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Sample records for ban preliminary engineering

  1. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  2. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  3. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties of Soils in the New Yenagoa Town, Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta. ... Therefore, adequate attention should be given to the likely physical environmental degradation of river bank failure and liquefaction condition that may evolve as a result of ...

  5. Shiguri Ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2006-01-01

    Introduktion til den japanske arkitekt Shiguri Ban og hans arbejde med paprør som konstruktionsmateriale i arkitektur......Introduktion til den japanske arkitekt Shiguri Ban og hans arbejde med paprør som konstruktionsmateriale i arkitektur...

  6. Preliminary study of propyl bromide exposure among New Jersey dry cleaners as a result of a pending ban on perchloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James D; Schill, Donald P; De La Cruz, Mary Pauline; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-09-01

    Many states are considering, and some states have actively pursued, banning the use of perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning establishments. Proposed legislation has led many dry cleaners to consider the use of products that contain greater than 90% n-propyl bromide (n-PB; also called 1-bromopropane or 1-BP). Very little information is known about toxicity and exposure to n-PB. Some n-PB-containing products are marketed as nonhazardous and "green" or "organic." This has resulted in some users perceiving the solvent as nontoxic and has resulted in at least one significant poisoning incident in New Jersey. In addition, many dry cleaning operators may not realize that the machine components and settings must be changed when converting from PERC to n-PB containing products. Not performing these modifications may result in overheating and significant leaks in the dry cleaning equipment. A preliminary investigation was conducted of the potential exposures to n-PB and isopropyl bromide (iso-PB; also called 2-bromopropane or 2-BP) among dry cleaners in New Jersey who have converted their machines from PERC to these new solvent products. Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Sampling and Analytical Method 1025, with a slight modification to gas chromatography conditions to facilitate better separation of n-PB from iso-PB. During the preliminary investigation, exposures to n-PB among some workers in two of three shops were measured that were greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for n-PB. The highest exposure measured among a dry cleaning machine operator was 54 parts per million (ppm) as an 8-hr time-weighted average, which is more than 5 times the ACGIH TLV of 10 ppm. The preliminary investigation also found that the work tasks most likely to result in the highest short-term exposures included the introduction of

  7. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  8. Preliminary engineering requirements on accelerators for ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.; Cinotti, L.; Farrar, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology adopted for the definition of accelerator reliability requirements and the preliminary results obtained by the European Industrial partnership involved in the development of an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) demonstrator. The current feedback from the operation of high power accelerators exhibits a tendency toward a significant number of beam trips of varying duration. Thus, the number of shutdown transients is potentially significantly higher than for critical reactors. In order to specify reliability targets for accelerator development, the influence of a large number of beam trips on the structural integrity of ADS reactor subsystems (window/target, fuel, structures, components) has to be assessed. As far as the reactor structures are concerned, the analysis can be based on the large experience gained on structural mechanics for sodium-cooled critical fast breeder reactors (FBR) and extrapolated to both gas-cooled and liquid metal [sodium or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE)] cooled ADS. (authors)

  9. Preliminary engineering analysis for clothes washers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    The Engineering Analysis provides information on efficiencies, manufacturer costs, and other characteristics of the appliance class being analyzed. For clothes washers, there are two classes: standard and compact. Since data were not available to analyze the compact class, only clothes washers were analyzed in this report. For this analysis, individual design options were combined and ordered in a manner that resulted in the lowest cumulative cost/savings ratio. The cost/savings ratio is the increase in manufacturer cost for a design option divided by the reduction in operating costs due to fuel and water savings.

  10. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  11. Preliminary Biofuel Treatment in Injector Bodies of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleh

    2012-03-01

    The paper discusses possibilities of increasing the performance parameters of a diesel engine and decreasing the emission of toxic compounds contained in exhaust gases by using preliminary catalytic treatment of biofuel, executed directly in the injector body. In order to enhance the impact of the catalyst on the flowing fuel the author proposes to utilize the phenomenon of turbulization in injector passages. The results of tests on a 359 type engine have shown an improvement of operational parameters and a decrease of toxic emission in exhaust gases.

  12. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  13. A preliminary engineering assessment of the ITER CDA ECH launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.; Swain, D.W.; Sawan, M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary engineering study of the ITER electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launcher configuration proposed by the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) team has been performed to assess its survivability in the ITER nuclear environment. Potential problem areas are with the vacuum windows, the plasma-facing mirrors, and some of the other high-power waveguide components that are untested in a reactor environment. The study indicates that the CDA design is quite robust, since the mirror power density is relatively low and the windows are well shielded. Although the CDA ECH system is unlikely to be built as proposed, most analysis techniques developed to study this system will apply to future ITER ECH system configurations. The vacuum window is likely to be the most difficult launcher component to develop. Design for a proposed resonant ring for high-power testing of windows using existing lower-power gyrotrons is presented

  14. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question: Under what conditions do democracies ban political parties? It does so by exploring three hypotheses generated by a disparete literature on party bans and in light of the 2003 ban on radical Basque nationalist parties Herri Batasuna, Euskal Herritarrok...... and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...... relevant office holders, or those holding a majority in parliament, have reason to believe they will not be disadvantaged electorally for supporting the ban....

  15. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  16. Voices of the Banned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2018-01-01

    In Western cities, public authorities are increasingly resorting to the use of patron banning orders as means of reducing alcohol and other drug-related harms in nightlife. While the use of banning orders is often hailed by authorities, due to their presumed deterrent and crime reduction effects...... of patrons as rational actors, as well as linear notions of cause and effect, this article challenges such conceptions. Instead, this article draws on actor network theory, and an understanding of banned youth as situated in networks of relations, in order to provide insights into how the effects of banning...

  17. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  18. Banning standard cell engineering notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A family of standardized thick-oxide P-MOS building blocks (standard cells) is described. The information is presented in a form useful for systems designs, logic design, and the preparation of inputs to both sets of Design Automation programs for array design and analysis. A data sheet is provided for each cell and gives the cell name, the cell number, its logic symbol, Boolean equation, truth table, circuit schematic circuit composite, input-output capacitances, and revision date. The circuit type file, also given for each cell, together with the logic drawing contained on the data sheet provides all the information required to prepare input data files for the Design Automation Systems. A detailed description of the electrical design procedure is included.

  19. Nonessential Products Ban Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion by banning the sale and introduction into interstate commerce of certain non-essential products manufactured with or containing ozone-depleting substances.

  20. Comprehensive test ban negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

    1983-10-01

    Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

  1. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HUMOUR IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIOW C. LIM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that humour has an implication on the process of teaching and learning. However, there is still limited study done on the implication of humour in teaching and learning engineering courses. This paper studies the perception and experience of engineering lecturers and students towards the incorporation of sense of humour in the teaching and learning of engineering courses. Online and offline surveys were conducted on the students and lecturers from the school of engineering, Taylors’ University respectively. Several interesting insights were drawn from the responses with the general consensus from both students and lecturers that humour helps in enhancing the teaching and learning process. Real case examples of how the lecturers deliver their lectures with humour were also presented.

  2. Title I preliminary engineering for: A. S. E. F. solid waste to methane gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    An assignment to provide preliminary engineering of an Advanced System Experimental Facility for production of methane gas from urban solid waste by anaerobic digestion is documented. The experimental facility will be constructed on a now-existing solid waste shredding and landfill facility in Pompano Beach, Florida. Information is included on: general description of the project; justification of basic need; process design; preliminary drawings; outline specifications; preliminary estimate of cost; and time schedules for design and construction of accomplishment of design and construction. The preliminary cost estimate for the design and construction phases of the experimental program is $2,960,000, based on Dec. 1975 and Jan. 1976 costs. A time schedule of eight months to complete the Detailed Design, Equipment Procurement and the Award of Subcontracts is given.

  3. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system preliminary analysis and design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    A flight propulsion system preliminary design was established that meets the program goals of at least a 12 percent reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption, at least a five percent reduction in direct operating cost, and one-half the performance deterioration rate of the most efficient current commercial engines. The engine provides a high probability of meeting the 1978 noise rule goal. Smoke and gaseous emissions defined by the EPA proposed standards for engines newly certified after 1 January 1981 are met with the exception of NOx, despite incorporation of all known NOx reduction technology.

  4. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  5. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Over-all Performance of Experimental Turbojet Engine for Guided Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Robert H.; Berkey, William E.

    1947-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the over-all performance of a simply constructed, short-life, turbojet engine was conducted. The unit was operated at a pressure altitude of 15,000 feet for ram-pressure ratios of 1.2 t o 1.8. The corrected engine speed was varied from the minimum for good combustion to about 17,000 rpm, which is approximately 75 percent of rated speed. The performance is given by generalized parameters that permit the calculation of performance at any altitude. The corrected net thrust of the turbojet engine increased with ram-pressure ratio for a given corrected engine speed above 14,500 rpm and reached a maximum of 425 pounds at a ram-pressure ratio of 1.8 and a corrected engine speed of 16,650 rpm, The corrected thrust specific fuel consumption decreased with flight speed for corrected engine speeds higher than 13,600 rpm, The minimum corrected thrust specific fuel consumption of 1.48 was obtained at a ram-pressure ratio of 1,8 and a corrected engine speed of 15,000 rpm. For all ram-pressure ratios, choking occurred in the engine for corrected engine speeds greater than 14,500 rpm.

  7. Preliminary conceptual engineering design considerations for the MX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Calderon, M.U.; Hibbs, S.M.; Kozman, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mirror experiment was designed to develop the technologies necessary to make the transition from the presently small-scale physics experiments (2XIIB and BBII) to large-scale steady-state DT burning systems, such as the Fusion Engineering Research Facility (FERF) and Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors (CTR) based on plasma confinement in open magnetic geometry. The confinement parameters in the design of the present machine include a 20-kG central field with a mirror ratio of 2 to 1 and an overall BL product approximately 5 times greater than that currently available with the 2XIIB compression coils (or a mirror-to-mirror length of 3.4 m). Several types of Yin-Yang minimum parallel B parallel geometries were studied, and a ''displaced'' Yin-Yang was chosen because the center of the machine is easily accessable between the coils and between the magnet lobes. Other important design considerations include the target plasma system, the vacuum system, and the injectors. The target plasma system includes a pellet generating system used to produce a 400-μm deuterium pellet and a two-arm laser system where the laser energy is produced from a 1-kJ, 10-GW CO 2 laser at 100 ns

  8. Preliminary draft: environmental impact statement for Hot Fuels Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Carpenter, J.A. Jr.; Cotter, S.J.; Harrington, F.E.; Hinkle, N.E.; Johnson, D.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lin, K.H.

    1980-03-01

    The proposed action considered in this report is the construction and operation of the Hot Fuels Engineering Laboratory (HFEL) to be located in Building 7930, the Thorium-Uranium Recycle Facility (TURF), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The successful operation of the HFEL, as described in this report, will provide generic demonstrations of safe, economical fuel fabrication processes for fuels which are inherently highly radioactive or fuels to which a high level of radioactivity has been added to reduce the probability of illicit diversion. The proposed action will demonstrate the process and equipment remote operability with high levels of radioactivity present (up to 10,000 R/h). Three fuel fabrication processes will be tested: the gel-sphere-pac and sphere-cal processes for metal clad fuel pins and the production of HTGR-green-fuel-rods for insertion into graphite elements. Each process will be tested for two types of fuel: uranium-plutonium and 233 U-thorium. In each case, the product will be a small number of fuel pins or rods, which will be suitable for testing in other phases of the National Program Plan of the Department of Energy. The facility will accommodate other types of fuels and processes if so desired

  9. Prediction of the Main Engine Power of a New Container Ship at the Preliminary Design Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepowski, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents mathematical relationships that allow us to forecast the estimated main engine power of new container ships, based on data concerning vessels built in 2005-2015. The presented approximations allow us to estimate the engine power based on the length between perpendiculars and the number of containers the ship will carry. The approximations were developed using simple linear regression and multivariate linear regression analysis. The presented relations have practical application for estimation of container ship engine power needed in preliminary parametric design of the ship. It follows from the above that the use of multiple linear regression to predict the main engine power of a container ship brings more accurate solutions than simple linear regression.

  10. Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval And Transfer System Preliminary Design Hazard Analysis Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.R.; Meichle, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  11. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  12. Programmer's manual for the Banning artwork program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    The document is intended to serve as the programmer's Manual for the Banning Artwork Program. A detailed description of the internal logic and flow of the Artwork Program has been included in this report. It is recommended that every user review this manual in order to receive an appreciation of the functions performed by the Artwork Program; however, the User's Manual for the Artwork Program contains sufficient information to allow the designer/engineer to efficiently use the Artwork Program. Before beginning a detailed study of this Programmer's Manual, the reader should have a complete understanding of the contents of the User's Manual for the Banning Artwork Program. It is assumed that the programmer using this manual has a working knowledge of FORTRAN IV.

  13. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatchell, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  14. Thoughts on Book Banning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Uluğbay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, written by the author who used to be one of the former ministers of national education, includes some instances that took place in different date ranges in Turkey and different countries around the world about book censorship. It is emphasized in the article that censorship has been in public agenda since history of religions, some books with various subjects in different periods has been censored especially due to public safety and decency. The author states that philosophers particularly such as authors, publishers, journalists and scientists have been suppressed in each period by indicating that censorship is mainly derived from differences of ideas and the root of the problem is violation of freedom of thought and thought broadcast. The article supports the idea that book censorship is against democracy by citing quotations from famous statesmen, scientists, lawyers and litterateurs from past to present. Suggestions were made for governments about subjects such as freedom of thought and freedom of press which are the basis of democracy by referring to the “banned books week” as an example from the USA. It is suggested that such practices should be initiated in Turkey as well on the path towards the solution of the problem.

  15. Preliminary Modelling Results for an Otto Cycle/Stirling Cycle Hybrid-engine-based Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim; Feidt, Michel; Petrescu, Stoian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data and results for a system mathematical model for a proposed Otto Cycle / Stirling Cycle hybrid-engine-based power generation system. The system is a combined cycle system with the Stirling cycle machine operating as a bottoming cycle on the Otto cycle exhaust. The application considered is that of a stationary power generation scenario wherein the Stirling cycle engine operates as a waste heat recovery device on the exhaust stream of the Otto cycle engine. ...

  16. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, T.H.; Gehner, P.D.; Stegen, Gary; Hymas, Jay; Pajunen, A.L.; Sexton, Rich; Ramsey, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  17. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  18. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  19. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  20. The Blasphemy Ban in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassmè; Lassen, Eva Maria

    2017-01-01

    in political concern for the possible effects of an abolition of art. 140 on the status and circumstances of religious minorities in Denmark. In this article, we will first look at the historical development of the blasphemy ban, leading to the current art. 140 of the Danish Penal Code. The content and scope...... of art. 140 will be sketched, followed by a discussion of the few cases brought to court since 1933, reaching a climax with the Muhammed Cartoons in 2006. One legal particularity of the blasphemy ban will be given special attention, namely the reference to art. 140 in the Danish Alien’s Act which has...... the potential to bring the ban on blasphemy back to life by bringing it into play with penal systems of other countries with blasphemy laws. The article proceeds to outline the reactions of international human rights bodies to art. 140, focussing on the statement of the UN Special Rapporteur on Religion...

  1. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  2. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, K. L.; Rawlinson, K. S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program has, as one of its program elements, the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program's goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia's Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  3. LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site

  4. A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M.; Moor, K.S.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified

  5. A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M.; Moor, K.S.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified.

  6. The Banning of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the 1985 resolution of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) for participation in the interdisciplinary effort to ban corporal punishment. Discusses distinctions between discipline and child abuse. Reports medical and psychological effects of physical punishment, and relationships between school corporal punishment…

  7. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  8. 16 CFR 1301.5 - Banning criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banning criteria. 1301.5 Section 1301.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF UNSTABLE REFUSE BINS § 1301.5 Banning criteria. (a) Any refuse bin of metal construction produced or...

  9. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  10. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  11. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  12. Engineering seismic demand in the 2012 Emilia sequence: preliminary analysis and model compatibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iunio Iervolino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Emilia 2012 sequence featured seven events of moment magnitude (M >5, five of which occurred between May 20 and May 29, 2012. These earthquakes were structurally damaging over a wide area. The damage included partial or total collapse of industrial precast reinforced-concrete structures, historical masonry, and mainly nonstructural damage to reinforced-concrete buildings; see Section 8 (Data and sharing resources for damage report repository. These structural typologies are, in principle, sensitive to different ground-motion intensity measures. For example, loss of support requires significant displacement demand at relatively long periods, while infilling damage is due to the ground-motion amplitude at higher frequencies, and masonry structures are comparatively more sensitive to the cyclic content of ground shaking. Moreover, because events were concentrated in time and space, it can be argued that the cumulative effects of the sequence contributed to the damage. As the current seismic code [C.S.LL.PP. 2008] uses a seismic hazard map [Stucchi et al. 2011] to determine the seismic actions for structural design, when a strong earthquake occurs, probabilistic estimates are understandably questioned for their consistency with respect to the observed ground motion. While it is easy to show that in terms of frequency of exceedance of intensity measures, the hazard can hardly be validated via the records of a single earthquake [e.g., Iervolino 2012], on the other hand, it can certainly be verified whether the observations are compatible or atypical with respect to what is predicted by the tools used in best-practice hazard studies. These issues mostly motivated the preliminary analysis briefly presented in this report; i.e., to investigate the engineering seismic demand (peak and cyclic and to compare this with the prediction models. Both elastic and inelastic demands were considered. Indeed, the inelastic demands are more important from the

  13. Preliminary test on filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer in the engineering barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka

    2002-12-01

    In geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the engineered barrier system (EBS) (buffer, waste packages (capsulate the vitrified waste)) is installed in the space of a repository using the remote control technique due to protect workers from radiation. The block type buffer, as one of the candidate options of the installation of the buffer, has the gap between buffer and rock or waste package. In this case, the highly compacted buffer will be used to fill the gap by the swollen buffer. Swelling of the buffer is considered to begin from the surface of the buffer where groundwater infiltrates. Infiltration of groundwater into the buffer is considered to be 3 dimensional, because the gap and the infiltration points of the buffer are distributed spatially. Therefore, the scatter of the swelling points of the buffer causes the non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer. Such non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer will affect the thickness of the buffer between waste package and rock mass. Then, preliminary tests that simulate 3 dimensional filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer were performed. The test results showed the swollen buffer filled the gap rapidly. There is scatter of the density of the buffer early, but the tendency that the density of the buffer became uniformity with time was observed. It is considered that the swelling and fluidity of the buffer occurs simultaneously, the swelling of the buffer for filling the gap will affect the thickness of the buffer. (author)

  14. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  15. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  16. Ban the Hickory Stick. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Nita H.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that corporal punishment should be banned from every school as a means of classroom discipline, and presents teachers and administrators with workable alternatives to disciplining children. (BB)

  17. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  18. Preliminary test on filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer in the engineered barrier system. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Tanai, Kenji

    2003-11-01

    In geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the engineered barrier system (EBS) (buffer, waste packages (capsulate the vitrified waste)) is installed in the space of a repository using the remote control technique due to protect workers from radiation. The block type buffer, as one of the candidate options of the installation of the buffer, has the gap between buffer and rock or waste package. In this case, the highly compacted buffer will be used to fill the gap by the swollen buffer. Swelling of the buffer is considered to begin from the surface of the buffer where groundwater infiltrates. Infiltration of groundwater into the buffer is considered to be 3 dimensional, because the gap and the infiltration points of the buffer are distributed spatially. Therefore, non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer will affect the thickness of the buffer between waste package and rock mass. Long term experiments of preliminary tests that simulate 3 dimensional filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer were performed. Other test simulates the vertical emplacement option was performed, too. The test results showed that as follows; In Horizontal emplacement option, swelling of the buffer began from the surface of the buffer. Swollen buffer infiltrated into gap region there is no stress against infiltration of the buffer. Distribution of the density of the buffer was changed with time. In vertical emplacement option, there is scatter of the density of the buffer also. In center region which has the buffer initial, density was still high. Near the surface of test cell, density of the buffer was low. In this case, since the buffer was installed at the center of the test cell, density of the buffer was uniform in a circumference section. In case of swelling of the buffer with the gap, initial condition, swelling behavior and change of the density after filled the gap of the buffer should be observed. (author)

  19. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  20. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria

  1. From BAN to AmI-BAN : micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  2. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  3. Preliminary Entry Trajectory for 1st Orbital Flight Test (OFT). Space Shuttle Engineering and Operations Support, Engineering Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohme, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary trajectory from entry interface to terminal area energy management interface for the first orbital flight test is presented based on information in the Strawman master flight test assignments document Reference A. The enclosed point-mass trajectory may be utilized for preliminary purposes, meeting the requirements of this document. The trajectory was derived utilizing the January 1975 analytic drag control guidance, the latest thermal protection subsystem model information from NASA ES and December 1974 Aerodynamics for a mid center-of-gravity location.

  4. Banned Books Week: Just the Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1982, Banned Books Week is celebrated annually during the last week in September and will be observed from September 26-October 3 in 2009. The event acknowledges Americans' right to read the books of their choice regardless of whether the ideas, language, or images are controversial. This annual observance of banned books is a good…

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Banned Corticosteroids in Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative Assessment of Banned Corticosteroids in Cosmetic Creams in Lagos Metropolis. B O Silva. Abstract. Background: Cosmetic creams are widely used for good causes. They however pose dangers when they contain banned corticosteroids. As part of its control measures and its effort on public safety, NAFDAC ...

  6. Fish-Friendly Hydropower Turbine Development & Deployment: Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, J. [Voith Hydro, Inc., York, PA (USA); Hecker, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Li, S. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Allen, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA)

    2011-10-01

    within ranges expected for conventional radial flow machines. Based on these measurements, the expected efficiency peak for prototype application is 93.64%. These data were used in the final sizing of the supporting mechanical and balance of plant equipment. The preliminary equipment cost for the design specification is $1450/kW with a total supply schedule of 28 months. This equipment supply includes turbine, generator, unit controls, limited balance of plant equipment, field installation, and commissioning. Based on the selected head and flow design conditions, fish passage survival through the final turbine is estimated to be approximately 98% for 7.9-inch (200-mm) fish, and the predicted survival reaches 100% for fish 3.9 inches (100 mm) and less in length. Note that fish up to 7.9- inches (200 mm) in length make up more than 90% of fish entrained at hydro projects in the United States. Completion of these efforts provides a mechanical and electrical design that can be readily adapted to site-specific conditions with additional engineering development comparable to costs associated with conventional turbine designs.

  7. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) represents the next evolutionary step in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. Deriving its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core, the NTR can generate high thrust at a specific impulse of approx. 900 seconds or more - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. In FY'11, as part of the AISP project, NASA proposed a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) effort that envisioned two key activities - "Foundational Technology Development" followed by system-level "Technology Demonstrations". Five near-term NTP activities identified for Foundational Technology Development became the basis for the NCPS project started in FY'12 and funded by NASA's AES program. During Phase 1 (FY'12-14), the NCPS project was focused on (1) Recapturing fuel processing techniques and fabricating partial length "heritage" fuel elements for the two candidate fuel forms identified by NASA and the DOE - NERVA graphite "composite" and the uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten "cermet". The Phase 1 effort also included: (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Mission Analysis and Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary plan for DDT&E was outlined by GRC, the DOE and industry for NASA HQ that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce development costs, the GTD and FTD tests use a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 or 16.5 klbf) engine. Both engines use graphite composite fuel and a "common" fuel element design that is scalable to higher thrust (approx. 25 klbf) engines by increasing the number of elements in a larger diameter core that can produce greater thermal power output. To keep the FTD mission cost down, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered along with

  8. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  9. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  11. Microstrip Patch Antenna for Ban Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sehrish Rashid, Sana Ahmad; Muhammad Talha Asghar; Irum Gillani and Nida Kiyan

    2014-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna is designed for UWB (Ultra Wide Band) range i-e; 3.1GHz-10.6GHz. The antenna is particularly designed for BAN (Body are Network) applications. The substrate used is Rogers RT Duroid 5880 with thickness 1.577mm. Comparison between UWB antenna with and without body phantom is presented. It is shown that an UWB antenna can be modified and used for BAN. Radiation patterns and return loss plots are also shown.

  12. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  13. Preliminary Comparison of Three Search Engines for Point of Care Access to MEDLINE® Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Ford, Glenn M.; Jacobs, Joshua L.; Thoma, George

    2006-01-01

    Medical resident physicians used MD on Tap in real time to search for MEDLINE citations relevant to clinical questions using three search engines: Essie, Entrez and Google™, in order of performance. PMID:17238564

  14. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENGINEERED-MANUFACTURED NANOMATERIALS: RESEARCH CHALLENGES AND PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology continues to produce a diversity of engineered nanomaterials (NMs), displaying novel physicochemical properties with applications in commercial, consumer, electronic, biomedical, energy, and environmental sectors. Nanotechnology has been referred to as the next in...

  15. Systematic literature reviews in software engineering: preliminary results from interviews with researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zhang, He

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs) have been gaining significant attention from software engineering researchers since 2004. Several researchers have reported their experiences of and lessons learned from applying systematic reviews to different subject matters in software engineering. However, there has been no attempt at independently exploring experiences and perceptions of the practitioners of systematic reviews in order to gain an in-depth understanding of various aspe...

  16. A preliminary investigation on the effects of characteristics and contractual behaviour on civil engineering project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, W. N. W.; Adnan, H.; Yusuwan, N.; Maisham, M.; Hassan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The significant role of civil engineering project is not only to make the lives of people easier and secure but also to trigger the economic growth by providing infrastructure facilities as well as job opportunities. As it is dominantly initiated by government sectors, performance of the civil engineering projects is always observed. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of civil engineering project and the contractual behavior of the key participants and how do these two factors affect civil engineering projects performance. Literature reviews, content analysis and questionnaires survey were conducted to undertake the research. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed and 10 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a 20% response rate. The research unveiled that performance of civil engineering projects are influenced greatly by the ability to handle the unpredictable character of the civil engineering projects and adequate behavioral management. Apart from that, balancing the factors with high quality of workmanship, avoidance or well managed conflicts and high satisfaction level will ensure performance in projects.

  17. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  18. Banning design automation software implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehlthau, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The research is reported for developing a system of computer programs to aid engineering in the design, fabrication, and testing of large scale integrated circuits, hybrid circuits, and printed circuit boards. The automatic layout programs, analysis programs, and interface programs are discussed.

  19. The Spatial Vision Tree: A Generic Pattern Recognition Engine- Scientific Foundations, Design Principles, and Preliminary Tree Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    New foundational ideas are used to define a novel approach to generic visual pattern recognition. These ideas proceed from the starting point of the intrinsic equivalence of noise reduction and pattern recognition when noise reduction is taken to its theoretical limit of explicit matched filtering. This led us to think of the logical extension of sparse coding using basis function transforms for both de-noising and pattern recognition to the full pattern specificity of a lexicon of matched filter pattern templates. A key hypothesis is that such a lexicon can be constructed and is, in fact, a generic visual alphabet of spatial vision. Hence it provides a tractable solution for the design of a generic pattern recognition engine. Here we present the key scientific ideas, the basic design principles which emerge from these ideas, and a preliminary design of the Spatial Vision Tree (SVT). The latter is based upon a cryptographic approach whereby we measure a large aggregate estimate of the frequency of occurrence (FOO) for each pattern. These distributions are employed together with Hamming distance criteria to design a two-tier tree. Then using information theory, these same FOO distributions are used to define a precise method for pattern representation. Finally the experimental performance of the preliminary SVT on computer generated test images and complex natural images is assessed.

  20. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's)

  1. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  2. Preliminary Assessment of the Emporium Model in a Redesigned Engineering Mechanics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Walters, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A lecture-based engineering mechanics course (Statics) is redesigned using the Emporium model. Whereas students study the material outside of class via asynchronous online delivery of the content and instructional videos, they do all the other activities (e.g., assignments, tests) either individually or in groups inside the classroom. Computer-…

  3. Preliminary solution of traffic surfaces within the parcel of the faculty of civil Engineering in Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škondrić Jovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension of the capacities of the Faculty of Civil Engineering building in Subotica in the form of annexes and sports hall (second phase requires an adequate traffic infrastructure that would satisfy the additional demands. The paper presents the possible solution of traffic surfaces that service the entire lot, as well as the landscaping on the free part of the lot.

  4. Preliminary physics-engine model of dolosse interacting with one another

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of armour units are used to protect breakwaters, piers and other harbour infrastructure, serving both to absorb the impact of violent seas and to reduce overtopping. A common type of armour unit is the dolos. Coastal engineers use three...

  5. Preliminary analysis of start up characteristics on SPWR with NESSY (Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Sako, Kiyoshi

    1993-09-01

    NESSY (Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem) has been developed to design advanced marine reactors. SPWR (System integrated PWR) has been designed by JAERI. It doesn't have control rod, and starts up by dilution of boron. we analyzed start up behavior of SPWR by NESSY, and evaluated the safety characteristics on start up and appropriate range of start up rate. (author)

  6. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  7. Trans fat bans and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  8. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  9. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  10. Preliminary Results from Simulations of Temperature Oscillations in Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    . The model contains a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from mass and energy balances for gas filled control volumes and energy balances for regenerator matrix control masses. Interpolation methods with filtering properties are used for state variables at control volume interfaces...... to reduce numerical diffusion and/or non-physical oscillations. Loss mechanisms are included directly in the governing equations as terms in the mass and energy balances. Steady state periodic solutions that satisfy cyclic boundary conditions and integral conditions are calculated using a custom built...... shooting method. It has been found possible to accurately solve the stiff ODE system that describes the coupled thermodynamics of the gas and the regenerator matrix and to reliably find periodic steady state solutions to the model. Preliminary results indicate that the regenerator matrix temperature...

  11. A preliminary study for an engineering assessment of a shallow land burial facility in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Murray, N.

    1987-02-01

    This study characterises a notional low-level waste repository site within the Oxford clay belt, provides a conceptual design for a shallow, engineered repository at the site, and presents a rationale of the multiple-barrier design basis in sufficient detail to enable BRE to rehearse an engineering assessment. Parameters are identified which describe the repository's structural integrity, permeability and effectiveness in physical and chemical containment of nuclides by resistance to diffusive and advective transport. Such parameters may be used by the DoE as input for the mathematical modelling of the repository's post-closure performance under various release scenarios, as part of a full radiological assessment. Limitations in the analytical methods and experience base available for such assessments are identified and suggestions are made for future research activities. (author)

  12. Guest editorial: Industrial Engineering in Namibia - A personal and preliminary view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Snaddon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While Namibia is a Republic with just over two thirds the geographical area of South Africa, its population is only 2.3 million (under 5 percent of that in South Africa. Its estimated production (measured by GDP is $ 9.4billion (US as compared with $ 287billion (US for South Africa (just over 3 percent making it less wealthy per person than South Africa. As a small economy in Southern Africa many people may say that Industrial Engineering in Namibia does not exist. They are incorrect as Industrial Engineers do “the integration of resources and processes into cohesive strategies, structures and systems for the effective and efficient production of quality goods and services” (Sperotto 19941. That includes all who start and run the wealth creating organisations including those in Namibia.

  13. Los Alamos Experimental Engineering Waste Burial Facility: design considerations and preliminary experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a field test site where generic experiments can be performed on several scales to get the basic information necessary to understand the processes occurring in low-level waste disposal facilities. The experiments include hydrological, chemical, mechanical, and biological factors. In order to separate these various factors in the experiments and to extrapolate the experimental results to actual facilities, experiments will be performed on several different scales

  14. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Price Discrimination Bans on Dominant Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.; van Dijk, T.

    2008-01-01

    Competition authorities and regulatory agencies sometimes impose pricing restrictions on firms with substantial market power — the “dominant” firms. We analyze the welfare effects of a ban on behaviour-based price discrimination in a two-period setting where the market displays a competitive and a

  16. Search engines: a first step to finding information: preliminary findings from a study of observed searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Madden

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is a working paper which aims to present the preliminary results of a study into the search behaviour of the general public. The paper reports on the findings of the first six months of an eighteen-month data collection excercise. Method. . Detailed observations were made of nine volunteers, engaged on a variety of search tasks. Some of the tasks were self-selected, others were set by the researchers. Most tasks however, were designed to enable the volunteers to search within their own areas of interest and expertise. Analyses. A set of 'search dimensions' is proposed and qualitative findings based on these are presented. In addition, some initial quantitative findings are discussed. Result. Findings to date suggest that the best search strategy is a combination of simplicity and scrutiny. Volunteers who entered a few search terms but then carefully studied the results, appeared to be more successful than those who attempted to be prescriptive and entered a long series of terms.

  17. WSSRAP [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project] quarry preliminary engineering report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The removal, transport, and temporary storage of radiologically and chemically contaminated bulk waste from the Weldon Spring Quarry will be accomplished by dividing the work into three subcontract packages. The major portion of the work will come under the bulk waste excavation package; construction of a temporary storage area (TSA) at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and of a haul road between the quarry and the TSA comprise the other two packages. Cost estimates to complete the removal range from $5 million to $9.4 million due to a high degree of uncertainty regarding both the productivity of the excavating equipment and the effectiveness of planned dewatering efforts. Quarry wastes will be substantially dewatered and the water treated before discharge. Waste will be excavated in three phases, using conventional construction equipment, with preliminary sorting of waste at the quarry before transport to the TSA. Special attention will be given to controlling the spread of contamination by careful monitoring and control of surface and groundwater drainage and of particulate and radiological contamination of the air. 6 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Preliminary design of a pressurization system for small bipropellant rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Steven

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of developing a device or system that would improve the performance of small, bipropellant rockets through pressurization of the propellants. Due to the limitations in the space industry, namely high development costs and resistance to change, the new approach needed to be as simple and robust as possible. After reviewing several different potential methodologies, a concept was developed from first principles based on small gas turbine engine fuel injection approaches. The concept is simple and has heritage in the field of gas turbine engines, but it is new for the field of rocket propulsion. Using the basic physics of the proposed baseline concept, a simulation was developed to optimize the design parameters and to explore the trade space. Exercising the resulting simulation led to the identification of the critical design parameters and key performance metrics. During the iteration process, the design was updated and finalized. The resulting configuration appears to be feasible and has the potential of providing a new capability for small bipropellant rockets. Based upon the results of the study, recommendations were developed and a plan was created to further the development of the pump.

  19. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  20. A preliminary neutronic evaluation of high temperature engineering test reactor using the SCALE6 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanure, L. P. A. R.; Sousa, R. V.; Costa, D. F.; Cardoso, F.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Pereira, C.

    2014-02-01

    Neutronic parameters of some fourth generation nuclear reactors have been investigated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG. Previous studies show the possibility to increase the transmutation capabilities of these fourth generation systems to achieve significant reduction concerning transuranic elements in spent fuel. To validate the studies, a benchmark on core physics analysis, related to initial testing of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was simulated using the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). The CSAS6/KENO-VI control sequence and the 44-group ENDF/B-V 0 cross-section neutron library were used to evaluate the keff (effective multiplication factor) and the result presents good agreement with experimental value.

  1. Preliminary results from a numerical study on the appendix gap losses in a Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2005-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the losses in the displacer clearance gap, a.k.a. the appendix gap, have been refined during the last decades. But most real life Stirling engines violate the assumptions behind these expressions and hence the expressions may not be applicable. In this study the gap has...... of the spatial discretisation in the gap showed that a relatively coarse discretisation was adequate for studying the appendix gap losses and showed significant variations in the axial wall temperature gradients along the gap. A parameter study on the size of the displacer clearance gap was performed...... with different algorithms for computing the heat transfer in the gap. The results showed higher losses for small gap sizes but smaller losses for large gap sizes when compared to analytical expressions for the appendix gap losses. The appendix gap losses were found to influence both the heat intake and work...

  2. 76 FR 1151 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ11-8-000] City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing December 30, 2010. Take notice that on December 22, 2010, the City of Banning, California (Banning) filed its annual revisions to is Transmission Revenue Balancing Account Adjustment and a...

  3. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...

  4. OpenBAN: An Open Building ANalytics Middleware for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandarasamy Arjunan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards the realization of smart building applications, buildings are increasingly instrumented with diverse sensors and actuators. These sensors generate large volumes of data which can be analyzed for optimizing building operations. Many building energy management tasks such as energy forecasting, disaggregation, among others require complex analytics leveraging collected sensor data. While several standalone and cloud-based systems for archiving, sharing and visualizing sensor data have emerged, their support for analyzing sensor data streams is primitive and limited to rule-based actions based on thresholds and simple aggregation functions. We develop OpenBAN, an open source sensor data analytics middleware for buildings, to make analytics an integral component of modern smart building applications. OpenBAN provides a framework of extensible sensor data processing elements for identifying various building context, which different applications can leverage. We validate the capabilities of OpenBAN by developing three representative real-world applications which are deployed in our test-bed buildings: (i household energy disaggregation, (ii detection of sprinkler usage from water meter data, and (iii electricity demand forecasting. We also provide a preliminary system performance of OpenBAN when deployed in the cloud and locally.

  5. Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2009-05-01

    A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

  6. Preliminary report of biological intrusion studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Arthur, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a larger study on the effects of biological intrusion of plants and animals into the soil cover placed over low-level radioactive wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), research was initiated in the summer of 1982 to determine the burrow characteristics and movement patterns of several small mammal species, and the rooting depths of various plants. The depth, length, and volume of burrows were determined for four small mammal species: deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), montane vole (Microtus montanus), and Townsend's ground squirrel (Spermophilis townsendii). The latter species excavated the greatest mean burrow depth (39 cm), length (404 cm), and volume (14.8 1). Movement patterns of three species were determined by radiotelemetry. The mean area of use for P. maniculatus, D. ordii, and M. montanus was 2.3, 1.5, and 1.2 ha respectively. Limited data on rooting depths of various native and introduced plant species at the SDA were obtained by literature review and excavation. During FY-83, experiments will be conducted, using the information obtained from the first year of this study, to evaluate the impact of burrowing mammals and root intrusion on the integrity of the soil cover currently existing at the SDA. Details of these experimental studies are presented

  7. Engineering Analysis Studies for Preliminary Design of Lightweight Cryogenic Hydrogen Tanks in UAV Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Palko, Joseph L.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Powers, Lynn M.; Mital, Subodh K.; Smith, Lizalyn M.; Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Hunter, James E.

    2006-01-01

    A series of engineering analysis studies were conducted to investigate the potential application of nanoclay-enhanced graphite/epoxy composites and polymer cross-linked silica aerogels in cryogenic hydrogen storage tank designs. This assessment focused on the application of these materials in spherical tank designs for unmanned aeronautic vehicles with mission durations of 14 days. Two cryogenic hydrogen tank design concepts were considered: a vacuum-jacketed design and a sandwiched construction with an aerogel insulating core. Analyses included thermal and structural analyses of the tank designs as well as an analysis of hydrogen diffusion to specify the material permeability requirements. The analyses also provided material property targets for the continued development of cross-linked aerogels and nanoclay-enhanced graphite/epoxy composites for cryogenic storage tank applications. The results reveal that a sandwiched construction with an aerogel core is not a viable design solution for a 14-day mission. A vacuum-jacketed design approach was shown to be far superior to an aerogel. Aerogel insulation may be feasible for shorter duration missions. The results also reveal that the application of nanoclay-enhanced graphite/epoxy should be limited to the construction of outer tanks in a vacuum-jacketed design, since a graphite/epoxy inner tank does not provide a significant weight savings over aluminum and since the ability of nanoclay-enhanced graphite/epoxy to limit hydrogen permeation is still in question.

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S ampersand A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S ampersand A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S ampersand A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  10. Banning short sales and market quality: The UK's experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, I. W.; Payne, R.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects that the ban on short sales of shares in financial firms introduced in late 2008 and removed early 2009 had on the microstructure and the quality of UK equity markets. We show that the ban did nothing to affect order flows: financial stocks were being more aggressively sold off than their peers pre-ban and this situation persisted through the ban period. Trading volume in financials was massively reduced, however. The ban decimated order book liquidity for financials. The...

  11. Preliminary draft: environmental impact statement for Hot Engineering Test Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Baxter, B.J.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1978-08-01

    The project considered is the Hot Engineering Test Project (HETP), which is to be located in largely existing facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The project is a part of the National High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Recycle Program, which seeks to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the recycle processes. The HETP will attempt to confirm the operability of the processes (proven feasible in cold or nonradioactive, benchtop experimentation) under the more realistic radioactive condition. As such, the operation will involve the reprocessing and refabrication of spent HTGR fuel rods obtained from the Fort St. Vrain reactor. The reference fuel is highly enriched uranium. No significant radiological impacts are expected from routine operation of the facility to any biota or ecosystem. Concentrations of one or more radionuclides in Whiteoak Lake will increase as a result of the combination of HETP wastes with other ORNL wastes. Nonradiological effects from construction activities and routine operation should be insignificant on land and water use and on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. No significant socioeconomic impacts should occur from either construction or operation of the facility. Some conservative accident scenarios depict significant releases of radioactivity. Effects should be localized and would not be severe for all but the most unlikely of such incidents. No significant long-term commitment of resources is expected to be required for the project. Nor are any large quantities of scarce or critical resources likely to be irreversibly or irretrievably committed to the project. Principal alternatives considered were: relocation of the project site, postponement of the project schedule, project cancellation, and chemical process variations

  12. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  13. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C Rista, P E; Shull, J; Sargent, S

    2015-01-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen and helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper. (paper)

  14. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  15. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  16. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wan, Sabrina Hei-Man; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-01-01

    As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK) from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK. PMID:29088113

  17. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  18. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Ilijas, B.

    2005-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a cornerstone of the international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and an essential foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. Its total ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion will constrain the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, and was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996. The Treaty will enter into force after it has been ratified by the 44 States listed in its Annex 2. These states possess nuclear power or research reactors. The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Preparatory Commission) is an international organization established by the States Signatories to the Treaty on 19 November 1996. It carries out the necessary preparations for the effective implementation of the Treaty, and prepares for the first session of the Conference of the States Parties to the Treaty. The Treaty has been signed and ratified by the Republic of Croatia and National Commission for the implementation of the Treaty has been established. Basic obligations of the Treaty, as specified in Article I, are: (1) Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. (2) Each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.(author)

  19. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  20. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  1. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Breslauer Strasse 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe (Germany) and Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)] e-mail: j.schleich@isi.fraunhofer.de; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hoppe, Christian [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Seifert, Stefan [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Takon GmbH, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions.

  2. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of international efforts from the partial test-ban Treaty (in atmosphere, in outer space and under water) in 1963 to the Soviet-USA negotiations on verification measures for the threshold test-ban Treaty is given. As was the case in the bilateral and trilateral negotiations, the question of adequate verification procedures has remained one of the major problems in the multilateral considerations on a comprehensive test ban. Over the years, a number of proposals have been made in order to solve the issue, in particular by Sweden and by the Soviet Union. In 1988, the four experimental data centres, situated in Canberra, Moscow, Stockholm and Washington, carried out separate and joint experiments in analysis methodology. Communication techniques between the four international data centres and a number of national seismological stations were also tested. In addition, a global data-gathering experiment was conducted, resulting in the creation of an initial research data base at the experimental data centre in Canberra. Further technical experiments are planned for 1989, an in 1990 a large-scale experiment in data exchange and analysis, involving up to a hundred seismological stations globally and lasting several months, is foreseen

  3. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Health effects of banning beehive coke ovens and implementation of the ban in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Shen, Huizhong; Yun, Xiao; Gao, Fei; Chen, Yilin; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Ma, Jianmin; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Xueping; Tian, Chongguo; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-13

    Environmental legislation and proper implementation are critical in environmental protection. In the past, beehive coke ovens (BCOs) were popular in China, resulting in enormous emissions of benzo[ a ]pyrene (BaP), a common indicator of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. BCOs were banned by the Coal Law in 1996. Although BCO numbers have declined since the ban, they were not eliminated until 2011 due to poor implementation. Here, we present the results of a quantitative evaluation of the health effects of historical BCO operation, the health benefits of the ban, and the adverse impacts of the poor implementation of the ban. With only limited official statistics available, historical and geospatial data about BCOs were reconstructed based on satellite images. Emission inventories of BaP from BCOs were compiled and used to model atmospheric transport, nonoccupational population exposure, and induced lung cancer risk. We demonstrated that more than 20% of the BaP in ambient air was from BCOs in the peak year. The cumulative nonoccupational excess lung cancer cases associated with BaP from BCOs was 3,500 (±1,500) from 1982 to 2015. If there was no ban, the cases would be as high as 9,290 (±4,300), indicating the significant health benefits of the Coal Law. On the other hand, if the ban had been fully implemented immediately after the law was enforced in 1996, the cumulative cases would be 1,500 (±620), showing the importance of implementing the law. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. U.S. Coast Guard Pollution Abatement Program : A Preliminary Report on the Emissions Testing of Boat Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The exhaust emission concentrations from three GM6-71's and a Cummins VT-350 diesel engines were measured on a dynamometer as a function of engine load. The GM6-71 engines were newly rebuilt by the Coast Guard; the Cummins Engine was in used conditio...

  6. Behave or Be Banned? Banning Orders and Selective Exclusion from Public Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuilenburg, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the practice of banning orders in the Netherlands, we investigate how the involved parties are dealing with their new responsibilities. We describe the way the changes in security management exert further influence in the spatial environment of city centers, and we analyze what this

  7. Equity Options During the Shorting Ban of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Cakici

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Securities and Exchange Commission’s 2008 emergency order introduced a shorting ban of some 800 financials traded in the US. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the options market around the ban period. Using transaction level data from OPRA (The Options Price Reporting Authority, we study the options volume, spreads, pricing measures and option trade volume informativeness during the ban. We also consider the put–call parity relationship. While mostly statistically significant, economic magnitudes of our results suggest that the impact of the ban on the equity options market was likely not as dramatic as initially thought.

  8. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 and again in 1987 the General Assembly adopted resolutions by which it called on States conducting nuclear-test explosions to notify the Secretary-General, within one week of each explosion, of the time, place, yield and site characteristics of the test and also invited all other States to provide any such data on nuclear explosions that they might have. Over the years, in the Conference on Disarmament, members of the Group of 21 (mostly neutral and non-aligned countries) have continued to attach the utmost importance to the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty as a significant contribution to the aim of ending the qualitative refinement of nuclear weapons and the development of new types of such weapons as well as of reversing the nuclear-arms race and achieving nuclear disarmament. In 1995 a conference will be convened to decide whether the non-proliferation Treaty will continue in force indefinitely, or will be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Many States support the view that a comprehensive test ban would be a significant contribution to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; and some believe that, without a cessation of nuclear testing, it may not be possible to extend the NPT well beyond 1995. Other States, however, are of the opinion that the NPT, independently, offers benefits for the security of all States and, by its extension, will continue to do so

  9. Investigation of Quaternary slip rates along the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault near San Gorgonio Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Rood, D.; Kendrick, K. J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Sharp, W. D.

    2013-12-01

    Present-day Pacific-North American relative plate motion in southern California is shared primarily between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. At the north end of the Coachella Valley, the San Andreas fault splits into the Banning and Mission Creek strands, which are sub-parallel to each other within the Indio Hills. Northwest of the Indio Hills, the Mission Creek fault diverges from the Banning and continues northwest toward the southeastern San Bernardino Mountains, but loses surface expression beneath Quaternary alluvial deposits in Morongo Wash. The Banning fault, upon exiting the Indio Hills, is deflected toward the west and transitions into a structurally complex fault zone at San Gorgonio Pass, where it is delineated by thrust scarps in Holocene alluvium. The slip rates of the Banning and Mission Creek fault strands northwest of the Indio Hills and southeast of San Gorgonio Pass are presently unconstrained, but understanding how slip is partitioned between these two strands is critical to southern California earthquake forecasting efforts. Here we present preliminary slip rate data for the Banning fault ~2 km southeast of San Gorgonio Pass at Devers Hill. Using the B4 LiDAR as a base, we have mapped the extents of three truncated and offset alluvial fan deposits, which we have differentiated based on both field and remote (LiDAR- and air photo-based) observations of texture: in particular, the distribution of different clast sizes, pavement and soil development, and color and appearance. To confirm across-fault correlation of the displaced deposits, we have measured 26 cosmogenic Be-10 ages from boulders and cobble samples taken from each of the three fan surfaces on both sides of the fault. One debris flow deposit (Q2a) has been dated to ~80 ka, and appears to be offset 1.6-2.2 km, though confirming this reconstruction will depend on future excavations and uranium-series dating of soil carbonate. A second debris flow deposit (Q2b), for which ages are

  10. 76 FR 79678 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ12-3-000] City of Banning...) Tariff of the City of Banning, California (Banning), Banning filed a Petition for Declaratory Order, seeking a declaratory order to (1) accept Banning's annual revisions to its Transmission Revenue Balancing...

  11. 75 FR 857 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-28-000] City of Banning, CA; Notice of Filing December 29, 2009. Take notice that on December 23, 2009, the City of Banning, California filed its seventh annual revision to its Transmission Revenue Balancing Account Adjustment, to...

  12. 77 FR 77073 - City of Banning, California; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ13-4-000] City of Banning, California; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 12, 2012, City of Banning, California submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): Filing 2013 TRBAA and ETC Update to be effective 1/1/2013. Any person...

  13. The Impact of the Workplace Smoking Ban in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    A full work area smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 9.6 percentage points among males and the average daily consumption among smokers by 24 percent relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 88 percent from the sample mean among males. The public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior.

  14. Internationalization of Oman Fisheries Firms After the European Union Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zaibet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the l998 ban on Oman fish exports to the EU markets and ensuing the internationalization of Oman fish companies. The ban raises two concerns that the paper intends to answer: (i how firms have responded to surmount the ban, and (ii which strategies are more effective in the process of internationalization. The paper distinguishes three sets of actions: during the ban and immediate actions; short term actions; and long term actions. Besides government support for the implementation of international norms of quality and safety control, firms have responded individually to the EU ban. The actions subsequently undertaken by firms in response to the ban were selected: identification of new markets (alternatives; implementation of the required regulations and needed support to continue exporting to traditional European markets (competence; and long term business and marketing strategies (strategic thinking. These actions or steps represent the internationalization process or approach followed by the fisheries firms in Oman. All these actions have been undertaken after the EU ban, which leads to the conclusion that the ban has indeed worked as a driving force to internationalize, i.e. to develop the requisites of international markets.

  15. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  16. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  17. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  18. The in-comprehensive test ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

  19. Behave or Be Banned? Banning Orders and Selective Exclusion from Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Schuilenburg, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the practice of banning orders in the Netherlands, we investigate how the involved parties are dealing with their new responsibilities. We describe the way the changes in security management exert further influence in the spatial environment of city centers, and we analyze what this means in terms of equality of rights for all citizens. With this analysis, an attempt to explain the exercise of power beyond the State in policing space in Western countries is provided.

  20. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  1. Banning the bulb: Institutional evolution and the phased ban of incandescent lighting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, Nicholas A.A.; Rosenow, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Much academic attention has been directed at analysing energy efficiency investments through the lens of ‘behavioural failure’. These studies have challenged the neoclassical framing of regulation which emphasises the efficiency benefits of price based policy, underpinned by the notion of rational individual self-mastery. The increasing use of a regulatory ban on electric lamps in many countries is one of the most recent and high profile flash points in this dialectic of ‘freedom-versus-the-state’ in the public policy discourse. This paper interrogates this debate through a study of electric lamp diffusion in Germany. It is argued that neoclassical theory and equilibrium analysis is inadequate as a tool for policy analysis as it takes the formation of market institutions, such as existing regulations, for granted. Further still, it may be prone to encourage idealistic debates around such grand narratives which may in practice simply serve those who benefit most from the status quo. Instead we argue for an evolutionary approach which we suggest offers a more pragmatic framing tool which focuses on the formation of market institutions in light of shifting social norms and political goals—in our case, progress towards energy efficiency and environmental goals. - Highlights: • Empirical data on the ban of incandescent lamps in Germany is presented. • The political debate on the ban is positioned within key bodies of theory. • Discourse was found to have positively influenced diffusion of efficient lighting. • Tools for the reframing of political debate are proposed for policy makers

  2. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... damage or abuse. (2) Dolls and stuffed animals and other similar toys described in § 1500.18(a)(3) in... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions from classification as a banned...; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.86 Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other...

  3. A preliminary study on the integral relationship between critical thinking and mathematical thinking among practicing civil engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Sharifah; Mohammad, Shahrin; Abu, Mohd Salleh

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics and engineering are inexorably and significantly linked and essentially required in analyzing and accessing thought to make good judgment when dealing in complex and varied engineering problems. A study in the current engineering education curriculum to explore how the critical thinking and mathematical thinking relates to one another, is therefore timely crucial. Unfortunately, there is not much information available explicating about the link. This paper aims to report findings of a critical review as well as to provide brief description of an on-going research aimed to investigate the dispositions of critical thinking and the relationship and integration between critical thinking and mathematical thinking during the execution of civil engineering tasks. The first part of the paper reports an in-depth review on these matters based on rather limited resources. The review showed a considerable form of congruency between these two perspectives of thinking, with some prevalent trends of engineering workplace tasks, problems and challenges. The second part describes an on-going research to be conducted by the researcher to investigate rigorously the relationship and integration between these two types of thinking within the perspective of civil engineering tasks. A reasonably close non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews will be executed for the pilot and main stages of the study. The data will be analyzed using constant comparative analysis in which the grounded theory methodology will be adopted. The findings will serve as a useful grounding for constructing a substantive theory revealing the integral relationship between critical thinking and mathematical thinking in the real civil engineering practice context. The substantive theory, from an angle of view, is expected to contribute some additional useful information to the engineering program outcomes and engineering education instructions, aligns with the expectations of

  4. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  5. FCTC followed by accelerated implementation of tobacco advertising bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate changes in countries' enacting advertising bans after the effect of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We compared adoption of advertising bans on five areas (TV and radio, print media, billboards, point-of-sale, sponsorship) in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the Convention. On average, passage of complete advertising bans accelerated after FCTC ratification. The development was strongest among lower middle-income countries. Lack of state capacity was associated with lower likelihood of countries implementing complete advertising bans. Implementation of complete advertising bans slowed after 2007. Implementation of FCTC Article 13 was followed by increased progress towards complete advertising bans, but progress is incomplete, especially among low-income countries. Low-income countries need comprehensive support to implement FCTC as part of a broad effort to reinvigorate progress on global implementation of the FCTC. Enforcing complete bans requires constant monitoring and attacking of tobacco industry efforts to circumvent them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Test ban treaty verification with regional data: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, P.W.; Best, W.J.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of regional (Δ ≤ 30 0 ) seismic data in a test ban context for detecting, locating, identifying, and determining the yield of underground nuclear explosions. In many areas of the world (Eastern North America, Africa, Eastern USSR), Lg is the largest amplitude wave recorded on standard seismograph systems and thus is the most appropriate phase for monitoring small magnitude events. Excellent location capability for near-regional events has been demonstrated at the Norwegian small aperture array (NORESS) using Lg and P waves. Lg and other regional phases may contain information on source depth, but such information has not been exploited to date. Fifteen classes of regional discriminants are listed. Most have been tested only on limited data, usually from one geographic region and only one or two recording stations. No systematic analyses have been done to determine the best individual discriminant or combination of them. Preliminary evaluation of the use of Lg for yield determination suggests that regional waves hold promise in this application. Theoretical studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of propagation characteristics of regional waves but further studies are required emphasizing modeling for realistic anisotropic sources. The major conclusion of this study is that a systematic and comparative evaluation of all the proposed regional discriminants is now required, utilizing a common data base derived from all present-day test sites. This evaluation would suggest the optimal discrimination procedure using regional waves, and would also define areas of needed research. Without such an integrated evaluation, it is still possible to speculate, using existing results, on the most promising regional discriminants

  7. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  8. Test ban compliance: is seismology enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The treaties under debate were signed more than a decade ago: the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) by President Nixon in 1974 and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET) by President Ford in 1976. Between them, they prohibit all underground nuclear blasts with an explosive yield greater than 150 kilotons. When negotiated, verification of the testing agreements was entrusted to seismology, but the remote seismic techniques they must rely on today to monitor Soviet nuclear tests, do not provide yield estimates with the accuracy required for effective verifications of compliance. The alternative seized upon was hydrodynamics. The US technique is called CORRTEX, a mercifully terse acronym for Continuous Reflectometry for Radius versus Time Experiments. A cable connected to a suitcase-sized electrical unit and a microcomputer is buried in a deep satellite hole roughly 50 feet away from the emplacement hole holding the nuclear device. The rate at which the CORRTEX cable is crushed and short-circuited by the shock wave generated by the exploding device provides the yield estimate. The paper compares the accuracy and constraints of both methods, and discusses the Soviet reaction to CORRTEX

  9. Preliminary investigation of the control of a gas-turbine engine for a helicopter / Richard P. Krebs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Richard P

    1951-01-01

    An analog investigation of the power plant for a gas-turbine powered helicopter indicates that currently proposed turbine-propeller engine controls are satisfactory for helicopter application. Power increases from one-half to full rated at altitudes from sea level to 15,000 feet could be made in less than 4 seconds with either the rotor or propellers absorbing the engine power.

  10. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation critera plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. The evaluation and selection process involves the following functions: (1) determining if a configuration can satisfy basic STME requirements (yes/no); (2) defining the evaluation criteria; (3) selecting the criteria relative importance or weighting; (4) determining the weighting sensitivities; and (5) establishing a baseline for engine evaluation. The criteria weighting and sensitivities are cost related and are based on mission models and vehicle requirements. The evaluation process is used as a coarse screen to determine the candidate engines for the parametric studies and as a fine screen to determine concept(s) for conceptual design. The criteria used for the coarse and fine screen evaluation process is shown. The coarse screen process involves verifying that the candidate engines can meet the yes/no screening requirements and a semi-subjective quantitative evaluation. The fine screen engines have to meet all of the yes/no screening gates and are then subjected to a detailed evaluation or assessment using the quantitative cost evaluation processes. The option exists for re-cycling a concept through the quantitative portion of the screening and allows for some degree of optimization. The basic vehicle is a two stage LOX/HC, LOX/LH2 parallel burn vehicle capable of placing 150,000 lbs in low Earth orbit (LEO).

  11. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  12. Building a norm: the banning of anti-personnel landmines

    OpenAIRE

    Neufeld, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Anti-personnel (AP) landmines have historically been used as a military tool. The humanitarian consequences of AP mines have generated support for an absolute ban on their use. Based on pre-existing principles of humanitarian law, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) campaigned for an international agreement banning AP mines. Canada and a group of like-minded states and NGOs provided the leadership and momentum necessary to gain a broad support for the Ottawa Treaty, which prohibits AP mines...

  13. Toward an Asbestos Ban in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Lemen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developed countries have banned the use of asbestos, but not the United States. There have, however, been multiple efforts in the US to establish strict exposure standards, to limit asbestos use, and to seek compensation through the courts for asbestos-injured workers’ In consequence of these efforts, asbestos use has declined dramatically, despite the absence of a legally mandated ban. This manuscript presents a historical review of these efforts.

  14. Effects of Paraquat Ban on Herbicide Poisoning-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong Ryul; Chung, Sung Phil; You, Je Sung; Cho, Soohyung; Park, Yongjin; Chun, Byeongjo; Moon, Jeongmi; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyung Woo; Choi, SangChun; Park, Junseok; Park, Jung Soo; Kim, Seung Whan; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Su Jin; Kang, Hyunggoo; Hong, Dae Young; Hong, Jung Hwa

    2017-07-01

    In Korea, registration of paraquat-containing herbicides was canceled in November 2011, and sales thereof were completely banned in November 2012. We evaluated the effect of the paraquat ban on the epidemiology and mortality of herbicide-induced poisoning. This retrospective study analyzed patients treated for herbicide poisoning at 17 emergency departments in South Korea between January 2010 and December 2014. The overall and paraquat mortality rates were compared pre- and post-ban. Factors associated with herbicide mortality were evaluated using logistic analysis. To determine if there were any changes in the mortality rates before and after the paraquat sales ban and the time point of any such significant changes in mortality, R software, version 3.0.3 (package, bcp) was used to perform a Bayesian change point analysis. We enrolled 2257 patients treated for herbicide poisoning (paraquat=46.8%). The overall and paraquat poisoning mortality rates were 40.6% and 73.0%, respectively. The decreased paraquat poisoning mortality rate (before, 75% vs. after, 67%, p=0.014) might be associated with increased intentionality. The multivariable logistic analysis revealed the paraquat ban as an independent predictor that decreased herbicide poisoning mortality (p=0.035). There were two major change points in herbicide mortality rates, approximately 3 months after the initial paraquat ban and 1 year after complete sales ban. This study suggests that the paraquat ban decreased intentional herbicide ingestion and contributed to lowering herbicide poisoning-associated mortality. The change point analysis suggests a certain timeframe was required for the manifestation of regulatory measures outcomes. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  15. 77 FR 12277 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ12-3-001] City of Banning, CA; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on February 16, 2012, the City of Banning, CA (Banning) submitted a compliance filing with a revised version of Appendix I to Banning's Transmission...

  16. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  17. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  19. Impact of the balance billing ban on California emergency providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Bing; Riner, Myles; Chan, Theodore C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  20. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  1. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, pcigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, pcigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  3. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  4. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  5. Senate follows House in banning funds for needle swaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    The U.S. Senate has approved anti-drug legislation which permanently bans Federal funding for needle-exchange programs. Senator Paul Coverdell of Georgia added the anti-drug legislation to a tobacco bill that is very important to many politicians. During the Senate approval process of this tobacco bill, needle exchange programs were hardly mentioned. If the combined bill reaches the President, it is believed that he will sign it because of the Administration's interest in tobacco legislation. If, however, the tobacco bill is not approved, the funding ban may be attached to other, less controversial legislation.

  6. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  7. In pursuit of a nuclear test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalberger, T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this guide is to focus on the political issues in the test ban debate in the conference of Disarmament, and to produce a guide providing diplomats, researchers, and the interested public with background information. Such a complex negotiating process requires a selection of proposals, comments and technical details. The criterion from selecting material was based upon the importance for present negotiations. The first part of this guide provides a historical perspective on the arguments used for and against nuclear testing, and on the record of negotiating activities on this subject. The second part examines the test ban debate in the Conference on Disarmament during the past ten years. Figs

  8. Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson-Waters, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination

  9. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S; Manjunath, S; Senthilkumar, R; Rajendiran, S; Yoshioka, H; Mori, Y; Abraham, S

    2011-01-01

    The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury. Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain) and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining). The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any adverse reactions and upon confirmation of safety following completion of the

  10. Proceedings of the symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE): Results and implications for test ban treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, M.D.; Stull, S.P. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    The large amounts of chemical explosives used worldwide in mining, quarrying, and civil engineering projects presents a challenge for policy makers molding a test ban, since their use could provide the necessary cover for a clandestine nuclear test. The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) seeks to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical explosion in the same geology. Two chemical explosions were detonated at the Nevada Test Site to compare their signatures with previous nuclear tests. This conference presents results of these tests and discusses implications for test ban treaties. Conference papers are divided into the following sections: Background; Test preparations; EOS and code simulations; Rainier Mesa structure; Ground motion measurements; Non-seismic technologies; On-site inspection technologies; and a panel discussion. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  12. Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal

  13. Internal seismological stations for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, O.; Israelson, H.

    1980-06-01

    Verification of the compliance with a comprehensive test ban on nuclear explosions is expected to be carried out by a seismological verification system of some fifty globally distributed teleseismic stations designed to monitor underground explosions at large distances (beyond 2000 km). The internal stations, which are intended to operate at much shorter distances, have however also been discussed. Such internal stations would be set up in the USSR and in the US and possibly also in the UK. Estimates partaining to currently used detection techniques (P waves) indicate that a limited number (less than 30) of such stations would not improve significantly upon the detection capability that a global network of stations would have throughout the territories of the US and the USSR. Observations in certain areas in eastern North America indicate that Lg-waves would be more suitable for detection purposes than would P-waves. Internal stations would provide a substantial lowering of detection threshold. Firm conclusions on this point have however to await further studies on Lg-waves. Internal stations would probably provide supplementary identification at short distances. Such data could contribute to more confident identification of seismic events detected by a global network and thereby reduce the risk for misinterpreting earthquakes as clandestine nuclear explosions. According to the estimated detection capabilities in this paper 10 internal stations would not improve significantly upon the detection capability that a global network would have in the US and the USSR. They might however serve an essential political purpose. (author)

  14. Pilot scale biodiesel production from microbial oil of Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 using sugarcane juice: Performance in diesel engine and preliminary economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Dalmas Neto, Carlos José; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; da Costa, Eduardo Scopel Ferreira; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza

    2017-01-01

    A successful pilot-scale process for biodiesel production from microbial oil (Biooil) produced by Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 is presented. Using fed-batch strategy (1000L working volume), a lipid productivity of 0.44g/L.h was obtained using a low-cost medium composed by sugarcane juice and urea. The microbial oil was used for biodiesel production and its performance was evaluated in diesel engine tests, showing very good performance, especially for the blend B20 SCO, when operating at 2500rpm with lower pollutant emissions (CO 2 - 220% less; CO - 7-fold less; NO X 50% less and no detectable HC emissions (<0.11ppm)) when compared with the blends of standard biofuel from soybean oil. A preliminary analysis showed that microbial biodiesel is economically competitive (US$ 0.76/L) when compared to the vegetable biodiesel (US$ 0.81/L). Besides, the yield of biodiesel from microbial oil is higher (4172L/ha of cultivated sugarcane) that represents 6.3-fold the yield of standard biodiesel (661L/ha of cultivated soybean). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    173. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide Consumption in. Ogun State, Nigeria. Http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v20i1.15. Tijani S.A. ... of manure and draught power and fulfills cultural roles in livestock farming ... which is brown in colour, is prepared by subjecting the animal hide to an amount of.

  16. Overturn of the proposed alcohol advertising ban in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukštė, Ernesta; Liutkutė, Vaida; Stelemėkas, Mindaugas; Goštautaitė Midttun, Nijolė; Veryga, Aurelijus

    2014-05-01

    In response to the dramatic increase in alcohol-related problems in Lithuania, policy measures, including alcohol advertising and availability restrictions combined with taxation increase, were implemented in 2007-08. Simultaneously, a full alcohol advertising ban was adopted to take effect from 1 January 2012. Therefore, the alcohol industry responded with extensive lobbying aiming to revoke this ban, and ultimately they succeeded at the end of December 2011. To document and analyse actions of stakeholders and events during the alcohol advertising ban cancellation process in Lithuania. Policy analysis includes a development of event time-line, description of key stakeholders' actions and a review of policy context. The alcohol industry in Lithuania used similar tactics as the tobacco industry globally, such as creating strong and diverse opposing groups. The industry successfully exerted pressure to change alcohol control legislation, while non-governmental organizations had the important role of a watchdog, blunting industry's efforts. Unequal power distribution made it difficult to withstand combined local and international lobbying to cancel the ban. Given the global nature of the alcohol industry, there is a need for international regulation to limit the influence of vested interests on national lawmaking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…

  18. US State Statutes Banning Powdered Alcohol: Exceptions and Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea M

    2017-06-01

    To examine state statutes banning powdered alcohol, we identified relevant statutes in all 50 states and the District of Columbia through a search (initial search March 2016; follow-up search November 2016) using the legal research database LexisNexis. To identify the laws, we used the following search terms: "concentrated alcohol," "crystalline alcohol," "granulated alcohol," "palcohol," and "powdered alcohol." As of November 2016, 31 states had statutory bans on powdered alcohol. Statutes in 22 states outline penalties for violating the state's ban on powdered alcohol. Five states include suspension and revocation of alcohol beverage licenses and permits among the penalties. Thirteen states provide exceptions to their ban on powdered alcohol for bona fide scientific research. Twelve states have exceptions for powdered alcohol designed for commercial use or not intended for human consumption. With concerns expressed that powdered alcohol may lead to greater alcohol consumption, particularly among minors, the majority of state legislatures have demonstrated their willingness to restrict access to novel alcohol products to protect the public's health. However, the effectiveness of these laws should be evaluated if the product does become available.

  19. Effects of New Jersey's cell phone and text ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Since March 1, 2008 there has been a ban on wireless telephone and electronic : communication devices in New Jersey while operating a motor vehicle. But from general : observation on any roadway, it appears that there are still drivers who are talkin...

  20. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  1. Do Bans on Fraternities Violate the First Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Ben

    1998-01-01

    A number of small, private, liberal arts colleges have abolished Greek systems on campus and vowed to quash student attempts to establish off-campus fraternities and sororities. Some argue that a ban on fraternities denies students their constitutional right to freedom of association. A nonbinding resolution recently passed in Congress may support…

  2. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  3. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  4. The comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations: a view from Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Michael.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom- one of the alliance's three nuclear powers is fully and actively involved in the search for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which would play an important role in both non-proliferation and disarmament objectives. This article considers how the negotiations are proceeding and assesses the prospects in a number of key areas. (author)

  5. Banning Corporal Punishment in Taiwan: A Narrative Exploration of Teacher Change and Critical Examination of the Legal Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use of…

  6. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  7. Teachers' Perceptions and Concerns on the Banning of Corporal Punishment and Its Alternative Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwo, Lwun-syin Laurence; Yuan, You-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been officially banned since December 2006 in Taiwan. It would be useful to explore the perceptions and concerns of elementary school teachers on the issue of banning CP and on alternative methods of discipline in 2008, two years since the ban took effect. In this study, 323 teachers were stratified randomly and drawn…

  8. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  9. Post-ban self-reports on economic impact of smoke-free bars and restaurants are biased by pre-ban attitudes. A longitudinal study among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2011-11-01

    Objective sales data have indicated that the Norwegian indoor smoke-free regime implemented in June 2004 did not affect the hospitality business negatively. This paper investigates whether self-reports on the economic impact of the smoking ban from employees in the hospitality sector gave similar results, and whether post-ban self-reports on the economic impact of the ban were influenced by pre-ban attitudes towards smoke-free policies. A random sample of 516 employees in bars and restaurants stated their attitudes towards smoke-free policies shortly before the ban became effective. One year later, the same respondents gave their perceptions of changes in patronage for their workplace. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. 56.4% of the hospitality workers stated that the ban on smoking had led to a large reduction (28.2%) or some reduction (28.2%) in the number of patrons, a result inconsistent with analysis of sales data. After adjusting for demographic and smoking-related variables, a negative pre-ban attitude significantly increased the odds for reporting a negative economic impact post ban (odds ratio 2.48, confidence interval 1.48-4.14). Subjective reports of the economic impact from an indoor ban on smoking are influenced by attitudes towards smoke-free policies and should not be considered as a valid measure of the economic effect.

  10. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 1: System trades study and design methodology plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The System Trades Study and Design Methodology Plan is used to conduct trade studies to define the combination of Space Shuttle Main Engine features that will optimize candidate engine configurations. This is accomplished by using vehicle sensitivities and engine parametric data to establish engine chamber pressure and area ratio design points for candidate engine configurations. Engineering analyses are to be conducted to refine and optimize the candidate configurations at their design points. The optimized engine data and characteristics are then evaluated and compared against other candidates being considered. The Evaluation Criteria Plan is then used to compare and rank the optimized engine configurations on the basis of cost.

  11. Welfare impact of a ban on child labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor.

  12. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan

    2008-07-01

    Tobacco advertising bans have become commonplace in developed nations but are less prevalent in developing countries. The importance of advertising bans as part of comprehensive tobacco control strategies has been emphasised by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which calls for comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising. The empirical literature suggests that comprehensive advertising bans have played a role in reducing consumption in developed countries but that limited policies have not. This paper extends this analysis to include 30 developing countries and finds that bans do play an important role in reducing tobacco consumption in these countries. It finds that both comprehensive as well as limited policies are effective in reducing consumption although comprehensive bans have a far greater impact than limited ones. Furthermore, it finds that advertising bans may be even more effective in the developing world than they are in the developed world.

  13. Is a unilateral Danish ban on pesticides costly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Søren E.; Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of eliminating the use of an essential input within a computable general equilibrium model and presents one approach to implementing endogenously determined shifts in technologies – shifts determined by changes in relative prices, hectare premiums or other...... subsidies or taxes. The proposed approach is based on detailed agronomic data and the approach is tested using two numerical examples - a complete and a partial ban on the use of pesticides in Danish agriculture....

  14. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Pao; Myles Riner; Theodore C. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California.Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims ...

  15. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  16. Pengujian Alat Konversi Ban Bekas Menjadi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Imron Aryadi; Arijanto, Arijanto

    2017-01-01

    Pirolisis dapat didefinisikan sebagai dekomposisi thermal material organik pada suasana inert (tanpa kehadiran oksigen) dan suhu tinggi sehingga terurai menjadi molekul yang lebih kecil. Pirolisis merupakan bentuk penghematan energi karena dapat menyuling bahan bakar atau bahan kimia yang berguna dari limbah padat. Produk pirolisis berupa gas, cair dan padat. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji alat konversi ban bekas menjadi bahan bakar, mengetahui jumlah minyak yang dihasilkan pada pr...

  17. Correlates of household smoking bans among Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne C.; Yerneni, Rajeev; Qu, Jiaojie; Burton, Dee

    2006-01-01

    No population-based data are available on the degree to which Chinese Americans have adopted smoke-free household policies and whether these policies are effective in reducing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The present study examines the prevalence of smoke-free home rules among Chinese Americans living in New York City, describes predictors of adopting full smoking bans in the home, and explores the association between household smoking restrictions and ETS exposure at home. In-...

  18. The Time is Now to Remove the Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-08

    and cohesiveness problems, gay bashing incidents and more open displays of homosexual behavior ” none of which occurred.18 The ban in Canada was removed...the invalid and unsubstantiated, but widely held assumptions and beliefs regarding these two groups’ abilities or behaviors during their period of...Ask Don’t Tell policy does not guarantee privacy. Homosexuals are invisible, which means individuals who are homophobic or fear homosexuals are just in

  19. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarettes. There are precedents: 15 US states enacted bans on the sale of cigarettes from 1890 to 1927, for instance, and such laws are still fully within the power of local communities and state governments. Apart from reducing human suffering, abolishing the sale of cigarettes would result in savings in the realm of healthcare costs, increased labour productivity, lessened harms from fires, reduced consumption of scarce physical resources, and a smaller global carbon footprint. Abolition would also put a halt to one of the principal sources of corruption in modern civilisation, and would effectively eliminate one of the historical forces behind global warming denial and environmental obfuscation. The primary reason for abolition, however, is that smokers themselves dislike the fact they smoke. Smoking is not a recreational drug, and abolishing cigarettes would therefore enlarge rather than restrict human liberties. Abolition would also help cigarette makers fulfil their repeated promises to 'cease production' if cigarettes were ever found to be causing harm.

  20. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect value from their advisors’ services. Advisors may also face conflicts of interest when they make recommendations about a financial product whose manufacturer might be paying the advisor for selling its products. Banning sales commissions from the manufacturers and having the client pay the advisor directly instead brings its own problems. This is because financial advice is a good with peculiar characteristics. Firstly, financial advice has three fundamental components – the alpha, beta and gamma factors. Together, they define the roles financial advisors play: (alpha asset or portfolio manager, (beta asset allocator (rebalancing a client’s portfolio, and (gamma coach with regard to savings discipline and financial planning. Financial advice has value thanks to the interplay between the three factors. Studies of the issue which have focused on one factor at a time, usually the alpha, produce results that are skewed; however, when studies measure all three factors, the evidence shows that financial advice has significant value, greater than the usual cost charged to clients. Secondly, financial advice is an “experience good”, meaning that clients don’t know ahead of time how good financial advice is until they see how it works out. Assessing the value of financial advice may take many years. Since they can’t immediately measure what they’re paying for, clients with modest incomes or wealth are usually willing only to pay low fees, or not pay

  1. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  3. Banning PRF programmer's manual. [considering MOS integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuelthau, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    This manual describes a modification of the Banning placement routing folding program. The modifications to this program have been made to implement it on a Sigma 5 computer. Flow charts of various levels, beginning with high level functional diagrams and working down to the level of detail deemed necessary to understand the operations of the various sections of the program are included. Along with the flow charts of each subroutine is a narrative description of its functional operation and definitions of its arrays and key variables, and a section to assist the programmer in dimensioning the program's arrays.

  4. Seismological monitoring of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, S.; Haslinger, F.

    2001-01-01

    Seismological monitoring is one of the four technologies used by the International Monitoring System to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. When fully operational, two seismic networks, one primary (50 stations) and one auxiliary (120 stations), will enable global detection and event characterisation of sources with equivalent magnitude as low as 4. The basic principles of seismological theory and practice applied to verification are summarised, with particular emphasis on the new requirements imposed by the needs of the Treaty. (orig.) [de

  5. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  6. Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F; Cohen, J; Pittard, G; Deskius, G; Vorkinn, P; Rock, D

    1999-01-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic signal has been identified, which could come from a clandestine nuclear test. As part of an OSI, the use of drilling is allowed by the CTBT so as to obtain irrefutable proof of a Treaty violation. Such proof could be in the form of diagnostics of very high gamma radiation levels and high temperatures underground, which could not be explained by a natural source. A typical situation is shown in Figure 1, where the OSI team must find a nuclear cavity underground when only an approximate location is inferred. This calls for the ability to do directional drilling. Because there is no need for large borings and to minimize the cost and size of the equipment, slim-hole drilling is adequate. On that basis, an initial study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[1] concluded that coiled-tubing (C-T) was the most attractive option for OSI drilling (Figure 2). Then, a preliminary design of a C-T Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) was performed by Maurer Engineering of Houston, TX[2]. Although a drilling mud system is also included in the RDDS definition, the preferred mode of operation of the RDDS would be drilling with air and foam. This minimizes water requirements in cases when water may be scarce at the OSI site. It makes the required equipment smaller than when a mud system is included. And it may increase the drilling rates, by eliminating the ''chip hold-down'' effect of a mud column. Following this preliminary design study, it was determined that the preferred bottom-hole assembly for such a system would be the Viper system of Schlumberger Anadrill, with one essential modification

  7. Parties in chains: do ethnic party bans in Africa promote peace?

    OpenAIRE

    Basedau, Matthias; Moroff, Anika

    2011-01-01

    Since the sweeping (re)introduction of multiparty systems in the early 1990s, almost all sub-Saharan countries have introduced legal provisions to ban ethnic or other identity-based particularistic parties. Altogether, 12 countries have actually banned political parties on these grounds. In theoretical terms, such bans can exclude particularism from politics but - contrary to public discourse - also run the risk of forcing groups to resort to violent means or of becoming an object of conflict...

  8. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  9. Patron Banning in the Nightlife Entertainment Districts: A Key Informant Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Curtis, Ashlee; Palmer, Darren; Warren, Ian; McFarlane, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harm in and around licensed venues is associated with substantial costs. Many interventions have been introduced in an effort to combat these harms, and one such intervention is known as patron banning. Patron banning involves prohibiting patrons who have been violent or disorderly in a licensed venue in an attempt to reduce alcohol-related harm. It can be implemented by the venue, by members of police, or by liquor accords. This study aimed to obtain key informant perspectives on the benefits of patron banning as well as on the effectiveness of patron banning in reducing alcohol-related harm. Thirty-six key informants provided perspectives on patron banning through in-depth interviews that were part of a larger study. Key informants were supportive of patron banning for reducing alcohol-related harm, noting that it had many benefits including increased venue safety, general risk management, and deterrence of antisocial behavior. Although processes for banning were not always consistent, identification scanners were generally recognized as a way to ensure that patron banning was enforced. Key informants viewed patron banning as an effective measure for increasing patron safety and reducing alcohol-related harms.

  10. Internet cigarette vendor compliance with credit card payment and shipping bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-02-01

    Most Internet cigarette sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, leading to landmark 2005 agreements with credit card companies, PayPal, and private shippers (United Parcel Service, Federal Express, DHL) to cease participation in these transactions. Despite their promise at the time, loopholes allowed for check payment and U.S. Postal Service (USPS) shipping. This study assessed actual vendor compliance with the payment and shipping bans using a purchase survey. In late 2007 and early 2008, an adult buyer attempted to order cigarettes from the 97 most popular Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) using banned payment and shipping methods. When banned payment or shipping methods were unavailable, purchases were attempted with alternate methods (e.g., checks, e-checks, USPS). Twenty-seven of 100 orders were placed with (banned) credit cards; 23 were successfully received. Seventy-one orders were placed with checks (60 successfully received). Four orders were delivered using banned shippers; 79 of 83 successfully received orders were delivered by the USPS. About a quarter of ICVs violated the payment ban, others adapted by accepting checks. Most vendors complied with the shipping ban, perhaps because USPS was an easy substitute shipping option. Better enforcement of the bans is needed; the 2009 Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act closed the USPS loophole by making cigarettes nonmailable material; evaluation of enforcement efforts and adaptations by vendors are needed. These sorts of bans are a promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online.

  11. Compliance with the workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Rijswijk, Pieter C P; de Vries, Hein; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2013-02-01

    In 2004 the Dutch government instituted a workplace-smoking ban. This study focuses on differences in compliance over time and between occupational sectors, and describes the background variables. Telephone interviews were conducted with company employees across industry, public and service sectors in 2004 (n=705), 2006 (n=2201) and 2008 (n=2034). The questions concerned smoking policy, aspects of awareness and motivation to implement this ban. Compliance rates increased between 2006 (83%) and 2008 (96%) after an initial stagnation in the rate of compliance between 2004 and 2006. The increase in compliance was accompanied by a less negative attitude and an increase in confidence in one's ability to comply (self-efficacy). Differences in compliance between sectors with the highest compliance (public sector) and the lowest compliance (industry) decreased from about 20% to nearly 4%. Simultaneously, in the industry there was a stronger increase for risk perception of enforcement, social influence and self-efficacy. The initial stagnation in increase of compliance might be due to the lack of a (new) coherent package of policy measures to discourage smoking. Over the entire period there was a stronger increase in compliance in the industry sector, probably due to the intensification of enforcement activities and additional policy like legislation, which might increase awareness and social support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On site inspection for nuclear test ban verirication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Marschall

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of verifying compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty is mainly a technical one. However the problem of detecting, locating and identifying nuclear explosions has, since the late 1950s, been intimately involved with the political problems associated with negotiating a treaty. In fact there are few other areas in which policy, diplomacy and science have been so interwoven. This paper attempts to illustrate how technology can. be applied to solve some of the political problems which arise when considering the role of an On Site Inspection (OSI to determine whether or not a nuclear explosion, in violation of a treaty, has occurred or not. It is hoped that the reader, with a scientific background, but with little or no experience of treaty negotiations, will gain an. insight as to how technical matters can interact with political requirements. The demands made on scientists to provide technical support for negotiating and rnonitoring compliance of a treaty have increased significanfly over the last 40 years. This is a period in which a number of major treaties have contained a significant technical component e.g. the Limited Test Ban Treaty (Threshold Treaty and the Chemical Weapon Convention. This paper gives an indication of some of the political decisions which will have to be made and suggests some of the technical methods which are of value in the identification of a clandestine nuclear explosion.

  13. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. IV - Performance of Modified Compressor. Part 4; Performance of Modified Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, H. Carl; Dupree, David T.

    1947-01-01

    The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor, modified to improve the compressor-outlet velocity, in a revised X24C-4B turbojet engine is presented and compared with the performance of the compressor in the original engine. Performance data were obtained from an investigation of the revised engine in the MACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Compressor performance data were obtained for engine operation with four exhaust nozzles of different outlet area at simulated altitudes from 15,OOO to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The data cover a range of corrected engine speeds from 4100 to 13,500 rpm, which correspond to compressor Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.00.

  14. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  15. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  16. The tobacco endgame in Hong Kong: public support for a total ban on tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco endgame policies are increasingly advocated to end tobacco use. This study investigated public support for a total ban on tobacco sales, use and possession in Hong Kong. A telephone survey was conducted among 1537 randomly selected residents in 2012 to assess their support for a total ban on tobacco sales, usage and possession. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and second hand smoke exposure were collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with support for a total ban. Most of the never smokers (75.3%), ex-smokers (63.9%), and nearly half of current smokers (48.9%) backed some form of a total ban on tobacco. A total ban on tobacco sales was the most popular option among the three groups, with over half (64.8%) of all respondents supporting a ban within 10 years. Current smoking and higher educational attainment were associated with less support for a total ban on tobacco sales. Among current smokers, having quit intentions and attempts to quit were associated with support for a total ban. A total ban on tobacco sales was supported by most respondents. Ex-smokers and current smokers also voiced substantial support, although less than never smokers. A total ban on tobacco sales before 2022 should be the goal as it is supported by most of the respondents. Interim tobacco control measures, such as tax increases, expansion of smoking cessation services and plain packaging should be implemented to help current smokers quit and reduce smoking initiation before implementation of the ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Preliminary mining; data on soils, meteorology, water resources, and biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume contains five appendixes: Chattanooga Shale preliminary mining study, soils data, meteorologic data, water resources data, and biological resource data. The area around DeKalb County in Tennessee is the most likely site for commercial development for recovery of uranium. (DLC)

  18. The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tabita Maria; Møller, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15...

  19. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS...

  20. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  1. Perceptions of Teachers on the Ban of Corporal Punishment in Pre-Primary Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Beth Kirigo; Kimengi, Isaac Njuguna; Kipsoi, Emmy Jerono

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate perceptions of teachers on the ban of corporal punishment in pre-primary institutions. The objectives of the study were to investigate teachers' attitudes towards corporal punishment ban in pre-schools and to establish whether the level of education of teachers had an influence on the use of corporal…

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-18 - Contractor Policy to Ban Text Messaging While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Text Messaging While Driving. 52.223-18 Section 52.223-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-18 Contractor Policy to Ban Text Messaging While Driving. As prescribed in 23.1105, insert the following clause: CONTRACTOR POLICY TO BAN TEXT MESSAGING WHILE DRIVING...

  3. Coming This Fall to a School Library near You: The Challenged, the Banned, and the Filtered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Important happenings related to the concept of intellectual freedom (IF) coincide with the annual back-to-school ramp up. This article discusses how to use the summer hiatus to develop learning opportunities related to events such as Banned Books Week (BBW) and Banned Websites Awareness Day (BWAD). The author provides resource information to aid…

  4. Perceptions of a Gay-Straight Alliance Club Ban: School Counselors and Advocacy for LGBTQQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Pamela S.; Sifford, Amy McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological inquiry explored the experiences and reactions of five school counselors who worked in a school that banned a Gay-Straight Alliance club. Specifically, the authors examined how counselors' perceptions of the ban influenced their advocacy for LGBTQQ students. The results of semi-structured interviews revealed one overarching…

  5. 47 CFR 73.2090 - Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions. 73.2090 Section 73.2090 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2090 Ban on...

  6. Trust in Science: CRISPR-Cas9 and the Ban on Human Germline Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttinger, Stephan

    2017-06-26

    In 2015 scientists called for a partial ban on genome editing in human germline cells. This call was a response to the rapid development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, a molecular tool that allows researchers to modify genomic DNA in living organisms with high precision and ease of use. Importantly, the ban was meant to be a trust-building exercise that promises a 'prudent' way forward. The goal of this paper is to analyse whether the ban can deliver on this promise. To do so the focus will be put on the precedent on which the current ban is modelled, namely the Asilomar ban on recombinant DNA technology. The analysis of this case will show (a) that the Asilomar ban was successful because of a specific two-step containment strategy it employed and (b) that this two-step approach is also key to making the current ban work. It will be argued, however, that the Asilomar strategy cannot be transferred to human genome editing and that the current ban therefore fails to deliver on its promise. The paper will close with a reflection on the reasons for this failure and on what can be learned from it about the regulation of novel molecular tools.

  7. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  8. The Pentagon's gay ban is not based on military necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, A

    2001-01-01

    When President Bill Clinton attempted to lift the U.S. military's ban on gay and lesbian soldiers, Congress reacted by enacting a law that prohibits known homosexuals from serving in the U.S. armed forces. The official justification for the new policy is the unit cohesion rationale, the notion that if known gays and lesbians were allowed to serve, unit cohesion, performance, readiness and morale would decline. The thesis of this paper is that the evidence that advocates of discrimination invoke to support the plausibility of the unit cohesion rationale does not constitute scientifically valid data. This paper was delivered originally as a lecture at the Commonwealth Club of California and broadcast subsequently on National Public Radio.

  9. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  10. Epistemic Dependence and the EU Seal Ban Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Blichner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On September 2009 the European Union (EU adopted a regulation banning the import of seal products into the EU or placing seal products on the EU market. The European Parliament was the main driving force behind the regulation and the EU has been criticised by affected countries outside the EU for not basing this decision on the available expert knowledge. The questions asked are how, given epistemic dependence, non-experts may challenge an expert based policy proposal. Can non-experts hold experts accountable, and if so in what way? Three main tests and ten subtests of expert knowledge are proposed and these tests are then used to assess whether the European Parliament did in fact argue in a way consistent with available expert knowledge in amending the Commission proposal for a regulation.

  11. Impact of Denmark's ban on antimicrobials for growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Hayes, Dermot J

    2014-06-01

    Denmark was among the first countries to ban the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion (AGPs) in animal production through an on-going series of actions and regulations since 1995. In 2010 the Yellow Card scheme was adopted to decrease total antimicrobial consumption in pig production through additional restrictions on pig farmers. The withdrawal of AGPs and other restrictions have reduced total antimicrobial use, but at the same time therapeutic drug use has increased and resistance in key zoonotic bacteria has not decreased. Improved use of vaccines and management practices can help reduce losses especially for weaner pigs, but come with additional costs to producers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  13. Implementation and enforcement of tobacco bans in two prisons in North Carolina: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kristie L; Proescholdbell, Scott; Herndon Malek, Sally; Johnson, Jana

    2010-04-01

    Despite the national trend that 90% of prisons have smoke-free indoors policies, compliance and enforcement remain barriers to policy success. Key informant interviews about policy compliance and enforcement were conducted with 10 staff and inmates at two North Carolina prison facilities, one with a complete ban (indoors and outdoors) and one with a partial ban (indoors only). Communication of the tobacco bans was consistent and well understood in both facilities. Barriers to compliance and enforcement, especially in the complete ban facility, included policy ''buy in,'' the emerging black market for cigarettes, staff support, and access to nicotine replacement therapy. Despite these barriers, most informants reported that implementation and enforcement of complete bans is possible with adequate communication about the policy and access to cessation therapy.

  14. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  15. A holistic approach to assessing the impact of a smoke-free ban in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Brad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A smoke-free ban in full compliance with FCTC recommendations entered into force in Romania as of March 2016, after an intense advocacy effort and with strong argumentation support provided by international tobacco control organizations. The ban has been under heavy challenge from policy-makers and interest groups including a constitutional appeal and two attempts to relax its' provisions. As such, fundamentation of the benefits and direct impact of the smoke-free ban on health, economic and social indicators became a crucial defense pillar. As of September 2016, part of the 2035 Tobacco-Free Romania Initiative project, funded by a grant from Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, several research polls and studies have been conducted to assess the ban's impact. Subsequent external communication to decision makers and media increased the awareness of the positive impact of the ban and helped adress its' key critical challenge areas.

  16. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafen Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market. It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period (one month before the announcement of a financial report, due to high regulation risk. However, the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period, while trades outside it remain highly profitable. Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading. The regulation has changed insider trading patterns, but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring. This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  17. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  18. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Preliminary analysis of the state of the art of robotics and precision engineering and evaluation of potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy-consuming processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to conduct a preliminary analysis of the state of the art of two technologies, robotics and precision engineering, and to evaluate their potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy consuming processes. Activity in the robotics field is growing rapidly, most activity being related to the development of smart robots rather than to systems. There is a broad base of support, both in industry and the universities, for upgrading robot machine capabilities. A large part of that support is associated with visualization and tactile sensors which facilitate assembly, placement, inspection, and tracking. Progress in this area is relatively rapid and development times are short for specifically engineered applications. The critical path in the development of robotic systems lies in the generation of reliable sensor signals. Robotic systems require a broad spectrum of sensors from which hierarchical logic systems can draw decision making information. This requirement resulted in the establishment of a program at the National Bureau of Standards which is attempting to develop a spectrum of sensor capabilities. Such sensors are applicable to robotic system automatic process control in a variety of energy-intensive industries. Precision engineering is defined as the generation or manufacture of components wherein geometry, dimension, and surface finish are controlled to within several hundred Angstroms in single point turning operations. Investigation into the state of the art of precision engineering in the United States finds that this capability exists in several national laboratories and is intended to be used exclusively for the development of weapons. There is an attempt at the present time by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to expand its capability into industry. Several corporations are now beginning to develop equipment to support the precision engineering field.

  20. Field test facility for monitoring water/radionuclide transport through partially saturated geologic media: design, construction, and preliminary description. Appendix I. Engineering drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Campbell, A.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Hoober, H.H.; Schwarzmiller, K.O.

    1979-11-01

    The engineering plans for a test facility to monitor radionuclide transport in water through partially saturated geological media are included. Drawings for the experimental set-up excavation plan and details, lysimeter, pad, access caisson, and caisson details are presented

  1. Banning traditional birth attendants from conducting deliveries: experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheelo, Chilala; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M

    2016-10-21

    In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones. All 22 trained tTBAs from three clinic catchment areas were included in the study. Content analysis was used to analyse the data after coding it using NVIVO 8 software. Home deliveries have continued despite the community and tTBAs being aware of the ban. The ban has had both negative and positive effects on the community. Positive effects include early detection and management of pregnancy complications, enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention and better management of post-natal conditions, reduced criticisms of tTBAs from the community in case of birth complications, and quick response at health facilities in case of an emergency. Negatives effects of the ban include increased work load on the part of health workers, high cost for lodging at health facilities and traveling to health facilities, as well as tTBAs feeling neglected, loss of respect and recognition by the community. Countries should design their approach to banning tTBAs differently depending on contextual factors. Further, it is important to consider adopting a step wise approach when implementing the ban as the process of banning tTBAs may trigger several negative effects.

  2. 78 FR 49749 - Southern California Edison, City of Banning, California; Notice of Meeting To Conduct a Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... No. 14520-000-California] Southern California Edison, City of Banning, California; Notice of Meeting... 10:00 a.m. (PDT) and concluding at 1:00 p.m. (PDT). b. Place: City of Banning, California, City Hall Council Chambers, 99 East Ramsey St., Banning, CA 92220 and by teleconference. c. FERC Contact: Rebecca...

  3. Engineering of human tracheal tissue with collagen-enforced poly-lactic-glycolic acid non-woven mesh: a preliminary study in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Xue; Mao, Tianqiu; Feng, Xinghua; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Guifang; Chen, Fulin

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the current study is to fabricate tissue engineered trachea with poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) non-woven mesh enforced by collagen type I. PLGA fibres coated with collagen solution were put together and fabricated into the shape of a human trachea, after drying and cross-linking treatment, a non-woven mesh with "C" shape formed. Chondrocytes from sheep nasal septum cartilage were expanded in vitro and seeded into PLGA/collagen non-woven mesh in the density of 5.0 x 10(7)mL(-1). After 5 days of in vitro incubation, six Cell-PLGA/collagen composites were implanted subcutaneously into the back of 6 nude mice to prefabricate a tissue engineering trachea. Eight weeks later, the cartilage formation was observed by gross inspection and histological examination. Cartilage-like tissue in the shape of the initial PLGA/collagen scaffold had been regenerated successfully without obvious inflammatory response. The tissue engineered trachea cartilage consisted of evenly spaced lacunae embedded in matrix stained red with safranin-O staining. The amount of GAGs in tissue engineered trachea cartilage reached 71.42% of normal value in native cartilage. This study demonstrated that collagen-enforced PLGA non-woven mesh facilitated the adhesion and proliferation of chondrocytes, it also owned adequate mechanical strength to serve as an ideal scaffold for trachea tissue engineering without internal support.

  4. Women in science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauker, Lynn.

    1991-01-01

    Women constitute nearly half of Canada's graduates in law, medicine and commerce, but only 28% in mathematics and physical sciences, and only 13% in engineering and applied sciences. Reasons may include: a lack of role models, a lack of encouragement and financial assistance, and the prevalence of sexist attitudes. Remedies may include: promotional material, banning of sexual harassment, and the inclusion in coursed of social and ethical issues and of information about women scientists

  5. Preliminary Performance Data on General Electric Integrated Electronic Control Operating on J47 RX1-3 Turbojet Engine in NACA Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blivas, Darnold; Taylor, Burt L., III

    1950-01-01

    Performance data obtained with recording oscillographs are presented to show the transient response of the General Electric Integrated Electronic Control operating on the J47 RXl-3 turbo-Jet engine over a range of altitudes from 10,000 to 45,000 feet and at ram pressure ratios of 1.03 and 1.4. These data represent the performance of the final control configuration developed after an investigation of the engine transient behavior in the NACA altitude wind tunnel. Oscillograph traces of controlled accelerations (throttle bursts),oontrolled decelerations (throttle chops), and controlled altitude starts are presented.

  6. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  8. Attitudes and motivations of competitive cyclists regarding use of banned and legal performance enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaalita, Nkaku R; Robinson, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Drug 'doping' and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs) remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing "fair" and "unfair" performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications) may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p PEP use (p PEP use (p > 0.05). Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that "legal" performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors. Key PointsUse of performance enhancers is high even among non-professional athletesCyclists overall rated "risk to health" as the most important factor in choosing to use a performance enhancing product.Motivations to use banned performance enhancer are complex and are significantly influenced by whether an athlete utilizes "legal" performance enhancers.

  9. The role of nuclear weapon ban in the peace keeping laws of the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    The thesis includes a comparison of bilateral and multilateral nuclear weapon banning contracts and treaties (nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear weapon-free zones, nuclear disarmament etc.) and voluntary nuclear weapon abandonment declarations in view of legal aspects, their verification, ratification, included exceptions, and potential penalties. In the second part an eventual stabilization of the nuclear weapon ban and the non-proliferation treaty as customary international law and ''ius congens'' is discussed. The third part is concerned with possible measures and sanctions in connections with these laws. The fourth part discusses military measures for justifiable enforcement of the non-proliferation treaty and their legitimization.

  10. Smoking ban in all restaurants and cafeterias on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    CSR

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the SCC decided that there would be a total smoking ban in all restaurants and satellite cafeterias on the CERN site, except for the designated area in Restaurant No.1. Unfortunately, it seems that this ban is often over-looked, resulting in an unhealthy and unpleasant environment for the users and staff of these facilities. You are asked to respect this ban and are reminded that smoking is only permitted in the room in Restaurant 1 specially installed for this purpose. The CSR Restaurant Monitoring Committee

  11. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stephen A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in America, claiming 450,000 lives annually. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, caused by smoking in the vast majority of cases, became the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2008. The burden of asthma, often exacerbated by tobacco exposure, has widespread clinical and public health impact. Despite this considerable harm, we know relatively little about the natural history of lung disease and respiratory impairment in adults, especially after smoking cessation. Methods/Design Our paper describes the design and rationale for using the 2004 Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban to obtain insights into the natural history of respiratory diseases in adult men and women of different races/ethnicities who are imprisoned in federal medical facilities. We have developed a longitudinal study of new prison arrivals, with data to be collected from each participant over the course of several years, through the use of standardized questionnaires, medical chart reviews, lung function tests, six-minute walk tests, and stored serum for the analysis of present and future biomarkers. Our endpoints include illness exacerbations, medication and health services utilization, lung function, serum biomarkers, and participants’ experience with their health and nicotine addiction. Discussion We believe the proposed longitudinal study will make a substantial contribution to the understanding and treatment of respiratory disease and tobacco addiction.

  12. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen A; Celli, Bartolome R; DiFranza, Joseph R; Krinzman, Stephen J; Clarke, Jennifer G; Beam, Herbert; Howard, Sandra; Foster, Melissa; Goldberg, Robert J

    2012-10-15

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in America, claiming 450,000 lives annually. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, caused by smoking in the vast majority of cases, became the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2008. The burden of asthma, often exacerbated by tobacco exposure, has widespread clinical and public health impact. Despite this considerable harm, we know relatively little about the natural history of lung disease and respiratory impairment in adults, especially after smoking cessation. Our paper describes the design and rationale for using the 2004 Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban to obtain insights into the natural history of respiratory diseases in adult men and women of different races/ethnicities who are imprisoned in federal medical facilities. We have developed a longitudinal study of new prison arrivals, with data to be collected from each participant over the course of several years, through the use of standardized questionnaires, medical chart reviews, lung function tests, six-minute walk tests, and stored serum for the analysis of present and future biomarkers. Our endpoints include illness exacerbations, medication and health services utilization, lung function, serum biomarkers, and participants' experience with their health and nicotine addiction. We believe the proposed longitudinal study will make a substantial contribution to the understanding and treatment of respiratory disease and tobacco addiction.

  13. Sistem Panel Kinerja Untuk Program Studi Sarjana Berbasis BAN PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prasetyo Utomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study program need to do monitoring and continuously measurements of performance to ensure achievement the goals set of its. The process of performance requires monitoring data and information was taken from all parts of the organization. The purpose of this research is to build a panel system performance (performance dashboard that can be used to help measure the performance of undergraduate degree courses based on BAN PT in order of quality assurance in higher education. The results of performance monitoring will be delivered to the parties concerned, efficiently and effectively. Panel System (Dashboard is a tool to present information at a glance. Dashboard inform using Key Performance Indicators (KPI an effective presentation media. KPIs are used in the construction panel system performance of these courses entirely using the instruments of the National Accreditation of Higher Education. The methodology can be applied either on a case study of the development of dashboards to support the efforts of quality assurance courses at the Stikubank University Semarang. This study emphasizes how the application is to provide easy information to Head of study program, Dean of faculty, Rector and Vice Rector of university to the achievement of the quality of undergraduate study program.   Keywords: Performance Dashboard; Key Performance Indicators; Accreditation.

  14. Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, David; Selby, Neil D.

    2009-05-01

    One application of forensic seismology is to help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One of the challenges facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes of potential interest each year and potential Treaty violations (underground explosions). There are four main methods: (a) ratio of body- to surface-wave magnitudes, (b) ratio of high-frequency P to S energy, (c) model-based methods, and (d) source depth. Methods (a) and (b) have an empirical basis. The weakness of methods (a)-(c) is the lack of an equivalent elastic source for an underground explosion fired in the range of geological media found around the world. Reliable routine source-depth determination has proved difficult. However, experience gained in the past decade at identifying suspicious seismic sources suggests that although no single method works all of the time, intelligent and original application of complementary methods is usually sufficient to satisfactorily identify the source in question.

  15. ASE-BAN, a Wireless Body Area Network Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2010-01-01

    Miniature Body Area Networks used in health care support greater mobility to patients and reduces actual hospitalization. This paper presents the preliminary implementation of a wireless body area network gateway. It is designed to implement the gateway functionality between sensors/actuators att...

  16. Hydrostratigraphy of the Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegmann, M.J.; Wood, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical logs for 6 wells which penetrate the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were analyzed for preliminary information on the hydrostratigraphy. Using stratigraphic correlation of flow groups worked out by Anderson and Lewis (1989), and by Anderson, as well as gamma signatures of flows within these flow groups, correlation of individual flows is attempted. Within these flows, probable permeable zones, suggested by density and caliper logs, are identified, and zones of hydraulic connection are tentatively correlated. In order to understand the response of density and neutron logs in basalt, the geological characteristics are quantified for the 150-ft section of the well C1A core, from depth 550 to 710 ft. 9 refs., 4 figs

  17. Laboratory injection molder for the fabrication of polymeric porous poly-epsilon-caprolactone scaffolds for preliminary mesenchymal stem cells tissue engineering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2016-12-16

    This study presents a simple and rapid fabrication technique involving injection molding and particle leaching (IM/PL) to fabricate the porous scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Sucrose are separately mixed with the poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) granules using a screwed thermo regulated extruder, than the biocompatible scaffolds are fabricated through injection molding. The micro/nano structure of the samples and their different grade of porosity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are chose to cell culture and Hoechst 33342 staining was used to verify the biocompatibility of the polymeric porous surfaces. We concluded that, by using the same fast solvent free injection/leaching process, the use of Sucrose as porogen, instead of NaCl, allowed the obtainment of biocompatible scaffolds with a higher grade of porosity with suitable cell adhesion capacity for tissue engineering purpose.

  18. Preliminary parametric performance assessment of potential final waste forms for alpha low-level waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Sussman, M.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; DeBiase, T.A.; Goodrich, M.T.; DeWitt, D. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents a preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated, mixed, low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of INEL. The ALLW, which contains from 10 to 100 nCi/g of transuranic (TRU) radionuclides, is awaiting treatment and disposal. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of several parameters on the radiological-confinement performance of potential disposal systems for the ALLW. The principal emphasis was on the performance of final waste forms (FWFs). Three categories of FWF (cement, glass, and ceramic) were addressed by evaluating the performance of two limiting FWFs for each category. Performance at five conceptual disposal sites was evaluated to illustrate the effects of site characteristics on the performance of the total disposal system. Other parameters investigated for effects on receptor dose included inventory assumptions, TRU radionuclide concentration, FWF fracture, disposal depth, water infiltration rates, subsurface-transport modeling assumptions, receptor well location, intrusion scenario assumptions, and the absence of waste immobilization. These and other factors were varied singly and in some combinations. The results indicate that compliance of the treated and disposed ALLW with the performance objectives depends on the assumptions made, as well as on the FWF and the disposal site. Some combinations result in compliance, while others do not. The implications of these results for decision making relative to treatment and disposal of the INEL ALLW are discussed. The report compares the degree of conservatism in this preliminary parametric PA against that in four other PAs and one risk assessment. All of the assessments addressed the same disposal site, but different wastes. The report also presents a qualitative evaluation of the uncertainties in the PA and makes recommendations for further study.

  19. Preliminary parametric performance assessment of potential final waste forms for alpha low-level waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Sussman, M.E.; Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; DeBiase, T.A.; Goodrich, M.T.; DeWitt, D.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents a preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated, mixed, low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of INEL. The ALLW, which contains from 10 to 100 nCi/g of transuranic (TRU) radionuclides, is awaiting treatment and disposal. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of several parameters on the radiological-confinement performance of potential disposal systems for the ALLW. The principal emphasis was on the performance of final waste forms (FWFs). Three categories of FWF (cement, glass, and ceramic) were addressed by evaluating the performance of two limiting FWFs for each category. Performance at five conceptual disposal sites was evaluated to illustrate the effects of site characteristics on the performance of the total disposal system. Other parameters investigated for effects on receptor dose included inventory assumptions, TRU radionuclide concentration, FWF fracture, disposal depth, water infiltration rates, subsurface-transport modeling assumptions, receptor well location, intrusion scenario assumptions, and the absence of waste immobilization. These and other factors were varied singly and in some combinations. The results indicate that compliance of the treated and disposed ALLW with the performance objectives depends on the assumptions made, as well as on the FWF and the disposal site. Some combinations result in compliance, while others do not. The implications of these results for decision making relative to treatment and disposal of the INEL ALLW are discussed. The report compares the degree of conservatism in this preliminary parametric PA against that in four other PAs and one risk assessment. All of the assessments addressed the same disposal site, but different wastes. The report also presents a qualitative evaluation of the uncertainties in the PA and makes recommendations for further study

  20. Landmines on the Table: A Negotiations Analysis of the Global Campaign to Ban Landmines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    ...?" I argue that the competitive, distributive negotiation strategies and tactics used by the United States and pro-ban advocates during the campaign ensured that a negotiated agreement was not reached...

  1. The nuclear test-ban verification regime: An untapped source for climate change monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The benefits of a global ban on nuclear testing for international security and for protecting human health and the environment from radioactive fallout are obvious. The relevance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) for climate change research may not, however, be evident at first glance. The CTBT bans all nuclear explosions on Earth. To monitor compliance with the Treaty, the CTBTO Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), is establishing a verification regime capable of detecting clandestine nuclear tests. As the only international body operating its own system of monitoring stations that literally spans the globe, the CTBTO is in a unique position to contribute to the UN's efforts in the area of climate knowledge.

  2. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  3. SISTEM INFORMASI KEUANGAN SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFO KAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahiduzzaman Syahiduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak-Standar keuangan adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.1. Pengelolaan keuangan sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi keuangan yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data transaksi keuangan, mencatatnya dalam sistem akuntansi, dan melaporkannya. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi keuangan ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi keuangan dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci: Standar 6.1. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Keuangan, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  4. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  5. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  6. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  7. On-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifft, Edward

    2017-11-01

    On-site inspections (OSI) are a key aspect of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Preparations to be able to conduct such inspections are going well. In particular, realistic major field exercises in Kazakhstan in 2008 and Jordan in 2014 enabled the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to learn valuable lessons regarding both the technical and human factors involved in being able to successfully implement the treaty's provisions.

  8. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  9. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  11. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  12. Improved health of hospitality workers after a Swiss cantonal smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, André-Dante; Bergier, Samuel; Morisod, Xavier; Locatelli, Isabella; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Cornuz, Jacques

    2011-12-22

    Hospitality workers are a population particularly at risk from the noxious effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The Canton of Vaud, Switzerland banned smoking in public places in September 2009. This prospective study addresses the impact of the ban on the health of hospitality workers. ETS exposure was evaluated using a passive sampling device that measures airborne nicotine; lung function was assessed by spirometry; health-related quality of life, ETS exposure symptoms and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire. 105 participants (smokers and non-smokers) were recruited initially and 66 were followed up after one year. ETS exposure was significantly lower after the ban. Hospitality workers had lower pre-ban forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values than expected. FEV1 remained stable after the ban, with a near-significant increase in the subgroup of asthmatics only. FVC increased at one year follow-up from 90.42% to 93.05% (p = 0.02) in the entire cohort; women, non-smokers and older participants gained the greatest benefit. The health survey showed an increase in physical wellbeing after the ban, the greatest benefit being observed in non-smokers. ETS exposure symptoms were less frequent after the ban, especially red and irritated eyes and sneezing. The new law was judged useful and satisfactory by the vast majority of employees, including smokers. The recent cantonal ban on smoking in public places brought about an improvement in lung function, physical well-being and ETS symptoms of hospitality workers, including smokers.

  13. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  14. The Logging Ban Policy in Addressing Deforestation: a Comparison Between Thailand and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    -, Safrina

    2014-01-01

    The logging ban policy is applying in several countries, such as Thailand and Indonesia, in order to deal with deforestation and forest degradation in natural forests. However, both countries stillhave had difficulties resolving the problem. The logging ban in Thailand does not work as expected due to centralized systems of forestry policy that still applies in Thailand. However, Indonesia is actively adjusting the decentralized system, which gives authority to local governments to set polic...

  15. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥1 cigarettes per day participation among youth. Methods: one to two waves (primarily one wave of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents’ smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. Results and Conclusions: We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1, daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1, and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05 participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  16. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  17. Bar and restaurant workers' attitudes towards Norway's comprehensive smoking ban: a growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Marc T; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Bontempo, Daniel E; Hetland, Jørn

    2010-06-01

    Norway passed legislation banning smoking in restaurants, bars and other public spaces in 2004. This study tracks changes in hospitality workers' attitudes towards Norway's ban over three time points, using growth modelling analysis to examine predictors of attitude change. Participants were a national sample of 1525 bar and restaurant workers. Surveys were conducted, by phone or internet, one month before the ban's implementation and at 4 and 12 months thereafter. Exploratory principal components analysis of nine survey items revealed one primary attitude component. A latent growth model was fitted to the data to examine trajectories of attitude change and individual differences in rate of change. Respondents supported the ban before implementation and increased support at 4 months (p=0.021) and again at 12 months (p=0.001). Concern for one's job followed a quadratic trend, increasing at 4 months and decreasing at 12 months (phospitality workers increased their support of the ban over its first year. The strong influence of the within-person variables leads to two primary policy recommendations. First, support should be provided to assist cessation efforts and prevent relapse. Second, informational campaigns should inform hospitality workers about evidence that smoking bans are not economic threats to the industry.

  18. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-03-09

    Point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) participation among youth. one to two waves (primarily one wave) of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents' smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1), daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1), and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05) participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  19. Banned and discouraged-use ingredients found in weight loss supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Sara; Maguire, Michelle; Shea, Leticia A; Fete, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    To identify banned and discouraged-use ingredients, such as ephedra, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, and beta-methyl-phenylethylamine, in readily available weight loss dietary supplements within a 10-mile radius of Regis University. A list of banned and discouraged-use ingredients was compiled with the use of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) dietary supplement website which provides information on supplement ingredients that are no longer legal or are advised against owing to adverse event reporting. Investigators visited all retail outlet stores within a 10-mile radius of Regis University in Denver, Colorado. Retail chains were not duplicated and only one of each chain was evaluated. A total of 51 weight loss supplement products from retail stores were found with banned or discouraged-use substances listed on their labels. At least one banned ingredient was found to be listed on the product labels in 17 of the 51 studied supplements (33%). At least one discouraged-use ingredient was found in 46 of the 51 products (90%). Retail outlet stores dedicated to supplements and sports nutrition alone were found to have the greatest number of weight loss supplements that included banned and discouraged-use ingredients. The FDA has taken action to remove some weight loss supplements from the market that contain banned ingredients. Unfortunately, based on the findings of this study, it is evident that products containing these ingredients remain on the market today. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  1. Sequence-dependent cleavage of mismatched DNA by Ban I restriction endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Zhu, Dan; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2017-10-01

    Restriction enzymes have previously shown the ability to cleave DNA substrates with mismatched base(s) in recognition sequences; in this study, Ban I endonuclease demonstrated this same ability. Single base substitutions were introduced, and fragments containing various types of unpaired base(s) (heteroduplex fragments) within the Ban I endonuclease recognition sequence, 5'-G|GPyPuCC-3', were generated. Each of the heteroduplex fragments was treated with Ban I endonuclease and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that heteroduplex fragments containing mismatched bases at either the first or third position of the Ban I recognition sequence or, because of the symmetrical structure of the sequence, the sixth or fourth position on the opposite strand were cleaved by the enzyme. Furthermore, these cleaved fragments contained at least one strand corresponding to the original Ban I recognition sequence. Fragments with mismatches formed by an A (noncanonical, nc) opposite a purine (canonical, ca) or a T (nc) opposite a pyrimidine (ca) were cleaved more efficiently than other types of mismatched bases. These results may help elucidate the mechanisms by which DNA and protein interact during the process of DNA cleavage by Ban I endonuclease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A total ban on alcohol advertising: presenting the public health case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie

    2012-05-28

    Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases and harmful use of alcohol. Studies on young people furthermore support arguments refuting the claim that advertising only influences brand choice. Given the weakness of relying on industry self-regulation, the government is considering legislation to ban alcohol advertising, resulting in heated debate. Tobacco control and studies investigating the effect of alcohol advertising bans on consumption and alcohol-related deaths point to the effectiveness of such action - ideally supplemented by other policy interventions. Arguments against an advertising ban include possible communication sector job losses, but these are likely to have been exaggerated. Banning alcohol advertising will necessitate greater scrutiny of digital media, satellite television and merchandising to reduce the likelihood of subverting the ban.

  3. Preliminary Electrochemical Characterization of Anode Supported Solid Oxide Cell (AS-SOC) Produced in the Institute of Power Engineering Operated in Electrolysis Mode (SOEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupecki, Jakub; Motyliński, Konrad; Skrzypkiewicz, Marek; Wierzbicki, Michał; Naumovich, Yevgeniy

    2017-12-01

    The article discusses the operation of solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOC) developed in the Institute of Power Engineering as prospective key components of power-to-gas systems. The fundamentals of the solid oxide cells operated as fuel cells (SOFC - solid oxide fuel cells) and electrolysers (SOEC - solid oxide fuel cells) are given. The experimental technique used for electrochemical characterization of cells is presented. The results obtained for planar cell with anodic support are given and discussed. Based on the results, the applicability of the cells in power-to-gas systems (P2G) is evaluated.

  4. Electrorefining of copper from a cuprous ion complexing electrolyte. II. Experimental comparison of possible alternative electrolytes and preliminary cost engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Cook, G.M.

    1980-04-01

    The energy saving potential and refining capability of three copper(I)/electrolyte systems for the electrorefining of copper were compared experimentally. The alternative electrolyte systems studied were copper(I)/acid chloride, copper(I)/acetonitrile and sulfuric acid, and copper(I)/ammonia solutions. These were compared to the conventional copper(II)/sulfuric acid electrolyte. All of the alternative electrolyte systems demonstrated at least some potential for saving energy when run at an equal deposition rate to the conventional process; the chloride electrolyte showed the greatest energy saving potential, about 70%, and the ammonia electrolyte showed the least, about 25%. All of the alternative electrolyte systems, however, exhibited performance problems, primarily with regard to inadequate separation of impurities. A preliminary capital cost estimate was made for the copper(I)/chloride system. This estimate showed that, for the alternative electrolyte system to be cost competitive (that is, a reduction of capital cost of about 15 to 20%) with the conventional electrorefining process, the refining cells would have to be operated at a current density of about 25 to 30 mA-cm/sup -2/. At this current density, the estimated energy saving potential for the copper(I)/chloride system was still about 50%.

  5. Impact of a point-of-sale tobacco display ban on smokers' spontaneous purchases: comparisons from postpurchase interviews before and after the ban in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Phan, Tina; Mills, Brennen W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Western Australian tobacco point-of-sale display ban on spontaneous purchase behaviours. Daily adult smokers (n=402) observed purchasing cigarettes were recruited via exit interviews either 2 months before or after the implementation of the display ban. Smokers were asked if they had intended to purchase cigarettes before entering the store to assess spontaneous purchase behaviours. Whether smokers had noticed the displays before their purchase and the extent to which this influenced their purchase decision was also assessed via non-prompting questions. When compared with before the ban, fewer smokers after the ban noticed the displays (27.1% vs 1.1%, p<0.001), fewer reported making spontaneous purchases (28.2% vs 19.8%, p<0.05) and fewer claimed the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 5.0% vs 1.1%, p<0.05; cued recall 22.1% vs 3.8%, p<0.001). Before the ban, spontaneous purchasers were more likely than planned purchasers to suggest the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 9.7% vs 3.2%, p<0.05; cued recall 40.0% vs 17.9%, p<0.01). After the ban, spontaneous purchasers nominating the influence of displays fell substantially (free recall 9.7% vs 5.6%, p=NS; cued recall 40.0% vs 11.1%, p<0.01) as it did for planned purchasers (free recall 3.2% vs 0.0%, p<0.05; cued recall 17.9% vs 2.1%, p<0.01). We observed a 30% reduction in smokers making spontaneous tobacco purchases after implementation of the Western Australian tobacco display ban and between a fivefold and sixfold reduction in the proportion suggesting displays influenced their decision to purchase cigarettes. These data are consistent with previous research suggesting tobacco displays encourage spontaneous purchases and their removal corresponds to reductions in the same. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a U2AF65 variant in complex with a polypyrimidine-tract analogue by use of protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickmier, E. Allen; Frato, Katherine E.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2006-01-01

    A complex of the essential splicing factor U2AF 65 and a deoxyuridine oligonucleotide has been crystallized by modification of an interdomain linker. The large subunit of the essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF 65 ) binds the polypyrimidine tract near the 3′ splice site of pre-mRNA introns and directs the association of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP) of the spliceosome with the pre-mRNA. Protein engineering, in which the flexible linker region connecting tandem RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) within the U2AF 65 RNA-binding domain was partially deleted, allowed successful crystallization of the protein–nucleic acid complex. Cocrystals of a U2AF 65 variant with a deoxyuridine dodecamer diffract X-rays to 2.9 Å resolution and contain one complex per asymmetric unit

  7. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  8. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  9. Gillnet and trammel net ban and buyback in St. Croix, USVI: This dataset contains data fishermen and other stakeholders views about the performance of the gillnet and trammel net buyback and ban in St. Croix, USVI (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains information on demographics and fishermens perceptions about the efficacy of St. Croix gillnet ban and buyback

  10. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  11. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  12. Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Driezen, Pete; Azagba, Sunday; Burkhalter, Robin

    2015-09-01

    To examine youth exposure to smoking in cars following 7 provincial bans on smoking in cars with children in Canada. Repeated cross-sectional data from the 2004-2012 Youth Smoking Survey (n=91,800) were examined. Using a quasi-experimental design, contrasts of the interaction of survey year and province included in the logistic regression analyses were used to test whether exposure significantly declined pre-post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars relative to control provinces not implementing a ban. Exposure across all provinces declined from 26.5% in 2004 to 18.2% of youth in 2012. Exposure declined significantly from pre to post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars with children in Ontario at time 1 post ban (Pre-Ban=20.4% T1post=10.3%, OR=0.45), time 2 post ban (12.1%, OR=0.61) and time 3 post ban (11.6%, OR=0.58) relative to control provinces that did not implement a ban. In British Columbia exposure to smoking in cars declined significantly at pre-post ban time 3 compared to the control group (Pre-Ban=21.2%, T3post=9.6%, OR=0.51). No other provinces had a significant change in exposure pre-post ban relative to the control provinces. Although rates declined, significant differences were only found in Ontario relative to control provinces in the immediate and long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  14. Preliminary Hanford technical input for the Department of Energy programmatic spent nuclear fuel management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory environmental restoration and waste management programs environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating its programmatic options for the safe management of its diverse spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory in the Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (SNF and INEL EIS). In the SNF and INEL EIS, the DOE is assessing five alternatives for SNF management, which consider at which of the DOE sites each of the various SNF types should be managed until ultimate disposition. The range of SNF inventories considered for management at the Hanford Site in the SNF and INEL EIS include the current Hanford Site inventory, only the current Hanford Site defense production SNF inventory, the DOE complex-wide SNF inventory, or none at all. Site-specific SNF management decisions will be evaluated in separate National Environmental Policy Act evaluations. Appendixes A and B include information on (1) additional facilities required to accommodate inventories of SNF within each management alternative, (2) existing and new SNF management facility descriptions, (3) facility costs for construction and operation, (4) facility workforce requirements for construction and operation, and (5) facility discharges. The information was extrapolated from existing analyses to the extent possible. New facility costs, manpower requirements, and similar information are based on rough-order-of-magnitude estimates

  15. Preliminary Study on Utilization of Carbon Dioxide as a Coolant of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor with MOX and Minor Actinides Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzia, A. F.; Waris, A.; Novitrian

    2010-06-01

    High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is an uranium oxide (UO2) fuel, graphite moderator and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW in thermal output and outlet coolant temperature of 950° C. Instead of using helium gas, we have utilized carbon dioxide as a coolant in the present study. Beside that, uranium and plutonium oxide (mixed oxide, MOX) and minor actinides have been employed as a new fuel type of HTTR. Utilization of plutonium and minor actinide is one of the support system to non-proliferation issue in the nuclear development. The enrichment for uranium oxide has been varied of 6-20% with plutonium and minor actinides concentration of 10%. In this study, burnup period is 1100 days. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. Reactor core calculation was done by using CITATION module. The result shows that HTTR can achieve its criticality condition with 14% of 235 U enrichment.

  16. The Asbestos Ban in Korea from a Grassroots Perspective: Why Did It Occur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ryong Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, asbestos was finally banned in Korea, about 70 years after the first opening of asbestos mines under Japanese control. After having presented the history of asbestos industry, together with its regulations and health effects over time, we constructed narrative analyses of how the asbestos issue under the prevailing risk system was managed by whom and for what purpose, to provide context for the change. We could identify five different phases: laissez-faire, politico-technical, economic–managerial, health-oriented cultural, and human rights-based post-cultural risk systems. The changes leading to the asbestos ban evolved over different phases, and each phase change was necessary to reach the final ban, in that, without resolving the previous issues by examining different categories of potential alternatives, either the final ban was not possible or, even if instituted, could not be sustained. An asbestos ban could be introduced when all the alternatives to these issues, including legitimate political windows, economic rationalizations, health risk protections, and human rights sensitivities, were available. We think the alternatives that we had were not in perfect shape, but in more or less loosely connected forms, and hence we had to know how to build solidarities between different stakeholders to compensate for the imperfections.

  17. Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking patterns on workdays and weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul; Chandra, Siddharth

    2018-05-01

    Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.16; pbusiness hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  19. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  20. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  1. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  2. Compliance with the smoking ban in Italy 8 years after its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Valentina; Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Masocco, Maria; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Possenti, Valentina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Galeone, Daniela; Vasselli, Stefania; Salmaso, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report compliance with the smoking ban and the spread of smoke-free homes after 3-8 years since the Italian smoking ban implementation, according to the ongoing Italian surveillance system for behavioural risk factors (PASSI). PASSI is based on representative annual samples of the Italian population aged 18-69 years. We considered questions on smoking habits, self-reported compliance with the ban, and on smoke-free homes of 176,236 interviews conducted in 2008-2012. Ninety percent of respondents in 2012 reported that the smoking ban was enforced in hospitality premises (HPs), with a significant 3% increase from 2008. Similarly, 91.3% in 2012 reported a high compliance in workplaces other than HPs, with a significant 5% increase. Perception of compliance did not change among smokers and non-smokers. Seventy-eight percent of respondents in 2012 reported smoke-free homes, with a significant increase from 2008 to 2012. The high compliance with the ban that is still increasing even after 8 years since its implementation may partially have caused the concurrent increase in smoke-free homes.

  3. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  4. [Current situation of awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-hua; Xing, Yong-hua; Ji, Wen-wu; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian; Niu, Zhao-di; Yang, Hui-fang

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of banned pesticides among vegetable greenhouse farmers in a town of Ledu County, Qinghai Province, China and to provide a basis for the management and control of banned pesticides. Local residents who lived in a town of Ledu County for more than 5 years were selected as subjects in August 2012. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 267 vegetable greenhouse farmers who were selected from five villages of the town by cluster random sampling. Of the 267 subjects, 249 (93.26%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Eighty-seven (34.9%) of the 249 subjects were aware of banned pesticides, and the banned pesticide awareness rate varied significantly among the subjects with different education levels (χ(2) = 11.061, P = 0.011). Only education level entered the regression equation in non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Only five (2.0%) of the 249 subjects knew the banned pesticides as well as the details. All the 249 subjects used banned pesticides to varying degrees in the past 5 years. Only 9.0% (17/189) of the vegetable greenhouse farmers knew the time pesticides were initially banned in China. The banned pesticide awareness rate is relatively low in the town of Ledu County, and this rate is influenced by education level. It is needed to spread the knowledge and hazards of banned pesticides.

  5. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social......Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...

  6. Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste

  7. Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.

  8. Impact of a hospital smoking ban: changes in tobacco use and employee attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baile, W F; Gibertini, M; Ulschak, F; Snow-Antle, S; Hann, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of a complete smoking ban on 349 employees of a cancer treatment center. A questionnaire administered approximately 4 months after the ban was initiated queried smokers on the impact of the ban on their smoking habits, their experience of withdrawal symptoms during the workday, and changes in work habits. A separate questionnaire asked nonsmokers about changes in the work environment. Results showed that few smokers quit while a majority decreased their consumption. Withdrawal symptoms were a problem in less than half the smokers, but those reporting signs of physical dependency on nicotine tended to smoke more before and after work and reported negative changes in work performance. Nonsmokers in general reported positive effects on the work environment.

  9. Iron ore pollution in Mandovi and Zuari estuarine sediments and its fate after mining ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessarkar, Pratima M; Suja, S; Sudheesh, V; Srivastava, Shubh; Rao, V Purnachandra

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore was mined from the banded iron formations of Goa, India, and transported through the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries for six decades until the ban on mining from September 2012. Here we focus on the environmental magnetic properties of sediments from the catchment area, upstream and downstream of these estuaries, and adjacent shelf during peak mining time. Magnetic susceptibility (χ lf) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values of sediments were highest in upstream (catchment area and estuaries), decreased gradually towards downstream (catchment area and estuaries), and were lowest on the adjacent shelf. The χ lf values of the Mandovi estuary were two to fourfold higher than those in the Zuari. The sediments of these two estuaries after the mining ban showed enrichment of older magnetite and sharp decrease in the SIRM values. Although the input of ore material has been reduced after mining ban, more flushing of estuarine sediments is required for healthier environment.

  10. The cigarette advertising broadcast ban and magazine coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E; Goldenhar, L M

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the cigarette broadcast advertising ban, which took effect in 1971, cigarette manufacturers rapidly shifted advertising expenditures from the broadcast media to the print media. In the last year of broadcast advertising and the first year of the ban, cigarette ad expenditures in a sample of major national magazines increased by 49 and then 131 percent in constant dollars. From an 11-year period preceding the ban to an 11-year period following it, these magazines decreased their coverage of smoking and health by 65 percent, an amount that is statistically significantly greater than decreases found in magazines that did not carry cigarette ads and in two major newspapers. This finding adds to evidence that media dependent on cigarette advertising have restricted their coverage of smoking and health. This may have significant implications for public health, as well as raising obvious concerns about the integrity of the profession of journalism.

  11. Has the tobacco industry evaded the FDA's ban on 'Light' cigarette descriptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R

    2014-03-01

    Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the use of "Lights" descriptors or similar terms on tobacco products that convey messages of reduced risk. Manufacturers eliminated terms explicitly stated and substituted colour name descriptors corresponding to the banned terms. This paper examines whether the tobacco industry complied with or circumvented the law and potential FDA regulatory actions. Philip Morris retailer manuals, manufacturers' annual reports filed with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, a national public opinion survey, and market-wide cigarette sales data were examined. Manufacturers substituted "Gold" for "Light" and "Silver" for "Ultra-light" in the names of Marlboro sub-brands, and "Blue", "Gold", and "Silver" for banned descriptors in sub-brand names. Percent filter ventilation levels, used to generate the smoke yield ranges associated with "Lights" categories, appear to have been reassigned to the new colour brand name descriptors. Following the ban, 92% of smokers reported they could easily identify their usual brands, and 68% correctly named the package colour associated with their usual brand, while sales for "Lights" cigarettes remained unchanged. Tobacco manufacturers appear to have evaded a critical element of the FSPTCA, the ban on misleading descriptors that convey reduced health risk messages. The FPSTCA provides regulatory mechanisms, including banning these products as adulterated (Section 902). Manufacturers could then apply for pre-market approval as new products and produce evidence for FDA evaluation and determination whether or not sales of these products are in the public health interest.

  12. Behaviours and opinions towards outdoor smoking bans and cigarette littering in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Christine, Paul J; Zepeda-Tello, Rodrigo; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Aguilar Duque, Julian I; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz M; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor smoking bans have been implemented to reduce secondhand smoke exposure and cigarette littering. We aimed to explore outdoor smoking behaviours, cigarette littering, and support towards a recently enacted outdoor smoking ban in Baja California, Mexico. From October 2013 to April 2014 a representative sample of 800 adults from urban areas of Baja California was surveyed to obtain information on demographics, smoking status, opinion towards outdoor smoking bans in general and in specific locations, and perceptions and habits regarding cigarette littering. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence ratios and corresponding 95% CI taking into account the complex survey design. Outdoor smoking was frequently observed, as 86.8% of the population reported having seen people smoking in parks and beaches and 94.4% in open venues such as concerts or stadiums. A smoking ban in all outdoor areas was supported by 71.8% of Baja California residents. Site-specific support ranged from 80% (stadiums) to 89% (public parks). Support for the ban was higher among never and ex-smokers than in current smokers. Cigarette littering was negatively perceived by 98% of the participants, yet 45% of all cigarettes smoked were thrown on the ground. Based on cigarette consumption and butt littering reported in the survey, we estimated that 27 million cigarette butts become litter every month in urban areas of Baja California. Outdoor smoking is still frequent in outdoor areas where people gather, and an important source of littering. We found substantial public support towards the outdoor smoking ban, which should translate into easier implementation and compliance in Baja California, Mexico. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S; Webster, D W; Hepburn, L M

    1999-12-01

    To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well. Baltimore, Maryland, and 15 other US cities participating in a crime gun tracing project. Cross sectional comparison of the proportion of crime guns that are banned by the Maryland law, comparing Baltimore, MD with 15 other cities outside of Maryland. Multivariate linear regression analysis to determine if observed differences between Baltimore and 15 other cities are explained by demographic or regional differences among the cities rather than Maryland's law. Among crime guns, a gun banned by Maryland's law is more than twice as likely (relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 2.5) to be the subject of a crime gun trace request in 15 other cities combined, than in Baltimore. Among homicide guns, a crime especially relevant for public safety, a comparable difference (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2) was observed. The proportion of Baltimore's crime guns that are banned is 12 percentage points lower than would be expected based on its demographic and regional characteristics alone. Among crime guns purchased after 1990, a much smaller proportion in Baltimore are banned models than in 15 other cities. Maryland's law has reduced the use of banned Saturday night specials by criminals in Baltimore. Contrary to the claims of some opponents of gun control laws, regulation of the lawful market for firearms can also affect criminals.

  14. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Kendrick, Katherine; Salin, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/-2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/-1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/-0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25-35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  15. Tribal communities and coal in Northeast India: The politics of imposing and resisting mining bans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan; Kikon, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Bans on coal mining have been implemented in two tribal majority states in India's north-east frontier; Nagaland and Meghalaya. In Nagaland the state government imposed the ban in an attempt to capture control of coal extraction and trade, while in Meghalaya India's National Green Commission imposed the ban over concern for the environment and labour conditions. In both cases local communities have opposed the bans, and in some areas resumed mining under the authority of tribal councils and powerful civil society actors. In this paper we explore the politics of coal extraction that resulted in these bans and the response of communities and authorities. In doing so we made three main arguments that contribute to understanding of coal and communities in frontier regions where state control is partial and the legacy of armed conflict is powerful. First, in both locations the majority of the coal mining activity has been initiated and managed by members of tribal communities rather than profit-driven outsiders. Second, in contrast to other contexts in India (notably Orissa and Jharkhand) where large state or private enterprises seek to modify the law to enable coal extraction, in Nagaland and Meghalaya it has been communities that resent and challenge state and national laws being applied to their lands. Third, the right to extract coal is connected to the right of tribal communities to determine what happens on their lands. - Highlights: • Tribal communities initiate and manage coal mining in Nagaland and Meghalaya. • Laws banning coal extraction have been challenged and resisted by local communities. • The right to extract coal is tied to protecting tribal land rights. • Tribal autonomy in coal policy is progressive, yet enables capture by local elites. • Where there has been regulation of coal mining it has come from unexpected sources.

  16. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J.; Webster, D.; Hepburn, L.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well. Setting—Baltimore, Maryland, and 15 other US cities participating in a crime gun tracing project. Methods—Cross sectional comparison of the proportion of crime guns that are banned by the Maryland law, comparing Baltimore, MD with 15 other cities outside of Maryland. Multivariate linear regression analysis to determine if observed differences between Baltimore and 15 other cities are explained by demographic or regional differences among the cities rather than Maryland's law. Results—Among crime guns, a gun banned by Maryland's law is more than twice as likely (relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 2.5) to be the subject of a crime gun trace request in 15 other cities combined, than in Baltimore. Among homicide guns, a crime especially relevant for public safety, a comparable difference (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2) was observed. The proportion of Baltimore's crime guns that are banned is 12 percentage points lower than would be expected based on its demographic and regional characteristics alone. Among crime guns purchased after 1990, a much smaller proportion in Baltimore are banned models than in 15 other cities. Conclusions—Maryland's law has reduced the use of banned Saturday night specials by criminals in Baltimore. Contrary to the claims of some opponents of gun control laws, regulation of the lawful market for firearms can also affect criminals. PMID:10628912

  17. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  18. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  19. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T2011). Announcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    To build and strengthen its relationship with the broader science community in support of the Treaty, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) invites the community to a scientific conference CTBT: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T 2011), to be held from 8 to 10 June 2011 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The conference goals are: Discuss advances in science and technology relevant to test ban verification; Explore scientific applications of the CTBT verification infrastructure; Encourage partnerships and knowledge exchange between the CTBTO and the broader scientific community.

  20. An introduction to the BANNING design automation system for shuttle microelectronic hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgrady, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The BANNING MOS design system is presented. It complements rather than supplant the normal design activities associated with the design and fabrication of low-power digital electronic equipment. BANNING is user-oriented and requires no programming experience to use effectively. It provides the user a simulation capability to aid in his circuit design and it eliminates most of the manual operations involved in the layout and artwork generation of integrated circuits. An example of its operation is given and some additional background reading is provided.

  1. Banning Ads from Prime-Time State TV: Lessons from France

    OpenAIRE

    Lapo Filistrucchi; Andrea Mangani; Luigi Luini

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the advertising ban on French public television, which came into effect on the 5th of January 2009. The ban forbids commercial advertising on public TV in the time slot 20.00-6.00. By using a difference-in-difference approach we show that advertising which was previously broadcasted on public TV in the time slot 20.00-6.00 did not switch to private channels in the same time slot (nor did the price per second in that time slot on private channels rise). Rather adverti...

  2. The ban on "off-label" pharmaceutical promotion: constitutionally permissible prophylaxis against false or misleading commercial speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Critics of the Food & Drug Administration's ban on off-label promotion often claim that it violates the First Amendment because it suppresses pharmaceutical manufacturers' truthful speech about their legal--and beneficial--products. Characterizing the ban on off-label promotion in this way has more than rhetorical significance. Bans on truthful, non-misleading speech elicit special skepticism because of the belief that they "usually rest solely on the offensive assumption that the public will respond 'irrationally' to the truth." The legislative history of the provisions of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act that underlie the ban on off-label promotion, however, reveals that Congress was concerned that physicians were responding rationally to false and misleading promotional claims. In this Article, I explore the doctrinal questions raised by conceiving of the ban on off-label promotion not as a ban on "truthful speech to physicians" but instead as a prophylaxis against false and misleading pharmaceutical promotion. I review the evidence that false and misleading claims were commonplace before the ban's adoption and persist today, along with the enforcement challenges the FDA confronted at that time and would confront were the ban lifted, and conclude the government likely could develop the factual record necessary to establish that Congress' rejection of an after-the-fact case-by-case approach to combating false and misleading prescription drug promotion is constitutional.

  3. Substance abuse treatment counselors and tobacco use: a comparison of comprehensive and indoor-only workplace smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Boyd, Sara E; Studts, Jamie L

    2010-11-01

    While indoor smoking bans reduce employee tobacco use, less is known about whether comprehensive bans, which prohibit smoking in both indoor and outdoor areas, are associated with lower rates of tobacco use than indoor-only bans. This study integrated data collected via mailed surveys from 1,910 substance abuse treatment counselors and telephone interviews with 417 administrators of substance abuse treatment organizations. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between counselors' self-reported tobacco use and administrators' reports about organizational smoking bans while controlling for counselors' professional and demographic characteristics. In this sample, 20.3% of counselors were current tobacco users, 47.7% identified as former users, and 32.0% reported never using tobacco products. Only 19.5% of counselors worked in a treatment organization that had a comprehensive smoking ban. The likelihood of being a current tobacco user, compared with being a former user or nonuser, was significantly lower for counselors in organizations with comprehensive bans even after controlling for professional and demographic characteristics. Although relatively few substance abuse counselors worked in treatment organizations with comprehensive bans, such bans may represent a promising direction for tobacco control. Given recent research documenting how tobacco use is negatively associated with the delivery of smoking cessation services by health care workers, additional research on the impact of comprehensive environmental tobacco policies is needed.

  4. 78 FR 78349 - Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL14-15-000; ER13-2412-000 (Not consolidated)] Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, Riverside, CA v. Trans Bay... 385.212 (2013), the Cities of Anaheim, Azusa, Banning, Colton, Pasadena, and Riverside, CA...

  5. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  6. Does the workplace-smoking ban eliminate differences in risk for environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Tan, Frans E S; Willemsen, Marc C; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-01

    A workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands was introduced on January 1, 2004. Before the ban male and low educated employees were at higher risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Effective implementation of the ban should result not only in an overall decline of exposure, but also in the disappearance of systematic differences in exposure between subgroups of employees. Data from a Dutch continuous Internet survey were used. From July 2003 through June 2005, 200 respondents were randomly selected each week. The sample consisted of 11,291 non-smoking, working respondents, aged 16-65 years. ETS exposure decreased among all employees and among subgroups at higher risk before the ban. However, also after the ban, males and low educated employees were still most likely to be exposed to ETS. The workplace-smoking ban was effective in reducing ETS exposure among employees. However, after the ban still 52.2% of non-smoking workers reported to be exposed. We did not find the expected stronger effect among employees who were at higher risk. Both before and after implementation of the ban, males and lower educated employees were about two times more likely to be exposed to ETS.

  7. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  8. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Järvholm; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the

  9. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  10. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  11. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  12. Three years of banning neonicotinoid insecticides based on sub-lethal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, Tjeerd; Steen, van der Sjef

    2017-01-01

    The 2013 EU ban of three neonicotinoids used in seed coating of pollinator attractive crops was put in place because of concern about declining wild pollinator populations and numbers of honeybee colonies. It was also concluded that there is an urgent need for good field data to fill knowledge gaps.

  13. Chiqui-traca-ban-tau: Movements and Creativity Expression without Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmar-Vega, Vilmarie; Kozub, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Chiqui-traca-ban-tau is a creative dance activity that can be enjoyed by a wide range of children. It is also a game that provides teachers with a physical activity option that promotes higher-order thinking and remembering skills necessary to support learning in the Common Core. The game involves each child taking a turn leading a four-beat…

  14. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns

    OpenAIRE

    Vernick, J.; Webster, D.; Hepburn, L.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well.

  15. A treaty banning nuclear weapons and its implications for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven, O.; van der Meer, S.

    2015-01-01

    International support for a new multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapons is increasing. What implications would such a treaty have for the Netherlands? This policy brief describes the legal and political context of such a treaty and examines the implications of two scenarios: one in which the

  16. The ban on blood donation on men who have sex with men: time to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the 1980s the HIV/AIDS epidemic outbreak occurred. Due to the high prevalence of the disease on men who had sex with men (MSM) a lifetime ban on blood donations on men who had sex with men (MSM) was implemented. In the recent years, organizations like the European Union (EU) and the World Health ...

  17. H:\\PMKER 25(2)\\PDF 25(2)\\BAN KOFFI.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    159. Fermentations et qualité marchande des fèves de cacao. IMPACTS DE LA FERMENTATION DU CACAO. SUR LA CROISSANCE DE LA FLORE MICROBIENNE. ET LA QUALITE DES FEVES MARCHANDES. L. BAN KOFFI1, G. H. OUATTARA2, T. G. KAROU1-2, S. TAGRO GUEHI3, J. G. NEMLIN1 et J. K. DIOPOH2.

  18. 16 CFR 1305.4 - Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial fireplace ash and embers as... RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1305.4 Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products. On... mesothelioma to the public, artificial fireplace ash and embers containings respirable free-form asbestos are...

  19. Banning Fisheries Discards Abruptly Has a Negative Impact on the Population Dynamics of Charismatic Marine Megafauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondo, Esther N; Chaloupka, Milani; Heymans, Johanna J; Skilleter, Greg A

    2015-01-01

    Food subsidies have the potential to modify ecosystems and affect the provision of goods and services. Predictable Anthropogenic Food Subsidies (PAFS) modify ecosystems by altering ecological processes and food webs. The global concern over the effects of PAFS in ecosystems has led to development of environmental policies aimed at curbing the production or ultimately banning of PAFS. However, the effects of reducing or banning PAFS are not known. We explore the consequences of PAFS removal in a marine ecosystem under two scenarios: 1) gradual reduction, or 2) an abrupt ban, using a mass balance model to test these hypotheses-The reduction or loss of PAFS will: i) modify trophic levels and food webs through effects on foraging by opportunistic species, ii) increase the resilience of opportunistic species to food shortages, and iii) modify predator-prey interactions through shifts in prey consumption. We found that PAFS lower the trophic levels of opportunistic scavengers and increase their food pathways. Scavengers are able to switch prey when PAFS are reduced gradually but they decline when PAFS are abruptly banned. PAFS reduction to a certain minimal level causes a drop in the ecosystem's stability. We recommend gradual reduction of PAFS to a minimal level that would maintain the ecosystem's stability and allow species exploiting PAFS to habituate to the food subsidy reduction.

  20. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price...

  1. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  3. 75 FR 60264 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... 13513, issued on October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving... to prevent the unsafe practice of text messaging by Federal contractors while driving in connection...

  4. 76 FR 39240 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... Executive Order (E.O.) 13513, dated October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text..., entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving.'' The rule requires Government...

  5. Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Jong, de J.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Tserendorj, E.; Sodnomdarjaa, R.; Cannavan, A.; Elloitt, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European

  6. 75 FR 76461 - Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0548; FRL-8852-8] Petition for a Ban on Triclosan... to regulate triclosan. Triclosan is an antimicrobial substance used in pesticide products, hand... widespread use'' of triclosan poses significant risks to human health and the environment. In addition, the...

  7. 76 FR 5808 - Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0548; FRL-8863-6] Petition for a Ban on Triclosan... authority under various statutes to regulate triclosan. In a letter to the EPA dated January 22, 2011... various statutes to regulate triclosan. Triclosan is an antimicrobial substance used in pesticide products...

  8. Crash testing and evaluation of TxDOT burn ban signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Texas counties expressed a desire to the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to post : advisory signs on the roadside to alert motorists when a burn ban is in effect. For obvious economic reasons, : the preferred method of implementation is to...

  9. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagan, M E; DeFries, R S; Sesnie, S E; Arroyo, J P; Soto, C; Walker, W; Chazdon, R L; Sanchun, A

    2013-01-01

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  10. Do option markets undo restrictions on short sales? Evidence from the 2008 short-sale ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundy, B.D.; Lim, B.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of any sanction depends on the costs of avoiding its restrictions. We examine whether bearish option strategies were substitutes for short sales during the September 2008 short-sale ban. We find a significant diminution in option volumes and a significant increase in option bid-ask

  11. SISTEM INFORMASI SARANA DAN PRASARANA SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFOKAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ainul Yaqin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Standar sarana dan prasarana adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.2. Pengelolaan sarana dan prasarana sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data-data usulan pengadaan, penerimaan, distribusi, penggunaan, pemeliharaan, dan pemusnahan. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.2. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci : standar 6.2. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  12. The ban on reprocessing as seen from the perspective of European law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanenburg, E.; Warg, G.

    1999-01-01

    The plan of the German federal government to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power for electricity generation initially was to incorporate also a ban on reprocessing spent fuel elements. On February 22, 1999, Federal Minister for the Environment Trittin finally announced that his revised draft for the time being would contain no ban on reprocessing. That ban, as originally planned, raises a number of issues of European law which are analyzed in the article by Hanenburg and Warg, especially the question whether the ban on reprocessing constitutes a violation of the principles and objectives of the Common Market. The legal principles underlying the Common Market, especially the Euratom Treaty among the member countries, constitute the basis of the analysis in which, inter alia, aspects such as cross-border reprocessing and secondary European law or the legal consequences of the Euratom Treaty for the opting-out policy of the German federal government are dealt with. The analysis arrives at the finding that a final opt-out as planned by the German federal government in the amendments to the Atomic Energy Act, and the complete substitution of nuclear electricity by other sources of energy, violate the purpose of the Euratom Treaty at least to keep open the structural possibility of generating electricity by nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  13. Performance-Enhancing Drugs I: Understanding the Basics of Testing for Banned Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Amy B; Murray, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Whenever athletes willfully or accidentally ingest performance-enhancing drugs or other banned substances (such as drugs of abuse), markers of those drugs can be detected in biological samples (e.g., biofluids: urine, saliva, blood); in the case of some drugs, that evidence can be apparent for many weeks following the last exposure to the drug. In addition to the willful use of prohibited drugs, athletes can accidentally ingest banned substances in contaminated dietary supplements or foods and inadvertently fail a drug test that could mean the end of an athletic career and the loss of a good reputation. The proliferation of performance-enhancing drugs and methods has required a corresponding increase in the analytical tools and methods required to identify the presence of banned substances in biofluids. Even though extraordinary steps have been taken by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency to limit the use of prohibited substances and methods by athletes willing to cheat, it is apparent that some athletes continue to avoid detection by using alternative doping regimens or taking advantage of the limitations in testing methodologies. This article reviews the testing standards and analytical techniques underlying the procedures used to identify banned substances in biological samples, setting the stage for future summaries of the testing required to establish the use of steroids, stimulants, diuretics, and other prohibited substances.

  14. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on : hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based : on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), : which is administe...

  15. Banning Fisheries Discards Abruptly Has a Negative Impact on the Population Dynamics of Charismatic Marine Megafauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther N Fondo

    Full Text Available Food subsidies have the potential to modify ecosystems and affect the provision of goods and services. Predictable Anthropogenic Food Subsidies (PAFS modify ecosystems by altering ecological processes and food webs. The global concern over the effects of PAFS in ecosystems has led to development of environmental policies aimed at curbing the production or ultimately banning of PAFS. However, the effects of reducing or banning PAFS are not known. We explore the consequences of PAFS removal in a marine ecosystem under two scenarios: 1 gradual reduction, or 2 an abrupt ban, using a mass balance model to test these hypotheses-The reduction or loss of PAFS will: i modify trophic levels and food webs through effects on foraging by opportunistic species, ii increase the resilience of opportunistic species to food shortages, and iii modify predator-prey interactions through shifts in prey consumption. We found that PAFS lower the trophic levels of opportunistic scavengers and increase their food pathways. Scavengers are able to switch prey when PAFS are reduced gradually but they decline when PAFS are abruptly banned. PAFS reduction to a certain minimal level causes a drop in the ecosystem's stability. We recommend gradual reduction of PAFS to a minimal level that would maintain the ecosystem's stability and allow species exploiting PAFS to habituate to the food subsidy reduction.

  16. Job satisfaction and attitudes of restaurant staff regarding the smoking ban – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljudevit Pranić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While extant research on the impacts of smoke-free legislation on hospitality employees and industries has centered on developed countries, the research on the effects of smoking bans in transition countries has received very little attention. Hoping to assist in filling this void, this research empirically explores the relationships among restaurant employees’ attitudes, demographics, work-related variables (WRV, and job satisfaction after the introduction of a smoke-free legislation in one transition economy, i.e. Croatia. Results revealed that gender, education, age, restaurant seating allocation, hospitality work experience, smoking status, average weekly workload, and the restaurant area served were for the most part not significant in explaining different perceptions toward a smoking ban. However, the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy somewhat influenced how respondents view the smoking ban. In terms of the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy, results revealed no significant differences in regards to demographics and WRV. With regard to job satisfaction, staff with more positive post-implementation attitudes towards the ban exhibit somewhat higher levels of satisfaction with the current job. Overall, respondents appear willing to make concessions for both pro- and anti-smoking patrons, staff, and owners/managers. Therefore, lawmakers should consider population characteristics, seating allocation, and the combination thereof when devising restaurant smoking policies.

  17. 75 FR 67386 - Policy for Banning of Foreign Vessels From Entry into United States Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Foreign Vessels From Entry into United States Ports AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of policy. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard announces release of policy letter 10-03, Banning of Foreign Vessels. This policy letter outlines U.S. Coast Guard procedures for denying entry of certain foreign flagged...

  18. Transnational Dynamics Amid Poor Regulations: Taiwan’s Asbestos Ban Actions and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Yi-Jui Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history of the asbestos use regulation process in Taiwan and the associated factors leading to its total ban in 2018. Despite the long history of asbestos mining and manufacturing since the Japanese colonial period, attempts to understand the impact of asbestos on the health of the population and to control its use did not emerge until the early 1980s. We attempted to investigate the driving forces and obstructions involved in asbestos regulations by reviewing available public sources and scientific journal articles and conducting interviews with key propagators of the asbestos regulation and ban. Correlation between asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases has already been established; however, authorities have been unable to effectively regulate the extensive application of asbestos in various light industries that support economic growth since the 1960s. More stringent regulations on asbestos use in industries and an eventual ban were caused indirectly by appeals made by visionary scholars and healthcare professionals but also due to the subsidence of asbestos-related industries. With the elucidation of factors that affect asbestos regulation and ban, a thorough long-term healthcare plan for the neglected victims of asbestos-related diseases and upstream measures for policy change must be developed.

  19. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances. 1500.85 Section 1500.85 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... line, are unstable and fail to operate in a guided fashion so that they will not strike the operator or...

  20. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  1. Adoption and diffusion of zoning bylaws banning fast food drive-through services across Canadian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Campbell, Elizabeth J; Macridis, Soultana; McKennitt, Daniel; Atkey, Kayla; Raine, Kim D

    2018-01-15

    Healthy public policy is an important tool for creating environments that support human health and wellbeing. At the local level, municipal policies, such as zoning bylaws, provide an opportunity for governments to regulate building location and the type of services offered. Across North America, there has been a recent proliferation of municipal bylaws banning fast food drive-through services. Research on the utilization of this policy strategy, including bylaw adopters and adopter characteristics, is limited within the Canadian context. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Canadian municipalities based on level of policy innovation and nature of their adopted bylaw banning fast food drive-through services. A multiple case history methodology was utilized to identify and analyse eligible municipal bylaws, and included development of a chronological timeline and map of adopter municipalities within Canada. Grey literature and policy databases were searched for potential adopters of municipal fast food drive-through service bylaws. Adopters were confirmed through evidence of current municipal bylaws. Geographic diffusion and diffusion of innovations theories provided a contextual framework for analysis of bylaw documents. Analysis included assignment of adopter-types, extent and purpose of bans, and policy learning activities of each adopter municipality. From 2002 to 2016, 27 municipalities were identified as adopters: six innovators and twenty-one early adopters. Mapping revealed parallel geographic diffusion patterns in western and eastern Canada. Twenty-two municipalities adopted a partial ban and five adopted a full ban. Rationales for the drive-through bans included health promotion, environmental concerns from idling, community character and aesthetics, traffic concerns, and walkability. Policy learning, including research and consultation with other municipalities, was performed by nine early adopters. This study detailed the adoption of

  2. Complying with the smoking ban by students before and after introducing legislative intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rzeźnicki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: More and more countries introduce a total ban on smoking tobacco in public places. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of “The Act of 8 April 2010 on amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” and assess the frequency of complying with the smoking bans by the students of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Material and Methods: Between 2007–2011, at the Social Medicine Institute of the Medical University of Lodz, a study using random survey was carried out involving students who were starting their studies at the Health Department of the Medical University of Lodz. The analysis of the collected material showed that 1038 people reported being smokers at the time of the study. Among that group, 530 students were included in the study prior to, and 508 after the introduction of the amendment. In order to verify their compliance with the smoking ban, the respondents were asked whether they smoked only in designated areas or wherever they wanted to. Results: The ratio of people claiming they smoked anywhere they wanted to, disregarding the smoking ban, was 60% (N = 318 and after the amendment had been introduced, this ratio was 62.2% (N = 316, it increased by 2.2 percentage points. The observed difference was statistically irrelevant (Chi2 = 0.530, p > 0.05. Conclusions: The Act ”On amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and Act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” in Poland did not result in the expected changes in the frequency of complying with the smoking ban by the 1st year students.

  3. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PELAKSANAAN PEMBANGUNAN BERTERASKAN ISLAM: KAJIAN KES KOMUNITI ISLAM BAN NUA, HATYAI, THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohd Shukri Hanapi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ban Nua Muslim community is a Muslim community that is smack in themiddle of the non-Muslim community (Buddhist in Hatyai, Thailand. Althoughthey are a small community and are is such a predicament, they are still able toimplement Islamic-based development (IbD. In other words, they are able todevelop an Islamic community complete with numerous infrastructures such as amosque, not only as a place for prayer but it has a clinic, a library, a conferencehall, a cooperative and a Zakat Centre (Baitul Zakat. Besides that, this Islamiccommunity has a school that adheres to the Islamic education system. They notonly have worked hard to develop the physical aspects but also the spiritualaspects. The physical aspects were developed through general religious servitudesuch as employment, seeking knowledge, stimulating the community’s economy, business and homestay services, while the spiritual aspects were developed through specific religious servitudes such as prayers, fasting, running the Zakat Centre, reciting the al-Qur’an, devotional recitations (zikr and giving alms (sadaqah. The question is what tasawwur (worldview was used to design their development? and how was the tasawwur formed? To answer both thesequestions, this article has two objectives. First, to identify the tasawwur that has designed the development of the Ban Nua Islamic community; and second, to analyse the developmental worldview of the Ban Nua Islamic community. Thefindings from the qualitative research had found that the development of the Ban Nua Islamic community in Hatyai, Thailand was designed according to altasawwur al-Islamiy (Islamic worldview. It has three main elements such asibadah (religious servitude, imarah (general or social leadership and khalifah(religious leadership. Based on this tasawwur the development of the Ban NuaIslamic community in Hatyai, Thailand was implemented.

  5. The tobacco sales ban and tobacco purchases by adolescents: a general population study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Bieleman, Bert; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of the introduction on 1 January 2003 of a legal tobacco sales ban in The Netherlands on tobacco purchases by smoking and non-smoking adolescents aged <16 years. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among adolescents aged 13 through 15 years, one at end 1999 (n = 4751) and the other at end 2003 (n = 13 298). The percentage of adolescents buying tobacco decreased significantly from 26.3% in 1999 to 10.8% in 2003 (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that, after the ban, the proportion of smokers among buyers almost tripled [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.9], while the likelihood of non-smokers buying tobacco decreased strongly (OR = 0.17). A difference in the pattern of purchasing tobacco also emerged after the ban. In 2003, the proportion of smokers buying at least weekly in commercial outlets was larger than in 1999. For non-smokers there was no difference between 1999 and 2003 in the proportion buying weekly. The variety of commercial outlets in which purchases were made increased among both smoking and non-smoking purchasers of tobacco. Implementation of the 2003 tobacco sales ban has had the (intended) effect of lowering tobacco purchases among adolescents. This was mainly due to the decrease in the likelihood of buying tobacco among those who regard themselves as a non-smoker. The decrease in buying tobacco is associated with a decrease in prevalence of smoking. The sales ban has probably contributed to a stronger decrease in prevalence of smoking.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    outcropping Benin Formation made up of continental deposits of Miocene ... The area is low lying. (usually does not exceed 20m above sea-level) and is ... Eocene-Recent. Akata Formation. Clay. Paleocene. Consequently, the present knowledge of the geology of the Niger Delta was derived from the works of the following ...

  8. Yo ban? Rape rap and limits of free speech in India : An argument analysis of the debate about banning the artist Honey Singh

    OpenAIRE

    Bergdahl, Becky

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of an argument analysis of three columns published in the Indian newspaper The Indian Express in the aftermath of the gangrape and murder of a young woman in Delhi in December 2012, and the following debate about glorification of rape in Indian popular culture. One of the columnists is arguing in favour of including gender as a category in the Indian law on hate speech, thereby banning an artist called Honey Singh and his lyrics about rape. The two other columnists are ar...

  9. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  10. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  11. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-03-03

    Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  12. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  13. Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravara Sofia B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evaluating enforcement and compliance with smoking partial bans is rather scarce, especially in countries with relative weak tobacco control policies, such as Portugal. There is also scarce evidence on specific high risk groups such as vehicle workers. In January 2008, Portugal implemented a partial ban, followed by poor enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a partial smoking ban in a pro-smoking environment, specifically transportation by taxi in the city of Lisbon. Ban effectiveness was generally defined by ban awareness and support, compliance and enforcement. Methods Exploratory cross-sectional study; purposive sampling in selected Lisbon streets. Structured interviews were conducted by trained researchers while using taxi services (January 2009-December 2010. Participants: 250 taxi drivers (98.8% participation rate. Chi-square, McNemar, Man Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. Results Of the participants, 249 were male; median age was 53.0 years; 43.6% were current smokers. Most participants (82.8% approved comprehensive bans; 84.8% reported that clients still asked to smoke in their taxis; 16.8% allowed clients to smoke. Prior to the ban this value was 76.9% (p  Conclusions Despite the strong ban support observed, high smoking prevalence and poor enforcement contribute to low compliance. The findings also suggest low compliance among night-shift and vehicle workers. This study clearly demonstrates that a partial and poorly-enforced ban is vulnerable to breaches, and highlights the need for clear and strong policies.

  14. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  15. Seasonality in Smoking Behaviour: Re-evaluating the Effects of the 2005 Public Smoking Ban in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Del Bono; Klaus Grünberger; Daniela Vuri

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the public smoking ban which came into effect in Italy on January 2005 on individual smoking behaviour. Current empirical evidence supports the existence of a negative effect of the Italian ban on smoking prevalence and consumption in the general population. This is in contrast to what has been found in some other European coun- tries. Our analysis shows that the apparent success of the Italian smoking ban is due to the fact that existing results do not t...

  16. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part One. Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    tember 1966. REFERENCES 17. E. S. Quade, System Analysis Techniques for Planning-Programming-Budgeting, P-3063, I. C. W. Churchman , R. L. Ackoff, and E...February 1970. 1966. 78. Gessow & Myers, op. cit., p. 117 ff. 70. Douglass J. Wilde and Charles S. Beightler, 79. P. R. Payne, Helicopter Dynamics and...July 1958). Symposium on Shock and Vibration, Key 43. B. B. Blake, J. E. Burkam, and R. G. Loewy, West , Florida. November 1971. "Recent Studies of

  17. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  18. The impacts of the export ban on Alaskan crude oil trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, P.G.; Bausell, C.W.; Vogelsang, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors investigated the petroleum markets impacts of lifting the ban on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil exports. This paper reports on some aspects of this investigation. The economic analysis relied heavily on the modeling of the ANS crude trade conducted on behalf of GAO by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using the Transportation and Refining of International Petroleum model (TRIP). In contrast to previous studies, this one suggests that transportation costs may not be the only major factor in the realignment of ANS crude trade in response to lifting the ban. The differences in the yields of ANS crude and various crudes used by refiners in Pacific Rim countries on the one hand, and the product demand slates of the US West Coast and the potential buyers of ANS crude in Pacific Rim may also figure prominently in determining the reallocation of ANS crude if exports are permitted

  19. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in the EU in 1997 due to concern for the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from food animals to humans. In recent Norwegian and Danish studies, extensive occurrence of VRE on broiler farms and in broiler...... flocks after the avoparcin ban has been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of VRE on broiler farms in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by avoparcin. Environmental samples were obtained from five broiler houses after depopulation, cleaning......, and disinfection of the houses between rotations, and two consecutive broiler flocks from each house were sampled by taking cloacal swabs from the broilers at the time of slaughter. A total of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from broiler flocks and broiler houses were subjected...

  20. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  1. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  2. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  3. The impact of public smoking ban on the incidence of myocardial infarction hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Owais; Al-Mallah, Mouaz

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with an estimated 35,000 cardiovascular deaths per year in nonsmokers. In addition, the risk of CVD decreases with the cessation of exposure to smoking. Association of smoking with CVD has been well known for years; however, association of secondhand smoke with CVD has been a topic of great interest, especially for the past 2 decades. Multiple studies and articles have evaluated the impact of smoking ban on the incidence of AMI-related hospitalizations. In this article, we discuss the effect of smoking ban on the economy and on human health in general, as well as its potential effects on the prevalence of smoking.

  4. Effect of a ban on extracurricular sports activities by secondary school teachers on physical activity levels of adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Gauvin, Lise; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2006-10-01

    To study the effect of a teachers' ban on supervising sports-related extracurricular physical activities (ECAs), levels of physical activity among 979 grade 7 students (mean age=12.7 [0.5] years at baseline) were compared during and after the ban in seven schools that fully implemented the ban, and three schools that did not implement the ban fully. On average, schools offered 18.0 (SD=5.1) ECAs during a no-ban school year. Students attending full implementation schools were significantly more likely than students in nonimplementation schools to be active after the ban ended (odds ratio for being active=1.89 [95% confidence interval: 1.39, 2.58]). They also increased the number of physical activities in which they participated (coefficient=4.04; SE=1.01). Ending a teachers' ban on sports-related ECAs was associated with increased involvement in physical activity among secondary school students.

  5. NOTES ON THE LANGUAGE OF LIBRETTO OF "BAN LEGET" BY IVAN DEŽMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stolac

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literary work of Ivan Dežman there is also a libretto published in 1872. It is "Ban Leget" which was taken as a model by Ivan Zajc for composing his less known opera, performed in Zagreb in the same year. The work analyses deviations from the languages standards (especially syntactic ones in the drama text, determined by rhythm, rhyme etc., but also by a special request of a libretto - necessity that the performance be sung.

  6. Why Banning the Worst Forms of Child Labour Would Hurt Poor Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stephane Pallage

    2001-01-01

    Although it is intuitive and morally compelling that the worst forms of child labour should be eliminated, banning them in poor countries is unlikely to be welfare improving and can come at the expense of human capital accumulation. We show that the existence of harmful forms of child labour, in fact, has an economic role: it helps keep wages for child labour high enough to allow human capital accumulation. Therefore, unless appropriate mechanisms are designed to mitigate the decline in child...

  7. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information ...

  8. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  9. Adoption and diffusion of zoning bylaws banning fast food drive-through services across Canadian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.; Campbell, Elizabeth J.; Macridis, Soultana; McKennitt, Daniel; Atkey, Kayla; Raine, Kim D.

    2018-01-01

    Background Healthy public policy is an important tool for creating environments that support human health and wellbeing. At the local level, municipal policies, such as zoning bylaws, provide an opportunity for governments to regulate building location and the type of services offered. Across North America, there has been a recent proliferation of municipal bylaws banning fast food drive-through services. Research on the utilization of this policy strategy, including bylaw adopters and adopte...

  10. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization

  11. The role of home smoking bans in limiting exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Paulik, Edit; Maróti-Nagy, Á.; Nagymajtényi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16–70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally representative sample of 48 Hungarian settlements, completed paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaires addressing tobacco-related attitudes, opinions and...

  12. Legislative Bans Analysis of the Confidential Citizens’ Assistance to the ORA According to the Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambovtsev A. I.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research of legislative bans on drawing the citizens to confidential assistance according to the contract provided for by Article 17 “On operational search activity”. The author analyses different scientific standpoints concerning the reasons of such legislative restrictions, gives the legal and terminological evaluation of the notions used in the norm considered, offers his own approaches to the decision of some problems revealed

  13. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  14. DTCA of prescription medicines in the European Union: is there still a need for a ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Mareen

    2010-12-01

    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main markets in the European Union. The consumption of medicines is high and steadily increasing. However, the pharmaceutical market is subject to a wider range of restrictions than almost any other sector. The restrictions mainly apply to information provision and advertising practice within the community. One of the main features in pharmaceutical regulation is the ban on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, an abolition of the ban is controversial in the European Community, especially as the pharmaceutical industry keeps pleading for its ability to use the highly effective marketing strategy of DTCA to promote prescription medicines to the general public. Such advertising is only allowed in two jurisdictions in the world, New Zealand and the United States. In both systems the impact of DTCA on the consumer and the economy has been subject to research. The outcome of these studies is outlined in this article. Since the European Commission has provided a new proposal to amend the current information practice regarding prescription medicines in 2008 (European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending, as Regards Information to the General Public on Medicinal Products Subject to Medical Prescription, Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community Code Relating to Medicinal Products for Human Use, COM/2008/0663 final) it is time to examine different options to regulate the provision of information and discuss the need for a ban of DTCA.

  15. Gender and Power Dynamics in Transnational Marriage Brokerage: The Ban on Commercial Matchmaking in Taiwan Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Hui Tseng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan attracted a considerable number of marriage migrants from Southeast Asia and China through brokers in the late 1990s and early 2000s. With widely circulated, sensational news stories about foreign spouses being abused and advertisements of foreign brides as objects for sale, women involved in the business were gradually seen by the public as victims of transnational marriage brokerage. Under pressure from some women’s groups in Taiwan and the anti-trafficking campaign in the international community, the Taiwanese government eventually banned transnational commercial matchmaking in 2008. This article examines the gender politics behind the ban by reviewing the debate over this policy. It also provides an ethnographic study of women’s power relationships with other parties involved in the marriage business. By exposing the market and cultural logic that made this business blossom, this article challenges the binaries of perpetrator/victim and exploitation/freedom in the dominant representations of the transnational marriage market. It calls for a transnational and transclass perspective to understand these women’s “active submission” to the market and concludes that, without this consideration, the enforcement of the 2008 ban ends up serving only to save the international reputation of the host country and fulfill the liberal middle-class imaginary of moral order of the host society, rather than solving women’s problems per se.

  16. Banning smoking in parks and on beaches: science, policy, and the politics of denormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Bachynski, Kathleen E

    2013-07-01

    Campaigns to limit tobacco use started in the 1970s and have led to bans on public smoking, which have been extended to parks and beaches. A review of state and local statutes shows that during 1993-2011, smoking was banned in 843 parks and on 150 beaches across the United States. Three justifications for these restrictions have been invoked: the risk of passive smoke to nonsmokers, the pollution caused by cigarette butts, and the long-term risks to children from seeing smoking in public. Our analysis of the evidence for these claims found it far from definitive and in some cases weak. What, then, accounts for the efforts to impose such bans? We conclude that the impetus is the imperative to denormalize smoking as part of a broader public health campaign to reduce tobacco-related illness and death. Although invoking limited evidence may prove effective in the short run, it is hazardous for public health policy makers, for whom public trust is essential.

  17. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (Plaw in Austria is ineffective to protect customers in non-smoking rooms of hospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  18. A Process Evaluation of an Intervention to Promote Home Smoking Bans among Low Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Bundy, Lujca; Haardoerfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J.; Savas, Lara S.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke occurs primarily in the home due to passage of smoke-free legislation. Creation of a total household smoking ban can reduce associated health conditions such as asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and stroke. This paper describes the results of a randomized control trial of a minimal intervention to create smoke-free homes. 2-1-1 callers were invited to participate in the trial and were randomized to an intervention (mailings and a coaching call) or a control group (no intervention). We assessed reach, dose, fidelity, and receptivity to the intervention through program records and a 3-month follow-up survey with intervention participants. For the intervention materials, materials were mailed to 244 participants (99.2%) and 227 participants (92.3%) received the coaching call intervention. 92.3% received all intervention components. Participants who had full household bans at 3 months were more likely to conduct behaviors leading to a smoke-free home (i.e., making a list of reasons, having a family talk, posting a pledge) than were those with no/partial ban. The intervention materials also were rated higher in relevance and usefulness by non-smokers than smokers. Results demonstrate that this minimal intervention had high fidelity to the delivery of components and relatively high receptivity. PMID:26795538

  19. Temporal changes in TBT pollution in water, sediment, and oyster from Jinhae Bay after the total ban in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-09-15

    Temporal change in tributyltin (TBT) levels in Jinhae Bay, which has various TBT sources, was investigated in water, sediments, and oysters from 2003 to 2013 after its total ban in South Korea. The seawater TBT levels decreased over 500-fold from 1995/97 to 2008/09. The oyster TBT levels were about fourfold lower in 2012/13 than in 1995/97. However, the sediment TBT levels did not significantly change, even 10 years after the partial TBT ban on small ships and 7 years after the total TBT ban on all oceangoing vessels in Korea. The total ban of TBT use effectively reduced water and oyster TBT levels in Jinhae Bay, but TBT levels in water, oysters, and sediment remained above the global environmental quality standards established to protect marine organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Imposex in Reishia clavigera as an Indicator to Assess Recovery of TBT Pollution After a Total Ban in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2017-08-01

    The temporal changes in the frequency and degree of imposex and tributyltin (TBT) levels in gastropod (Reishia clavigera) were evaluated in Jinhae Bay, 5 and 10 years after the total ban on TBT usage in South Korea. The frequency and degree of imposex decreased significantly after the ban, accompanied by an increase in the female-to-male ratio. The TBT concentrations in R. clavigera also decreased significantly after the ban. There were good correlations between the TBT concentration in rock shell and both the degree of imposex and the female-to-male ratio. The total TBT ban effectively reduced the TBT levels and the frequency and degree of imposex in R. clavigera. However, the current low exposure level in the study area is still sufficient to cause imposex in R. clavigera. More time is needed to reduce the TBT levels to levels that do not have adverse biological effects on R. clavigera.

  1. Striving for quality use of medicines: how effective is Australia's ban on direct-to-consumer prescription medicine advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sonja

    2009-02-01

    The potential for both positive and negative effects arising from direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines challenges health policymakers to develop regulatory schemes which selectively capture the positive aspects of the practice. Australia has dealt with this quandary by banning the practice, while New Zealand and the United States permit it. However, in recent times pharmaceutical companies have been increasingly successful in introducing promotional materials into the Australian market. This article demonstrates that the Australian ban is consistent with striving for the major policy goal of quality use of medicines, thus providing the basis for arguing that solutions to strengthen the ban against the identified threats ought to be implemented. Quality use of medicines can be most effectively achieved via the combined effect of the strengthened ban and the mimicking of the limited positive aspects of direct-to-consumer advertising by government provision of non-promotional information to consumers.

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  3. PRN 93-4: Ban on Aerosol Products Containing CFCs and HCFCs under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice alerts pesticide registrants to a rule under the Clean Air Act banning distribution and sale of aerosol and pressurized products, including pesticide products, that contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

  4. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.

  5. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  6. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  7. Employees' job satisfaction after the introduction of a total smoke-ban in bars and restaurants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Jørn; Hetland, Hilde; Mykletun, Reidar J; Aarø, Leif E; Matthiesen, Stig Berge

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate possible effects of a total smoke-ban in Norwegian bars and restaurants (introduced on June 1st 2004) on employees' job satisfaction. A national representative sample was randomly selected from the public registry of all companies in the hospitality business. A baseline survey was conducted in May 2004, follow-up measurements were performed in September/October 2004 and May 2005. Altogether, 1525 employees agreed to participate in the baseline survey. Among respondents at baseline, 894 (59.4%) remained in the sample at the first follow-up and 758 (49.7%) at the second follow-up. Analysis of variance for repeated measures revealed a significant three-way interaction between personal smoking behaviour, attitudes towards the ban before it was enacted and time from baseline to the second follow-up. A small decline in job satisfaction was found between baseline and the first follow-up among employees who were daily smokers and had a negative attitude towards the ban. There was, however, an increase in job satisfaction between the first and second follow-up among the others (non-smokers and smokers with a positive attitude towards the ban). While job satisfaction was higher among smokers with negative attitudes towards the ban than among other employees before the ban entered into force, the opposite was the case one year later. The work environments in bars and restaurants seem to have changed towards being more satisfactory for non-smokers and smokers with positive attitudes towards the ban before it was enacted. In contrast, a small but persisting worsening of job satisfaction was found among employees that were daily smokers and had a negative attitude towards the ban.

  8. Smoke-free laws and direct democracy initiatives on smoking bans in Germany: a systematic review and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stefan; Minkner, Philipp

    2014-01-03

    Germany's 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens' or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman's ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04). The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.

  9. Smoke-Free Laws and Direct Democracy Initiatives on Smoking Bans in Germany: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kohler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Germany’s 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. Methods: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. Results: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens’ or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman’s ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04. Conclusions: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.

  10. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    PRELIMINARY MULTIDOMAIN MODELLING AND SIMULATION STUDY OF A. HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT) TOWER VIBRATION. I. lliyasu1, I. Iliyasu2, I. K. Tanimu3 and D. O Obada4. 1,4 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE. NIGERIA.

  11. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising and Display Bans: Policy Evaluation Study in Five Russian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley; Spires, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry uses point-of-sale (POS) advertising, promotion, and product display to increase consumption of its products among current users, to attract new consumers, and to encourage former customers to resume tobacco use. As part of a comprehensive tobacco control effort, Russia—having one of the highest tobacco use prevalence rates in the world—enacted legislation that banned tobacco POS advertising, effective November 15, 2013, and banned the display of tobacco and the sale of cigarettes in kiosks, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the national law by assessing the state of POS advertising, promotion, and product display, and sales in kiosks across Russia. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted to measure compliance with the POS restrictions: wave 1 took place in April-May 2014 after the advertising ban was in effect and again in August-September 2014 after the display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Observations were conducted by local trained staff that traveled to 5 populous cities in different regions of Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ekaterinburg, and Novosibirsk). Staff followed a published POS evaluation protocol and used mobile phones to collect data. Observations were conducted in a roughly equal number of supermarket chains, convenience stores, and kiosks. Observed items included advertising at POS, product displays, and cigarette sales in kiosks. Results Observations were made in 780 venues in wave 1 and in 779 revisited venues in wave 2. In wave 1, approximately a third of supermarkets and convenience stores (34.2%, 184/538) were advertising cigarettes using light boxes, and over half of observed venues (54.3%, 292/538) had signage such as banners or shelf liners that used colors or images related to cigarette brands. Product displays were common in wave 1. In wave 2, compliance with advertising restrictions

  12. Smoking Ban and Small-For-Gestational Age Births in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair; Daly, Sean; Clarke, Vanessa; Keogan, Sheila; Clancy, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Background Ireland introduced a comprehensive workplace smoke-free legislation in March, 2004. Smoking-related adverse birth outcomes have both health care and societal cost implications. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Irish smoke-free legislation on small-for-gestationa- age (SGA) births. Methods and Findings We developed a population-based birthweight (BW) percentile curve based on a recent study to compute SGA (BW <5th percentile) and very SGA (vSGA - BW<3rd percentile) for each gestational week. Monthly births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed linking with monthly maternal smoking rates from a large referral maternity university hospital. We ran individual control and CUSUM charts, with bootstrap simulations, to pinpoint the breakpoint for the impact of ban implementation ( = April 2004). Monthly SGA rates (%) before and after April 2004 was considered pre and post ban period births, respectively. Autocorrelation was tested using Durbin Watson (DW) statistic. Mixed models using a random intercept and a fixed effect were employed using SAS (v 9.2). A total of 588,997 singleton live-births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. vSGA and SGA monthly rates declined from an average of 4.7% to 4.3% and from 6.9% to 6.6% before and after April 2004, respectively. No auto-correlation was detected (DW = ∼2). Adjusted mixed models indicated a significant decline in both vSGA and SGA rates immediately after the ban [(−5.3%; 95% CI −5.43% to −5.17%, p<0.0001) and (−0.45%; 95% CI: −0.7% to −0.19%, p<0.0007)], respectively. Significant gradual effects continued post the ban periods for vSGA and SGA rates, namely, −0.6% (p<0.0001) and −0.02% (p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusions A significant reduction in small-for-gestational birth rates both immediately and sustained over the post-ban period, reinforces the mounting evidence of the positive health effect of a successful

  13. Restaurant and bar owners' exposure to secondhand smoke and attitudes regarding smoking bans in five Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Hammond, S Katharine; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J; Yang, Yan; Nan, Yi; Feng, Guoze; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2011-05-01

    Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  14. Support for a ban on tobacco powerwalls and other point-of-sale displays: findings from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Allen, Jane A; Kosa, Katherine M; Curry, Laurel E

    2015-02-01

    This study uses focus group data to document consumer perceptions of powerwall and other point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays, and support for a ban on tobacco displays. Four focus groups were conducted in 2012 by a trained moderator. The study comprised 34 adult residents of New York State, approximately half with children under age 18 years living at home. Measures used in the study were awareness and perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, and level of support for a ban on tobacco displays. Analysis focused on perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, level of support for a ban on tobacco displays and reasons participants oppose a display ban. This study documents a general lack of concern about tobacco use in the community, which does not appear to be associated with support for a ban on POS tobacco displays. Although all participants had seen tobacco powerwalls and most considered them to be a form of advertising, participants were divided as to whether they played a role in youth smoking. Additional research is warranted to determine what factors individuals weigh in assigning value to a ban on POS tobacco displays and other tobacco control policies and how educational efforts can influence those assessments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2011-06-01

    Since 2006, banning smoking in cars with children has become a rapidly growing tobacco control policy. However, to date, there have been few studies examining support and correlates of support for car smoking bans, and none of the existing studies have been international in nature. We conducted such a study among smokers in four countries. 6716 adult current smokers from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort telephone survey of smokers in the USA, Canada, UK and Australia. Controlling for demographics, heaviness of smoking, smoking health knowledge/beliefs and quit intentions, we compared support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children across the four countries. The majority of smokers supported banning smoking in cars with children. Support was highest in Australia (83%), followed by the UK (75%) and Canada (74%); support was lower-but still high-in the USA (60%). Support was highest among smokers who: had stronger quit intentions, were lighter smokers, had lower education, had no children in the home, believed that cigarette smoke is dangerous to non-smokers and could cause asthma in children, and were concerned about modelling smoking to children. These findings indicate that a majority of smokers in the four countries support banning smoking in cars with children, and lend support to banning smoking in cars with children. Additionally, they suggest that support may be increased by educating smokers about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure.

  16. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Hammond, S. Katharine; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J.; Yang, Yan; Nan, Yi; Feng, Guoze; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards. PMID:21655134

  17. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  18. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Nandi; Pienaar, David C; Ataguba, John E; Volmink, Jimmy; Kredo, Tamara; Jere, Mlenga; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-11-04

    Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. To date, no systematic review has evaluated the effectiveness, possible harms and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. To evaluate the benefits, harms and costs of restricting or banning the advertising of alcohol, via any format, compared with no restrictions or counter-advertising, on alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (May 2014); CENTRAL (Issue 5, 2014); MEDLINE (1966 to 28 May 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 28 May 2014); PsychINFO (June 2013); and five alcohol and marketing databases in October 2013. We also searched seven conference databases and www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/ in October 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified and those of relevant systematic reviews or guidelines, and contacted researchers, policymakers and other experts in the field for published or unpublished data, regardless of language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the restriction or banning of alcohol advertising via any format including advertising in the press, on the television, radio, or internet, via billboards, social media or product placement in films. The data could be at the individual (adults or adolescent) or population level. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one small RCT (80 male student participants conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2009) and three ITS studies (general population studies in Canadian provinces conducted in the 1970s and 80s).The RCT

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of Indoor Smoking Bans on Air Quality in Australian Licensed Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Margaret Elissa

    The quality of indoor air in Australian buildings is unknown due to limited published data. The assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in hospitality environments is of special concern because they are frequented by sensitive populations such as the elderly, children, and people with pre-existing health conditions, who may be at risk of developing adverse health reactions if the IAQ is poor. As of 2010, all Australian states and territories have introduced legalisation banning smoking in enclosed public places, including licensed clubs. This project has evaluated the impact of indoor smoking bans on air quality inside and outside of Australian licensed clubs. In doing this it has identified emerging IAQ issues in post smoking ban environments, and documented the airborne concentrations of previously unstudied air contaminants such as particulate matter with a 50% cut-point diameter of 1.0 ?m (PM1.0) and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) in the indoor smoking areas of Australian licensed clubs. The study involved collecting approximately 400 hours of air quality data, of which 200 hours was collected before bans and 200 hrs was collected after smoking bans were introduced in licensed clubs located within two local government districts of South Eastern Australia. Clubs 1 to 7 were located in the one district and Clubs 8 to 11 in the other district. Club 4 dropped out following the pre ban monitoring, and the results were omitted from analysis. The air quality parameters measured inside include particulate matter with a 50% cut-point diameter of 2.5 mum (PM2.5), PPAH, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide mu(CO2), temperature and humidity. The air quality parameters measured outside were PM2.5, CO2, temperature and humidity. Each of the parameters were monitored for 4 hour periods on 4 occasions in each club both before, and after the introduction of indoor smoking bans. Additional monitoring of indoor concentrations of PM1.0, nicotine and PM2

  20. Reductions in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality following the national irish smoking ban: interrupted time-series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sericea Stallings-Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown decreases in cardiovascular mortality following the implementation of comprehensive smoking bans. It is not known whether cerebrovascular or respiratory mortality decreases post-ban. On March 29, 2004, the Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to implement a national workplace smoking ban. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this policy on all-cause and cause-specific, non-trauma mortality. METHODS: A time-series epidemiologic assessment was conducted, utilizing Poisson regression to examine weekly age and gender-standardized rates for 215,878 non-trauma deaths in the Irish population, ages ≥35 years. The study period was from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, with a post-ban follow-up of 3.75 years. All models were adjusted for time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence. RESULTS: Following ban implementation, an immediate 13% decrease in all-cause mortality (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, a 26% reduction in ischemic heart disease (IHD (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.63-0.88, a 32% reduction in stroke (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54-0.85, and a 38% reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.46-0.83 mortality was observed. Post-ban reductions in IHD, stroke, and COPD mortalities were seen in ages ≥65 years, but not in ages 35-64 years. COPD mortality reductions were found only in females (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.70. Post-ban annual trend reductions were not detected for any smoking-related causes of death. Unadjusted estimates indicate that 3,726 (95% CI: 2,305-4,629 smoking-related deaths were likely prevented post-ban. Mortality decreases were primarily due to reductions in passive smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The national Irish smoking ban was associated with immediate reductions in early mortality. Importantly, post-ban risk differences did not change with a longer follow-up period. This study corroborates previous evidence for cardiovascular

  1. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  2. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  3. Longitudinal Associations of Local Cigarette Prices and Smoking Bans with Smoking Behavior in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Stephanie L; Auchincloss, Amy H; Stehr, Mark F; Kern, David M; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kaufman, Joel D; Michael, Yvonne L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations of geographically proximal cigarette prices with within-person changes in smoking outcomes or assessed interactions between cigarette prices and smoking bans. We linked neighborhood cigarette prices (inflation-adjusted) at chain supermarkets and drug stores and bar/restaurant smoking ban policies to cohort participants (632 smokers from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 2001-2012, baseline mean age 58 years) using geocoded retailer and participant addresses. We used fixed-effects models to investigate associations of within-person changes in price and ban exposures with within-person changes in five smoking outcomes: current smoking, heavy (≥10 cigarettes) smoking, cessation, relapse, and intensity (average number of cigarettes smoked per day, natural log transformed). We assessed intensity associations among all smokers, and heavy (≥10 cigarettes per day) and light (price and bans. A $1 increase in price was associated with a 3% reduction in risk of current smoking (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93, 1.0), a 7% reduction in risk of heavy smoking (aRR: 0.93; CI = 0.87, 0.99), a 20% increase in risk of smoking cessation (aRR: 1.2; CI = 0.99, 1.4), and a 35% reduction in the average number of cigarettes smoked per day by heavy baseline smokers (ratio of geometric means: 0.65; CI = 0.45, 0.93). We found no association between smoking bans and outcomes, and no evidence that price effects were modified by the presence of bans. Results underscore the importance of local prices, but not hospitality smoking bans, in influencing older adults' smoking behaviors.

  4. Compliance to Gutka ban and other provisons of COTPA in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimple, S; Gunjal, S; Mishra, G A; Pednekar, M S; Majmudar, P; Shastri, S S

    2014-12-01

    Cigarettes and other tobacco products act 2003 (COTPA) is the principal law governing tobacco control in India. Government of Maharashtra in one of its landmark decisions also banned manufacturing, sale and distribution of gutka and pan masala since July 2012. The desired impact and level of enforcement of the COTPA legislation and the gutka and pan masala ban in Maharashtra State, however, needs assessment. Among the many provisions within COTPA, the present study seeks to assess compliance to implementation and enforcement of Section 5 and 6 of COTPA including compliance to gutka and pan masala ban in Mumbai, India. Six educational institutes (EI) within the Mumbai metropolitan region were selected in a two stage random sampling process. Area around each EI was manually mapped and all the tobacco products selling outlets with in the 100 yards distance were listed by trained Field Social Investigators and were observed to determine compliance for Section 5 and Section 6 of the COTPA legislation and for gutka and pan masala ban. The vendors/shop owners manning these outlets were also interviewed for their personal sociodemographic details, self-tobacco use, awareness and perception about ill-effects of tobacco and existing tobacco control legislation in the country. A total of 222 tobacco retail outlets were listed within 100 yards of the EI in violation to the provisions of Section 6 of COTPA, of which 72 (32.4%) were selling tobacco products on mobile structures. About 53.2% of the tobacco vendors were also users of some form of tobacco. Whereas, nearly 217 (97.7%) vendors were aware about the gutka and pan masala ban in the State, only 48.2% were aware about the existence of COTPA legislation. None of the EI had a display board prohibiting the sale of tobacco products within a radius of 100 yards of their EI. Only 56.3% tobacco outlets had complied with the mandatory warning display boards indicating tobacco products will not be sold to people below 18 years of

  5. Banned -- Select: "a drug to alter the sex of the foetus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, P V

    1993-04-01

    In 1991, the Government of Gujarat State, India, banned the manufacture and sale of an Ayurvedic drug called Select. This was the first time an Ayurvedic product had ever been banned. The manufacturer claimed that if a pregnant woman took Select for 45 days after her last menstrual period, she would have a male fetus. Further, the manufacturer marketed the drug as a tool which would change the dowry system (i.e., it would reduce the number of girls in the population). Select's high cost did not deter the naive and trusting public in Gujarat and other states. Drug activists and consumer groups called for the ban and noted that the marketing claims were typical of the unethical behavior of the Ayurvedic market. These consumer groups brought the existence of Select to the attention of the government which admittedly cannot adequately monitor and control the drug market. Groups ranging from illegal smugglers to multinational giants use loopholes in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Excise Laws to license their drugs as Ayurvedic/Herbal, but most drugs are hazardous. Policy makers, physicians, nongovernmental and consumer groups, the media, and others should join together to rid India of this unethical practice. They should help the government to implement a rational policy for traditional systems of medicine and, once the policy has been developed to select an essential drug list of Ayurvedic drugs needed for national health programs; monitor and minimize misleading advertisements; screen all existing Ayurvedic drugs and drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs. The government should declare any products with more than 12% alcohol to be liquor.

  6. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF BAN HUANG ORAL LIQUID FOR TREATING BOVINE RESPIRATORY DISEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhou, Xu-Zheng; Niu, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Xi-Wang; Cheng, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Ban Huang oral liquid was developed as a veterinary compound preparation by the Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the oral liquid preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, Ban Huang, is safe and effective for treating respiratory diseases in cattle. Acute oral toxicity experiments were conducted in Wistar rats and Kunming mice via oral administration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the drug against Mycoplasma bovis in vitro with the double dilution method was 500 mg/mL, indicating good sensitivity. The results of laboratory pathogen testing, analysis of clinical symptoms, and analysis of pathological anatomy were combined to diagnose bovine respiratory diseases in 147 Simmental cattle caused by mixed infections of M. bovis , bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, and Mannheimia haemolytica . These cattle were randomly divided into three groups: drug treatment group 1 (treated via Tilmicosin injection), drug treatment group 2 (treated with Shuang Huang Lian oral liquid combined with Tilmicosin injection), and drug treatment group 3 (treated with Ban Huang oral liquid combined with Tilmicosin injection). Treatment effects were observed within 7 days. The results showed no toxicity and a maximum tolerated dose greater than 20 g/kg BW. For the 87 cattle in drug-treatment group, the cure rate was 90.80%, whereas the response rate was 94.25%. The cure rate of drug treatment group was increased by 14.13% in comparison with that of drug control group 1 and by 7.47% in comparison with that of drug control group 2 (both P bovine respiratory diseases, especially for mixed infection caused by M. bovis , bacteria, and viruses.

  7. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  8. Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; McHugh, Jack; Callinan, Joanne E; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-05-27

    Smoking bans or restrictions can assist in eliminating nonsmokers' exposure to the dangers of secondhand smoke and can reduce tobacco consumption amongst smokers themselves. Evidence exists identifying the impact of tobacco control regulations and interventions implemented in general workplaces and at an individual level. However, it is important that we also review the evidence for smoking bans at a meso- or organisational level, to identify their impact on reducing the burden of exposure to tobacco smoke. Our review assesses evidence for meso- or organisational-level tobacco control bans or policies in a number of specialist settings, including public healthcare facilities, higher education and correctional facilities. To assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. We contacted authors to identify completed or ongoing studies eligible for inclusion in this review. We also checked websites of state agencies and organisations, such as trial registries. Date of latest searches was 22nd June 2015. We considered studies that reported the effects of tobacco bans or policies, whether complete or partial, on reducing secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco consumption, smoking prevalence and other health outcomes, in public healthcare, higher educational and correctional facilities, from 2005 onwards.The minimum standard for inclusion was having a settings-level policy or ban implemented in the study, and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included quasi-experimental studies (i.e. controlled before-and-after studies), interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. Two or more review authors independently

  9. Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and U.S. security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the United States has the technical expertise and physical means to i) maintain a safe, secure and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile without nuclear-explosion testing, and ii) effectively monitor global compliance once the Treaty enters into force. Moreover, the CTBT is judged to help constrain proliferation of nuclear-weapons technology, so it is considered favorable to U.S. security. Review of developments since the studies were published, in 2002 and 2012, show that the study conclusions remain valid and that technical capabilities are better than anticipated.

  10. Banning Asbestos in New Zealand, 1936–2016, an 80-Year Long Saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ivan Glass

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The banning by the New Zealand Government of the import and export of asbestos-containing products resulted from the interplay of a number of factors. At a personal level, there were the actions of the asbestos sufferers, their families and support groups. At the political level, there were the activities of progressive trade union groups representing the hazardous trades, such as labourers, construction workers and demolition workers, and at a Government level, there was a positive response to these public health pressures. The Prohibition Order 2016 concerning Imports and Exports (asbestos-containing products was the outcome of this 80-year long saga.

  11. Banning Asbestos in New Zealand, 1936-2016, an 80-Year Long Saga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, William Ivan; Armstrong, Rob; Chen, Grace

    2017-11-25

    The banning by the New Zealand Government of the import and export of asbestos-containing products resulted from the interplay of a number of factors. At a personal level, there were the actions of the asbestos sufferers, their families and support groups. At the political level, there were the activities of progressive trade union groups representing the hazardous trades, such as labourers, construction workers and demolition workers, and at a Government level, there was a positive response to these public health pressures. The Prohibition Order 2016 concerning Imports and Exports (asbestos-containing products) was the outcome of this 80-year long saga.

  12. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  13. Analiza kakovosti spletnih aplikacij za elektronsko bančništvo

    OpenAIRE

    JANKOVIČ, JERNEJ

    2016-01-01

    Namen diplomskega dela je prikazati sistematično analizo kakovosti spletnih aplikacij na področju elektronskega bančništva. V teoretičnem delu smo se osredotočili na standard ISO/IEC 25000 - SQuaRE, ki v celoti obravnava kakovost izdelka. Iz nabora standardov SQuaRE smo pregledali vsebine standardov omenjene družine, na koncu pa smo se osredotočili na standard ISO/IEC 25010, ki predstavlja model kakovosti. Ta je sestavljen iz osmih značilnosti: funkcijska ustreznost, učinkovitost izvedbe...

  14. Revisiting the Concept of Sanctuary in an Era of Backlash, Deportations and Bans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Délano Alonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., the expansion of an already enlarged deportation apparatus and the attempt to establish a ban against immigrants from targeted countries by the Donald Trump administration has generated a wave of protests and institutional responses from activists, lawyers and immigrant-serving organizations to local governments. Students, faculty, and staff at over 190 schools, colleges, and universities around the country have mobilized to create and sign petitions calling for their respective administrations to declare their campuses sanctuaries, in response to policies that specifically target immigrant communities and have created fear, anxiety as well as real cases of abuse, discrimination and separation of families.

  15. When enough data are not enough to enact policy: The failure to ban chlorpyrifos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Trasande

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong evidence now supports the notion that organophosphate pesticides damage the fetal brain and produce cognitive and behavioral dysfunction through multiple mechanisms, including thyroid disruption. A regulatory ban was proposed, but actions to end the use of one such pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in agriculture were recently stopped by the Environmental Protection Agency under false scientific pretenses. This manuscript describes the costs and consequences of this policy failure and notes how this case study is emblematic of a broader dismissal of scientific evidence and attacks on scientific norms. Scientists have a responsibility to rebut and decry these serious challenges to human health and scientific integrity.

  16. When enough data are not enough to enact policy: The failure to ban chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Strong evidence now supports the notion that organophosphate pesticides damage the fetal brain and produce cognitive and behavioral dysfunction through multiple mechanisms, including thyroid disruption. A regulatory ban was proposed, but actions to end the use of one such pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in agriculture were recently stopped by the Environmental Protection Agency under false scientific pretenses. This manuscript describes the costs and consequences of this policy failure and notes how this case study is emblematic of a broader dismissal of scientific evidence and attacks on scientific norms. Scientists have a responsibility to rebut and decry these serious challenges to human health and scientific integrity.

  17. Cellphone bans and fatal motor vehicle crash rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Chi, Junwook

    2013-05-01

    A number of states in the United States have laws restricting drivers from using cellphones. Using state-level panel data, we examined the effect of cellphone laws on fatal crashes in the United States between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that there is insufficient power to detect a reduction in overall fatal crash rates scaled by vehicle miles and population estimates. Cellphone bans, however, have significantly reduced the fatal crash rates of drivers in certain age cohorts. The effect was most pronounced among drivers between 18 and 34 years of age. We did not find any significant effect among drivers in the 55 and older age cohorts.

  18. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  19. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  20. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  2. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  3. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  4. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  5. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance S. Ballester

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973 were linked to state taxes (n = 41, state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily. There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001 and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001. Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  6. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Southeast Asia Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS. This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005–2011, a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers’ reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9% at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  7. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001-2011, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Mayne, Stephanie L

    2017-03-20

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001-2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores ( n = 2973) were linked to state taxes ( n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  8. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Robinson, Lucy F.; Mayne, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. PMID:28335533

  9. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-08-13

    In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers' reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  10. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  11. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  12. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act: banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Sensing the danger. Can tsunami early warning systems benefit from test ban monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An editorial in the February 2005 edition of the Magazine for European Research pointed to the very issue of responsibility: Improvements are always possible, of course, but the very nature of a 'natural disaster' is that while not entirely absolving humans of responsibility it surpasses our means to deal with and even understand the forces at work. But science can help enhance our knowledge. For if there is one subject that the Asian tragedy has highlighted, it is the importance of putting in place coordinated early warning systems for earthquakes and, in particular, the absence of effective monitoring of tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. A concerted effort is now being made to develop a coordinated system of systems - bringing together organizations and initiatives that together can put in place an early warning system. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), set-up to monitor adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, is one organization seen to contribute to a coordinated early warning system

  15. Spectroscopic properties for identifying sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogmued, J.; Monarumit, N.; Won-in, K.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    Gemstone commercial is a high revenue for Thailand especially ruby and sapphire. Moreover, Phrae is a potential gem field located in the northern part of Thailand. The studies of spectroscopic properties are mainly to identify gemstone using advanced techniques (e.g. UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry, FTIR spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy). Typically, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry is a technique to study the cause of color in gemstones. FTIR spectrometry is a technique to study the functional groups in gem-materials. Raman pattern can be applied to identify the mineral inclusions in gemstones. In this study, the natural sapphires from Ban Bo Kaew were divided into two groups based on colors including blue and green. The samples were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, FTIR spectrometer and Raman spectroscope for studying spectroscopic properties. According to UV-Vis-NIR spectra, the blue sapphires show higher Fe3+/Ti4+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than those of green sapphires. Otherwise, green sapphires display higher Fe3+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than blue sapphires. The FTIR spectra of both blue and green sapphire samples show the absorption peaks of -OH,-CH and CO2. The mineral inclusions such as ferrocolumbite and rutile in sapphires from this area were observed by Raman spectroscope. The spectroscopic properties of sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand are applied to be the specific evidence for gemstone identification.

  16. Asbestos Ban in Italy: A Major Milestone, Not the Final Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and history: Italy was the main asbestos producer and one of the greatest consumers in 20th century Europe until the asbestos ban was introduced in 1992. Asbestos exposure affected the population in a wide range of working environments, namely mining and marketing of asbestos, asbestos cement production, shipyards and textile industries. This also determined a widespread environmental asbestos exposure affecting the surrounding communities. Methods: To investigate the drivers and difficulties of the process leading to the asbestos ban and its subsequent implementation, we focused on stakeholder involvement, environmental health policies, capacity building and communication. Results: In the past three decades, stakeholder involvement has been instrumental in advancing the industrial asbestos replacement process, prevention and remediation interventions. Furthermore, involvement also contributed to the integration of environmental and health policies at national, regional and local levels, including capacity building and communication. In a global public health perspective, international scientific cooperation has been established with countries using and producing asbestos. Discussion and Conclusions: Key factors and lessons learnt in Italy from both successful and ineffective asbestos policies are described to support the relevant stakeholders in countries still using asbestos contributing to the termination of its use.

  17. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising and Display Bans: Policy Evaluation Study in Five Russian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Grant, Ashley; Spires, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-08-15

    The tobacco industry uses point-of-sale (POS) advertising, promotion, and product display to increase consumption of its products among current users, to attract new consumers, and to encourage former customers to resume tobacco use. As part of a comprehensive tobacco control effort, Russia-having one of the highest tobacco use prevalence rates in the world-enacted legislation that banned tobacco POS advertising, effective November 15, 2013, and banned the display of tobacco and the sale of cigarettes in kiosks, effective June 1, 2014. The objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the national law by assessing the state of POS advertising, promotion, and product display, and sales in kiosks across Russia. Two waves of observations were conducted to measure compliance with the POS restrictions: wave 1 took place in April-May 2014 after the advertising ban was in effect and again in August-September 2014 after the display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Observations were conducted by local trained staff that traveled to 5 populous cities in different regions of Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ekaterinburg, and Novosibirsk). Staff followed a published POS evaluation protocol and used mobile phones to collect data. Observations were conducted in a roughly equal number of supermarket chains, convenience stores, and kiosks. Observed items included advertising at POS, product displays, and cigarette sales in kiosks. Observations were made in 780 venues in wave 1 and in 779 revisited venues in wave 2. In wave 1, approximately a third of supermarkets and convenience stores (34.2%, 184/538) were advertising cigarettes using light boxes, and over half of observed venues (54.3%, 292/538) had signage such as banners or shelf liners that used colors or images related to cigarette brands. Product displays were common in wave 1. In wave 2, compliance with advertising restrictions was very good: there were virtually no

  18. Benefits of smoking bans on preterm and early-term births: a natural experimental design in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Dratva, Julia; Röösli, Martin; Perez, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Birth outcomes are relevant for future children's heath. Capitalising on a natural experimental design in Switzerland, we evaluated how regional smoking bans introduced at different time points affected birth outcomes, including preterm and early-term births. We used birth registry data of all singleton neonates born in Switzerland (2007-2012). We developed canton-specific interrupted time-series followed by random meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits of smoking bans on preterm (Switzerland with cantons that adopted more comprehensive smoking bans achieving greater benefits. Early-term births constitute a previously ignored though important group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pieroni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  20. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  1. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  2. E-cigarette use and support for banning e-cigarette use in public places in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Anthony A; Filippidis, Filippos T; Fernandez, Esteve; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the factors associated with support for banning e-cigarette use in public places in the European Union (EU) and how this varies by socio-demographic determinants, use of tobacco, ever use of e-cigarettes and their perceived harm. Data are from the representative Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey performed in 2014 (n=27,801) in 28 EU member states. Analyses were conducted separately by tobacco use status (never, current, and former smokers) and e-cigarette experimentation status. 70.9% of never smokers, 63.1% of former smokers and 45.7% of current smokers in the EU supported a ban on the use of e-cigarettes in public places. In all groups, support for banning e-cigarettes in public places was lower among those who had experimented with e-cigarettes (adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 0.43 vs. 0.50 vs. 0.61, among never, current and former smokers respectively) and higher among those who perceived e-cigarettes as harmful (aORs 2.49 vs 2.35 vs. 2.40, among never, current and former smokers respectively). 40.5% of those who had experimented with e-cigarettes supported a ban on use in public places, although levels of support were lower among those who started using e-cigarettes in order to circumvent existing smoking bans (aOR 0.54, 95% Confidence Interval 0.45-0.64). Bans of e-cigarette use in public places in Europe have high levels of public support even among former and current tobacco smokers, although this does vary across population groups. As legislators consider approaches to e-cigarette use, public opinion is likely to become more important to the passing and enforcement of any legislation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; McGowan, Yvonne; Currie-Murphy, Laura M; Normand, Charles

    2014-05-01

    To review systematically the literature on the economic impact of smoking bans in bars and restaurants and provide an estimate of the impact size using meta-analysis. Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references of reviews and relevant studies. Google and web-pages of tobacco control agencies were also searched. The review identified 56 studies using absolute sales, sales ratio or employment data and employing regression methods to evaluate the impact of smoking bans in the United States, Australia or in countries in South America or Europe. The meta-analysis included 39 comparable studies, with 129 cases identified based on the outcome measure, scope of the ban, type of establishment and geographical location. Methodological quality was assessed based on four pre-determined criteria. Study and case selection and data extraction were conducted independently by two researchers. Random-effects meta-analysis of all cases showed no associations between smoking bans and changes in absolute sales or employment. An increase in the share of bar and restaurant sector sales in total retail sales was associated with smoking bans [0.23 percentage-points; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.375]. When cases were separated by business type (bars or restaurants or wider hospitality including bars and restaurants), some differential impacts emerged. Meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in hospitality sector showed overall no substantial economic gains or losses. Differential impacts were observed across individual business types and outcome variable, but at aggregate level these appear to balance out. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Holocene Geologic Slip Rate for the Banning Strand of the Southern San Andreas Fault near San Gorgonio Pass, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Rood, D. H.; Kendrick, K. J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Sharp, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault in southern California. The southern San Andreas Fault splays into the sub-parallel Banning and Mission Creek strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley, and although it has long been surmised that the Banning strand eventually accommodates the majority of displacement and transfers it into San Gorgonio Pass, until now it has been uncertain how slip is actually partitioned between these two fault strands. Our new slip rate measurement, critically located at the northwestern end of the Banning strand, overlaps within errors with the published rate for the southern San Andreas Fault measured at Biskra Palms Oasis. This indicates that the majority of southern San Andreas Fault displacement transfers from the southeastern Mission Creek strand northwest to the Banning strand and into San Gorgonio Pass. Our result corroborates the UCERF3 hazard model, and is consistent with most previous interpretations of how slip is partitioned between the Banning and Mission Creek fault strands. To measure this slip rate, we used B4 airborne LiDAR to identify the apex of an alluvial fan offset laterally 30 ± 5 m from its source. We calculated the depositional age of the fan using 10Be in-situ cosmogenic exposure dating of 5 cobbles and a depth profile. We calculated a most probable fan age of 4.0 +2.0/-1.6 ka (1σ) by combining the inheritance-corrected cobble ages assuming Gaussian uncertainty. However, the probability density function yielded a multi-peaked distribution, which we attribute to variable 10Be inheritance in the cobbles, so we favor the depth profile age of 2.2-3.6 ka. Combined, these measurements yield a late Holocene slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault of 11.1 +3.1/-3.3 mm/yr. This slip rate does not preclude possibility that some slip transfers north along the Mission Creek strand and the Garnet Hill fault, but it does confirm

  5. Banning shisha smoking in public places in Iran: an advocacy coalition framework perspective on policy process and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Breton, Eric; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    Shisha smoking is a widespread custom in Iran with a rapidly growing prevalence especially among the youth. In this article, we analyze the policy process of enforcing a federal/state ban on shisha smoking in all public places in Kerman Province, Iran. Guided by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we investigate how a shisha smoking ban reached the political agenda in 2011, how it was framed by different policy actors, and why no significant breakthrough took place despite its inclusion on the agenda. We conducted a qualitative study using a case study approach. Two main sources of data were employed: face-to-face in-depth interviews and document analysis of key policy texts. We interviewed 24 policy actors from diverse sectors. A qualitative thematic framework, incorporating both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to analyze our data. We found that the health sector was the main actor pushing the issue of shisha smoking onto the political agenda by framing it as a public health risk. The health sector and its allies advocated enforcement of a federal law to ban shisha smoking in all public places including teahouses and traditional restaurants whereas another group of actors opposed the ban. The pro-ban group was unable to neutralize the strategies of the anti-ban group and to steer the debate towards the health harms of shisha smoking. Our analysis uncovers three main reasons behind the policy stasis: lack of policy learning due to lack of agreement over evidence and related analytical conflicts between the two groups linked to differences in core and policy beliefs; the inability of the pro-ban group to exploit opportunities in the external policy subsystem through generating stronger public support for enforcement of the shisha smoking ban; and the nature of the institutional setting, in particular the autocratic governance of CHFS which contributed to a lack of policy learning within the policy subsystem. Our research demonstrated the utility

  6. A Qualitative Study Among Mexican Americans to Understand Factors Influencing the Adoption and Enforcement of Home Smoking Bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Escoffrey, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E; Jones, Jennifer A; Cavazos, Jazmine; Gutierrez Monroy, Jo Ann A; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-11-07

    One-third of Mexican-American children, in addition to nonsmoker adults, are exposed to secondhand smoke at home, yet few interventions target Mexican-American households. An effective, brief English language program, tested with United Way 2-1-1 callers in Atlanta, increased home smoking bans (confirmed by air monitors). Two randomized controlled trials in North Carolina and Texas replicated those results. We explored factors determining adoption and enforcement of smoking bans in Mexican-American households to inform program linguistic and cultural adaptation to broaden program reach and relevance. Bilingual interviewers recruited convenience samples of Mexican-American smokers and nonsmokers living with at least one smoker in Houston and San Diego households and asked open-ended questions regarding conditions for implementing home and vehicle smoking bans and conditions for varying acceptance of bans. Investigators independently reviewed English transcripts and completed a descriptive analysis using ATLAS.ti. Participants (n = 43) were predominantly female (n = 31), current smokers (n = 26), interviewed in Spanish (n = 26), had annual household incomes less than $30000 (n = 24), and allowed smoking inside the home (n = 24). Themes related to difficulty creating and enforcing bans included courtesy, respect for guests and heads of household who smoke, and gender imbalances in decision making. Participants viewed protecting children's health as a reason for the ban but not protecting adult nonsmokers' health. A dual-language, culturally adapted intervention targeting multigenerational Mexican-American households should address household differences regarding language and consider influences of cultural values on family dynamics and interactions with guests that may weaken bans. Qualitative interviews suggested cultural and family considerations to address in adapting a brief evidence-based smoke-free homes intervention for Mexican Americans, including traditional

  7. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  8. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  9. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  10. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  11. Impact of an Outdoor Smoking Ban at Secondary Schools on Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes and Water Pipe Use among Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, Andrea D; Hiemstra, Marieke; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Jansen, Maria W J; van Oers, Hans J A M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The effectiveness of outdoor smoking bans on smoking behavior among adolescents remains inconclusive. This study evaluates the long-term impact of outdoor school ground smoking bans among adolescents at secondary schools on the use of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes (with/without

  12. Impact of an outdoor smoking ban at secondary schools on cigarettes, e-cigarettes and water pipe use among adolescents : An 18-Month Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, A.D.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Jansen, M.W.J.; Van Oers, J.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of outdoor smoking bans on smoking behavior among adolescents remains inconclusive. This study evaluates the long-term impact of outdoor school ground smoking bans among adolescents at secondary schools on the use of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes (with/without nicotine) and

  13. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p < 0.01), and that this association is seen for both genders (boys OR = 0.74, p < 0.1; girls OR = 0.52, p < 0.001). POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  14. Racial Diversity in the Medical Profession: The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans on Underrepresented Student of Color Matriculation in Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Mickey-Pabello, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of affirmative action bans in six states (California, Washington, Florida, Texas, Michigan, and Nebraska) on the matriculation rates of historically underrepresented students of color in public medical schools in these states. Findings show that affirmative action bans have led to about a 17% decline (from 18.5% to…

  15. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  16. Joint AGU/SSA Statement on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    Recognizing that the debate in the U.S. Senate on whether to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) could benefit from a clear analysis of the technical limits to monitoring nuclear explosions, AGU joined with the Seismological Society of America (SSA) to carry out such an analysis. In the following policy statement, approved by both societies, seismologists speak with essentially one voice about this crucial aspect of the CTBT. This is the first time that AGU has prepared a policy statement jointly with another society, and this is the first policy statement SSA has adopted.The policy regarding AGU's procedures for developing position statements on public issues, the Union's role in advocacy of the statements, and all current AGU position statements are available online at http://www.agu. org/sci_soc/policy/sci_ pol.html.

  17. How Canada Changed from Exporting Asbestos to Banning Asbestos: The Challenges That Had to Be Overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Kathleen

    2017-09-27

    Less than ten years ago, the asbestos industry enjoyed the support of every Quebec and Canadian political party. The Chrysotile Institute and the International Chrysotile Association, both located in Quebec, aggressively marketed asbestos around the world, claiming scientific evidence showed that chrysotile asbestos could be safely used. The industry created a climate of intimidation. Consequently, no groups advocating for victims of asbestos or campaigning for its outright ban existed in Quebec to challenge the industry. A campaign was launched to mobilize the scientific community to speak out. Working with scientists, activists, and asbestos victims around the world, a small group of Quebec scientists exposed the false arguments of the asbestos industry. They publicly and repeatedly challenged the unscientific and unethical asbestos policy of the government. By appealing to Quebec values and holding those in power accountable, the campaign won public support and succeeded against all odds in defeating the asbestos industry.

  18. How Canada Changed from Exporting Asbestos to Banning Asbestos: The Challenges That Had to Be Overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Ruff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Less than ten years ago, the asbestos industry enjoyed the support of every Quebec and Canadian political party. The Chrysotile Institute and the International Chrysotile Association, both located in Quebec, aggressively marketed asbestos around the world, claiming scientific evidence showed that chrysotile asbestos could be safely used. The industry created a climate of intimidation. Consequently, no groups advocating for victims of asbestos or campaigning for its outright ban existed in Quebec to challenge the industry. A campaign was launched to mobilize the scientific community to speak out. Working with scientists, activists, and asbestos victims around the world, a small group of Quebec scientists exposed the false arguments of the asbestos industry. They publicly and repeatedly challenged the unscientific and unethical asbestos policy of the government. By appealing to Quebec values and holding those in power accountable, the campaign won public support and succeeded against all odds in defeating the asbestos industry.

  19. Research on remote-controlling gate-ban system based on embedded system and GSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuelin; Sun, Liangbo

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays the Gate-Ban Controlling System mainly uses the MCU as the control center, but the MCU has some disadvantages such as lower reliability and less expandability. Aims at resolving these problems, analyzes the modules' construction and designs the hardware platform and software platform of the system, develops the video collection functions at the supervising terminal based on Linux system, uses ARM as the control center and gets the information from extended ports by ARM control panel, and then transports them in SMS by using GPRS platform, at last the wireless long-distance supervise and control can be achieved. In the experiment the results show that the method proposed in this paper has good reliability and expansibility.

  20. The ban on smokeless tobacco products is systematically violated in Chennai, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidhubala, E.; Pisinger, C.; Basumallik, B.

    2016-01-01

    on the sachets. Results: Totally 65 STPs were collected; 26 distinct products and 23 brands. All products were claimed to be 'tobacco' by the shop keepers. Sixty-five percent of the products informed to contain tobacco and 15.4% to contain pan masala. Five sachets did not inform about the content; 30.8% did...... not have a pictorial warning; a text warning was printed on 80.8%, but only two products had the messages in Tamil; 70% had promotional messages printed, and 57% had their registration numbers printed. Conclusion: The ban on STP is being systematically violated in Chennai. STP are cheap and easily...... available and due to promotional laudatory messages and lacking information about the content and warning of health damage, the consumers are left with the perception that they buy more or less harmless product. The Indian Government must introduce policies to control production, import, and sale of illicit...

  1. Banning the Soviet Lobotomy: Psychiatry, Ethics, and Professional Politics during Late Stalinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how lobotomy came to be banned in the Soviet Union in 1950. The author finds that Soviet psychiatrists viewed lobotomy as a treatment of "last resort," and justified its use on the grounds that it helped make patients more manageable in hospitals and allowed some to return to work. Lobotomy was challenged by psychiatrists who saw mental illness as a "whole body" process and believed that injuries caused by lobotomy were therefore more significant than changes to behavior. Between 1947 and 1949, these theoretical and ethical debates within Soviet psychiatry became politicized. Psychiatrists competing for institutional control attacked their rivals' ideas using slogans drawn from Communist Party ideological campaigns. Party authorities intervened in psychiatry in 1949 and 1950, persecuting Jewish psychiatrists and demanding adherence to Ivan Pavlov's theories. Psychiatrists' existing conflict over lobotomy was adopted as part of the party's own campaign against harmful Western influence in Soviet society.

  2. Hydroacoustic monitoring system for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, M.; Galindo, M.; Grenard, P.; Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroacoustics is one of the four monitoring technologies of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The hydroacoustic network, designed to monitor the major world oceans, contains eleven stations located with an emphasis on the vast ocean areas of the Southern Hemisphere. Two different sensing techniques are employed; hydrophone sensors, which effectively cover large ocean areas, but are quite complex and expensive, and seismic detectors on small islands which are less effective, but considerably simpler and cheaper. The hydroacoustic stations transmit data in real time via satellite to the International Data Centre (IDC). The IDC analyses the hydroacoustic data in combination with the other three technologies to produce bulletins of detected events for the States Party to the Treaty. (orig.) [de

  3. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty......-two broiler flocks from rearing systems with different histories of avoparcin exposure were investigated for the presence of VRE. Using a direct selective plating procedure, VRE were isolated from 104 of 140 (74.3%) broiler flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin on conventional...... and extensive indoor broiler farms. In contrast, only 2 of 22 (9.1%) organic broiler flocks reared on free-range farms with no history of previous exposure to avoparcin were VRE-positive. Furthermore, the occurrence of VRE over time in flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin...

  4. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  5. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Library that Cried Wolf: Outcomes of a Banned Book Hoax on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Kasperek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In fall 2012, the Mansfield University library created a Facebook hoax banning a book from the library. Attention was quickly drawn to the book and the library. Ending a few short days later, the hoax left many unanswered questions. Through interviews with individuals on different sides of the hoax, a review of Facebook statistics and comments, and other relevant data, this paper explores the impact on the people involved, the learning outcomes achieved, and the impact on the reputation and credibility of the library and university. The information collected reveals a complex picture of feeling, perceptions, and intentions. While successful at gaining attention, the hoax strategy as employed produced a negative response warranting concern. The paper concludes with suggestions for those contemplating a hoax strategy.

  7. A Nationwide Assessment of the Association of Smoking Bans and Cigarette Taxes With Hospitalizations for Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vivian; Ross, Joseph S; Steiner, Claudia A; Mandawat, Aditya; Short, Marah; Ku-Goto, Meei-Hsiang; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-12-01

    Multiple studies claim that public place smoking bans are associated with reductions in smoking-related hospitalization rates. No national study using complete hospitalization counts by area that accounts for contemporaneous controls including state cigarette taxes has been conducted. We examine the association between county-level smoking-related hospitalization rates and comprehensive smoking bans in 28 states from 2001 to 2008. Differences-in-differences analysis measures changes in hospitalization rates before versus after introducing bans in bars, restaurants, and workplaces, controlling for cigarette taxes, adjusting for local health and provider characteristics. Smoking bans were not associated with acute myocardial infarction or heart failure hospitalizations, but lowered pneumonia hospitalization rates for persons ages 60 to 74 years. Higher cigarette taxes were associated with lower heart failure hospitalizations for all ages and fewer pneumonia hospitalizations for adults aged 60 to 74. Previous studies may have overestimated the relation between smoking bans and hospitalizations and underestimated the effects of cigarette taxes.

  8. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years......) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were...

  9. Smoke-free homes and attitudes towards banning smoking in vehicles carrying children in Spain (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Izquierdo, Ana; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Cassanello-Peñarroya, Pia; Balaguer, Albert; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-10-01

    To describe the voluntary adoption of smoke-free homes and social attitudes in Spain towards banning smoking in vehicles in which children are present. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the adult Spanish population age range, 18-75 years (n=1036). The field work was conducted via a computer-assisted telephone survey in March and April 2016. Survey respondents answered questions about smoking rules at home and attitudes towards a smoking ban in cars with or without children. Home smoking rules were defined as complete (smoking not allowed anywhere in the house), partial (smoking allowed in some areas inside the house) or absent (smoking allowed everywhere). Most (83.0%) of the surveyed population had some type of smoking restriction in place at home (45.6% complete and 37.5% partial). There were significant differences between groups according to age group (the highest prevalence was 86.1% from 66 to 75 years and the lowest prevalence was 77.8% from 46 to 65 years) and smoking status (the highest prevalence was 89.4% in people who had never been smokers and the lowest prevalence was 75.0% in current smokers) with regards to the prevalence of smoke-free homes (pSpain have implemented a complete smoke-free rule at home. More than 9 out of 10 adults favor regulating smoking in cars in the presence of minors. These findings support the expansion of smoke-free regulations to include private vehicles, particularly when minors are in the car. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ROTC Cadets in Summer Training Worry about Campus Protests Aimed at the Pentagon's Policy Banning Homosexual Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Some protesters contend that a Defense Department policy barring homosexuals from becoming commissioned military officers contradicts campus regulations against discrimination. The controversy concerns ROTC cadets, whose scholarships may be in jeopardy if the corps were banned from their campus. Cadets also find the summer training builds…

  11. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophi Costas A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35 were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p  Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  12. “One man one job”: the marriage ban and the employment of women teachers in Irish primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Jennifer; Harford, Judith

    2010-01-01

    In 1932, the Irish government, facing an economic downturn, introduced a marriage ban which required that female primary school teachers were required to resign on marriage. This followed a series of restrictive legislative measures adopted by Irish governments throughout the 1920s which sought to limit women's participation in public life and the public sector. Such a requirement emerged in several countries in response to high unemployment and applied principally to women's white-collar occupations, leading some commentators to argue that it stemmed from a social consensus rather than an economic rationale. Despite opposition to the ban from the Irish National Teachers' Organisation (INTO) on the basis that it was unconstitutional, would lead to fewer marriages and that married women were in fact more suited to teaching children, it remained in place until 1958. Although the ban is much referred to as part of the gender ideology that informed legislation in the early years of independent Ireland, the particular history of married women teachers has been little researched in the academic context. Over 50 years since the rescinding of the ban, this article examines its impact through an analysis of primary sources, including government cabinet minutes and the public commentary of the INTO and positions this history within the international context.

  13. "One Man One Job": The Marriage Ban and the Employment of Women Teachers in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Jennifer; Harford, Judith

    2010-01-01

    In 1932, the Irish government, facing an economic downturn, introduced a marriage ban which required that female primary school teachers were required to resign on marriage. This followed a series of restrictive legislative measures adopted by Irish governments throughout the 1920s which sought to limit women's participation in public life and the…

  14. Air Quality, Biomarker Levels, and Health Effects on Staff in Korean Restaurants and Pubs Before and After a Smoking Ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lee, Kiyoung; Lee, Do-Hoon; Paek, Yujin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Hong, Soyoung; Lim, Wanryung; Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Kyoosang

    2015-11-01

    The Korean government implemented a smoking ban at square floor area of ≥150 m(2), rather than restaurants and pubs from July 2013. This study examined the effects of the smoking regulations in restaurants and pubs in terms of the air quality, biomarker levels and health effects on staff. Particulate matter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was measured in 146 facilities before and 1 month after the ban. The urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL) levels were measured in 101 staff members at 77 facilities before and 1 month after the ban. We also measured self-reported respiratory and sensory symptoms on both phases. Of the 146 facilities, 121 facilities were included in the PM2.5 analysis. In ≥150 m(2) pubs, the indoor PM2.5 concentration was significantly reduced after the ban (p restaurants and pubs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure after introduction of the Italian smoking ban: the Florence and Belluno survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tamang, Elizabeth; Nebot, Manel; Lopez, Maria José; Albertini, Marco; Marcolina, Daniela; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-01-01

    A law banning smoking in enclosed public places was implemented in Italy on January 10, 2005. The aim of this paper is to present a cross-sectional survey on two representative samples of non-smokers of two Italian towns (Florence and Belluno), conducted one year after the introduction of the ban, in order to assess prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure, to record the attitudes towards the ban, and the perception about its compliance in a representative sample of non-smokers. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were carried out in March 2006, from a random sample of households from telephone registries. Respondents were 402 non-smokers from Belluno and 1,073 from Florence. About 12% of Florentines and 7% of Belluno respondents were exposed at home; 39% and 19%, respectively, at work; 10% and 5% in hospitality venues; 20% and 10% in cars. The smoke-free law was almost universally supported (about 98%) even if a smaller proportion of people (about 90%) had the perception that the ban was observed. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and in hospitality premises has dropped to hospitality venues.

  16. Impact of Smoking Ban on Passive Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Non-Smokers in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Schechter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal passive smoke exposure raises risk for negative birth outcomes. Legislation regulating public smoking has been shown to impact exposure levels, though fewer studies involving pregnant women have been conducted within the U.S. where bans are inconsistent across regions. This study examined the effect of a ban enacted in the southeastern U.S. on pregnant women’s cotinine levels. Additional analyses compared self-reported exposure to cotinine and identified characteristics associated with passive exposure. Pregnant women (N = 851 were recruited prospectively between 2005 and 2011 in North Carolina. Sociodemographic and health data were collected via surveys; maternal blood samples were assayed for cotinine. Among non-active smokers who provided self-report data regarding passive exposure (N = 503, 20% were inconsistent with corresponding cotinine. Among all non-smokers (N = 668, being unmarried, African American, and less educated were each associated with greater passive exposure. Controlling for covariates, mean cotinine was higher prior to the ban compared to after, F(1, 640 = 24.65, p < 0.001. Results suggest that banning smoking in public spaces may reduce passive smoke exposure for non-smoking pregnant women. These data are some of the first to examine the impact of legislation on passive smoke exposure in pregnant women within the U.S. using a biomarker and can inform policy in regions lacking comprehensive smoke-free legislation.

  17. Impact of Smoking Ban on Passive Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Non-Smokers in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Kollins, Scott H.

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal passive smoke exposure raises risk for negative birth outcomes. Legislation regulating public smoking has been shown to impact exposure levels, though fewer studies involving pregnant women have been conducted within the U.S. where bans are inconsistent across regions. This study examined the effect of a ban enacted in the southeastern U.S. on pregnant women’s cotinine levels. Additional analyses compared self-reported exposure to cotinine and identified characteristics associated with passive exposure. Pregnant women (N = 851) were recruited prospectively between 2005 and 2011 in North Carolina. Sociodemographic and health data were collected via surveys; maternal blood samples were assayed for cotinine. Among non-active smokers who provided self-report data regarding passive exposure (N = 503), 20% were inconsistent with corresponding cotinine. Among all non-smokers (N = 668), being unmarried, African American, and less educated were each associated with greater passive exposure. Controlling for covariates, mean cotinine was higher prior to the ban compared to after, F(1, 640) = 24.65, p banning smoking in public spaces may reduce passive smoke exposure for non-smoking pregnant women. These data are some of the first to examine the impact of legislation on passive smoke exposure in pregnant women within the U.S. using a biomarker and can inform policy in regions lacking comprehensive smoke-free legislation. PMID:29316617

  18. Case note: ECHR (Animal Defenders International v UK: App no 48876/08: Political Advertising Bans and Freedom of Expression)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ó Fathaigh, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Animal Defenders International v UK, the 17-judge Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the UK’s ban on political advertising on television, as applied to an animal rights organisation, did not violate freedom of expression. The Court divided nine votes to eight, with the

  19. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the effects of the ban and other measures to decrease the use of asbestos in Sweden. Methods: The effect was measured through comparing the incidence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in birth cohorts who started to work before and after the decrease in the use of asbestos, i.e. in mid-1970s. Cases were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry and the analysis was restricted to persons born in Sweden. Results: Men and women born 1955–79 had a decreased risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to men and women born 1940–49 (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.11–0.25; and RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23–0.97 respectively). The decreased use of asbestos prevented each year about 10 cases in men and two cases in women below the age of 57 years in 2012. Conclusions: The ban and decreased use of asbestos in Sweden can be measured today in birth cohorts that started their working career after the decrease. PMID:26194352

  20. Applying a contingency model of strategic decision making to the implementation of smoking bans: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, M C; Meijer, A; Jannink, M

    1999-08-01

    A model of strategic decision making was applied to study the implementation of worksite smoking policy. This model assumes there is no best way of implementing smoking policies, but that 'the best way' depends on how decision making fits specific content and context factors. A case study at Wehkamp, a mail-order company, is presented to illustrate the usefulness of this model to understand how organizations implement smoking policies. Interview data were collected from representatives of Wehkamp, and pre- and post-ban survey data were collected from employees. After having failed to solve the smoking problem in a more democratic way, Wehkamp's top management choose a highly confrontational and decentralized decision-making approach to implement a complete smoking ban. This resulted in an effective smoking ban, but was to some extent at the cost of employees' satisfaction with the policy and with how the policy was implemented. The choice of implementation approach was contingent upon specific content and context factors, such as managers' perception of the problem, leadership style and legislation. More case studies from different types of companies are needed to better understand how organizational factors affect decision making about smoking bans and other health promotion innovations.