction of antioxidants using polar solvents. In banana, little is known about the fate of bioactive compounds during the digestion process, particularly in the food matrix under the gastric and intestinal conditions. In the present study, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method was used to simulate physiological conditions of the stomach and small intestine to evaluate the actual antioxidant capacity of banana. The simulated gastrointestinal extracts showed significantly higher antioxidant properties. The total phenol content of the physiological enzymatic extract was higher by almost 150% than the methanolic extract. Similarly, the flavonoid and flavonol contents were higher in the physiological enzymatic extract by 330.6 and 141.7%, respectively as compared to methanolic extract. These differences were also noticed in the antioxidant capacity measurement parameters. From the results, it can be concluded that the conventional extracts underrate the antioxidant value of banana and that they may have much higher health significance, as an antioxidant in particular.

  19. Investigation on The Mechanical Properties of Banana Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

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    A.K.Chaitanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the interest in natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials is rapidly growing both in terms of their industrial applications and fundamental research. The natural fiber composites are more environmentally friendly, and their availability, renewability, low density, and price as well as satisfactory mechanical properties make them an attractive ecological alternative to glass, carbon and man-made fibers used for the manufacturing of composites. The main objective of this project is to investigate the effect of NaOH solution on the mechanical properties of Banana fiber in polyester composites. The composites have been made by with and without treatment of NaOH solution using polymer matrix using Banana fiber. Mechanical properties such as tensile, impact and bending strengths were Studied by Carrying out respective tests with varying weights of fiber (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 gm’s. The tensile, impact and bending Strength of Banana fiber reinforced composites with NaOH solution was found to be increased when compared with without NaOH solution by varying fiber content. The concentrated of NaOH solution (5% to water (for 1lit.

  20. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

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    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  1. Mechanical, Spectroscopic and Micro-structural Characterization of Banana Particulate Reinforced PVC Composite as Piping Material

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    B. Dan-asabe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana particulate reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC composite was developed with considerabley low cost materials having an overall light-weight and good mechanical properties for potential application as piping material. The specimen composite material was produced with the banana (stem particulate as reinforcement using compression molding. Results showed that density and elastic Modulus of the composite decreases and increases respectively with increasing weight fraction of the particulate reinforcement. The tensile strength increased to a maximum of 42 MPa and then decreased steadily. The composition with optimum mechanical property (42 MPa was determined at 8, 62 and 30 % formulation of banana stem particulates (reinforcement, PVC (matrix and Kankara clay (filler respectively with corresponding percentage water absorption of 0.79 %, Young’s Modulus of 1.3 GPa, flexural strength of 92 MPa and density of 1.24 g/cm3. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis of the constituents showed identical bands within the range 4000–1000 cm-1 with renown research work. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM result showed fairly uniform distribution of constituents’ phases. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF confirms the X-ray diffraction (XRD result of the presence of minerals of kaolinite, quartz, rutile and illite in the kaolin clay. Comparison with conventional piping materials showed the composite offered a price savings per meter length of 84 % and 25 % when compared with carbon steel and PVC material.

  2. Factors Influencing the Spread of Cooking Banana Processing Methods in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with Shell and Agip oil companies, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture carried out a training campaign on the methods of processing cooking bananas (i/lusa ssp., ABB genome among farmers in Southeast Nigeria. This study examined the factors that have influenced the spread of the processing knowledge from farmers who were initially trained by the institutions. Data were collected from a random sample of 232 respondents using structured questionnaire. Results show that about 47 % of farmers who initially received training from institutions on cooking banana processing methods have taught an average of 3 processing methods to about 5 other people. This diffusion level is considered encouraging realising that the crop was entirely new to the people. Among the variables that were significant in shaping the decisions of the respondents regarding spread or non-spread of the processing methods are the level of educational attainment, primary occupation, social status, intensity of training received on cooking banana processing methods, and the degree of adoption ofthe processing methods.

  3. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

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    Ricardo Kenji Oi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the mass and relative humidity of the dried product. Three levels were used in selected variables, which corresponded to the completion of 27 experiments. In experiments in which they obtained the lowest values of relative humidity, the amounts of mass were also the lowest, while in experiments where they met the higher amounts of the levels of relative humidity ranged from the highest. Considering the industrial application, whose purpose is the low humidity and increased production of the product, test 22 was the most appropriate, and found 11% moisture and 4.33 g in mass.

  4. Manipulating the banana rhizosphere microbiome for biological control of Panama disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Penton, C Ryan; Shen, Zongzhuan; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Li, Rong; Ruan, Yunze; Shen, Qirong

    2015-08-05

    Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection on banana is devastating banana plantations worldwide. Biological control has been proposed to suppress Panama disease, though the stability and survival of bio-control microorganisms in field setting is largely unknown. In order to develop a bio-control strategy for this disease, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial community of a disease-suppressive soil. Bacillus was identified as the dominant bacterial group in the suppressive soil. For this reason, B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from the suppressive soil was selected as a potential bio-control agent. A bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), formulated by combining this isolate with compost, was applied in nursery pots to assess the bio-control of Panama disease. Results showed that BIO significantly decreased disease incidence by 68.5%, resulting in a doubled yield. Moreover, bacterial community structure was significantly correlated to disease incidence and yield and Bacillus colonization was negatively correlated with pathogen abundance and disease incidence, but positively correlated to yield. In total, the application of BIO altered the rhizo-bacterial community by establishing beneficial strains that dominated the microbial community and decreased pathogen colonization in the banana rhizosphere, which plays an important role in the management of Panama disease.

  5. Experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Lamlert, N.; Intawee, P. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Mahayothee, B. [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Bala, B.K. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Nagle, M.; Mueller, J. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70593 (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate plates on a concrete floor. Three fans powered by a 50-W PV module ventilate the dryer. To investigate the experimental performances of the solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana, 10 full scale experimental runs were conducted. Of which five experimental runs were conducted for drying of peeled longan and another five experimental runs were conducted for drying of banana. The drying air temperature varied from 31 C to 58 C during drying of peeled longan while it varied from 30 C to 60 C during drying of banana. The drying time of peeled longan in the solar greenhouse dryer was 3 days, whereas 5-6 days are required for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The drying time of banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was 4 days, while it took 5-6 days for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The quality of solar dried products in terms of colour and taste was high-quality dried products. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of peeled longan and banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was developed and this system of non-linear partial differential equations was solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical solution was programmed in Compaq Visual FORTRAN version 6.5. The simulated results reasonably agreed with the experimental data for solar drying of peeled longan and banana. This model can be used to provide the design data and is also essential for optimal design of the dryer. (author)

  6. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense causing banana vascular wilt disease.

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    Lijia Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.. To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1, the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4 has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana 'Brazil' in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety 'Brazil'. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will

  7. Inibição do escurecimento enzimático de banana maçã minimamente processada Enzimatic browning inhibition of fresh-cut apple banana

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    Ânderson Adriano Martins Melo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do ácido ascórbico (AA, do cloreto de cálcio (CC, do cloridrato de L-cisteína (Cis e EDTA, na prevenção do escurecimento enzimático de banana maçã minimamente processada. Foram utilizadas as combinações: (i AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 0,5%, (ii AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1%, (iii AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% e (iv EDTA 1%, constituindo quatro tratamentos de um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Produtos minimamente processados não tratados quimicamente não foram analisados, considerando-se seu acentuado escurecimento e sua vida de prateleira inferior a 6 h. As bananas foram tratadas com hipoclorito de sódio, fatiadas, imersas nos tratamentos químicos, acondicionadas em embalagens rígidas envoltas com filme PVC 30 µm e armazenadas durante cinco dias a 5+1°C e 85+3% UR. Amostras foram analisadas diariamente, durante os cinco dias de armazenamento. Os tratamentos contendo AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1% e AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% determinaram os maiores valores de acidez titulável e menores de pH. Observaram-se aumentos no valor a* e redução nos valores b* e L* na banana maçã minimamente processada, independente do tratamento químico, durante o armazenamento. O tratamento AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% foi o mais efetivo na prevenção das modificações dos valores a*, b* e L*, associados à coloração das rodelas. Observou-se aumento na atividade da polifenoloxidase (PPO e peroxidase (POD durante o armazenamento das rodelas de banana, independente do tratamento, à exceção da redução observada na atividade da PPO, nos produtos tratados com EDTA. Os tratamentos contendo EDTA e AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% foram os mais efetivos na contenção do aumento das atividades da PPO e POD, respectivamente.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA, calcium chloride (CC, L-cysteine hydrochloride (Cys and EDTA on prevention of enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apple banana. The following combinations were used: (i AA 1

  8. Amadurecimento da banana-prata climatizada em diferentes dias após a colheita Characterization of 'prata' bananas, acclimatized at different time intervals after the harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Souza Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O amadurecimento induzido por climatização em bananas, é um procedimento que tem sido largamente utilizado. Ele proporciona uma maturação uniforme, já que a fruta apresenta maturação desuniforme em vista da formação dos frutos em pencas com diferentes idades. No entanto, não há para todas as cultivares de banana, estudos específicos em relação ao tempo entre a colheita e a climatização que possa afetar a qualidade dos frutos. Desta forma, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar mediante as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas a qualidade da banana - prata climatizada em diferentes dias entre a colheita e a climatização. Foram testados três diferentes dias de climatização sendo 1, 2 e 3 dias após a colheita. Ao final da climatização, os frutos foram armazenados em temperatura ambiente por um período de 5 dias. As análises realizadas foram: perda de massa, coloração da casca, respiração, firmeza, pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e amido. Frutas climatizadas 1 dia após a colheita apresentaram-se, no 1º dia de armazenamento, com menor perda de massa, mais verdes, com maior liberação de CO2, mais firmes, com menores teores de sólidos solúveis e maior porcentagem de amido, quando comparados àqueles climatizados aos 2 e 3 dias após a colheita. Essa diferença foi reduzida com o decorrer do armazenamento praticamente se igualando os tratamentos ao final do armazenamento.The ripening of bananas, as induced by acclimatization, it is a procedure that has been used widely. It provides an uniform maturation, so overcoming the irregular maturation due to the formation of the fruits in bunches with different ages. Nonetheless, there are no specific studies relating the quality of the fruits and the time between the harvest and the acclimatization. In this sense, the present work used the physico-chemical characteristics of the 'prata' bananas to evaluate their quality when submitted to

  9. Colonization of Trichoderma H6 in Banana and its Effect on the Growth of Banana%体内定殖木霉H6对香蕉苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚; 谭昕; 汪军; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    对木霉H6进行抗药性标记,通过盆栽试验,研究其在香蕉体内定殖情况及其对香蕉苗生长的影响。结果表明,木霉H6可在香蕉苗的根、球茎、假茎、叶中传导并稳定定殖;体内定殖了木霉H6的香蕉苗的生长明显优于未定殖的香蕉苗,说明木霉H6在香蕉体内的定殖促进了香蕉苗的生长。%Trichoderma H6 was tagged with antibiotic resistance, and inoculated into the potted banana plants to observe its colonization in the plants and its effect on the plant growth. The results showed that Trichoderma H6 was conducted and colonized in the roots, corms, pseudostems and leaves of the banana plants, and that the banana plants colonized in vivo with Trichoderma H6 grew obviously better than the control plants without in vivo colonization of Trichoderma H6, indicating Trichoderma H6 would improve the growth of banana plants when colonized in the banana plants.

  10. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  11. Trait-based characterisation of soil exploitation strategies of banana, weeds and cover plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Florence; Damour, Gaëlle; Dorel, Marc; Moreau, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Cover plants can be introduced in cropping systems to provide agroecosystem services, including weed control via competition for resources. There is currently no consensus on how to identify the best cover plant species, while trait-based approaches are promising for screening plant species due to their agroecosystem service provision potential. This study was carried out to characterize soil exploitation strategies of cover plant species in banana agroecosystems using a trait-based approach, and in turn identify cover plant species with a high weed control potential via competition for soil resources in banana cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted on 17 cover plant species, two weed species and two banana cultivars grown individually. Four functional traits were measured. Two of them (i.e., the size of the zone explored by roots and the root impact density) were used to characterize root system soil exploration patterns. Two other traits (i.e., specific root length and root diameter) were used to characterize resource acquisition within the soil zone explored by the roots. All studied traits exhibited marked variations among species. The findings suggested a trade-off between the abilities of species to develop a limited number of large diameter roots exploring a large soil zone versus many thin roots exploring a smaller soil zone. Three soil-resource exploitation strategies were identified among species: (i) with large diameter roots that explore a large soil zone; (ii) with small diameter roots and a high specific length that explore a smaller soil zone; and (iii) with a high total root-impact density and an intermediate specific root length that explore the uppermost soil layers. Interestingly, in our panel of species, no correlations with regard to belowground and aboveground strategies were noted: species with an acquisitive belowground strategy could display an acquisitive or a conservative aboveground strategy. The findings of this study

  12. Heat shock transcription factors in banana: genome-wide characterization and expression profile analysis during development and stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Xia, Feiyu; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa acuminata) is one of the most popular fresh fruits. However, the rapid spread of fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) in tropical areas severely affected banana growth and production. Thus, it is very important to identify candidate genes involved in banana response to abiotic stress and pathogen infection, as well as the molecular mechanism and possible utilization for genetic breeding. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are widely known for their common involvement in various abiotic stresses and plant-pathogen interaction. However, no MaHsf has been identified in banana, as well as its possible role. In this study, genome-wide identification and further analyses of evolution, gene structure and conserved motifs showed closer relationship of them in every subgroup. The comprehensive expression profiles of MaHsfs revealed the tissue- and developmental stage-specific or dependent, as well as abiotic and biotic stress-responsive expressions of them. The common regulation of several MaHsfs by abiotic and biotic stress indicated the possible roles of them in plant stress responses. Taken together, this study extended our understanding of MaHsf gene family and identified some candidate MaHsfs with specific expression profiles, which may be used as potential candidates for genetic breeding in banana. PMID:27857174

  13. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  14. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

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    Prasanta K Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit Banana entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution genotype of M. acuminata. This wonder crop, as of today, remains untouched by the green revolution and researchers face intrinsic impediments for varietal improvement to enhance its yield. The complex genome of banana was decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Banana has historically faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small and marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding of its structural genome has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unravelling the process of parthenocarpy for better fruit quality, and fruit ripening in this climacteric fruit. Injunction of comparative genomics research will usher in to integrate information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  15. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

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    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  16. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

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    Habsah Alwi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SSs, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages by banana stem juice were 80.1%, 88.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, observed for effluent at pH 7 using 90 mL dosage. The inulin concentration in the banana stem was examined to be 1.22016 mg/mL. It could be concluded that banana stem juice showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes and could be applied in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian spent coolant wastewater prior to secondary treatment.

  17. Potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of some constituents of coffee and banana residues.

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    Rambo, M K D; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, M M C

    2013-05-01

    Banana (stalk, leaf, rhizome, rachis and stem) and coffee (leaf and husks) residues are promising feedstock for fuel and chemical production. In this work we show the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate analysis to replace reference methods in the characterization of some constituents of coffee and banana residues. The evaluated parameters were Klason lignin (KL), acid soluble lignin (ASL), total lignin (TL), extractives, moisture, ash and acid insoluble residue (AIR) contents of 104 banana residues (B) and 102 coffee (C) residues from Brazil. PLS models were built for banana (B), coffee (C) and pooled samples (B+C). The precision of NIR methodology was better (p0.80. The range error ratios varied from 4.5 to 16.0. Based on the results of external validation, the statistical tests and figures of merit, NIR spectroscopy proved to be useful for chemical prediction of banana and coffee residues and can be used as a faster and more economical alternative to the standard methodologies.

  18. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen sulfide in cold-stored banana fruit.

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    Li, Dong; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Li, Li; Du, Ruixue; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana fruit under chilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5mM) of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24h, were initially stored at 7°C for 14d and 20°C for another 6d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the activity of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge.

  19. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

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    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  20. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...