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Sample records for bambu dendrocalamus giganteus

  1. Vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus. I: análise experimental Concrete beams reinforced with bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus. I: experimental analysis

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    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se e se discute um estudo experimental sobre o comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu. Ensaiaram-se dez vigas de concreto armado, sendo oito vigas armadas longitudinalmente com varas de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus e duas vigas de referência, armadas com barras de aço. Duas variáveis foram estudadas: a taxa de armadura longitudinal (1,6 e 3,2% e a relação área/perímetro das varas de bambu (0,25 e 0,33 cm. Para cada combinação de variáveis foram confeccionadas duas vigas. Curvas força vs. deslocamento e força vs. deformação dos materiais são apresentadas e discutidas. Constatou-se que o comportamento estrutural das vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu segue a teoria de flexão de Bernoulli-Kirchoff, sendo possível a aplicação dos procedimentos usuais de dimensionamento do concreto armado no projeto desses elementos. Observou-se, também, que a capacidade de carga dessas vigas se assemelha à das vigas de aço; contudo, estas são mais rígidas que aquelas.In this paper, an experimental study about bamboo reinforced concrete beams is presented and discussed. Ten reinforced concrete beams were tested, where eight of them were reinforced with Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo-splint and two reference beams were reinforced with steel bars. Two factors were studied: the longitudinal reinforcement ratio (1.6 and 3.2% and the area/perimeter ratio of the bamboo-splint (0.25 and 0.33 cm. For each factor combination, two beams were cast. Force vs. displacement and force vs. strain curves are presented and discussed. It was found out that the structural behaviour of bamboo-concrete beams follow the Bernoulli-Kirchoff bending theory. Therefore, the usual design procedures of reinforced concrete can be used to design the bamboo-concrete beams. The load capacity of the bamboo-concrete beams is almost the same as that of reinforced with steel; nevertheless, are more stiffer than those

  2. Caracterização físico-mecânica do laminado colado de bambu (Dendrocalamus giganteus.

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do tratamento preservativo e do tipo de adesivo nas propriedades físico-mecânicas do laminado colado, confeccionado com o bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus. Para tanto, colmos de bambu foram tratados pelo método de imersão em produto químico (solução de 1% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado - CCB e em água, durante 15 dias. Dos colmos tratados, foram retiradas as camadas externa e interna, obtendo-se lâminas com espessuras de 4 mm, comprimento de 45 cm e largura de 5 cm. Para a colagem das lâminas, utilizaram-se os adesivos "Cascophen RS" (resorcinol-formol e "Cascorez-Extra" (acetato polivinílico. O adesivo à base de resorcinol-formol proporcionou maior resistência à umidade ao BLC, quando comparado àquele à base de acetato polivinílico, tendo as amostras provenientes de peças tratadas com CCB sido mais estáveis que as tratadas com água. Dentre as propriedades mecânicas testadas, o adesivo apresentou resultado significativo para o cisalhamento na linha de cola e o tratamento preservativo para o MOE. A interação dos fatores adesivo e tratamento foi significativa para o MOE, resistência a compressão paralela ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, tendo as peças tratadas com água e aderidas com resorcinol-formol apresentado melhores resultados para o MOE e compressão paralela às fibras e aquelas tratadas com CCB, para o cisalhamento na linha de cola.

  3. Avaliação quantitativa da massa fibrosa e vazios em colmos de bambu Quantitative evaluation of fibrous material and hollows of bamboo culms

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    Anísio Azzini; José Maximiliano Matto Grosso Borges; Dirceu Ciaramello; Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1990-01-01

    Em colmos de Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad e Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro, determinaram-se as dimensões quanto à altura e ao diâmetro basal, além dos teores de nó, massa fibrosa e vazios ("ocos") dos internódios. Os teores de nó, em relação ao peso úmido do colmo, foram de 6,32, 11,70 e 13,41%, respectivamente, para S. tuidoides, D. giganteus e B. vulgaris. Em volume, os teores de massa fibrosa no colmo de bambu variaram de 46,09%, para D. giganteus, a 61,19%, para B. tuld...

  4. Comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com ripas de bambu cravejadas de pinos Structural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with pinned bamboo-splints

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    Antonio C. Braga Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma das deficiências do bambu reforçando vigas de concreto armado está relacionada com deslocamentos relativos entre os dois materiais. A investigação aqui reportada teve como objetivo avaliar experimentalmente a possibilidade de se melhorar o trabalho conjunto bambu-concreto, através do cravejamento de pinos nas ripas de bambu usadas como reforço. Para tanto, oito vigas de concreto foram ensaiadas, das quais seis foram reforçadas com ripas de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro cravejadas de pinos e duas armadas com ripas de bambu sem a presença dos pinos, como referência. Usaram-se dois tipos de pino: de aço ou de bambu, em número de dois, três ou quatro pinos entre nós. Curvas força-deslocamento e força-deformação dos materiais são apresentadas e discutidas, em que os resultados mostraram que a cravação dos pinos produziu um aumento de rigidez das vigas; contudo, o furo feito para colocação do pino reduziu localmente a seção transversal da ripa de bambu e, consequentemente, a resistência última das vigas. Finalmente, resultados similares foram obtidos em vigas reforçadas com pino de aço ou de bambu.One drawback of bamboo as concrete reinforcement beams is the relative displacement between the two materials. The research reported in this paper aimed to experimentally investigate the improvement of bamboo-concrete-bond by means of nailing. Eight concrete beams were tested, six of them reinforced with Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro nailed bamboo-splints and two reference beams, reinforced with bamboo-splints without pins. Steel pins or bamboo pins were used. Two, three and four pins were nailed between bamboo nodes. Load-displacement and load-strain curves are presented and discussed. The results showed that the pins improved the beam stiffness; nevertheless, they reduced locally the transversal section of the bamboo splint and, consequently, the ultimate load. Finally, similar results were showed by beams reinforced

  5. Avaliação quantitativa da massa fibrosa e vazios em colmos de bambu Quantitative evaluation of fibrous material and hollows of bamboo culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em colmos de Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad e Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro, determinaram-se as dimensões quanto à altura e ao diâmetro basal, além dos teores de nó, massa fibrosa e vazios ("ocos" dos internódios. Os teores de nó, em relação ao peso úmido do colmo, foram de 6,32, 11,70 e 13,41%, respectivamente, para S. tuidoides, D. giganteus e B. vulgaris. Em volume, os teores de massa fibrosa no colmo de bambu variaram de 46,09%, para D. giganteus, a 61,19%, para B. tuldoides, sendo de 53,32% o valor intermediário para B. vulgaris. Este estudo foi efetuado no Centro Experimental de Campinas (IAC em 1988.Culms of Bambusa tuidoides Munro, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad and Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro, were studied and the following variables were determined: height and basal diameter, content of nodes, fibrous material and intemode hollows. The node contents, regarding the fresh weight, were 6.32, 11.70 and 13.41%, respectively for B. tuldoides, D. giganteus and B. vulgaris. Regarding the culm volume, the fibrous material contents ranged from 46.09% for D. giganteus to 61.19% for B. tuidoides. The intermediate value was 53.32% for B. vulgaris. This study was carried out in 1988 at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas in State of São Pauto, Brazil.

  6. Análise mecânica de pilares mistos bambu-concreto Mechanical analysis of hybrid bamboo-concrete columns

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    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de pilares de bambu da espécie Dendrocalamus giganteus com e sem o preenchimento interior de concreto. Foram ensaiados, a compressão axial, 18 pilares com comprimentos de 1, 1,5 e 2 m e, para cada comprimento, tal como 6 pilares, sendo 3 mistos de bambu-concreto e 3 formados apenas por colmos de bambu. Os resultados foram analisados através da teoria da instabilidade de casca cilíndrica e das propriedades mecânicas dos materiais. Curvas força vs. deformação, teóricas e experimentais, são apresentadas e a influência do comprimento dos pilares sobre as últimas forças resistentes foi avaliada por meio de análise de variância. Os pilares mistos bambu-concreto apresentaram comportamento não-linear e, em média, suas últimas forças resistentes mostraram valor da ordem de 50% da obtida pela Teoria da Resistência dos Materiais; já os pilares formados apenas por colmos de bambu, indicaram comportamento linear e suas últimas forças diferiram apenas 5% das teóricas, calculadas pela Teoria da Resistência dos Materiais. Verifica-se que a utilização de pilares de bambu sem preenchimento de concreto apresenta maior viabilidade estrutural e econômica, podendo ser utilizada em obras de pequeno porte e de baixo custo.This work aimed to investigate the mechanical behaviour of Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo columns filled with concrete. Eighteen columns were tested under axial compression. The columns were 1, 1.5 and 2 m high and, for each height, 6 columns were studied, in which three were filled with concrete and three were made only with the bamboo culms. The results were analysed by the instability theory of cylindrical shell and by the mechanical properties of the material. Theoretical and experimental load versus strain curves are presented and the influence of column height on the columns load capacity were evaluated by variance analysis. The bamboo-concrete columns presented a

  7. RESISTÊNCIA DE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE BAMBU TRATADAS CONTRA FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS

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    Rogy Frigeri Tiburtino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de bambus das espécies Bambusa vulgaris e Dendrocalamus giganteus após serem expostos a três métodos de tratamentos químicos preservativos, contra a ação dos fungos Postia placenta e Polyporus fumosus. Os métodos de tratamento empregados foram o de transpiração (diafragma íntegro e rompido, imersão prolongada e Boucherie modificado. As hastes de bambu foram transformadas em colmos de 2,0 m de comprimento e tratadas em solução de 1 ou 3% de ingredientes ativos (i.a. de um produto comercial à base de cobre, cromo e boro (CCB. Nos métodos por transpiração e imersão prolongada, os colmos foram expostos nas soluções por períodos de 5, 10 ou 15 dias, enquanto no método de Boucherie modificado não houve segregação do tratamento entre tempos de tratamento. Para avaliar a eficiência dos tratamentos, foram empregados os fungos Postia placenta e Polyporus fumosus. A partir dos resultados, observou-se que, em média, em ambas as espécies de bambu tratadas e métodos empregados, a perda de massa das amostras de bambu, depois de submetidas ao ataque dos fungos, foi baixa, tendo variado de 2,44 a 14,26%.

  8. Caracterização bromatológica e mineral dos resíduos de broto de bambu, visando a sua utilização como alimento animal Mineral and bromatologic characterization of bamboo shoot residues as animal food

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    Anisio Azzini; Paulo Roberto Leme; Cassia Regina Limonta de Carvalho; Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado; Vera Lúcia Puppo Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    Nesse estudo, realizado em 1992, nos Institutos Agronômico, de Tecnologia de Alimentos e de Zootecnia, procedeu-se à caracterização bromatológica e mineral dos resíduos de broto de bambu (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro), a fim de utilizá-los como alimento animal. Os resultados mostraram que tais resíduos, constituídos basicamente por bainhas e pedaços tenros de colmo, apresentaram elevados teores de proteína (131,4 g/kg), açúcares (115,3 g/kg), fibras (235,4 g/kg) e ácido cianídrico (213 mg/kg...

  9. Ensaios de arrancamento e de empuxamento aplicados a taliscas de bambu encravadas em corpos-de-prova de solo-cimento Pull-out and push-in tests of bamboo splint embedded in soil-cement specimen

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    Wilza G. R. Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, taliscas de bambu da espécie Dendrocalamus giganteus, engastadas em corpos-de-prova de solo-cimento, foram submetidas a ensaios de arrancamento (pull-out e de empuxamento (push-out a fim de se determinar sua resistência de aderência. Para esta finalidade, foi utilizado um solo-cimento feito a partir de um solo arenoso que continha aproximadamente 70% de areia. Corpos-de-prova de solo-cimento, de 15 cm de diâmetro e 30 cm de altura, foram moldados com 14% de cimento na umidade ótima de 10,7%. As taliscas de bambu foram preparadas com 2 cm de largura e comprimentos de 40, 50 e 60 cm, para o ensaio de arrancamento, e de 70 cm para o ensaio de empuxamento. Metade das taliscas foi deixada sem tratamento impermeabilizante e a outra metade foi revestida com emulsão asfáltica, impregnada com areia limpa grossa, para produzir uma superfície áspera e garantir melhor aderência com o solo-cimento. Os corpos-de-prova de solo-cimento com as taliscas de bambu engastadas, foram deixados a curar em câmara úmida, durante 28 d, antes de serem ensaiados. Ambos os ensaios foram realizados em uma máquina universal de ensaio adaptada, sendo as deformações medidas com um relógio comparador aferido, de sensibilidade igual a 0,01 mm. A resistência de aderência, quer fosse determinada pelo ensaio de arrancamento quer pelo ensaio de empuxamento, foi obtida dividindo-se a máxima carga verificada no ensaio pela área lateral da talisca de bambu efetivamente engastada no solo-cimento. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos sem aplicação de material impermeabilizante, para o ensaio de arrancamento, enquanto nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os dois tratamentos para o ensaio de empuxamento.In this study, Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo splints (split culm embedded in soil-cement specimens were submitted to pull-out and push-in tests in order to determine its bonding strength. For this purpose a sandy soil was utilized. The 15.0 cm diameter

  10. Karakterisasi Papan Partikel Dari Polipropilena Termodifikasi Maleat Anhidrida Dengan Serbuk Bambu Betung (Dendrocalamus)

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    Wulan, Sari

    2012-01-01

    The research of preparation of particle boards from bamboo powder using a maleic anhydride modified polypropylene had been done. The first stage had prepared of bamboo powder. The second stage had processed of grafting of maleic anhydride into polypropylene. The third stage had made of particle board with bamboo powder composition ratio : maleic anhydride modified polypropylene : polypropylene : divinylbenzene : benzoyl peroxide were (80:10:10:10:2)g, (70:20:10:10:2)g, (60:30:10:10:2), (50:40...

  11. PERANCANGAN MESIN PENYAYAT BAMBU SECARA ERGONOMIS

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Kristanto; Yusuf Arifin

    2012-01-01

    Jamboel Kipas adalah UKM yang memproduksi souvenir kipas dengan sistem pesanan make to order. Seiring perkembangan waktu, Jamboel Kipas tidak dapat memenuhi pesanan karena keterbatasan kapasitas produksi souvenir kipas. Hal ini disebabkan karena waktu proses yang lama terjadi pada bagian penyayatan bambu, yaitu sebesar 22 detik/iratan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas penyayatan bambu serta memperbaiki posisi operator saat bekerja, dengan perancangan mesin penyayat ba...

  12. PERANCANGAN MESIN PENYAYAT BAMBU SECARA ERGONOMIS

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    Agung Kristanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jamboel Kipas adalah UKM yang memproduksi souvenir kipas dengan sistem pesanan make to order. Seiring perkembangan waktu, Jamboel Kipas tidak dapat memenuhi pesanan karena keterbatasan kapasitas produksi souvenir kipas. Hal ini disebabkan karena waktu proses yang lama terjadi pada bagian penyayatan bambu, yaitu sebesar 22 detik/iratan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas penyayatan bambu serta memperbaiki posisi operator saat bekerja, dengan perancangan mesin penyayat bambu berdasar anthropometri ukuran tubuh operator, keluhan selama bekerja, dan waktu proses penyayatan bambu. Hasil penelitian setelah perancangan menunjukan posisi operator saat bekerja cukup ergonomis karena ukuran tempat kerja disesuaikan dengan dimensi antropometri operator. Waktu baku pada kondisi sebelum perancangan sebesar 21,16 detik/iratan dan output standar sebesar 170,09 iratan/jam. Sedangkan setelah perancangan sebesar 4,42 detik/iratan dan output standarnya sebesar 815,22 iratan/jam dengan peningkatan output standar 479,46%, terjadi penurunan waktu baku sebesar 378,73%. Sementara itu nilai break event point terjadi ketika UKM Jamboel Kipas sudah memproduksi 12927  kipas.

  13. PERANCANGAN MESIN PENYAYAT BAMBU SECARA ERGONOMIS

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    Agung Kristanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jamboel Kipas adalah UKM yang memproduksi souvenir kipas dengan sistem pesanan make to order. Seiring perkembangan waktu, Jamboel Kipas tidak dapat memenuhi pesanan karena keterbatasan kapasitas produksi souvenir kipas. Hal ini disebabkan karena waktu proses yang lama terjadi pada bagian penyayatan bambu, yaitu sebesar 22 detik/iratan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas penyayatan bambu serta memperbaiki posisi operator saat bekerja, dengan perancangan mesin penyayat bambu berdasar anthropometri ukuran tubuh operator, keluhan selama bekerja, dan waktu proses penyayatan bambu. Hasil penelitian setelah perancangan menunjukan posisi operator saat bekerja cukup ergonomis karena ukuran tempat kerja disesuaikan dengan dimensi antropometri operator. Waktu baku pada kondisi sebelum perancangan sebesar 21,16 detik/iratan dan output standar sebesar 170,09 iratan/jam. Sedangkan setelah perancangan sebesar 4,42 detik/iratan dan output standarnya sebesar 815,22 iratan/jam dengan peningkatan output standar 479,46%, terjadi penurunan waktu baku sebesar 378,73%. Sementara itu nilai break event point terjadi ketika UKM Jamboel Kipas sudah memproduksi 12927 kipas.

  14. RESISTÊNCIA DE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE BAMBU TRATADAS COM CCB CONTRA CUPINS E COLEÓPTEROS XILÓFAGOS

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    Rogy Frigeri Tiburtino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe research aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CCB preservative in improving the resistance of twobamboo species (Bambusa vulgarisandDendrocalamus giganteus the action of termites and xylophagousbeetles. The bamboo stems collected in the vicinity of Alegre and Jerônimo Monteiro, towns of southernEspírito Santo state, Brazil, were transformed into culms of 2.0 m long and treated in a solution of 1 or 3%active ingredient (a.i. of the commercial product “MOQ OX 50”, based on copper, chromium and boron (CCB.The treatment methods used were the sap displacement (intact and ruptured diaphragm, long-termimmersion and Boucherie modified. In the methods by sap displacement and the long-term immersion thestems were exposed in solutions for periods of 5, 10 or 15 days, and in Boucherie’s modified method oftreatment there was no segregation between treatment times. To assess the efficiency of the methods, testsamples were taken at the position of 50 cm from the base of the stems. In the tests, the termite speciesNasutitermes cornigerand the beetleDinoderus minutuswere used. Based on the analysis of the resultsobtained, it was found that the two species of bamboo treated showed high resistance to attack by termitesand beetles, and including untreated samples showed low mass loss when subjected to the tests.

  15. Termite Resistance of Thermally-Modified Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f. Backer ex Heyne

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    Ronniel D. Manalo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal modification on the resistance of Dendrocalamus asper against Microcerotermes losbañosensis were investigated after exposure to virgin coconut oil at 140–200 °C for 30–120 min. The results showed that heat treatment significantly improved bamboo’s resistance to termites based on mass losses and visual observations. The enhancement was highest at 200 °C. Prolonged treatment had a positive effect on the resistance at lower temperatures only.

  16. Termite Resistance of Thermally-Modified Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f.) Backer ex Heyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Ronniel D; Garcia, Carlos M

    2012-03-27

    The effects of thermal modification on the resistance of Dendrocalamus asper against Microcerotermes losbañosensis were investigated after exposure to virgin coconut oil at 140-200 °C for 30-120 min. The results showed that heat treatment significantly improved bamboo's resistance to termites based on mass losses and visual observations. The enhancement was highest at 200 °C. Prolonged treatment had a positive effect on the resistance at lower temperatures only.

  17. Floral biology and breeding behavior in the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadgauda, R S; John, C K; Mascarenhas, A F

    1993-12-01

    Floral biology and breeding behavior were studied in the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. The inflorescence in this species is a large branching panicle. Fertile florets are intermixed with smaller sterile ones. There are six stamens. The ovary is stipitate and turbinate. The style is long and the stigma is bifid and plumose. Dendrocalamus strictus is typically dichogamous and protogynous. The gynoecium matures 3-4 days before the androecium, effectively preventing self pollination. Flower bloom, which took place over a period of 2 to 3 h, was dependent on air temperature and only occurred between 0600 and 1300 h. Dendrocalamus strictus is anemophilous. Flowers in the male phase were visited by insects. These insects completely neglected the flowers at the female phase. The insects fed on the pollen and were not pollen vectors. When wind was excluded by enclosing the inflorescences in bags there was no seed set, indicating that cross pollination by wind is necessary for fertilization and that parthenocarpy and apomixis are not occurring in this species. Pollen fertility was about 98% as indicated by staining fresh pollen at the time of anther dehiscence and pollen release with Alexander's stain (Alexander 1969). When placed on a modified Brewbaker-Kwak medium containing 1% glucose, the pollen grains germinated well, and the pollen tubes grew to 15-20 times the diameter of mature pollen grains. Although profound protogyny has its disadvantages in times of sporadic flowering, it can be useful in breeding programs because it eliminates the need for emasculation. PMID:14969995

  18. SIFAT MEKANIK BAHAN GESEK REM KOMPOSIT DIPERKUAT SERAT BAMBU

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    Sutikno -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bahan gesek komposit diperkuat serat bambu untuk kampas rem otomotif dibuat menggunakan mesin pres isostatik panas pada 19oC selama 3 jam. Jumlah serat bambu dan serbuk logam di dalam pencampuran dioptimasi, setiap komposisi komponen lain dibuat tetap, pengaruhnya pada sifat-sifat mekanik dan struktur mikro diselidiki. Serat bambu disini digunakan sebagai pengganti serat asbes yang jumlahnya divariasi antara 2,86-17,14% dari volume total dan fraksi berat masing-masing unsur penyusun ditentukan menggunakan energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Angka kekerasan Brinell, kekuatan tarik maksimum, dan ketahanan aus khas bahan gesek yang difabrikasi berada pada rentang 21,7-43,4 kg/mm2, 0,021-0,036 ton, dan 1,5exp-11-5,2exp-11 m2/N.Friction materials of bamboo fibers reinforced composites for automotive brakes were made using hot isostatic pressing machine at 190oC for 3 hours. The contents of bamboo fiber and metal powder in the mixing were optimized, each composition of other components was fixed, its effects on mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. Bamboo fibers were used here as substitutes for asbestos fibers whose number varied between 2.86 to 17.14% of the total volume and weight fraction of each constituent element is determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Brinell hardness number, the maximum tensile strength and specific wear resistance of friction materials fabricated in the ranges of 21.7 to 43.4 kg/mm2, 0.021 to 0.036 tons, and 1.5 exp-11-5, 2exp-11 m2 / N, respectively.

  19. Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Jonathan H.; Prakash, Vibhu; Craig S Smith; Daszak, Peter; McLaughlin, Amanda B.; Meehan, Greer; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.

  20. Increased delignification rate of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh nees by Schizophyllum commune Fr.; Fr. to reduce chemical consumption during pulping process

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    Vipin Kumar Saini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its largeconsumption of energy and chemicals. To reduce the chemical consumption, rate of delignification was increased bySchizophyllum commune in destructured sample of Dendrocalamus stictus, which was destructured by Impressafiner (compression-cum dewatering process. The extent of delignification was determined and comparison was made between thenon-destructured and destructured samples. The influence of physical parameters like incubation time, moisture level, media,media concentration, pH and temperature were also examined during the study. It was found that rate of delignification wassignificantly 6.43% more in destructured sample than non-destructured sample. Kraft pulping of treated destructured sampleshows 2.59 point reduction in kappa number than untreated non-destructured sample. Thus this paper provides an insight ofthe delignification extent in Dendrocalamus strictus after mechanical operation at varying physical parameters.

  1. 梁山慈竹化学成分的变异性1)%Variation on Chemical Properties of Dendrocalamus farinosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜; 刘杏娥; 杨淑敏; 田根林; 马建峰

    2015-01-01

    We studied the chemical compositions of holocellulose , α-cellulose, lignin, pentosan, benzene-alcohol extractive, water extractive , hot-water extractive , 1%of NaOH extractive and ash in Dendrocalamus farinosus, and their variations with bamboo age and culm height .The content of holocellulose decreased from two-to five-year old with no significant difference in α-cellulose , nevertheless significant difference in remaining compositions between five-year bamboos .Lignin and pentosan increased to four-year old and then falling with extreme value at four-year old, oppositely four kinds of extrac-tives and ash were slightly decreased to four-year-old and then increased .Along culm height, the contents of four kinds of extractives in base position reached maximum as well as holocellulose and α-cellulose , while lignin and pentosan at the minimum .The contents of chemical compositions in upper position were just opposite to the base , middle position with al-most medium .There were significant differences in α-cellulose and benzene-alcohol extractives among three culm positions at 0.01 level.Holocellulose content in D.farion sus was lower than that in Bamb usar igida, and a little higher than that in B amdusa pervariadil s×Grandis Nin, D.giganteus, and Bambusa sinospinosa.Four kinds of extractives and ash in D.fari-nosus were slightly higher than those in Bambusa rigid, but lower than those in other three sympodial bamboos .%对梁山慈竹综纤维素、α-纤维素、木质素、聚戊糖、苯醇抽出物、冷水抽出物、热水抽出物、1%NaOH抽出物和灰分等9个化学成分指标及其随竹龄和竹高部位的变化情况进行了系统的研究。结果表明:梁山慈竹从2年生至5年生,综纤维素和4种抽出物质量分数表现减小的趋势;α-纤维素变化幅度极小;木质素和聚戊糖表现增大趋势,4年生时达到最大。除α-纤维素外,其他8项化学组分在4个竹龄上均表现极显著差

  2. Acoustical properties of particleboards made from Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper as building construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Karlinasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic panels are used to overcome noise problems; the purpose of this study was to determine the acoustical properties of particleboard made from Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper. The acoustic parameters measured were the transmission loss (TL value and sound absorption coefficient. Particleboards of two different densities (0.5 g/cm3 and 0.8 g/cm3 that were made with three particle sizes (fine, medium, and wool or excelsior were used in this study. The sound TL value was measured in a reverberation room, while the sound absorption coefficient was determined using the impedance tube method. A single-number rating of sound transmission class (STC was determined based on TL measurements. The results showed that sound TL and STC values of medium-density particleboard (0.8 g/cm3 were better than low-density (0.5 g/cm3 board. However, low-density particleboard performed well as sound absorber panels. Generally, the boards absorbed sound at low ( 1000 Hz and reflected sound at middle frequencies. The sound absorption coefficient was better with the fine- and medium-sized particles than with the wool size; meanwhile, boards made from wool- or excelsior-sized particles possessed higher TL and STC values.

  3. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk. Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA- Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA- induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury.

  4. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  6. Avaliação físico-mecânica de colmos de bambu tratados Physico-mechanical evaluation of treated bamboo culms

    OpenAIRE

    Jean C. C. Espelho; Antonio L. Beraldo

    2008-01-01

    O bambu é um material renovável e de baixo custo, encontrado em abundância em regiões tropicais e subtropicais; no entanto, a maior parte das espécies de bambu é altamente suscetível ao ataque de fungos e insetos. Basicamente, pode-se aumentar a durabilidade dos colmos de bambu; de duas maneiras: por procedimentos culturais (naturais) e pelo tratamento dos colmos com produtos químicos. Neste trabalho, testou-se a eficiência da aplicação do Método de Boucherie Modificado, comparando-se o aumen...

  7. COMPARATIVE FOLIAR EPIDERMAL STUDIES IN CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS (STAPF. AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS (HOCHST. CHIOV. IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The foliar epidermal studies were carried out on Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus with the aim of determining the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and assessing their value in species identification and classification. The characters of diagnostic importance in the identification of C. citratus are the micro hairs, which are sparsely distributed in the adaxial epidermis and prickle hairs present in both abaxial and adaxial epidermis. The diagnostic character for C. giganteus is the papillae seen alongside their long cells.

  8. The importance of the opossum (Didelphis albiventris as a reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi in Bambuí, Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José Fernandes

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In a survey realized on the sylvatic and peridomestic environment at Bambuí county, Minas Gerais State, 44 (37.9% out of 116 opossums (Didelphis albiventris captured were found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. One handred and forty three parasite samples were obtanied from 43 infected opossums using simultaneously hemoculture, xenodiagnosis (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius neglectus and examination of anal glands contents. The parasite samples were characterized according to six isoenzyme patterns. All samples, independently of the method of isolation, presented an isoenzyme pattern similar to the standard T. cruzi Z1, showing that either xenodiagnosis or hemoculture can used without selecting parasite subpopulation from naturally infected opossums. Preveous isoenzyme patterns reported for human T.cruzi isolates from same region were completely different. This isoenzyme dissimilarity between sylvatic and domiciliar environments suggests the existence of two independent T. cruzi transmission cycles in Bambuí. The epidemiological implicatinos of these results are discussed.

  9. Biomedical factors associated with hospitalization of older adults: The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Henrique L.; Vidigall Pedro G.; Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomedical factors (body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and albumin) associated with hospitalization of older adults. All residents of the town of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, ages superscript three 60 years (n = 1,742) were selected for the study, of whom 1,494 (85.2%) participated. None of the biomedical factors studied was independently associated with occurrence of 1 hospitalization duri...

  10. Production of xylo-oligosaccharides from Miscanthus x giganteus by autohydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligero, P.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Vega, de A.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Xylo-oligosaccharides were obtained from Miscanthus x giganteus. The process was designed as a biorefinery scheme, which seeks the separation of the three main components: cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. To extract the hemicelluloses, particularly xylans, in an efficient way, Miscanthus was s

  11. Estimativas de biomassa para plantas de bambu do gênero Guadua

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    Francelo Mognon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou ajustar equações para estimar a biomassa total de plantas de bambu, do gênero Guadua, bem como comparar o ajuste de equações por regressão linear com a técnica de mineração de dados. Foram utilizados 38 colmos de bambu, nos quais foram mensuradas as variáveis diâmetro à altura do peito (dap, diâmetro do colo do colmo e altura do colmo, seguido da determinação de massa total por método destrutivo. A biomassa determinada em 25 colmos foi utilizada para ajuste de equações pelo método dos mínimos quadrados e 13 colmos serviram para a validação da melhor equação. As frações de biomassa por compartimento diferem significativamente (p < 0,05 entre si. A maior fração da biomassa corresponde ao colmo, representando 69,2% do total, seguida pela dos rizomas, dos galhos e da folhagem, com 15,7; 10,8 e 4,2%, respectivamente. A melhor equação ajustada para estimar a biomassa total apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 0,93 e erro padrão da estimativa de 15%. Já a técnica de mineração de dados apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 0,81, com erro padrão de 23,8%. Pode-se estimar acuradamente a biomassa de Guadua por regressão linear e por mineração dos dados. Neste trabalho, o método de regressão apresentou melhor desempenho. A limitação de dados pode ser o fator determinante para o pior desempenho da técnica de mineração de dados, pois requer uma massa de dados mais ampla para funcionar satisfatoriamente.

  12. Evaluation of suitability of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu.) in phytoextraction of copper and zinc from soil

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Bosiacki

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus to phytoextraction of copper and zinc from soil, as well as evaluation of the tolerance of this species to the increasing concentration of the metals. Potential for phytoextraction of Miscanthus × giganteus had been studied for two years, pot experiment in the plastic greenhouse when they grown in mineral soil (which was slightly loamy sand) and soil with raised peat substrate with four lev...

  13. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study Obesidade e baixo peso entre idosos brasileiros: Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhi M. Barreto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m² and underweight (BMI or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.A coexistência de obesidade (Índice de Massa Corpórea: IMC > ou = 30kg/m² e de baixo peso (IMC <=20kg/m² e seus fatores relacionados foram investigados em 1.451 idosos, 85,5% da população com 60+ anos residente em Bambuí, Minas Gerais, utilizando-se a análise logística multinomial. O IMC (média = 25,0; DP = 4,9kg/m² foi maior nas mulheres e diminuiu com a idade. A obesidade ocorreu em 12,5% dos idosos; foi associada positivamente ao sexo feminino, à maior renda familiar e presença de hipertensão e diabete, e inversamente à atividade física. O baixo peso ocorreu em 14,8% dos idosos, aumentou com a idade, foi maior nos homens e nas famílias com menor renda, esteve inversamente associado à presença de hipertensão e de hiperglicemia e diretamente associado à infecção por Tripanossoma cruzi e duas ou mais internações no último ano. A obesidade e o baixo peso foram ambos associados a uma maior morbidade. A associação do baixo peso com a infecção por T. cruzi, maior hospitalização e menor renda pode estar refletindo a perda de peso secundária a doenças ou à privação social do idoso nesta comunidade. Envelhecer na pobreza pode aumentar as deficiências nutricionais e os problemas de saúde entre idosos.

  14. Strategi Pemasaran Mebel Kayu Sentra Industri Kecil Pondok Bambu, Jakarta Timur (Wood Furniture Marketing Strategy on Pondok Bambu Small Industry Centre, East Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Hero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture is one of wood products to fulfill the household needs, especially for household furnishing. Wood product which is used for furniture tends to decrease because of the substitution products, i.e.: plastic, rattan, bamboo, glass, and metal. To continue their effort, small industries in Indonesia face hard problems and challanges. To solve the hard problems and challenges, then a new marketing strategy through the study on marketing strategy of small wood-furniture industry is needed. This research objectives are to know several factors which have relation toward marketing of woodfurniture and compile alternative small industrial marketing strategy of wood-furniture. Research conducts in Small Industry Centre, Pondok Bambu, East Jakarta from June to July 2008. Some tools are used in this research, such as: questionaire, calculator, camera, and stationery. The method of data collection is purposive sampling with total amount of responden is 30 people-small industry owners. Data analysis uses regression and SWOT method (Strength, Weaknesses. Opportunities, Threath. Result of the research for the regression equation of wood-furniture marketing Y= 9,001 - 0,6798 X1 - 1,4834 X2 - 1,4834 X3 + 0,4818 X4 with value R2 is equal to 51.3%. Linearity test model indicates that F Calculated is 6.57 in significat level α = 1%. Factors that influence wood-furniture marketing of sale volume are variation of product, wood-furniture price, distribution system and promotion. The relation between sale volume with variable of product variation, wood-furniture price, and distribution system is significant with negative direction. It means that smaller product variation, lower wood-furniture price, and more efficient distribution system; will effect to higher sale volume. Whereas the relation between sale volume with variable of promotion is not significant with positive direction. It

  15. Projeto Bambuí: avaliação de serviços odontológicos privados, públicos e de sindicato Bambuí Project: an evaluation of private, public and unionized dental services

    OpenAIRE

    Divane Leite Matos; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa; Henrique L Guerra; Wagner Marcenes

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Partindo do princípio de que um dos objetivos dos serviços odontológicos públicos é reduzir os efeitos das desigualdades sociais sobre a saúde bucal, investigou-se se essas desigualdades estão presentes entre usuários dos serviços odontológicos públicos, privados e de sindicato. MÉTODOS: A população estudada foi constituída por uma amostra representativa de adultos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, MG. Os participantes foram entrevistados por meio de um questionário estruturado. RESUL...

  16. Potential uses of biomass from fast-growing crop miscanthus×giganteus

    OpenAIRE

    Babović Nada V.; Dražić Gordana D.; Đorđević Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and feedstock for second-generation cellulosic biofuels. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus (Miscanthus×giganteus), belonging to the parennial grasses group, are the major lignocellulosic materials being studied today as sources for direct energy production, biofuels, bioremediation and other. They have the ability to grow at low cost on marginal land where they will not compete with the t...

  17. Pretreatment And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Miscanthus x giganteus: Influence Of Process Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderghem, Caroline; Brostaux, Yves; Jacquet, Nicolas; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus is a perennial grass which grows rapidly and gives high yields of biomass per hectare. It can be grown in poor quality soil and is non invasive. Due to its high cellulose and hemicellulose content, it has attracted considerable attention as a possible energy crop to produce bioethanol. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step to unlocking the protective structures so that the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monosugars can be...

  18. VERGLEICHUNG von CELLULOSE-, HEMICELLULOSE- und LIGNINGEHALT bei Miscanthus (ELEFANTENGRAS) Giganteus, Miscanthus Goliath und Miscanthus Silberfahne

    OpenAIRE

    YAŞAR, Samim

    2009-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden der Cellulose-, der Hemicellulose- und der Ligningehalt von drei verschiedenen Unterarten1 der Pflanze Miscanthus (Elefantengras), die als Rohstoff in der Zellstoff- und in der Papierherstellung sowie in den termisch-chemischen und chemischen Verfahren eine Alternative zu Holz darstellt, untersucht und gegenübergestellt. Giganteus, Goliath und Silberfahne waren die drei untersuchten Miscanthusunterarten, die die drei jährige Aufwüchse waren. Für die Ligninbestimmung s...

  19. Phytoremediation potential of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus and Spartina pectinata link to Cu, Ni, and Zn phytoremediation. A 2-year microplot experiment with the tested grasses growing on metal-contaminated soil was carried out. Microplots with cement borders, measuring 1 × 1 × 1m, were filled with Haplic Luvisols soil. Simulated soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn was introduced in the following doses in mg kg(-1): 0-no metals, Cu1-100, Cu2-200, Cu3-400, Ni1-60, Ni2-100, Ni3-240, Zn1-300, Zn2-600, and Zn3-1200. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using a tolerance index (TI), bioaccumulation factor (BF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF). S. pectinata showed a higher tolerance to soil contamination with Cu, Ni, and Zn compared to M. × giganteus. S. pectinata was found to have a high suitability for phytostabilization of Zn and lower suitability of Cu and Ni. M. × giganteus had a lower phytostabilization potential than S. pectinata. The suitability of both grasses for Zn phytoextraction depended on the age of the plants. Both grasses were not suitable for Cu and Ni phytoextraction. The research showed that one-season studies were not valuable for fully assessing the phytoremediation potential of perennial plants.

  20. Effect of fire on a monodominant floating mat of Cyperus giganteus Vahl in a neotropical wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M; Santos Júnior, C C; Damasceno-Júnior, G A; Pott, V J; Pott, A

    2015-01-01

    The rhizomatous Cyperus giganteus, abundant in the Pantanal wetland, can dominate extense floodable areas as monodominant communities. The Jacadigo lake has a large area of C. giganteus, where we performed an evaluation on community structure during two months in 2010, before it was hit by a wildfire which top-killed the vegetation, compared to ten months post-fire. We utilized 40 plots of 1m × 1m, along permanent trails, assessing two strata: the upper, near the inflorescence of adult plants, and the lower, close to the water level. Our results show that fire does not affect dominance of C. giganteus, as it maintained the same cover as before fire; species richness is not much altered either - 28 before fire and 34 thereafter. Fire changed the floristic composition, due to the annual variation of species and the ability of some plants to colonize gaps and to regrow after fire from underground organs and seeds. The stratification of the vegetation with characteristic species of upper and lower strata was similar after fire. PMID:25945628

  1. Allocation of aboveground biomass and model optimization of Dendrocalamus latilforusmunro%麻竹地上器官生物量分配及其模型优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振国; 黄大勇; 郭起荣; 李忠国

    2016-01-01

    选择广西南宁市良庆区大塘镇横州村麻竹林为研究对象,采用方差分析、线形相关分析、主成分分析及回归分析等方法,探讨其地上器官生物量分配及模型优化。结果表明:立竹年龄对麻竹竹秆、竹枝的含水率有较大的影响,竹秆与竹叶、竹枝与竹叶的含水率差异显著,不同年龄年麻竹的竹秆与竹叶的含水率差异显著;胸径与竹秆、竹枝生物量的回归分析优化模型分别为:H=2.47+0.86D-0.029D2,R2=0.94;H =1.48+3.41D-0.11D2, R2=0.91。本研究建立的竹秆生物量与胸径的数学模型在一定程度上可以指导实践工作,并为麻竹林经营提供了理论依据。%Dendrocalamus latilforusMunro in Hengzhou village, Datang town, Liangqing district, Nanning city in Guangxi was chosen as the research object to study allocation of aboveground organs’ biomass and model optimization using the methods of variance analysis、linear correlation analysis、principal component analysis and regression analysis. The results showed that: it has a great influence of bamboo age on the moisture content of culm and branch ofDendrocalamus latilforusMunro; the difference of moisture content between bamboo culm and bamboo leaves is significant, the same as bamboo branches and bamboo leaves, the optimization model for regression analysis between diameter at breast height(DBH)and bamboo culm biomass isH=2.47+0.86D-0.029D2, R2=0.94; and the same model between DBH and bamboo branches biomass isH =1.48+3.41D-0.11D2,R2=0.91.the mathematical model of bamboo culm and DBH established in the study can guide the practical word to a certain extent, and provide a theoretical basis for management ofDendrocalamus latilforus Munro.

  2. Projeto Bambuí: maneiras de pensar e agir de idosos hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmo Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As maneiras de pensar e de agir de idosos frente à hipertensão arterial foram investigadas, utilizando-se uma abordagem antropológica baseada no modelo de Signos, Significados e Ações ¹. Participaram do trabalho 26 idos os (> 60 anos, selecionados aleatoriamente entre hipertensos participantes da linha de base da coorte de Bambuí. O eixo organizador das narrativas mostrou uma clara distinção entre "problema de pressão" e "pressão alta". A "pressão alta" é desencadeada especialmente por problemas familiares e pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela identificação de algumas manifestações específicas; o que é considerado problemático é o momento em que a pressão sobe, único momento em que as intervenções são vistas como necessárias. Desta forma, a importância de buscar o tratamento ou seguir corretamente a prescrição médica fica dependente da identificação de um aumento da pressão, seja pela presença de sintomas específicos, seja pela presença de condições subjetivas favoráveis à elevação da pressão arterial. Dificuldades financeiras para a obtenção da consulta médica e para a aquisição dos medicamentos são também identificadas pelos idosos como fatores que dificultam o início ou a continuidade do tratamento da hipertensão arterial.

  3. Projeto Bambuí: a experiência do cuidado domiciliário por esposas de idosos dependentes The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS: the experience with home care provided by wives of dependent elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla C. Giacomin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo investigar as características do processo de cuidar e a experiência de mulheres que cuidam de seus maridos idosos em Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Entre os participantes do Projeto Bambuí, selecionaram-se dez idosos que necessitavam de cuidador e disseram ser cuidados por suas esposas. As dez esposas foram entrevistadas, utilizando-se de um roteiro de questões, com os grandes eixos temáticos sugeridos pela literatura. A análise dos dados inspirou-se na corrente interpretativa da antropologia e nos remete a uma cultura que define o papel, as responsabilidades e as obrigações da mulher, determina as regras que regem as relações conjugais, dita normas e modelos de comportamento e estabelece que cuidar de um idoso dependente é uma obrigação "natural" da mulher. Apesar de todas as evidências, as mulheres têm dificuldade em dissociar o cuidado de seu papel de esposas e em admitir o fardo. Cuidador e necessitados de cuidados vivem a dura realidade da incapacidade funcional, de modo integral, intuitivo e improvisado. Essa reflexão reforça a responsabilidade pela sistematização do cuidado domiciliário no nosso meio.This paper investigates the characteristics of caregiving and the experience of women that care for their elderly husbands in Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the elderly population in this community, the authors interviewed ten wives, using a survey exploring the main themes on the subject of caregiving. The data were interpreted based on an anthropological model of analysis. This model places the interaction between the individual and the context in the center of the interpretative process, underlying the construction and expression of diverse forms of human experience. The results of the survey highlighted the role, responsibilities, and obligations of women in Brazilian society with respect to caregiving for dependent elders. Women are seen as "natural" caregivers, whereby it is

  4. Potential uses of biomass from fast-growing crop miscanthus×giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Nada V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and feedstock for second-generation cellulosic biofuels. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and miscanthus (Miscanthus×giganteus, belonging to the parennial grasses group, are the major lignocellulosic materials being studied today as sources for direct energy production, biofuels, bioremediation and other. They have the ability to grow at low cost on marginal land where they will not compete with the traditional food crops. Miscanthus×giganteus possesses a number of advantages in comparison with the other potential energy crops such as are: high yields, low moisture content at harvest, high water and nitrogen use efficiencies, low need for annual agronomic inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides, high cellulose content, non-invasive character, low susceptibility to pests and diseases and broad adaptation to temperate growing environments. The main problems are low rate of survival during the first winter after the creation of plantation and the relatively high establishment costs. Miscanthus×giganteus is grown primarily for heat and electricity generation but can also be used to produce transport fuels. Miscanthus biomass has a very good combustion quality due to its low water concentration as well as its low Cl, K, N, S and ash concentrations compared to other lignocellulose plants. It is expected that miscanthus will provide cheaper and more sustainable source of cellulose for production of bioethanol than annual crops such as corn. Miscanthus has great promise as a renewable energy source, but it can only be realised when the grass production has been optimised for large-scale commercial cultivation. However, further research is still needed to optimise agronomy of miscanthus, to develop the production chain and pre-treatment as well as to optimise energy conversation route to produce heat, electricity, and/or fuels from biomass, if miscanthus is to

  5. Consumo de nutrientes em adultos e idosos em estudo de base populacional: Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristine Souza Lopes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Inquérito alimentar populacional em amostra aleatória de 550 indivíduos > ou = 18 anos, realizado em Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, utilizando o Questionário Semiquantitativo de Freqüência Alimentar e recordatório 24 horas calibrados pela técnica de regressão linear. A análise constou de comparação de médias, teste de qui-quadrado e razão de adequação do nutriente (RAN-adequada: 90,0-110,0%. Foi baixo o percentual da população que apresentou RAN de acordo com o recomendado para consumo de carboidratos (2,4%, proteínas (17,6%, vitaminas (0,0-5,1% e minerais (0-21,1%. Diferenças de acordo com sexo e idade foram encontradas: 90,2% e 91,8% de mulheres apresentaram baixo consumo de ferro e vitamina B6, respectivamente. Ao contrário, 87,7% dos homens relataram consumo excessivo de ferro, 80,3% de fósforo e 11,9% de colesterol. Quanto à idade, 64,3% de idosos (> 60 anos relataram baixa ingestão protéica e 39,3% apresentavam inadequação das frações lipídicas; sendo que 35,7% informaram consumo excessivo de ácidos graxos saturados. Dos adultos (18-59 anos, 67,8% relataram excessivo consumo protéico e 53,4% ingestão insuficiente de ferro. Alto e inadequado consumo de lipídios e baixa ingestão de fibras, vitaminas e minerais, constituem problema importante de saúde pública por possivelmente contribuir para o aumento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis.

  6. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. PMID:26762405

  7. 不同纬度引种地马来甜龙竹(Dendrocalamus asper)光合特性的比较%Comparison of the photosynthetic characteristics of Dendrocalamus asper introduced in different latitude regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜旭华; 丁兴萃; 陈岩; 吴寿国; 邹跃国; 巫广文

    2012-01-01

    Through the research on photosynthesis of bamboo species (Dendrocalamus asper) introduced from Thailand and planted in Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces, their physiological adaptation response to different environments during domestication process were discussed. Results got in the 3 experimental fields were as follows; Photosynthetic capacity of D. Asper was significantly different in three different regions. Its net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) , phto-synthetic capacity, transpiration rate( Tr) etc. Varied with the latitude,I. E. ,the one in Rui'an where has the highest latitude and relatively low light and temperature showed lower photosynthetic capacity than those in Hua'an and Guangning. The diurnal change of Pn in Rui'an demonstrated a "single-peak", whose peak time appeared at 12:00 am, while the other two were "twin peaks" , whose peak time appeared at 10:00 and 14:00 respectively, and the first peak was higher than the latter. The photoresponse characteristic parameters also demonstrated that the photosynthesis capacity of D. Asper in Rui'an was weaker than the other two places. The Pn,max in Rui'an was only about 80 % of that in Hua'an and Guangning. Rui'an's light compensation point(P1c) and light saturation point(P1s) were also very low, only 38.4 and 712.60 μmol/(m · s) respectively. Among three places, P1c and P1s of D. Asper's in Hua'an was the highest. In the morning, the Gs was the essential factor to Pn, comparing that Pn might be effected mainly by other factors in the afternoon. Gs in Rui'an was obviously lower than that in the other two regions, therefore, the intercellular CO2 concentration and Pn in Rui'an was the lowerest among the three. The dormancy of Pn in the noon time was mainly caused by the inhibition of GB, while in the afternoon, the intercellular CO2 concentration kept high, as the low rate of Pn was caused by non-stomatal factors.%对试种于浙江、福建、广东等3省不同纬度试验地的马来甜龙竹(泰国

  8. Biomedical factors associated with hospitalization of older adults: The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique L. Guerra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify biomedical factors (body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and albumin associated with hospitalization of older adults. All residents of the town of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, ages ³ 60 years (n = 1,742 were selected for the study, of whom 1,494 (85.2% participated. None of the biomedical factors studied was independently associated with occurrence of 1 hospitalization during the previous 12 months. Body mass index ³ 264mg/dl were independently associated with ³ 2 hospitalizations. The introduction of biomedical factors did not modify the previously identified associations between hospitalization and indicators constructed from information obtained in a questionnaire survey. The results show that data easily obtained through interviews can be useful both for identifying older adults at risk of hospitalization and thus for assisting in prevention.

  9. Condições de saúde e tabagismo entre idosos residentes em duas comunidades brasileiras (Projetos Bambuí e Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto Sérgio Viana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a prevalência do tabagismo e verificar os fatores associados a este hábito entre idosos (> 60 anos. O estudo foi conduzido na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte e na Cidade de Bambuí, ambas localizadas em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram selecionados 1.774 idosos na Região Metropolitana e 1.742 em Bambuí. Na Região Metropolitana, a prevalência de tabagismo atual e passado foi de 19,6% e 39,2% entre os homens, e 8,1% e 14,1% entre as mulheres, respectivamente. Em Bambuí, os dados correspondentes foram 31,4% e 40,2% entre os homens, e 10,3% e 11,2% entre as mulheres, respectivamente. Na Região Metropolitana, os indicadores de pior condição de saúde e pior capacidade funcional apresentaram associações significantes com o tabagismo passado, mas estas associações não foram observadas em Bambuí. Entre os fumantes atuais, as associações pesquisadas não foram consistentes. Estes resultados mostram a grande heterogeneidade dos fatores associados ao tabagismo, como observado em países desenvolvidos. As estratégias para a redução do tabagismo nessa população devem considerar esta ausência de associação entre sinais e sintomas e o hábito de fumar.

  10. CIRCADIAN CONTROL OF VISUAL INFORMATION-PROCESSING IN THE OPTIC LOBE OF THE GIANT COCKROACH BLABERUS-GIGANTEUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULT, R; MASTEBROEK, HAK

    1993-01-01

    Extracellular spike activity from three different types of visual interneurons found in the optic lobe of the giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus was recorded. The spike rate of all three types of neurons fluctuated in a circadian manner in constant darkness (DD). Two types, so-called ''on'' neurons

  11. Genetic variation in Miscanthus x giganteus and the importance of estimating genetic distance tresholds for differentiating clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glowacka, K; Clark, L; Adhikari, S;

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus (Mxg) is an important bioenergy feedstock crop, however, genetic diversity among legacy cultivars may be severely constrained. Only one introduction from Japan to Denmark of this sterile, triploid, vegetatively propagated crop was recorded in the 1930s. We sought to determi...

  12. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Dendrocalamus membranaceus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, a Declining Bamboo Species in Yunnan, China, as Based on Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Tian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro is a woody bamboo with a high economic and ecological value that often occurs as natural stands, such as in the large-scale forested areas of China’s Yunnan Province. Due to its overexploitation, the habitat of D. membranaceus in Yunnan has been dramatically reduced, and the quality of the stands has declined. As a preliminary analysis in considering the effective protection for these germplasm resources, we assessed the genetic diversity of 12 natural populations in Yunnan, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. From 10 ISSR primers, we generated 155 bands, of which 153 were polymorphic (98.71%. Compared with other species in the genus, this species demonstrated a greater genetic diversity (S = 0.349 and lower genetic differentiation (GST = 0.252. Our analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic differentiation among the populations is significant. A large proportion of the genetic variation (78.95% resides among the individuals within populations, whereas only 21.05% are found among populations. Mantel tests indicated no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the populations. Given the low sexual reproducibility and characteristics of monocarpic plants, we recommend implementing in situ conservation measures for all of the D. membranaceus populations in Yunnan and collecting sufficient samples for ex situ conservation. Furthermore, the conservation area should be extended to its main natural habitats, the Lancang-Mekong River Valley.

  13. The Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging: methodology and health profile of participants at baseline Estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí: metodologia e perfil de saúde dos participantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cohort study was initiated in 1997 to investigate the incidence and predictors of health outcomes in an elderly population with low socio-economic level. The eligible population consisted of all 1,742 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged 60 years and over (1,606 participated. During 10 years of follow-up, 641 participants died and 96 were lost, leading to 13,739 person-years of observation. The baseline health profile of participants revealed a double burden of diseases with high prevalence of chronic non-transmissible diseases and widespread Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The most common health condition was hypertension (61.5%, followed by chronic knee or hand symptoms (43.6%, common mental disorders (38.5%, T. cruzi infection (38.1%, and insomnia (36.7%. In general, the baseline prevalence of mental symptoms and cardiovascular diseases or risk factors was comparable to those found in populations in high income countries.O estudo de coorte foi iniciado em 1997 para examinar a incidência e os determinantes de eventos em saúde em uma população idosa com baixo nível socioeconômico. Todos os 1.742 residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com idade > 60 anos foram elegíveis para o estudo (1.606 participaram. Durante dez anos de seguimento, 641 participantes faleceram e 96 foram perdidos, resultando em 13.739 pessoas-anos de observação. O perfil de saúde dos participantes revelou carga dupla de doenças com alta prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e da infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. A condição de saúde mais frequente foi hipertensão (61,5%, seguida por dores articulares crônicas (43,6%, sintomas mentais comuns (38,5%, infecção pelo T. cruzi (38,1% e insônia (36,7%. Em geral, as prevalências de sintomas mentais e de doenças cardiovasculares ou fatores de risco para as mesmas foram comparáveis às observadas entre idosos em países de alta renda.

  14. Sub-zero cold tolerance of Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass) and Miscanthus × giganteus: candidate bioenergy crops for cool temperate climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Patrick C; Peixoto, Murilo de Melo; Lee, D K; Sage, Rowan F

    2015-07-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus grown in cool temperate regions of North America and Europe can exhibit severe mortality in the year after planting, and poor frost tolerance of leaves. Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass), a productive C4 perennial grass native to North America, has been suggested as an alternative biofuel feedstock for colder regions; however, its cold tolerance relative to M. × giganteus is uncertain. Here, we compare the cold tolerance thresholds for winter-dormant rhizomes and spring/summer leaves of M. × giganteus and three accessions of S. pectinata. All genotypes were planted at a field site in Ontario, Canada. In November and February, the temperatures corresponding to 50% rhizome mortality (LT(50)) were near -24°C for S. pectinata and -4°C for M. × giganteus. In late April, the LT50 of rhizomes rose to -10°C for S. pectinata but remained near -4°C for M. × giganteus. Twenty percent of the M. × giganteus rhizomes collected in late April were dead while S. pectinata rhizomes showed no signs of winter injury. Photosynthesis and electrolyte leakage measurements in spring and summer demonstrate that S. pectinata leaves have greater frost tolerance in the field. For example, S. pectinata leaves remained viable above -9°C while the mortality threshold was near -5°C for M. × giganteus. These results indicate M. × giganteus will be unsuitable for production in continental interiors of cool-temperate climate zones unless freezing and frost tolerance are improved. By contrast, S. pectinata has the freezing and frost tolerance required for a higher-latitude bioenergy crop. PMID:25873680

  15. Callus induction and plant regeneration from different explant types of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    1996-01-01

    Different explants of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' were tested in order to develop an efficient tissue culture system. Shoot apices, leaf and root sections from in vitro-propagated plants, and leaf and immature inflorescence sections from 6-month-old greenhouse-grown plants were used....... The explants were cultured on urashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 4.5, 13.6, 22.6 or 31.7 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Three types of callus were formed but only one was embryogenic and regenerated plants. Callus induction and formation of embryogenic callus depended on the type and developmental......-propagated shoots and older leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Immature inflorescences smaller than 2.5 cm produced a higher percentage of embryogenic callus than larger more mature inflorescences. Embryogenic callus derived from immature inflorescences had the highest regeneration capacity. Differences in 2...

  16. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment.

  17. Growth characteristics and nutrient depletion of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' suspension cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted

    1998-01-01

    The growth characteristics and nutrient depletion in suspension cultures of Miscanthus ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus' grown in media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal nutrient salts were studied during a culture period of 15 days. Proline was added to both media in concentrations from...... 0 to 300 mM. The fresh and dry weights of the suspension aggregates and the concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, proline and sugar remaining in the medium were measured at different points in time during the culture period. The results showed an almost total depletion of ammonium but a limited...... to the MS suspension cultures. Sucrose was hydrolysed into its monosaccharide components in the culture medium. Glucose was depleted faster than fructose indicating a preference for glucose as a carbohydrate source of the M. ogiformis cultures. The high water uptake by the suspension aggregates 12 to 15...

  18. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. PMID:27107482

  19. Biogas Production Based On Miscanthus × Giganteus (Miscanthus Sinensis Anderss. Within Dry Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porvaz Pavol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dry fermentation“ technology may be used for energy recovery of phytomass substrate which has dry matter content from 20 to 60%. In agriculture sector, while only rarely used, it is a very perspective technology at such types of biomass – phytomass which is not recommended to be processed within “wet fermentation” (process is energetically and operationally very costly. For detecting the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus phytomass to biogas for production through dry fermentation process, as well as determining the biogas yield, at the Slovak university of Agriculture (SUA there has been developed an experimental device enabling the pilot plant trials, which is installed at the biogas station within the area of the VPP SPU Ltd. in Kolíňany. A pilot plant experiment of biogas production based on Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. phytomass within dry fermentation process was carried out at the period from 25 February to 25 March 2013. The monitored production of biogas was based on the substrate mixture of components formed as follows: the biomass from preceding cycle (farmyard manure and ensilage from Miscanthus phytomass. In these experiments the amount of produced biogas, analysis of biogas and the input substrate were materialized by standard methodology. On base of the obtained results, we can formulate the conclusion: the tested substrate mainly consists of Miscanthus phytomass and manure was suitable for biogas production technology and anaerobic dry fermentation process. The yield of Miscanthus substrate in our experiments was around 117 litres of biogas per 1 kg of dry matter silage. For assurance of the continuity and uniformity in the production of biogas by dry fermentation process, the multiple-fermentation chamber is needed, which must be saturated gradually with dosing interval. This dosing interval is caused by residence time and the number of chambers. For example, at the residence time of 28

  20. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk. Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Chia-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. Methods The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom’s aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. Results The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. Conclusions P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are

  1. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings.

  2. High sensitivity C-reactive protein distribution in the elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L) than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L). This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks

  3. High sensitivity C-reactive protein distribution in the elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assunção, L.G.S. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Eloi-Santos, S.M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Propedêutica Complementar, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, S.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem Aplicada, Escola de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima-Costa, M.F. [Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vidigal, P.G. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Propedêutica Complementar, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-28

    The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L) than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L). This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks.

  4. High sensitivity C-reactive protein distribution in the elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.S. Assunção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L. This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks.

  5. Avaliação físico-mecânica de colmos de bambu tratados Physico-mechanical evaluation of treated bamboo culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. C. Espelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O bambu é um material renovável e de baixo custo, encontrado em abundância em regiões tropicais e subtropicais; no entanto, a maior parte das espécies de bambu é altamente suscetível ao ataque de fungos e insetos. Basicamente, pode-se aumentar a durabilidade dos colmos de bambu; de duas maneiras: por procedimentos culturais (naturais e pelo tratamento dos colmos com produtos químicos. Neste trabalho, testou-se a eficiência da aplicação do Método de Boucherie Modificado, comparando-se o aumento na durabilidade das amostras tratadas (taliscas de bambu com amostras não tratadas ou testemunhas. Para tal, avaliaram-se os efeitos de algumas variáveis, tais como: posição da amostra no colmo, tipos de preservativo e sua concentração, duração do tratamento e tempo de exposição das taliscas em dois ambientes (protegido e exposto e se realizaram ensaios não destrutivos - END (visual, pesagem das amostras e de ultra-som e destrutivo (flexão estática. Verificou-se a ineficiência do uso de soluções com baixa concentração, principalmente quando elas foram combinadas com tratamentos de curta duração. Os ensaios de ultra-som e de flexão estática foram suficientemente sensíveis para detectar a melhor combinação do efeito dos parâmetros avaliados.Bamboo is a renewable raw material and is available in tropical and subtropical regions, where it is considered as an inexpensive material. Nevertheless, most bamboo species are highly susceptible to insect and fungi attacks. Basically, bamboo culm protection can be obtained by means of two types of treatment: natural protection and chemical protection. In this study the performance of a Boucherie Modified Method was evaluated, comparing treated bamboo samples (bamboo splits with untreated samples (control. The effects of the sample position in the culm, chemical solution type and its concentration, treatment duration and the exposition period in two environments (protected and

  6. Projeto Bambuí: avaliação de serviços odontológicos privados, públicos e de sindicato

    OpenAIRE

    Matos Divane Leite; Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda; Guerra Henrique L; Marcenes Wagner

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Partindo do princípio de que um dos objetivos dos serviços odontológicos públicos é reduzir os efeitos das desigualdades sociais sobre a saúde bucal, investigou-se se essas desigualdades estão presentes entre usuários dos serviços odontológicos públicos, privados e de sindicato. MÉTODOS: A população estudada foi constituída por uma amostra representativa de adultos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, MG. Os participantes foram entrevistados por meio de um questionário estruturado. RESUL...

  7. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho; Josélia O A Firmo; Elizabeth Uchôa; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937) among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492) and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620). The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively) and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, ...

  8. Culicídeos associados a internódios de bambu, com enfase em Sabethes aurescens (Diptera, Culicidae), na Mata Atlântica, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Gerson Azulim

    2013-01-01

    Criadouros fitotélmicos são aqueles formados por qualquer estrutura vegetal que acumule água e que possibilite o desenvolvimento da fauna. Um exemplo de fitotelmata são os internódios de bambu, que através de aberturas em suas paredes possibilitam, entre outros, o desenvolvimento de uma fauna de Culicidae muito específica. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e aspectos ecológicos de Culicidae associados a bambus (Bambusa tuldoides, Munro, 1868) presentes em um fragmento d...

  9. A estrutura da auto-avaliação da saúde entre idosos: projeto Bambuí The structure of self-rated health among older adults: the Bambuí health and ageing study (BHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores associados à auto-avaliação da saúde entre idosos, considerando-se cinco dimensões: sociodemográfica, suporte social, hábitos de vida relacionados à saúde, condições de saúde e acesso e uso de serviços de saúde. MÉTODOS: Dos 1.742 idosos (>60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí (Minas Gerais, 1.516 (87,0% participaram do estudo. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas, exames físicos e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: A auto-avaliação da saúde como boa/muito boa, razoável e ruim/muito ruim foi relatada, respectivamente, por 24,7%, 49,2% e 26,1% dos participantes. As seguintes características apresentaram associações independentes e positivas com pior percepção da saúde: suporte social (insatisfação com os relacionamentos pessoais e menor freqüência a clubes ou associações, condições de saúde (sintomas depressivos/ansiosos nas últimas duas semanas, queixa de insônia nos últimos 30 dias, maior número de medicamentos prescritos usados nos últimos 30 dias e acesso/uso de serviços de saúde (queixas quando necessita de serviços médicos, maior número de consultas médicas nos últimos 12 meses e maior número de internações hospitalares no período. Associação negativa e independente foi encontrada para renda domiciliar mensal (4 salários-mínimos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram uma estrutura multidimensional da auto-avaliação da saúde em idosos, compreendendo a situação socioeconômica, suporte social, condições de saúde (destacando-se a saúde mental e acesso e uso de serviços de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with self-rated health among older adults, considering five dimensions: sociodemographic variables, social support, lifestyle risk factors, health status, and access to/use of healthcare services. METHODS: Of the 1,742 older adults (>60 years living in the town of Bambuí (southeastern Brazil, 1,516 (87.0% participated

  10. Factors associated to smoking habit among older adults (The Bambuí Health and Aging Study Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar entre idosos (Projeto Bambuí

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    Sérgio Viana Peixoto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and associated factors of the smoking habit among older adults. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out comprising 1,606 (92.2% older adults (>60 years old living in the Bambuí town, Southeastern Brazil in 1997. Data was obtained by means of interview and socio-demographic factors, health status, physical functioning, use of healthcare services and medication were considered. The multiple multinomial logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between smoking habits (current and former smokers and the exploratory variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of current and past smoking was 31.4% and 40.2% among men, and 10.3% and 11.2% among women, respectively (p80 years and schooling (>8 years and positive association with poor health perception and not being married. Among women, independent and negative associations with current smoking were observed for age (75-79 and >80 years and schooling (4-7 and >8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was a public health concern among older adults in the studied community, particularly for men. Yet, in a low schooling population, a slightly higher level was a protective factor against smoking for both men and women. Programs for reducing smoking in the elderly population should take these findings into consideration.OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e fatores associados ao hábito de fumar em uma população idosa. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional realizado com 1.606 (92,2% idosos (>60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Estado de Minas Gerais, em 1997. As variáveis estudadas foram: fatores sociodemográficos, condições de saúde, função física, uso de serviço de saúde e de medicamentos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista. A regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para avaliar associações independentes entre o hábito de fumar (atual e passado e as variáveis exploratórias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de

  11. Consumo alimentar da população adulta segundo perfil sócio-econômico e demográfico: Projeto Bambuí Food intake according to socioeconomic and demographic profile: the Bambuí Project

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    Élido Bonomo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito nutricional em amostra probabilística de 546 indivíduos (idade > 18 anos, residentes na cidade de Bambuí (15 mil habitantes, Minas Gerais, Brasil, utilizando-se o Questionário Semiquantitativo de Freqüência Alimentar (QSFA. A mediana de ingestão calórica entre mulheres e homens foi de 2.807 e 3.775kcal, respectivamente. Homens ingeriram quatro vezes mais álcool que mulheres e estas, mais carboidratos, fibras e ácidos graxos polinsaturados (AGP. A distribuição de proteínas (15%, carboidratos (57% e lipídios (28% foi adequada. As proporções médias de inadequação da participação de lipídios, ácidos graxos saturados (AGS, AGP e colesterol na energia total foram, respectivamente, 36%, 50% e 90%, sendo mais pronunciadas entre os homens. A ingestão de lipídios, AGS e AGP, entre mulheres, e de lipídios e AGS entre homens, aumentou de acordo com a renda. A ingestão de AGP e fibras e a relação AGP/AGS estavam abaixo do recomendado nos dois gêneros. A dieta apresentou proporções de inadequação diferenciais, sugerindo possíveis agregados de risco à saúde da população para doenças cardiovasculares.A nutritional survey was performed in a random sample of 546 individuals (ages 18 and over in a city named Bambuí (15,000 inhabitants in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ. Median calorie intakes for women and men were 2,807 and 3,775kcal, respectively. Men consumed four times more alcohol than women, and women consumed more carbohydrates, fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. The relative consumption of proteins (15%, carbohydrates (57%, and lipids (28% were adequate in both genders. The average proportions, for all participants, of an inadequate share of lipids, saturated fatty acids (SFA, PUFA, and cholesterol in the total calorie intake were, respectively, 36%, 90%, and 50%, and were more pronounced in men than in women. The lipid

  12. Consumo de nutrientes em adultos e idosos em estudo de base populacional: Projeto Bambuí Nutrient consumption by adults and seniors in a population-based study: the Bambuí Project

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    Aline Cristine Souza Lopes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Inquérito alimentar populacional em amostra aleatória de 550 indivíduos > ou = 18 anos, realizado em Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, utilizando o Questionário Semiquantitativo de Freqüência Alimentar e recordatório 24 horas calibrados pela técnica de regressão linear. A análise constou de comparação de médias, teste de qui-quadrado e razão de adequação do nutriente (RAN-adequada: 90,0-110,0%. Foi baixo o percentual da população que apresentou RAN de acordo com o recomendado para consumo de carboidratos (2,4%, proteínas (17,6%, vitaminas (0,0-5,1% e minerais (0-21,1%. Diferenças de acordo com sexo e idade foram encontradas: 90,2% e 91,8% de mulheres apresentaram baixo consumo de ferro e vitamina B6, respectivamente. Ao contrário, 87,7% dos homens relataram consumo excessivo de ferro, 80,3% de fósforo e 11,9% de colesterol. Quanto à idade, 64,3% de idosos (> 60 anos relataram baixa ingestão protéica e 39,3% apresentavam inadequação das frações lipídicas; sendo que 35,7% informaram consumo excessivo de ácidos graxos saturados. Dos adultos (18-59 anos, 67,8% relataram excessivo consumo protéico e 53,4% ingestão insuficiente de ferro. Alto e inadequado consumo de lipídios e baixa ingestão de fibras, vitaminas e minerais, constituem problema importante de saúde pública por possivelmente contribuir para o aumento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis.A nutritional survey was performed in a random sample of 550 individuals ( > or = 18 years in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire calibrated with 24-hour recall. Comparisons used means, proportions, and the nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR: 90.0-110.0%. Adequate intake was reported in only 2.4% of the individuals for carbohydrate, 17.6% for protein, 0.0 to 5.1% for vitamins, and 0.0 to 21.1% for minerals. NAR was influenced by gender and age: 90.2% and 91.8% of women presented low iron and B6 vitamin intake

  13. Environmental hazards related to Miscanthus x giganteus cultivation on heavy metal contaminated soil

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    Pogrzeba M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to recent estimates reaching the target of a 20% share of renewable energy sources (RES in the final energy balance in Poland by 2020 will result in the demand for more than 8 million tons of biomass, which, in turn, will entail the necessity of creating large-scale energy crop plantations. According to EU assumptions the most effective way to produce biomass for energy purposes is cultivation of energy crops in agricultural areas. It is particularly vital for Poland, because these areas constitute a relatively large part of the country (59%, 76% of them being used as farmlands. In Silesia, the most industrialized region of the country, 5-10% of agricultural soils are contaminated with cadmium, lead and zinc. The main objective of the presented study was to estimate the accumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of Miscanthus x giganteus grown on contaminated soils and calculate concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn in crops. It was shown that the large intake of heavy metals by that species could cause high emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere during its improper combustion. As a side effect, winter harvesting led to the loss of even 30% of biomass. Plant residues (leaves can be the source of pollution after decomposing and releasing metals back into the soil. Moreover, miscanthus leaves can be transferred by wind to the surrounding areas. It is very likely that ash coming from the combustion of contaminated biomass cannot be used as a fertilizer.

  14. Gasification of torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, G; Kwapinska, M; Horvat, A; Kwapinski, W; Rabou, L P L M; Dooley, S; Czajka, K M; Leahy, J J

    2014-05-01

    Torrefaction is suggested to be an effective method to improve the fuel properties of biomass and gasification of torrefied biomass should provide a higher quality product gas than that from unprocessed biomass. In this study, both raw and torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G) were gasified in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier using olivine as the bed material. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER) (0.18-0.32) and bed temperature (660-850°C) on the gasification performance were investigated. The results obtained suggest the optimum gasification conditions for the torrefied M × G are ER 0.21 and 800°C. The product gas from these process conditions had a higher heating value (HHV) of 6.70 MJ/m(3), gas yield 2m(3)/kg biomass (H2 8.6%, CO 16.4% and CH4 4.4%) and cold gas efficiency 62.7%. The comparison between raw and torrefied M × G indicates that the torrefied M × G is more suitable BFB gasification.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus × giganteus in a spouted bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shoucheng; Sun, Yijia; Gamliel, David P; Valla, Julia A; Bollas, George M

    2014-10-01

    A conical spouted bed reactor was designed and tested for fast catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus × giganteus over Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) catalyst, in the temperature range of 400-600 °C and catalyst to biomass ratios 1:1-5:1. The effect of operating conditions on the lumped product distribution, bio-oil selectivity and gas composition was investigated. In particular, it was shown that higher temperature favors the production of gas and bio-oil aromatics and results in lower solid and liquid yields. Higher catalyst to biomass ratios increased the gas yield, at the expense of liquid and solid products, while enhancing aromatic selectivity. The separate catalytic effects of ZSM-5 catalyst and its Al2O3 support were studied. The support contributes to increased coke/char formation, due to the uncontrolled spatial distribution and activity of its alumina sites. The presence of ZSM-5 zeolite in the catalyst enhanced the production of aromatics due to its proper pore size distribution and activity. PMID:25058293

  16. Cutaneous and diphtheritic avian poxvirus infection in a nestling Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Green, David Earl; Converse, K.A.; Docherty, D.E.; Thiel, T.; Geisz, H.N.; Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) is declining over much of its range and currently is listed as vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Island-specific breeding colonies near Palmer Station, Antarctica, have been monitored for over 30 years, and because this population continues to increase, it is critically important to conservation. In austral summer 2004, six diseased giant petrel chicks were observed in four of these colonies. Diseased chicks were 6a??9 weeks old and had multiple proliferative nodules on their bills and skin. One severely affected chick was found dead on the nest and was salvaged for necropsy. Histopathological examination of nodules from the dead chick revealed epithelial cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy with numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (B??llinger bodies). A poxvirus was isolated from multiple nodules. Poxviral infection has not been reported in this species, and the reason for its emergence and its potential impact on the population are not yet known.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Core and Satellite Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities in Miscanthus giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J; Burns, Caitlin A; van der Gast, Christopher J; McNamara, Niall P; Bending, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus (a perennial grass originating from south-east Asia) were determined over a 13 months period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa) and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence) constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. β-diversity was exceptionally low across the 140 m line transects, and there was limited evidence of geographical scaling effects on the composition of the core, satellite or combined communities. However, AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses. PMID:27597844

  18. Tissue specific response of Miscanthus×giganteus to dilute acid pretreatment for enhancing cellulose digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Zhang, Xun; Ling, Zhe; Sun, Run-Cang; Xu, Feng

    2016-12-10

    The recalcitrance in grasses varies according to cell type and tissue. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment was performed on Miscanthus×giganteus internodes that include rind and pith regions which showing heterogeneous structural and chemical changes. Pretreatment on pith effectively hydrolyzed 73.33% hemicelluloses and separated cohesive cell walls from the compound middle lamella due to lignin migration. Lignin droplets with an average diameter of 49.5±29.3nm were concurrently coalesced on wall surface, that in turn exposed more microfibrils deep in walls to be enzymatically hydrolyzed reaching 82.55%. By contrast, the rind with a relatively intergrated cell structure was covered by larger lignin droplets (101.2±44.1nm) and filled with inaccessible microfibrils limiting enzymatic sacchrification (31.50%). Taken together, the cellulose digestibility of biomass was not majorly influenced by cellulose crystallinity, while it was strongly correlated with the positive effects of hemicelluloses degradation, lignin redistribution, cellulose exposure and loosening cell wall structure. PMID:27577916

  19. Spatio-temporal variation of core and satellite arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities in Miscanthus giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Barnes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time to shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus were determined over a 13 month period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. We show that AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Core and Satellite Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities in Miscanthus giganteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Burns, Caitlin A.; van der Gast, Christopher J.; McNamara, Niall P.; Bending, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of obligate plant symbionts which can promote plant nutrition. AMF communities are diverse, but the factors which control their assembly in space and time remain unclear. In this study, the contributions of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in shaping AMF communities associated with Miscanthus giganteus (a perennial grass originating from south-east Asia) were determined over a 13 months period. In particular, the community was partitioned into core (abundant and persistent taxa) and satellite (taxa with low abundance and persistence) constituents and the drivers of community assembly for each determined. β-diversity was exceptionally low across the 140 m line transects, and there was limited evidence of geographical scaling effects on the composition of the core, satellite or combined communities. However, AMF richness and community composition changed over time associated with fluctuation within both the core and satellite communities. The degree to which AMF community variation was explained by soil properties was consistently higher in the core community than the combined and satellite communities, suggesting that the satellite community had considerable stochasticity associated with it. We suggest that the partitioning of communities into their core and satellite constituents could be employed to enhance the variation explained within microbial community analyses. PMID:27597844

  1. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

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    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  2. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism distribution in an elderly Brazilian population: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Fuzikawa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (ApoE is one of the most extensively studied genes in the context of aging, but there are few population-based studies on ApoE polymorphism in the elderly in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to assess ApoE allele and genotype distribution in a large elderly community-based sample and its association with age, sex and skin color. Participants included 1408 subjects (80.8% of all residents aged ³60 years residing in Bambuí city, MG, Brazil. The DNA samples were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, with digestion by HhaI. Analysis was carried out taking into consideration the six ApoE genotypes (e3/e3, e3/e4, e2/e3, e4/e4, e2/e4, and e2/e2, the three ApoE alleles, and the number of ApoE4 alleles for each individual. The e3 allele predominated (80.0%, followed by e4 (13.5% and e2 (6.5%. All six possible genotypes were observed, the e3/e3 genotype being the most frequent (63.4%. This distribution was similar to that described in other western populations. Sex was not associated with number of ApoE4 alleles. Black skin color was significantly and independently associated with the presence of two ApoE4 alleles (age-sex adjusted OR = 7.38; 95%CI = 1.93-28.25, showing that the African-Brazilian elderly have a high prevalence of the e4 allele, as observed in blacks from Africa. No association between number of ApoE4 alleles and age was found, suggesting the absence of association of ApoE genotype with mortality in this population.

  3. High-yield Cultivation Technique Research of Dendrocalamus Membranaceus Plantation%细叶龙竹人工林高产培育技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美秀; 孙穆玲; 谭宏超

    2011-01-01

    From November 2010 to April 2011 , simple random sampling was adopted to lay out standard land to investigate the growth of Dendrocalamus Membranaceus plantation. High-yield cultivation technology measures were reached: select tropical, subtropical region of soil mountains, abandoned farmland, shrub land, woodland with soil thickness above 40cm as a plantation; use one year grow seedling nutrition cup seedlings to plant; weed 1 or 2 times annually on young forest, dressing two times, expanding pond once, and harvesting small old bamboo; planting density of 630 cluster /hm , each cluster foster 6 to 9 mother bamboo to stay. Using these technical measures to afforestation and management, one can achieve one year to become bundle, two years to become forest, three years to become useful product with cutting capacity of 22. 5-30 t/hm2 , amounted to cutting 45 ~ 60 t/hm2 in four years, and get into the period of high and stable yield in five years, harvest amounted to 75 -105 t/hm .%2010年11月至2011年4月在广西、云南采用简单随机抽样法布设标准地,调查研究细叶龙竹人工林生长情况,得出其高产栽培技术措施:选择热带、南亚热带地区土层厚度40 cm以上的土山、退耕地、灌木林地、疏林地作为造林地;使用1 a生实生营养杯苗造林;幼林期每年除草1~2次,追肥2次,扩塘1次,并采伐小老竹;种植密度为630丛/hm2,每丛留养母竹6~9株.按此技术措施造林和经营,可达到1年成丛,2年成林,3年成材,采伐量达22.5~30 t/hm2,4年时采伐量达45 ~60 t/hm2,5年时进入高产稳产期,采伐量达75 ~ 105 t/hm2.

  4. Projeto Bambuí: estudo de base populacional dos fatores associados com o uso regular de serviços odontológicos em adultos The Bambuí Project: a population-based study of factors associated with regular dental care in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Divane Leite Matos; Maria Fernanda F. Lima-Costa; Henrique L Guerra; Wagner Marcenes

    2001-01-01

    Um estudo seccional foi desenvolvido na cidade de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de identificar fatores associados ao uso regular de serviços odontológicos entre adultos. Os participantes foram entrevistados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado e questões previamente validadas. Um total de 999/1221 (81,8%) indivíduos com idade > ou = 18 anos selecionados aleatoriamente participaram do inquérito de saúde bucal. Destes, 654 entre 656 indivíduos que possuíam pelo menos um dente natura...

  5. Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on the Specific Methane Yield of Miscanthus x giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Theuretzbacher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly promising energy crop for biogas production can be Miscanthus x giganteus. It has multiple advantages, which include low soil requirements and the existence of genotypes adapted to dry conditions in comparison to other energy crops. Miscanthus cannot be used in the biogas plant without a pretreatment due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses. One of the most efficient pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass is steam explosion. This includes heating the biomass at high temperature values, followed by mechanical disruption of the biomass fibres by a rapid pressure drop. The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on the specific biogas and methane production of miscanthus. In addition methane hectare yields are calculated and compared to those of maize. Steam explosion pretreatment was carried out in a laboratory scale facility in Ĺs, Norway. The miscanthus was mixed with water and heated up to the desired temperature. After a defined pretreatment time the pressure in the reaction vessel was reduced rapidly, which caused the liquid water to vaporize immediately. The material was cooled down in a flushing tank and was then stored at 5°C until further analytical procedures. Pretreatment temperatures were 190°C and 210°C; holding times were 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Determination of the specific methane yield was done in triplicate using batch tests according to VDI 4630. The material was inoculated with the liquid fermentation residue of a biogas plant. The produced gas was collected in eudiometers and then analysed for the CH4 and CO2 content.

  6. Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on the Specific Methane Yield of Miscanthus x giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Theuretzbacher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly promising energy crop for biogas production can be Miscanthus x giganteus. It has multiple advantages, which include low soil requirements and the existence of genotypes adapted to dry conditions in comparison to other energy crops. Miscanthus cannot be used in the biogas plant without a pretreatment due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses. One of the most efficient pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass is steam explosion. This includes heating the biomass at high temperature values, followed by mechanical disruption of the biomass fibres by a rapid pressure drop. The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on the specific biogas and methane production of miscanthus. In addition methane hectare yields are calculated and compared to those of maize. Steam explosion pretreatment was carried out in a laboratory scale facility in Ĺs, Norway. The miscanthus was mixed with water and heated up to the desired temperature. After a defined pretreatment time the pressure in the reaction vessel was reduced rapidly, which caused the liquid water to vaporize immediately. The material was cooled down in a flushing tank and was then stored at 5°C until further analytical procedures. Pretreatment temperatures were 190°C and 210°C; holding times were 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Determination of the specific methane yield was done in triplicate using batch tests according to VDI 4630. The material was inoculated with the liquid fermentation residue of a biogas plant. The produced gas was collected in eudiometers and then analysed for the CH4 and CO2 content. 

  7. A regional comparison of water-use efficiency for Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanloocke, A. D.; Twine, T. E.; Zeri, M.; Arundale, R.; Bernacchi, C.

    2010-12-01

    The production of second generation bioenergy feedstocks is likely to increase significantly over the coming decades. A key factor dictating the environmental impact/services of production is the trade-off between water-use and productivity (e.g., harvestable yield (HY) and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE)). For this study we focus on two candidate second generation feedstocks with marked differences in water use and productivity, Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). The efficiency of water-use is compared using two metrics: harvestable water-use efficiency (HWUE = evapotranspiration (ET) ET/HY), and ecosystem water-use efficiency (EWUE = ET/NEE). We developed and tested a new version of Agro-IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator - agricultural version). Simulations were evaluated against several key observed variables, from leaf to canopy scales at locations across Illinois. Then simulations were run with historic climate data to produce 30 year means for each land cover type for the Midwest U.S. Our analysis indicates that over the Midwest U.S. miscanthus has the highest HWUE (~25 kg ha-1 mm-1), followed by current crops (e.g. maize, soybean, and wheat; ~18 kg ha-1 mm-1) and switchgrass (~15 kg ha-1 mm-1). Miscanthus and switchgrass both have a higher EWUE than current crops; however, miscanthus has the potential to disrupt the hydrologic cycle as a result of higher evapotranspiration in drier areas (~700 mm yr-1), whereas switchgrass may have a smaller impact. The results of this analysis can be used to suggest locations for test plots and they highlight the need for observations of water-use by potential feedstocks throughout the region.

  8. Nutrient requirements of Miscanthus x giganteus: Conclusions from a review of published studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscanthus x giganteus is a perennial biomass crop particularly suited to substituting fossil fuel resources in bioenergy production, in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The area of miscanthus grown in the EU is likely to increase in the future. However, the exact nutrient and fertiliser requirements of the crop are still under debate, which leads to uncertainties when making global assessments of GHG reductions and economics. The aim of our study was to review and analyse published data, in order to determine a consensus view on the nutrient requirements of the crop, and to identify where further research is needed. The findings of this study highlight the nutrient requirements of miscanthus are low compared to other crops. This is due to: i) high nutrient absorption efficiency through extensive rooting, ii) high absorbed nutrient use efficiency, iii) significant nutrient cycling between the rhizome and aerial biomass, iv) nutrient recycling before harvest through leaf fall, and v) possible contribution of N fixation by bacteria. Due to the low yield in the establishment phase of the crop, it is not recommended to apply any fertiliser during the two first years after planting, unless planted on poor soils. From the third year, typically 4.9, 0.45 and 7.0, grams per kilogram of dry matter, of N, P and K respectively are removed at harvest, and this should be a maximum to be replaced by fertilisers. Uncertainties in the exact requirements are due i) to a lack of data, in the different studies, on the nitrogen provided by soils, ii) to a lack of knowledge on the actual contribution of the rhizome to the plant nutrition, and iii) to the inexistence of tools for the diagnosis of the plant N status.

  9. Enraizamento de propágulos de bambu em diferentes substratos Rooting of bamboo cutting in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, determinou-se a porcentagem de enraizamento de três tipos de material meristemático de bambu (placas de colmos, gemas primárias brotadas e gemas secundárias em diversos substratos contendo misturas de composto orgânico, cinzas e areia. Esse material foi obtido em colmos de Bambusa vulgaris Schrad com aproximadamente dois anos de idade, provenientes de plantações localizadas no Centro Experimental de Campinas (IAC. O experimento foi realizado sob telado de sombrite, durante 110 dias, estando os substratos acondicionados em caixas plásticas com as seguintes dimensões: 50 x 30 x 10 cm, respectivamente, para comprimento, largura e altura. A maior porcentagem de enraizamento foi obtida com as placas de colmo (59,7%, seguidas pelas gemas primárias brotadas (41,0% e gemas secundárias (3,5%. As placas de colmo podem ser obtidas em grande quantidade durante a colheita normal dos colmos e, em função de suas dimensões e forma, são facilmente armazenadas e transportadas. Sua utilização representa um novo método de propagação assexuada do Bambusa vulgaris, com amplas vantagens em comparação com os métodos convencionais.This study determined the rooting level of three meristematic materials of bamboo culm (culm plaques, primary sprout buds and secondary buds planted in different substrates, prepared with a misture of organic material, ashes and fine sand. The meristematic materials were obtained from two years culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad, collected at a plantation at the "Centro Experimental de Campinas", State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was carried out under a plastic metting during 110 days. The containers for substrates were of the following dimensions: 50 x 30 x 10 cm, respectively by length, width and height. The highest rooting percentage was obtained in the culm plaque (59.7% followed by primary sprout buds (41.0% and secondary buds (3.5%. The culm plaques can be easily obtained in great

  10. Evaluation of suitability of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. in phytoextraction of copper and zinc from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bosiacki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus to phytoextraction of copper and zinc from soil, as well as evaluation of the tolerance of this species to the increasing concentration of the metals. Potential for phytoextraction of Miscanthus × giganteus had been studied for two years, pot experiment in the plastic greenhouse when they grown in mineral soil (which was slightly loamy sand and soil with raised peat substrate with four levels of copper and zinc: control (native Cu and Zn content, Cu – 80 mg·dm-3, Zn – 300 mg·dm-3 – weak pollution, Cu – 100 mg·dm-3, Zn – 1000 mg·dm-3 – medium pollution, Cu – 500 mg·dm-3, Zn – 3000 mg·dm-3 – strong pollution. Assessing their potential for copper and zinc phytoextraction from the soil, it was found that it is not significant. No hyperaccumulation of heavy metals in the aboveground biomass was found in this study.

  11. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus in Bangladesh.

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    Jonathan H Epstein

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, SARS-like corona-, Marburg-, Ebola-, and astroviruses. In an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 Pteropus giganteus bats from Faridpur, Bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to GB virus A and C (GBV-A and -C. Viral nucleic acid was present in 5 of 98 sera (5% from a single colony of free-ranging bats. Infection was not associated with evidence of hepatitis or hepatic dysfunction. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.

  12. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation in forebulge grabens: An example from the Ediacaran Bambuí Group, São Francisco Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Humberto L. S.; Suss, João F.

    2016-06-01

    Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic successions have been described in multiple Phanerozoic sedimentary settings recording the dynamic interplay of tectonics, eustasy, climate, in situ carbonate production, and variations in siliciclastic sediment supply. The Ediacaran Bambuí 1st-order sequence (i.e., Bambuí Group) covers most of the intracratonic São Francisco basin (southeast Brazil) and encompasses thick packages of carbonate and fine- to coarse-grained siliciclastic strata. Recording a marine foreland basin stage that developed in the São Francisco plate during the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic West Gondwana assembly, the Ediacaran deposits unconformably overlie Archean-Paleoproterozoic metamorphic assemblages of the Sete Lagoas basement high and fill a series of kilometer-long grabens in the southern São Francisco basin. Seismic data reveal that these troughs developed through the extensional reactivation of ancient basement structures along with the tectonically driven forebulge uplift of the Sete Lagoas high, in the early evolutionary stages of the Bambuí basin cycle. Based on the detailed description of continuous drill cores of a well recently drilled during hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, we recognized two transgressive-regressive 2nd-order sequences preserved within one of the focused grabens: (i) Sequence 1 includes the glaciogenic deposits of the basal Carrancas Formation that grade upward into the carbonate ramp successions of the Sete Lagoas Formation; (ii) Sequence 2 contains the siliciclastic-dominated and deep water to deltaic strata of the Serra de Santa Helena Formation and passes upward into peritidal carbonates of the Lagoa do Jacaré Formation. These sedimentary successions encompass suites of retrogradational, aggradational, and progradational lower-rank cycles and are bounded by erosional surfaces. Regional seismic interpretation, well data, and the available literature indicate that most of these deposits and their correlatives are

  13. Tratamentos superficiais visando à melhoria da aderência entre gesso e taliscas de bambu Surface treatments aimed at improving the adhesion between plaster and bamboo slivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle G Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O gesso é um aglomerante com aplicações sobretudo na fabricação de placas de forro, elementos decorativos e em paredes divisórias. No entanto, utilizando-se de uma baixa relação água/gesso e procedimentos tais como vibração, torna-se possível obter resistências mecânicas compatíveis para outras aplicações na construção civil, como é o caso de elementos estruturais. A investigação reportada no presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, experimentalmente, a possibilidade de se melhorar o compósito estudado. Foram realizados tratamentos para redução da absorção de água pelas taliscas, por meio da utilização de extrato vegetal B Carbon, resina polimérica e piche. Na tentativa de melhorar a aderência na interface gesso/bambu foram utilizados adesivo epóxi, massa plástica e piche, além de confeccionados corpos de prova de gesso reforçados com taliscas de bambu, tratadas com diferentes produtos, cuja eficiência foi avaliada em ensaios mecânicos. Observou-se que, para ocorrer uma boa aderência na interface do compósito, são necessários tratamentos complementares que reduzam os efeitos da instabilidade dimensional.The gypsum is a binder with applications primarily in the manufacture of ceiling tile, decorative elements and partition walls. However, using a low water/plaster ratio and procedures such as vibration, it is possible to obtain mechanical strength compatible to other applications in construction as in the case of structural elements. The research reported in this study aimed to evaluate experimentally the possibility of improving the compound studied. Treatments were carried out to reduce water absorption by slivers through the use of plant extract B Carbon, polymer resin, and tar. In an attempt to improve the adhesion at the interface plaster/epoxy adhesive, bamboo, plastic and tar mass were used. Test specimens were made of plaster reinforced with slivers of bamboo, treated with different products

  14. HUBUNGAN DUKUNGAN SOSIAL TERHADAP DEPRESI REMAJA MANTAN PENYALAHGUNAAN NAPZA DI LEMBAGA PEMASYARAKATAN KELAS II A PONDOK BAMBU JAKARTA TIMUR TAHUN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Nurhaeni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Narcotic abuse and  fluid ( NAPZA influenced by 3 factor that is ( 1 Factor family contribution  cover intimacy of adolescent relation with old fellow, pattern take care of, life, and adherence believe in, ( 2 Factor of predisposisi that is worriing, anti tendency and social have nerorotic personality, ( 3 Factor  of precipitation cover  environmental influence of friend a group of and availibility of NAPZA alone and also deviation of condition of psichosocial at individual like depression  at abuse of NAPZA. Adolescent  which occupy Institute of Pemasyarakatan (Lapas have psychological susceptance the resulting adolescent problem of depression is adolescent post o consumer of NAPZA. For the cure of depression is adolescent most important. Support factor, good of support of family, direct coresponding others and also friend adolescently (Depkes,2007. But not yet many data mentioning the existence of social support relation with visit of family dan friend to Lapas to adolescent depression of post consumer of NAPZA in Institute of Pemasyarakatan. Methodologies Research: This Type Research is descriptive research of corelational as a mean to know about relation between social support  with depression is adolescent  of drug abuse of NAPZA. Population  in this research is entire/all  dweller of Lapas/rutan ( Institute Pemasyarakatan/prison Class of II A Pondok Bambu of Jakarta East which  have adolescent age in 18-22 year. Technique intake of data that is sampling random simple on 6 October 2009. At 11.30 amount of dweller of Lapas/rutan is 1207 people, passing formula of sampel discovered by sampel counted 110 people and also tolerated by mistake percentage 2. Result: Result of research show difference of depresi is adolescent of drug abuse of NAPZA according to loss history one who is loved. There is relation between family support with depresi is adolescent of drug abuse of NAPZA correlation test show social support

  15. Aspectos nutricionais associados à infecção crônica pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas 1909 entre idosos: Projeto Bambuí Aspectos nutricionales asociados a la infección crónica por el Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas 1909 entre ancianos: Proyecto Bambuí Nutritional aspects associated with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas 1909 infection among older adults: Bambuí Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar os aspectos nutricionais associados à infecção crônica pelo Trypanosoma cruzi entre os participantes da linha de base da coorte de idosos de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A análise incluiu 84,9% (1.479 de todos os residentes com 60 anos ou mais na cidade em 1997. A infecção pelo Tr. cruzi foi avaliada por três testes sorológicos e o perfil nutricional foi caracterizado por variáveis antropométricas e bioquímicas. As associações foram avaliadas pelas razões de prevalência e intervalos de 95% de confiança, utilizando a regressão de Poisson robusta e ajustando por potenciais fatores de confusão. A infecção foi observada em 38,1% dos idosos. Todas as variáveis antropométricas apresentaram associação significativa com a infecção, evidenciando menores valores entre os idosos com sorologia positiva. As variáveis bioquímicas não foram associadas ao evento estudado. Os resultados evidenciaram a concomitância da doença de Chagas crônica e pior estado nutricional nessa população, reforçando a importância da avaliação nutricional entre idosos com infecção crônica pelo Tr. cruzi.El objetivo del estudio fue verificar los aspectos nutricionales asociados a la infección crónica por el Trypanosoma cruzi entre los participantes de la línea de base de una cohorte de ancianos de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil. El análisis incluyó al 84,9% (1.479 de todos los residentes con 60 años o más en la ciudad en 1997. La infección por el Tr. cruzi fue evaluada por tres testes serológicos y el perfil nutricional se caracterizó por variables antropométricas y bioquímicas. Las asociaciones se evaluaron por las razones de prevalencia e intervalos de un 95% de confianza, utilizando la regresión de Poisson robusta y ajustada por potenciales factores de confusión. La infección se observó en un 38,1% de los ancianos. Todas las variables antropométricas presentaron una asociaci

  16. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937 among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492 and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620. The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, respectively were higher in the more recent cohort as compared to the earlier one. These differences were independent of gender, age, schooling, number of medical visits in the previous 12 months, and number of chronic conditions. The more recent cohort showed significant differences in the use of psychoactive drugs, lipid modifying agents, drugs for diabetes, and antithrombotic agents, as well as changes in drugs used for arterial hypertension. In general, these changes are consistent with those observed in elderly populations in high-income countries.

  17. Hypertension and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a community in Southeast Brazil: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Sandhi Maria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - A population-based prospective study was analysed to: a determine the prevalence of hypertension; b investigate the clustering of other cardiovascular risk factors and c verify whether older differed from younger adults in the pattern of clustering. METHODS - The data comprised a representative sample of the population of Bambuí, Brazil. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the independent association between hypertension and selected factors. RESULTS - A total of 820 younger adults (82.5% and 1494 older adults (85.9% participated in this study. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.8% (SE=1.4 %, being higher in women (26.9±1.5% than in men (22.0± 1.7% (p=0.033. Hypertension was positively and significantly associated with physical inactivity, overweight, hypercholesterolemia hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The coexistence of hypertension with 4 or more of these risk factors occurred 6 times more than expected by chance, after adjusting for age and sex (OR=6.3; 95%CI: 3.4-11.9. The pattern of risk factor clustering in hypertensive individuals differed with age. CONCLUSION - Our results reinforce the need to increase detection and treatment of hypertension and to approach patients' global risk profiles.

  18. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  19. Optimization of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus to fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnen, Hannah K; Balan, Venkatesh; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Bals, Bryan; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Dale, Bruce E

    2007-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus is a tall perennial grass whose suitability as an energy crop is presently being appraised. There is very little information on the effect of pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of Miscanthus to produce fermentable sugars. This paper reports sugar yields during enzymatic hydrolysis from ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated Miscanthus. Pretreatment conditions including temperature, moisture, ammonia loading, residence time, and enzyme loadings are varied to maximize hydrolysis yields. In addition, further treatments such as soaking the biomass prior to AFEX as well as washing the pretreated material were also attempted to improve sugar yields. The optimal AFEX conditions determined were 160 degrees C, 2:1 (w/w) ammonia to biomass loading, 233% moisture (dry weight basis), and 5 min reaction time for water-soaked Miscanthus. Approximately 96% glucan and 81% xylan conversions were achieved after 168 h enzymatic hydrolysis at 1% glucan loading using 15 FPU/(g of glucan) of cellulase and 64 p-NPGU/(g of glucan) of beta-glucosidase along with xylanase and tween-80 supplementation. A mass balance for the AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process is presented.

  20. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

    2014-01-01

    A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb(2+) and was not significantly affected by Hg(2+). Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca(2+). The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking.

  1. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Biscaro Pedrolli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb2+ and was not significantly affected by Hg2+. Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca2+. The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking.

  2. Dyslipidemia and the risk of incident hypertension in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging Dislipidemia e risco de incidência de hipertensão em uma população de idosos Brasileiros vivendo em comunidade: estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of lipid parameters for incident hypertension in elderly living in a community. The study included 306 (81% from total persons aged > 60 years who were free of hypertension and of cardiovascular diseases at the baseline survey of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. The cumulative incidence of hypertension over three years was 37.3%. The relative risk (RR of incident hypertension decreased 0.92 for each unit of HDL-cholesterol (95%CI: 0.86-0.99 independent of several potential confounding factors. Individuals with HDL-cholesterol in the top tercile (> 55mg/dL had a risk of hypertension halve that those in the bottom tercile (RR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.33-0.90. Other lipid parameters had no significant effect on the outcome. High HDL-cholesterol showed an independent protective effect on subsequent development of hypertension in the elderly.O objetivo do estudo foi examinar o valor prognóstico de parâmetros lipídicos para a incidência de hipertensão arterial em idosos vivendo na comunidade. A pesquisa incluiu 306 (81% do total pessoas com idade > 60 anos que estavam livres de hipertensão e de doenças cardiovasculares na linha de base do Estudo de Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí. A incidência acumulada em três anos da hipertensão arterial foi de 37.3%. O risco relativo (RR para a incidência da hipertensão diminuiu 0,92 para cada unidade de colesterol HDL (IC95%: 0,86-0,99, independente de vários potenciais fatores de confusão. Indivíduos com colesterol HDL no tercil superior (> 55mg/dL apresentaram metade do risco de hipertensão que aqueles no tercil inferior (RR = 0,54; IC95%: 0,33-0,90. Os outros parâmetros lipídicos não apresentaram efeitos estatisticamente significantes sobre o evento. Valores mais altos de colesterol HDL apresentaram efeito protetor para o desenvolvimento da hipertensão em idosos.

  3. Consumo alimentar da população adulta segundo perfil sócio-econômico e demográfico: Projeto Bambuí

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    Bonomo Élido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito nutricional em amostra probabilística de 546 indivíduos (idade > 18 anos, residentes na cidade de Bambuí (15 mil habitantes, Minas Gerais, Brasil, utilizando-se o Questionário Semiquantitativo de Freqüência Alimentar (QSFA. A mediana de ingestão calórica entre mulheres e homens foi de 2.807 e 3.775kcal, respectivamente. Homens ingeriram quatro vezes mais álcool que mulheres e estas, mais carboidratos, fibras e ácidos graxos polinsaturados (AGP. A distribuição de proteínas (15%, carboidratos (57% e lipídios (28% foi adequada. As proporções médias de inadequação da participação de lipídios, ácidos graxos saturados (AGS, AGP e colesterol na energia total foram, respectivamente, 36%, 50% e 90%, sendo mais pronunciadas entre os homens. A ingestão de lipídios, AGS e AGP, entre mulheres, e de lipídios e AGS entre homens, aumentou de acordo com a renda. A ingestão de AGP e fibras e a relação AGP/AGS estavam abaixo do recomendado nos dois gêneros. A dieta apresentou proporções de inadequação diferenciais, sugerindo possíveis agregados de risco à saúde da população para doenças cardiovasculares.

  4. Projeto Bambuí: estudo de base populacional dos fatores associados com o uso regular de serviços odontológicos em adultos

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    Matos Divane Leite

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi desenvolvido na cidade de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de identificar fatores associados ao uso regular de serviços odontológicos entre adultos. Os participantes foram entrevistados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado e questões previamente validadas. Um total de 999/1221 (81,8% indivíduos com idade > ou = 18 anos selecionados aleatoriamente participaram do inquérito de saúde bucal. Destes, 654 entre 656 indivíduos que possuíam pelo menos um dente natural e haviam visitado o dentista pelo menos uma vez na vida participaram do presente trabalho. Resultados ajustados pela regressão logística múltipla mostraram que o uso regular de serviços odontológicos foi significativamente associado a ter > ou = 8 e 4-7 anos de escolaridade (OR = 9,90; IC 95% = 2,90-33,77 e OR = 3,87; IC 95% = 1,11-13,51, respectivamente, ter preferência para tratamento dentário restaurador em comparação à extração (OR = 4,91; IC 95% = 2,23-10,79, não ter necessidade atual de tratamento dentário (OR = 4,87; IC 95% = 3,17-7,49 e acreditar que ir ao dentista previne a cárie e a doença na gengiva (OR = 1,73; IC 95% = 1,13-2,65. Os resultados mostram que o uso regular de serviços odontológicos na população estudada foi explicado nas diferentes dimensões do modelo elaborado por Andersen & Newman (1973.

  5. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

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    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  6. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  7. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  8. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  9. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

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    Sein Sein Win

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  10. Refuge or reservoir? The potential impacts of the biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus on a major pest of maize.

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    Joseph L Spencer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interest in the cultivation of biomass crops like the C4 grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus is increasing as global demand for biofuel grows. In the US, Miscanthus is promoted as a crop well-suited to the Corn Belt where it could be cultivated on marginal land interposed with maize and soybean. Interactions (direct and indirect of Miscanthus, maize, and the major Corn Belt pest of maize, the western corn rootworm, (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR are unknown. Adding a perennial grass/biomass crop to this system is concerning since WCR is adapted to the continuous availability of its grass host, maize (Zea mays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a greenhouse and field study, we investigated WCR development and oviposition on Miscanthus. The suitability of Miscanthus for WCR development varied across different WCR populations. Data trends indicate that WCR populations that express behavioural resistance to crop rotation performed as well on Miscanthus as on maize. Over the entire study, total adult WCR emergence from Miscanthus (212 WCR was 29.6% of that from maize (717 WCR. Adult dry weight was 75-80% that of WCR from maize; female emergence patterns on Miscanthus were similar to females developing on maize. There was no difference in the mean no. of WCR eggs laid at the base of Miscanthus and maize in the field. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Field oviposition and significant WCR emergence from Miscanthus raises many questions about the nature of likely interactions between Miscanthus, maize and WCR and the potential for Miscanthus to act as a refuge or reservoir for Corn Belt WCR. Responsible consideration of the benefits and risks associated with Corn Belt Miscanthus are critical to protecting an agroecosystem that we depend on for food, feed, and increasingly, fuel. Implications for European agroecosystems in which Miscanthus is being proposed are also discussed in light of the WCR's recent invasion into Europe.

  11. Factors associated with depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in Community-Dwelling Older Adults (The Bambuí Health Aging Study Fatores associados aos sintomas depressivos avaliados pelo General Health Questionnaire (12 itens em idosos residentes na comunidade (Projeto Bambuí

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    Érico Castro-Costa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: This study evaluated 1,510 participants of the Bambuí Health Aging Study baseline. The dependent variable was the presence of depressive symptoms assessed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and predictive variables were sociodemographic characteristics, social support network, lifestyle and health conditions. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 38.5% (12-item General Health Questionnaire ≥ 5. Depressive symptoms were positively and independently associated with female gender (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.01-1.33, aged 80 years or over (PR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.02-1.54 compared with 60-69 years, single (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.02-1.46 or separated (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.03-1.65 marital status, less than 4 years of schooling (PR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.04-2.00, self-reported global health (reasonable: PR = 1.84; 95%CI 1.45-2.34; bad or very bad: PR = 2.44; 95%CI 1.91-3.12, incapacity or great difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.22-1.57 and complaint of insomnia in the last month (PR = 1.77; 95%CI: 1.22-1.99. CONCLUSION: The similarities between factors associated with depressive symptoms in this population and in others do not explain the high prevalence rates previously reported in Bambuí. These findings may guide efforts to investigate others factors to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of depression in this population.OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores associados aos sintomas depressivos em idosos residentes na comunidade. MÉTODO: Este estudo seccional foi desenvolvido em 1.510 idosos, que correspondem a 86% do total de residentes na cidade de Bambuí-MG com 60 ou mais anos de idade. A variável dependente deste estudo é a presença de sintomas depressivos, determinada por meio do General Health Questionnaire (12 itens. As variáveis independentes incluíram características sociodemográficas, indicadores da

  12. Heterogeneity and glycan masking of cell wall microstructures in the stems of Miscanthus x giganteus, and its parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus.

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    Jie Xue

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls, being repositories of fixed carbon, are important sources of biomass and renewable energy. Miscanthus species are fast growing grasses with a high biomass yield and they have been identified as potential bioenergy crops. Miscanthus x giganteus is the sterile hybrid between M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, with a faster and taller growth than its parents. In this study, the occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides in stems of Miscanthus species has been determined using fluorescence imaging with sets of cell wall directed monoclonal antibodies. Heteroxylan and mixed linkage-glucan (MLG epitopes are abundant in stem cell walls of Miscanthus species, but their distributions are different in relation to the interfascicular parenchyma and these epitopes also display different developmental dynamics. Detection of pectic homogalacturonan (HG epitopes was often restricted to intercellular spaces of parenchyma regions and, notably, the high methyl ester LM20 HG epitope was specifically abundant in the pith parenchyma cell walls of M. x giganteus. Some cell wall probes cannot access their target glycan epitopes because of masking by other polysaccharides. In the case of Miscanthus stems, masking of xyloglucan by heteroxylan and masking of pectic galactan by heteroxylan and MLG was detected in certain cell wall regions. Knowledge of tissue level heterogeneity of polysaccharide distributions and molecular architectures in Miscanthus cell wall structures will be important for both understanding growth mechanisms and also for the development of potential strategies for the efficient deconstruction of Miscanthus biomass.

  13. 小叶龙竹的快速繁殖与离体保存%Rapid Propagation and Reservation in vitro of Dendrocalamus barbatus Hsueh et D.Z.Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何巨擘; 程治英; 郭振华; 曾千春

    2011-01-01

    The test-tube plantlets cultured from the seeds of Dendrocalamus barbatus Hsueh et D.Z.Li were utilized to investigate the system of rapid propagation and reservation in vitro, the results revealed that the shoot of seedlings was a better one of the explants that could induce shoots propagation, for which the MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L NAA was the best one and the ratio of propagation can be 1 to 4.4.While the 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA and 1 mg/L IB A was the best root medium in which the rooting ratio can be 93% in 15 days and 100% in 27days.The plantlets could be sustained more than 120 days in the best reservation MS medium in vitro supplemented with 10 mg/L CCC, which also could survive and grow in 50 days in the MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L NAA.As reported, this research is the latest fruits in the world.%利用小叶龙竹种子培养的试管苗对其快速繁殖体系的建立与离体保存进行了研究,结果表明:根、茎、叶和小芽各外植体中,小芽切段可以较好的诱导芽的增殖且基本培养基MS附加3 mg/L BA和0.1 mg/L NAA为芽增殖最适培养基,增殖率可达1:4.4.培养基1/2MS附加1 mg/L NAA和1 mg/LIBA为最佳生根培养基,15 d丛芽生根率为93%,27 d丛芽生根率则达到了100%.MS培养基附加10 mg/L CCC培养基为最佳离体保存培养基,保存时间可达120 d以上,转接到MS外加3 mg/L BA和0.1 mg/L NAA的恢复培养基上,培养50d,可以100%恢复生长.据调查:小叶龙竹的快速繁殖与离体保存研究国内外尚属首次报道.

  14. Método de determinação de açúcares aldeídicos a partir do amido de bambu Method for aldehydic sugar determination from bamboo starch

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    Anísio Azzini

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available O amido de bambu foi hidrolisado sob diferentes condições de sacarificação, empregando-se soluções de ácido clorídrico com diversas concentrações (0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0% base v/v e tempos de reação (30, 60 e 90 minutos. Os resultados mostraram que o amido de bambu foi completamente hidrolisado, após 60 minutos de reação sob refluxo em solução ácida com 2,5% de concentração. Os açúcares aldeídicos obtidos foram determinados por um método volumétrico, baseado na oxidação dos açúcares por uma solução de iodo (KI/I2. Este método analítico é simples, de fácil execução e apresentou bom nível de exatidão avaliado através de curva-padrão.Bamboo starch was hydrolized under different saccharification conditions using hydrochloric acid at several concentrations (0.5;1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0% and reaction time (30; 60 and 90 min. The results showed that bamboo starch was completely hydrolized by hydrochloric acid solution (2.5 % after 60 min of reaction. The aldehydic sugars obtained, were determined by a volumetric method based on sugar oxidation by a KI/I2 solution and tritation of the I2 excess with a solution of Na2S2O3. The method is rapid, easy, precise, and can be used routinely for determination of aldehydic sugars (glucose after saccharification.

  15. Avaliação da esquistossomose e de outras parasitoses intestinais, em escolares do município de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil Evaluation of the schistosomiasis and others intestinal parasitosis in the school children of Bambuí county, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Roberto Sena Rocha

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a prevalência das parasitoses em escolares de Bambuí, através de exames coprológicos (direto e Kato-Katz e reavaliar os criadouros de moluscos descritos no município. Dos 2.901 escolares examinados, 20,1% estavam parasitados, sendo que Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos foram os parasitas mais freqüentes, com prevalências de 6,2%, 6,2%, 4,8% e 1,4%, respectivamente. Os ancilostomídeos foram significativamente mais freqüentes na zona rural e nos alunos com mais de 14 anos, enquanto a prevalência da E. coli foi maior na zona urbana e a G. lamblia mais freqüente na faixa etária de 0-6 anos. Somente três crianças eliminavam ovos de Schistosoma mansoni. O único hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a Biomphalaria glabrata e nenhuma delas estava eliminando cercárias de S. mansoni . Comparando-se estes dados a de levantamentos realizados anteriormente no município, observou-se uma queda na prevalência de todos os parasitas. Algumas hipóteses para tentar explicar esta queda são discutidas tais como: processo intenso de urbanização e a melhoria das condições sócio-sanitárias do município.This work was carried out with the purpose of determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses in the school children of Bambuí, through parasitological examinations (direct and Kato-Katz methods and reevaluating the snails' breeding places described in the county. Of the 2,091 school children examined, 20.1% had at least one parasitic infection. Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm are the most frequent parasites, with a prevalence of 6.2%, 6.2%, 4.8% and 1.4%, respectively. The hookworms were significantly more frequent among students from the rural area and in those aged over 14 years, while the prevalence of E. coli was greater in the urban area and the G. lamblia was more frequent in children under 6 years old. Only three

  16. Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' as affected by proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Krogstrup, Peter; Hansen, Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    The effects of proline additions to culture systems of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda Giganteus' were investigated. Proline was added in concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 300 mM to the callus induction and suspension culture media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal salts and 22...... to test the effect of proline in suspension cultures. The proline additions affected the formation of embryogenic callus and the growth of suspension cultures. Improvements depended on the proline concentration and the basal salts of the medium. Addition of 12.5 to 50 mM proline to callus induction medium...... with Murashige and Skoog salts increased embryogenic callus formation on shoot apices and leaf explants while proline had no effect on embryogenic callus formation in medium with N6 salts. Increased growth with increasing proline concentration was obtained in suspension aggregates grown in medium with N6 salts...

  17. Química e mineralogia de solos derivados de rochas do Grupo Bambuí no norte de Minas Gerais

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    C. V. Oliveira

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfis de solos representativos do Distrito Agroindustrial do Jaíba, norte de Minas Gerais, foram descritos morfologicamente, tendo sido suas amostras coletadas e analisadas química, física e mineralogicamente, com o fim de obter informações que contribuam para sua melhor exploração agrícola. Embora provenientes, em sua quase totalidade, de calcário do grupo Bambuí, e com aparente homogeneidade fisiográfica (relevo plano e floresta caducifólia, os solos apresentaram grande diversidade nesses aspectos. Mineralogicamente, observaram-se a ilita e a caulinita como minerais comuns, esta última presente mesmo em Vertissolo e Rendzina, solos com expressiva quantidade de carbonatos livres. A presença de esmectita no Vertissolo, na Rendzina e no Cambissolo de argila de atividade alta indica que a escassez de chuva, a riqueza do material de origem e sua superficialidade em topografia plana dificultam a saída de sílica e bases do sistema, favorecendo a formação de esmectita. Tal mineralogia, associada à sazonalidade climática, parece responsável pelo fendilhamento expressivo desses solos no período seco. Os solos apresentam cores variadas: solos vermelhos e vermelho-amarelados, graças à presença de hematita e goethita, referem-se principalmente aos Latossolos situados em posições ligeiramente mais elevadas na paisagem, dispondo de melhor drenagem; amarelos e bruno-amarelados, normalmente situados em áreas mais deprimidas, que, aliados à superficialidade e massividade do material de origem, restringem a drenagem, favorecendo a gênese da goethita e levando à formação de concreções ferro-manganosas em quantidades expressivas; nestes ambientes, foram constatados Cambissolos de argila de atividade alta (Ta e baixa (Tb, Vertissolos ou solos com características vérticas, também brunados, e Rendzina. A baixa relação Fe o/Fe d (ferro oxalato/ferro ditionito revelou predomínio de óxidos mais cristalinos. Os solos eutr

  18. Differences in self-rated health among older adults according to socioeconomic circumstances: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study Diferenças na estrutura da auto-avaliação da saúde em idosos com diferente situação sócio-econômica: Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. The study included 1,505 individuals (86.4% residing in Bambui and aged 60 years or older. Correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income A influência da situação sócio-econômica na estrutura da percepção da saúde dos idosos tem recebido pouca atenção. O objetivo foi verificar se a estrutura da percepção da saúde difere em idosos mais pobres em comparação àqueles com melhor poder aquisitivo (renda mensal familiar 2 salários mínimos. O estudo incluiu 1.505 idosos (> 60 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A satisfação com a rede social surgiu com maior força na estrutura da percepção da saúde entre os mais pobres. Entre esses, sintomas depressivos e ansiosos estavam associados com a auto-avaliação da saúde, ao passo que os idosos com melhor poder aquisitivo apresentavam uma percepção da saúde mais ampla, que incluía sintomas depressivos e ansiosos, insônia, infecção pelo Trypanossoma cruzi, medicamentos utilizados e acesso aos serviços de saúde. Consultas a médicos e hospitalizações apresentaram-se associadas à auto-avaliação da saúde em ambos os grupos. Estes resultados apontam para importantes diferenças na estrutura da percepção da saúde em idosos com menor ou maior renda familiar e reforçam a necessidade de políticas para reduzir as desigualdades em saúde dessa população.

  19. A comparative life-table analysis of Sipha flava (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on two biofuel hosts, Miscanthus x giganteus and Saccharum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallipparambil, G R; Cha, G; Gray, M E

    2014-06-01

    Among the insects reported in biofuel crops, the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes), is a potential pest of giant miscanthus, Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deu ex Hodkinson et Renvoize (M x g) and energy cane 'L79-1002', Saccharum spp. L. We studied the biology of S. flava on M x g and energy cane and estimated the development period, fecundity, longevity, intrinsic rate of increase, doubling time, reproductive value, and survivorship curves. To demonstrate the host suitability in a susceptible species, we studied the aphid life table on sorghum 'PL 18200,' Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Life-table information was recorded under greenhouse conditions on the host plants. Our results suggested that both M x g and energy cane are suitable hosts for S. flava. We observed similar aphid development period on both hosts. Life-table estimates including longevity and fecundity suggested that M x g is a more suitable host for the aphid than energy cane. The intrinsic rate of increase for S. flava was lower on energy cane (0.231) than on M x g (0.258). PMID:25026666

  20. Final Report DE-SC0006634. Quantifying phenotypic and genetic diversity of Miscanthus sinensis as a resource for knowledge-based improvement of M. ×giganteus (M. sinensis × M. sacchariflorus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, Erik [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Miscanthus is especially attractive as a bioenergy crop for temperate environments because it produces high yields, needs few inputs, and grows well during the cool weather of early spring and late fall when few warm-season grasses can. However, Miscanthus feedstock production for the emerging U.S. bioenergy industry and for existing demand in Europe is based on a single sterile, vegetatively propagated variety of M. ×giganteus. M. ×giganteus is an interspecific hybrid of the parental species M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Prior to the current study, little information existed about the genetic diversity and breeding potential of either M. ×giganteus parental species. In the current project, we studied more than 600 accessions of M. sinensis from throughout its native range in China, Japan, and Korea, in addition to ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations. Using thousands of DNA markers, we identified seven geographically distinct genetic groups of M. sinensis. Notably, we found that the ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations were derived from only a subset of the Southern Japan group, indicating that our study greatly increased the genetic diversity available for breeding new biomass cultivars. Additionally, this new understanding of M. sinensis population structure could be used to predict which crosses may produce progeny with the greatest hybrid vigor. Replicated field trials were also established at multiple locations in North America and Asia. Data on traits of importance for biomass productivity, such as flowering time, yield and height, were taken. Analyses of the phenotypic data from the field trials along with the DNA markers allowed us to identify many marker-trait associations. These results will enable marker-assisted breeding, which will allow selection at the seedling stage rather than waiting two to three years to obtain phenotypic data. Thus, this study is expected to greatly increase the efficiency of breeding

  1. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Meineke

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  2. Avaliação de estrutura de bambu como elemento construtivo para casa de vegetação Evaluation of the bamboo structure use as constructive element for greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Mary

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso da tecnologia do cultivo protegido no Brasil, para a produção de hortaliças e plantas ornamentais, passou por diversas fases de adaptação, visando a atender às necessidades de oferta e de qualidade dos produtos, com a preocupação de minimizar os custos de produção e os efeitos negativos do clima. A grande maioria dessas adaptações partiu da iniciativa dos próprios agricultores, utilizando-se de diferentes materiais e de outros artifícios para contornar problemas cotidianos. O experimento foi realizado na área da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/UNICAMP, no período compreendido entre dezembro de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, com o objetivo de avaliar as deformações do sistema construtivo de estrutura de bambu para utilização em casa de vegetação, em diferentes espaçamentos entre colunas e sob diferentes esforços verticais de cargas. Testou-se o uso de vigas e colunas construídas com colmos de bambu da espécie Bambusa tuldoides Munro e estruturadas com espaçadores de plástico, especialmente projetados para facilitar e padronizar a construção, conferindo-lhe maior resistência e estabilidade. Foram avaliados três espaçamentos entre colunas (2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 m sob diferentes esforços de carga, dos quais o melhor resultado foi obtido com o espaçamento de 2,5 m.The use of technology to protect and produce vegetables and ornamental plants was developed over several adaptation phases that supported the demand for quality and amount of products. These developments also reduced production costs and climate damage to the crops. Many of these adaptations were carried out by farmers on their own initiative, using different materials and devices to solve their problems. This study was carried out at Agricultural Engineering College - Campinas University/UNICAMP, from December 2002 to January 2003, with the objective of evaluating the deformations of the constructive system of bamboo structure for greenhouses, submitted to

  3. Prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness in Brazilian community-dwelling older adults with very low levels of schooling, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study (BHAS Prevalência de sonolência diurna excessiva em uma comunidade brasileira de idosos com baixa escolaridade e sua associação com características sociodemográficos e estilos de vida: Projeto Saúde e Envelhecimento Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Hara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Population-based studies on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in older adults living in less developed countries are scarce. The purpose of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of EDS and its association with sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors in Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The study was carried out in Bambuí, a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. EDS was defined as the presence of sleepiness in the last month occurring three or more times per week, with any interference in usual activities. The exploratory variables were: gender, age, skin color, marital status, schooling level, current employment status, religion, recent migration, smoking, binge drinking and physical activities during leisure time. RESULTS: Of 1,742 residents aged > 60 years, 1,514 (86.9% participated. The prevalence of EDS was 13%. After adjustment for confounders, female gender and low schooling level remained positively and independently associated with EDS. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of EDS in the study population was within the range observed in studies carried out in developed countries. The most impressive finding was the association of EDS with schooling, indicating that even in a population with low levels of schooling, this was an important factor to explain the distribution of EDS.OBJETIVO: Estudos populacionais sobre sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE em idosos conduzidos em países em desenvolvimento são escassos. A proposta do presente trabalho é estimar a prevalência de SDE e sua associação com características sociodemográficas e estilo de vida em idosos residentes em uma cidade brasileira. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi conduzido na cidade de Bambuí, localizada no Estado de Minas Gerais. SDE foi definida como presença de sonolência no último mês ocorrendo pelo menos três vezes por semana, com prejuízo das atividades. As variáveis exploratórias foram sexo, idade, cor da pele, estado

  4. Study on Height Growth Rhythm from Shoot to Young Bamboo of Dendrocalamus Farinosus and Its Aboveground Biomas%梁山慈竹笋—幼竹生长规律及地上部分生物量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊壮; 董文渊; 刘时材; 王智河

    2011-01-01

    梁山慈竹分布于西南各省,广泛用于造纸、人造板及园林绿化等。本文研究了梁山慈竹笋—幼竹的生长规律和地上部分生物量。结果表明:梁山慈竹的出笋时间持续为73天左右;竹笋-幼竹的生长需要104天左右,生长过程符合Logistic增长模型;梁山慈竹的高生长昼夜差异不明显;地径生长需要42天左右完成;土壤温度和土壤含水率是竹笋-幼竹生长的限制因子;梁山慈竹的地上部分生物量为104t/hm2。%Dendrocalamus farinosus distributes in southwestern area of China. It is widely used in paper making, panel industry, gardening, etc. The growth rhythm from bamboo shoot to young bamboo of D. farinosus and the structure of aboveground biomass were studied. The results showed that: (1) the period of shooting was about 73 d; (2) height growth from shoot to young bamboo showed logistic equation and went on about 104 d; (3) the growth rhythm was not obviously different between day and night; (4) the growth of diameter at stem base went on about 42 d; (5) soil temperature and soil moisture content were the critical factors of growth of bamboo shoots and young bamboos; (6) the aboveground biomass of D. farinosus was 104 t/hm2 .

  5. Avaliação da partida e operação de filtros anaeróbios tendo bambu como material de recheio Start up evaluation and operation of anaerobic filters filled up with bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Tonetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram constituídos três filtros anaeróbios com volume de 500 L preenchidos com anéis de bambu, operando-os com tempo de detenção hidráulica de nove horas. O objetivo foi a determinação do período de partida sem o emprego de inóculo adaptado e a obtenção da eficiência no tratamento de esgoto doméstico, empregando-se um tempo de detenção hidráulica inferior às 12 horas sugeridas pela NBR 7229. Na avaliação do sistema, fez-se uso do carbono orgânico dissolvido, da demanda química de oxigênio, da demanda bioquímica de oxigênio, pH e alcalinidade, evidenciando quanto ao carbono orgânico dissolvido, a necessidade de 19 semanas para que se alcançasse o equilíbrio dinâmico nos reatores. Após esse período, a remoção atingiu 81,4 ± 6,4%. Os resultados demonstraram que o uso de um recheio alternativo nos filtros anaeróbios possibilitou uma eficiência similar a encontrada com materiais tradicionais, mesmo adotando-se um tempo de detenção hidráulica inferior ao indicado pela norma brasileira.In this paper, three anaerobic filters with 500 L volume were constructed and filled up with bamboo rings, operating with a nine hour hydraulic retention time. The aim was to determinate the start up period without using adapted sludge and reaching efficiency in a wastewater treatment, by deploying hydraulic detention time lower than the 12 hours suggested by the NBR 7229. In the system evaluation, it was used the dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, and alkalinity, showing in terms of dissolved organic carbon, the need of 19 weeks to reach dynamic equilibrium in the reactors. After this period, the removal achieved 81.4 ± 6.4%. Results showed that using an alternative package in anaerobic filters made possible to have an efficacy similar to the one reached with traditional materials, even with the hydraulic detention time lower than the one suggested by the Brazilian law.

  6. Investigation of in situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of miscanthus × giganteus using a PyGC-MS microsystem and comparison with a bench-scale spouted-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, David P; Du, Shoucheng; Bollas, George M; Valla, Julia A

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present work is to explore the particularities of a micro-scale experimental apparatus with regards to the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass. In situ and ex situ CFP of miscanthus × giganteus were performed with ZSM-5 catalyst. Higher permanent gas yields and higher selectivity to aromatics in the bio-oil were observed from ex situ CFP, but higher bio-oil yields were recorded during in situ CFP. Solid yields were comparable across both configurations. The results from in situ and ex situ PyGC were also compared with the product yields and selectivities obtained using a bench-scale, spouted-bed reactor. The bio-oil composition and overall product distribution for the PyGC ex situ configuration more closely resembled that of the spouted-bed reactor. The coke/char from in situ CFP in the PyGC was very similar in nature to that obtained from the spouted-bed reactor. PMID:25997007

  7. Impactos do agrupamento do bambu Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE sobre a vegetação lenhosa de duas fitofisionomias de Cerrado na transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica Impact of Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE clumps on the woody vegetation in two Cerrado physiognomies in transition Cerrado & Floresta Amazônica, east of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Vicente Silvério

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou os efeitos do agrupamento de uma espécie de bambu nativa do Cerrado (Actinocladum verticillatum sobre a composição florística, diversidade e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de um cerradão e de um cerrado típico adjacentes no Parque Municipal do Bacaba, Nova Xavantina-MT. Foram instaladas 60 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo 30 no cerradão e 30 no cerrado típico. Em cada fitofisionomia, foram instaladas 15 parcelas em um sítio sem bambu (SB e 15 em um sítio com cobertura estimada de folhagem de bambu superior a 90% (CB. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com diâmetro a 30 centímetros do solo (DAS ≥ 3 cm. Foi avaliada a riqueza, a diversidade de espécies, a similaridade florística, a distribuição de diâmetros e alturas e o índice de valor de importância das espécies (VI. De forma geral, os sítios CB das duas fitofisionomias apresentaram menores valores quanto ao número de indivíduos, espécies, gêneros, famílias, densidades e áreas basais em relação aos sítios SB, com redução mais acentuada nestes parâmetros no cerrado típico em relação ao cerradão. Os resultados sugerem que a ocupação do espaço e a redução da incidência luminosa causada pelas touceiras do bambu dificultam a germinação das sementes e o estabelecimento das plântulas de espécies arbustivo-arbóreas, selecionando as espécies mais tolerantes ao sombreamento modificando a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação.This study evaluated the effects of a Cerrado native bamboo species (Actinocladum verticillatum clumps on the floristic composition, diversity and structure of the woody vegetation in two adjacent areas of “cerradão” and typical “cerrado” in the Bacaba Municipal Park, Nova Xavantina, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sixty plots of 10 x 10 m were established, 30 in each forest physiognomy. In each physiognomy, 15 plots were placed in a bamboo-free site (SB and 15 in a site

  8. 不同供锗水平对巨大革耳子实体可溶性蛋白和细胞保护酶活性的影响%Soluble Protein,Superoxide Dismutase, Peroxidase,Polyphenol Oxidase and Catalase Levels in Panus giganteus Fruit Bodies Grown on Substrates Supplemented with Different Concentrations of Germanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜振兰

    2014-01-01

    研究培养料中锗(Ge)不同添加水平对巨大革耳(Panus giganteus)子实体内可溶性蛋白含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)等细胞保护酶活性的影响。结果表明,Ge 添加浓度为18 mg/kg时,巨大革耳子实体内可溶性蛋白含量、SOD和 POD活性平均分别比对照提高8.80%、193.9%和43.3%,与对照间差异极显著(P<0.01);CAT活性也平均比对照提高8.9%,与对照差异显著(P<0.05)。%Superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),polyphenol oxidase (PPO),catalase (CAT)and soluble protein levels were determined in Panus giganteus fruit bodies grown on substrates supplemented with different GeO2 concentrations.Soluble protein,SOD,POD and CAT levels in P.giganteus fruit bodies cultivated on a substrate supplemented with 18 mg/kg GeO2 were 8.8% (P<0.01),193.9% (P<0.01), 43.3% (P<0.01)and 8.9% (P<0.05)higher,respectively compared to controls grown without added germanium.

  9. Exportação de macronutrientes em cultivos comerciais de bambu no tabuleiro costeiro do estado da Paraíba Macronutrient exportation in commercial sites of bamboo at the coastal tableland of the state of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de solo e de cavaco de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris com 11 meses de idade (rebrota foram coletadas em sítios comerciais localizados no Estado da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de biomassa de colmos e galhos e o conteúdo e exportação de macronutrientes. O solo foi analisado quanto à fertilidade, e nos cavacos foram efetuadas determinações analíticas dos macronutrientes minerais. A quantidade exportada de cada nutriente foi calculada pela multiplicação do seu teor no cavaco, pela produtividade de cavacos de cada talhão. A produtividade dos cavacos, em toneladas por hectare, foi estimada através da multiplicação da produtividade real, obtida em cada parcela, pelo fator de conversão oriundo da relação entre 1 ha e a área da parcela. O solo da fazenda Mamoaba mostrou teores de Na, K, P, Fe, Zn e Mn superiores aos da fazenda Garapu. O teor de matéria orgânica no solo seguiu esta ordem: Garapu 2 > Garapu 1 > Mamoaba. A fazenda Garapu apresentou maior produtividade do que a fazenda Mamoaba, provavelmente devido aos maiores índices pluviométricos. Os cavacos analisados exportaram aproximadamente duas vezes mais K do que N, sendo P e S os macronutrientes menos exportados pela cultura. Os teores dos macronutrientes acumulados nos cavacos, bem como a quantidade exportada, seguiram a mesma ordem em todos os sítios estudados: K>N>Ca>Mg>P>S. Os programas de adubação da espécie de bambu estudada devem priorizar o fornecimento de nitrogênio, potássio e cálcio.Samples of soil and bamboo chips (Bambusa vulgaris 11 months in age (regrowth were collected at commercial sites, located in the state of Paraíba (Brazil, aiming to evaluate the stem and branch biomass production, and the content and export of nutrients. The soil was analyzed for fertility and chips had analytical determinations made of mineral nutrients. The export quantity of each nutrient was calculated by multiplying the amount contained in the chip

  10. PENERAPAN TEKNIK GRAVITASI DALAM PENGAWETAN BAMBU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS BAMBU PASCA PENEBANGAN

    OpenAIRE

    IN. Simpen; IM. Sutha Negara; I.A.G. Widihati

    2012-01-01

    The Community Service was held to produce bamboo preserved by borax solution through using gravity technique toward the bamboo crafting raw material in Desa Pengotan, Bangli, therefore people are free from beetle attack. The preserved bamboo will improve quality. The activity was realized by several steps, namely surveys to fix the activity schedule, prepare materials, perform the demonstration plot, apply test, execute, and discuss. From the training in technological application, tuition, an...

  11. PENERAPAN TEKNIK GRAVITASI DALAM PENGAWETAN BAMBU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS BAMBU PASCA PENEBANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN. Simpen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Community Service was held to produce bamboo preserved by borax solution through using gravity technique toward the bamboo crafting raw material in Desa Pengotan, Bangli, therefore people are free from beetle attack. The preserved bamboo will improve quality. The activity was realized by several steps, namely surveys to fix the activity schedule, prepare materials, perform the demonstration plot, apply test, execute, and discuss. From the training in technological application, tuition, and evaluation conducted, the people is very enthusiastic in attending execution of this activity. They considered because the applied technology and yielded product are something new. Besides, the people do not find difficulties in accepting and executing this technology so that they can yield raw material bamboo which have been easily preserved.

  12. Avaliação da tecnologia das relações de cuidado nos serviços em saúde: percepção dos idosos inseridos na Estratégia Saúde da Família em Bambuí, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Jorge dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No campo da saúde as tecnologias das relações de cuidado se inscrevem no espaço do encontro trabalhador-usuário, implicando intersubjetivamente com a produção de relações entre sujeitos, materializando-se em ato. Estudos de avaliação sintetizam conhecimentos produzidos sobre as consequências da utilização dessas tecnologias para a sociedade. Esse estudo de cunho antropológico visa compreender a percepção dos idosos sobre a capacidade resolutiva e efetividade dos atos em saúde produzidos nas relações de cuidado contextualizadas na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF. O universo pesquisado foi composto por 57 idosos residentes em Bambuí (MG. O modelo dos Signos, Significados e Ações foi utilizado na coleta e análise dos dados, aplicando como técnica de pesquisa a entrevista semiestruturada. Os idosos avaliam a capacidade resolutiva e efetividade dos atos de cuidado na ESF como negativa, tendo como referência a qualidade das interações entre usuário-profissional. A ESF não é efetiva e a desejada mudança do modelo assistencial não ocorreu na prática: repete a centralidade do modelo médico-medicamento-procedimento que cuida da doença e não do doente, compreendendo a velhice como doença e os agravos como coisas da idade.

  13. Effect of corn cob on the yield of Panus giganteus (Berk.)corner and the content of its main nutrients%玉米芯对巨大革耳产量及营养成分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭霞; 薛婉秋; 谭亚男; 汪仁会; 谭英

    2015-01-01

    In order to decrease the cultivation cost of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner and realize the scientific utilization of corn cob,the effect of the corn cob on the cultivation of P.giganteus was comprehensively evaluated based on the analysis on biotransformation and nutrition quality of fruit body of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner cultivated with different proportions of corn cob substitute cotton seed shell.The results showed that the fruit body from the compost with 30% corn cob had no significant difference in biotransformation,the content of dry material and crude fatty acid and the taste compared with the fruit body from the compost without corn cob.However,the content of total amino acids of the fruit body increased 1%.The content of protein,polysaccharide and linoleic acid from pileus increased 14.06%,72.19% and 10.91%,respectively.The content of those nutrients from stipe increased 8.93%,83.41%,and 12.37%,respectively.Corn cob is a good material instead of cotton seed hull to culture P.giganteus.%为了降低巨大革耳栽培成本和实现下脚料玉米芯的科学利用,采用不同比例的玉米芯替代棉籽壳栽培巨大革耳,通过测量子实体生物转化率和主要营养成分含量,综合评价了玉米芯对巨大革耳栽培品质的影响.研究结果表明,与棉籽壳为主的栽培料相比,添加30%玉米芯栽培巨大革耳,菌丝生长迅速,抗杂菌能力强,生物转化率、子实体干物质含量、粗脂肪含量和口感无显著差异,但后者氨基酸总含量提高了1%,菌盖蛋白质、多糖和亚油酸含量分别增加了14.06%、72.19%和10.91%;菌柄中分别增加了8.93%、83.41%和12.37%.因此,玉米芯是替代棉籽壳栽培巨大革耳的一种优质下脚料.

  14. 大杯香菇辐射选育新株系主要营养价值的遗传分析%Genetic Analysis on Main Nutrient Values in New Radiated Strains of Lentinus giganteus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伯琦; 江枝和; 雷锦桂; 肖淑霞; 唐翔虬; 王义祥

    2011-01-01

    对大杯香菇中20个(品种和辐射选育新株系)的蛋白质营养价值6项评价指标进行了遗传变异分析、相关性分析和主成分分析.结果表明,变异系数最大的为氨基酸比值系数分,达到22.70%;其次为氨基酸评分,变异系数为18.08%;其它变异系数较小分别为化学评分、生物价、营养指数和必需氨基酸指数为4.18%、3.76%、3.37%和3.24%;在相关性上,化学评分与氨基酸比值系数分呈极显著的正相关,必需氨基酸指数与生物价、营养指数和氨基酸评分呈极显著和显著正相关,生物价与营养指数和氨基酸评分呈极显著和显著正相关,营养指数与氨基酸评分呈显著正相关,氨基酸比值系数分与氨基酸评分呈极显著正相关;主成分分析结果表明,前3个特征根在6个特征根中累计贡献率达96.07%,也就是前4个主成分对变异的贡献率达96.07%.在蛋白质营养价值六项指标选择上,首先对变异大的蛋白质营养价值指标进行选择是及其重要的.在辐射选育新株系选择时,应注意选择大杯香菇氨基酸比值系数分和氨基酸评分均较高的新株系.%The genetic variation, correlation and main components of six evaluation indexes for protein nutrient value in 20 original or new radiated strains of Lentinus giganteus were analyzed. The results showed that, the ratio coefficient of amino acid got the biggest variation coefficient, which was 22. 70% ;the second one was score of amino acid with variation coefficient value of 18. 08% ;The other variations, i. e. chemical score, biological value, nutrient index and necessary amino acid index were smaller, and were4.18% 、3.76%、3.37% and 3.24% respectively. In the correlation, the chemical score and amino acid ratio coefficient showed very significant positive correlation; the necessary amino acid index has very significantly positive correlation and significantly positive correlation with

  15. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control, T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both. Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9 produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha; T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso. A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9

  16. Bambu como matéria-prima para papel: IV - Estudos sôbre o emprêgo de cinco espécies de Bambusa,na produção de celulose sulfato Bamboo as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry: IV - Study of Bambusa tuldoides, B. textilis, B. ventricosa, B. malingensis and B. dissimulator in the production of kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, os autores dão continuidade aos estudos com que se procura determinar as características papeleiras das principais espécies de bambu com bom desenvolvimento nas condições ecológicas do Estado de São Paulo. Bambusa tuldoides, B. textilis, B. ventricosa, B. malingensis e B. dissimulator foram estudadas levando-se em consideração as seguintes variáveis: dimensões dos colmos, densidade básica, análise micrométrica das fibras, rendimento em celulose sulfato (Kraft e características físico-mecânicas das pastas produzidas. As densidades básicas médias calculadas para as espécies em estudo não apresentaram muita variação, com valores extremos de 0,62 e 0,78. Relativamente ao comprimento médio das fibras, as espécies de bambu estudadas mostraram ocupar uma posição intermediária entre as resinosas e as principais espécies arbóreas folhosas utilizadas pela indústria de papel. Os rendimentos médios em celulose sulfato, considerando cinco repetições, foram de 43,75% para B. textilis, 42,53% para B. tuldoides, 41,74% para B. ventricosa, 36,57% para B. dissimulator e 35,82% para B. malingensis, com número de permanganato variando de 18,37 a 17,03. Análise estatística dos dados de resistência do papel demonstrou que B. dissimulator, com exceção do índice de rasgo, apresentou maiores valores que as demais espécies em estudo.Five bamboo species, very similar in the agronomic features, were studied in the production of kraft pulp. All of them have culms with about 9 m in height, 4-5 cm in diameter and weight of 4-5 kg, growing very well in the soil and climate conditions of São Paulo State. Determinations of the basic density of culms and dimension of fibres were made. Chips were obtained mechanically and the cookings were made by the sulfate process at 160°C for l hour, using 14% Na(20 and 25% sul-phidity. Bambusa textilis and B. tuldoides which yielded, respectively 43.75% and 42.53% of

  17. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Aditama

    2015-05-01

    places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

  18. Potensi Penggunaan Bambu Sebagai Tabung Resonator Thermoacoustics Refrigertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Hartulistiyoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoacoustics refrigeration is considered as one of cooling method, which recently developed. This method can be applied for cooling of foods in particular vegetables. The important components in thermoacoustics refrigeration are: resonator tube, Stack, acoustics driver and working fluid. The advantages of thermoacousic refrigeration include the use of relatively simple components, consequent energy saving, and most importantly thing is environmentally friendly. Recent researches has highlighted the necessity to develop resonator tube and stack concerning shape, design, size and basic material which is used to produce resonator tube and stack. This paper comprehensively reviews the current state of technology to develop shape, design, size, and basic material in the development of thermoacoustics refrigeration. It is concluded that the use of bamboo as basic material can be applied with continuing research of its application may lead to the use of thermoacoustic refrigeration for food and vegetables.

  19. Investigations on gradient a.c. conductivity characteristics of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navin Chand; Deepak Jain; Archana Nigrawal

    2006-04-01

    Effect of temperature and frequency variation on a.c. conductivity of bamboo was determined by using a 4274 A Multi-Frequencies LCR meter. Electrical measurements were carried out in the temperature range 24–120°C and in the frequency range 4–100 kHz. It was observed that the a.c. conductivity increased initially and then decreased with increase of temperature and frequencies. The increase of distance from outer surface to the inner surface side increased the a.c. conductivity values and showed the grading in a.c. conductivity behaviour. Two phases of a.c. conductivity behaviour with temperature exist in bamboo. At 10 mm distance a.c. conductivity suddenly increases which is the critical depth from skin for this bamboo. Increase of temperature, at all the frequencies increases the a.c. conductivity initially and then decreases. Downward peaks in a.c. conductivities are observed at all the frequencies due to the presence of moisture in bamboo, which liberated on heating. Sharp peak is observed in case of sample 4, which is inner most strip. Maximum sharp peak is observed at lowest 4 kHz frequency.

  20. Strategi Pemasaran Mebel Kayu Sentra Industri Kecil Pondok Bambu, Jakarta Timur (Wood Furniture Marketing Strategy on Pondok Bambu Small Industry Centre, East Jakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    Yulius Hero; Sudaryanto; Dwi Juli Setyowati

    2011-01-01

    Furniture is one of wood products to fulfill the household needs, especially for household furnishing. Wood product which is used for furniture tends to decrease because of the substitution products, i.e.: plastic, rattan, bamboo, glass, and metal. To continue their effort, small industries in Indonesia face hard problems and challanges. To solve the hard problems and challenges, then a new marketing strategy through the study on marketing strategy of small wood-furniture industry is needed...

  1. The Identities of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn. ex Munro and Dendrocalamus parishii Munro(Bambusoideae) from China%国产牡竹属野龙竹和版纳甜龙竹的订正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永兵; 夏念和

    2010-01-01

    通过对模式标本和原始文献的研究,确认、、、、、等重要专著中广泛使用的版纳甜龙竹学名Dendrocdanus hamittonii Nees et Arn.为错误鉴定,其正确学名为D.parishii Munro;野龙竹(D.semiscandens Hsueh et D.Z.Li)为D.ham iltonii Nees et Arn.的异名.

  2. Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Mekanik dan Akustik Papan Komposit Polyester dengan Pengisi Serat Bambu

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Elsa Eka Putri

    2015-01-01

    Hasconducted research and manufacture of mechanical and acoustic characterization of polyester composite boards with bamboo fiber filler. The composite is made with bamboo fiber composition of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, respectively MEKPO added catalyst 1% of the volume polyester as speaker, then poured in molds and pressed 20min at 500C. Results include bamboo fiber composite density values of 0.74gr/cm3to1.03gr/cm3, tensile strength values of 4, 33N/mm2to9.05N/mm2, impac stre...

  3. KEBERADAAN MATERIAL BAMBU SEBAGAI SUBTITUSI MATERIAL KAYU PADA PENERAPAN DESAIN INTERIOR DAN ARSITEKTUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hartanti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a building material that is frequently used as the main component in interior design and architecture. But, the use of wood is declining today and it is replaced by bamboo. Now, wood material is difficult to find and this condition causes high price in market. Article presents the availability of bamboo that has been known by our society because of its benefit. They use bamboo to meet their everyday life, such as clothes, food, and house needs. Bamboo is also used for the development of interior design as well as architecture , especially in Indonesia.

  4. Occurrence and production of carbon monoxide in some brown algae. [Pelagophycus porra; Pelagophycus giganteus; Nereocystis luetkeana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.J.; Tocher, R.D.

    1966-01-01

    The first report of carbon monoxide in plants was based on studies with the Pacific Coast kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana. This work was extended and later confirmed. In (1916) it was reported that the brown algae Egregia menziesii, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Fucus evanescens did not contain carbon monoxide. Using a more sensitive method, researchers recently showed that the pneumatocysts of Egregia menziesii do indeed contain carbon monoxide, and they also studied its production by tissues of several brown and red algae. Another researcher found that Sargassum linifolium and Fucus virsoides were devoid of this gas, at least in concentrations detectable with a haemoglobin analytical method. By the method to be described, the gas was taken from pneumatocysts of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales) collected at Halifax, Nova Scotia. No carbon monoxide could be detected when 10 cm/sup 3/ of pooled samples of gas was analyzed. 10 references, 2 tables.

  5. Actividade antioxidante de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis: Leucopaxillus giganteus, Sarcodon imbricatus e Agaricus arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Queirós, Bruno; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Baptista, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A azeitona de mesa é um alimento tradicionalmente incluído na dieta Mediterrânica. sendo considerada uma fonte importante de antioxidantes naturais nomeadamente composto fenólicos e vitamina E. A presença destes compostos nos alimentos tem sido relacionada com uma menor taxa de incidência de doenças coronárias nos países da Bacia do Mediterrâneo.

  6. Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Mims, Michelle; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The effects of wet and dry processing of miscanthus on bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process were investigated, with wet samples showing higher ethanol yields than dry samples. Miscanthus grown with no fertilizer, with fertilizer and with swine manure were sampled for analysis. Wet-fractionation was used to separate miscanthus into solid and liquid fractions. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was employed and the SSF process was performed with saccharomyces cerevisiae and a cocktail of enzymes at 35°C. After pretreatment, cellulose compositions of biomass of the wet samples increased from 61.0-67.0% to 77.0-87.0%, which were higher than the compositions of dry samples. The highest theoretical ethanol yield of 88.0% was realized for wet processed pretreated miscanthus, grown with swine manure. Changes to the morphology and chemical composition of the biomass samples after pretreatment, such as crystallinity reduction, were observed using SEM and FTIR. These changes improved ethanol production. PMID:26773953

  7. Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krystufek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare. Peradeniya possibly supports the largest aggregation of the Indian flying fox known currently.

  8. Kinetics of levulinic acid and furfural production from Miscanthus × giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, K; Girisuta, B; Haverty, D; Leahy, J J; Hayes, M H B

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the kinetics of acid hydrolysis of the cellulose and hemicellulose in Miscanthus to produce levulinic acid and furfural under mild temperature and high acid concentration. Experiments were carried out in an 8L-batch reactor with 9%-wt. biomass loading, acid concentrations between 0.10 and 0.53 M H2SO4, and at temperatures between 150 and 200°C. The concentrations of xylose, glucose, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid were used in two mechanistic kinetic models for the prediction of the performance of ideal continuous reactors for the optimisation of levulinic acid and the concurrent production of furfural. A two-stage arrangement was found to maximise furfural in the first reactor (PFR - 185°C, 0.5M H2SO4, 27.3%-mol). A second stage leads to levulinic acid yields between 58% and 72%-mol at temperatures between 160 and 200°C.

  9. Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood, Kaiser; Morgan, Jess; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian; Lew-Tabor, Ala

    2012-01-01

    The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped...

  10. Pengaruh Bungkil Inti dan Lumpur Sawit yang Difermentasi dengan Aspergillus sp asal Akar Bambu terhadap Kandungan Lemak Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Hartoyo

    2015-10-01

    ABSTRACT. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of palm kernel cake and palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus sp derived from bamboo root on broiler’s fat content including liver fat, abdominal fat and meat fat. Study was conducted for 8 weeks in Experimental Farm, Animal Science Faculty Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto. Research utilized 196 male DOC strain Lohman, ration treatments, cage and other utilities. Seven allotted rations were R0 = control ration (without FPKC and FPOS, R1 = 7.5% FPKC, R2 = 15% FPKC, R3 = 22.5% FPKC, R4 = 7.5% FPOS, R5 = 15% FPOS, R6 = 22.5% FPOS. Each treatment unit used 7 (seven DOCs with 4 (four replicates. The obtained data were subject to analysis of variance followed by Orthogonal Contrasts. Result demonstrated that liver fat level was 1,79 – 3,86%, abdominal fat was 0,52 – 2,04%, and meat fat was 0,21 – 0,61%.  Analysis of variance result showed that supplementing palm kernel cake and palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus sp derived from bamboo root highly significantly affected (P 0.05 broiler meat fat level.

  11. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE PAINÉIS LAMINADOS COLADOS PRODUZIDOS COM TALISCAS DE BAMBU (Guadua magna NATIVO DO CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Panels were produced with strips of bamboo (Guadua magna in layers crossed at angles of 90° and bonded with phenol-formaldehyde or PVA based resin, glued in three and five plies. The panels were tested and the physical and mechanical properties determined. The tests were primarily related to the commercial adhesives used as well as the number of layers of bamboo used. The density ranged from 0.690 to 0.768 g.cm-3. Panels bonded with PVA resin showed low mechanical strength, with MOR between 6.7 and 7.8 MPa. Those bonded with phenol-formaldehyde adhesive showed high strength, with modulus of rupture (MOR ranging from 55.5 to 87.0 MPa, which is excellent for boards similar to wood-based panels. Panels with phenolic resin also had reduced thickness swelling, up to 8.4%. The panels made with three layers showed higher resistance to bending than those made with five layers.

  12. Stratigraphy of the Lower Bambuí Group in the Arcos Region (MG: a Contribution from Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Babinski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the fi rst results of the sample analysis of two boreholes drilled in a quarry located in the Arcos region(MG. Petrographic analysis (macro- and microscopic observations was performed and made possible to study in detailan approximately 175 meter-section, which shows the basement and 10 sedimentary units. The basement is represented bydark green to gray fi ne- to medium-grained granodiorite. At the base of the sedimentary sequence, Unit 1 is representedby a decimetric layer of polymictic diamictite and is overlain by the impure limestones of Unit 2. Unit 3 is carbonatic andcontains calcilutite and layers of carbonaceous shale. This unit gradually changes to Unit 4, which is composed of marland mudstone. Unit 5 is composed of a thick sequence of massive calcarenites, which begins to show lamellar layers andmicrobial structures in Unit 6. Unit 7 is similar to the previous one, but contains several intraclastic layers. The numberof lamellar layers decreases sharply, giving rise to a thick interval with considerable granulometric variations in Unit 8, which grades to the oolitic calcarenite of Unit 9. At the top of the sequence, Unit 10 is a thick package of stromatolitic dolarenite. Thisstratigraphic arrangement allows the identifi cation of progradational/retrogradational trends. The sedimentological features, especially those present in the basal portion, suggest that at least part of the carbonatic sequence could represent a cap carbonate, supporting a glacial origin for the diamictite. Other data also collected from the basal units suggest that changes occurred in the source area at the beginning of the fi lling of the basin.

  13. Pengaruh Bungkil Inti dan Lumpur Sawit yang Difermentasi dengan Aspergillus sp asal Akar Bambu terhadap Kandungan Lemak Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Hartoyo; Supadmo Supadmo; Wihandoyo Wihandoyo; Ali Wibowo

    2015-01-01

    (The effect of palm kernel cake and palm oil sludge fermented with aspergillus sp derived from bamboo root on broiler’s fat content) ABSTRACT. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of palm kernel cake and palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus sp derived from bamboo root on broiler’s fat content including liver fat, abdominal fat and meat fat. Study was conducted for 8 weeks in Experimental Farm, Animal Science Faculty Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto. Res...

  14. Obtenção de amido a partir do colmo de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo chips (Guadua flabellata Fournier was desintegrated in presence of cold water (25°C. The starch was isolated by decantation from the material soluble in water. Regarding color, the bamboo starch is similar to the soluble potato starch but its average dimension is smaller.

  15. Obtenção de amido a partir do colmo de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    OpenAIRE

    Anísio Azzini; Antonio Luiz de Barbos Salgado; João Paulo Feijão Teixeira; Roberto Machado de Moraes

    1981-01-01

    Bamboo chips (Guadua flabellata Fournier) was desintegrated in presence of cold water (25°C). The starch was isolated by decantation from the material soluble in water. Regarding color, the bamboo starch is similar to the soluble potato starch but its average dimension is smaller.

  16. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world.

  17. Differences in self-rated health among older adults according to socioeconomic circumstances: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. The study included 1,505 individuals (86.4% residing in Bambui and aged 60 years or older. Correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income < US$ 240.00 and higher-income seniors were assessed. Social network stood out as a major factor in the structure of self-rated health among the poorest. Psychological distress was independently associated with worse self-rated health among the poorest, while perceptions by the wealthiest were broader, including psychological distress, insomnia, Trypanosoma cruzi infection, use of medications, and access to health services. Physician visits and hospitalizations were associated with self-rated health in both groups. Our results show important differences in the structure of self-rated health according to socioeconomic circumstances and reinforce the need for policies to reduce health inequalities in later life.

  18. Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambuí Group, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has been used in karst studies to identify limestone terrain, describe exokarst features, analyze karst depressions, and detect geological structures important to karst development. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of ASTER-, SRTM- and ALOS/PRISM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs to detect and quantify natural karst depressions along the São Francisco River near Barreiras city, northeast Brazil. The study area is a karst landscape characterized by karst depressions (dolines, closed depressions in limestone, many of which contain standing water connected with the ground-water table. The base of dolines is typically sealed with an impermeable clay layer covered by standing water or herbaceous vegetation. We identify dolines by combining the extraction of sink depth from DEMs, morphometric analysis using GIS, and visual interpretation. Our methodology is a semi-automatic approach involving several steps: (a DEM acquisition; (b sink-depth calculation using the difference between the raw DEM and the corresponding DEM with sinks filled; and (c elimination of falsely identified karst depressions using morphometric attributes. The advantages and limitations of the applied methodology using different DEMs are examined by comparison with a sinkhole map generated from traditional geomorphological investigations based on visual interpretation of the high-resolution remote sensing images and field surveys. The threshold values of the depth, area size and circularity index appropriate for distinguishing dolines were identified from the maximum overall accuracy obtained by comparison with a true doline map. Our results indicate that the best performance of the proposed methodology for meso-scale karst feature detection was using ALOS/PRISM data with a threshold depth > 2 m; areas > 13,125 m2 and circularity indexes > 0.3 (overall accuracy of 0.53. The overall correct identification of around half of the true dolines suggests the potential to substantially improve doline identification using higher-resolution LiDAR-generated DEMs.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of Bambusa (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Xia, Nianhe; Lin, Rushun

    2005-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of Bambusa species were performed using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The 21 species sampled included members of Bambusa (sensu stricto), Dendrocalamopsis, Dendrocalamus, Guadua, Leleba, and Lingnania. Arundinaria gigantea was used as an outgroup. Using the maximum parsimony method with PAUP*, gaps were treated as missing states or new states. Parsimonious analysis revealed that Dendrocalamus latiflorus was closely related to the members of Dendrocalamopsis. Dendrocalamus membranaceus was a sister species to Dendrocalamus strictus. Three Dendrocalamus species were closely related to and nested in a polyphyletic Bambusa. Bambusa subaequalis was a sister species to B. multiplex, B. emeiensis to B. chungii, B. contracta to B. hainanensis, and B. flexuosa was a sister species to B. sinospinosa, B. tuldoides, B. surrecta, B. intermedia, and B. valida group, which raised doubts about the monophyly of the subgenera Bambusa (sensu stricto), Dendrocalamopsis, Leleba, and Lingnania under the genus Bambusa. PMID:16382365

  20. Effects of a 20-year old Miscanthus × giganteus stand and its removal on soil characteristics and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass with high yield potentials and low nutrient needs, thus a promising candidate for the production of cellulosic biomass. While optimal management options and yields attainable on a commercial scale are still debated, no study has yet addressed its removal and potential effects on following crops. Here, we present results from a trial involving a 20-year old Miscanthus stand on i) soil C, N, P and K stocks, compared with an adjacent field cultivated with a rotation of annual arable food crops, ii) the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions following the removal of Miscanthus and iii) the immediate short-term effects on the following land use (re-cultivation to wheat or set-aside). Compared to the adjacent field under annual crops, the Miscanthus plot had a larger soil organic C stock (by 13 t C ha−1) but a similar N stock, and lower P and K stocks (with differences of 100 kg P ha−1 and 1170 kg K ha−1, respectively). These losses imply that some degree of fertilization may be necessary as compensation. The effects of Miscanthus removal for the following wheat were significant on crop N content but negligible on grain yield. 1.5 t CO2 ha−1 of CO2 were released after the Miscanthus removal and the N2O emissions increased from 150 g N2O-N ha−1 to 493 g N2O-N ha−1 during the following year. These results highlight the importance of investigation of the end-of-life stage of perennial crops for an accurate assessment of their environmental impacts. - Highlights: • We compared a 20-year old Miscanthus plot with a rotation of annual crops. • We measured the effects of Miscanthus removal on GHG emissions. • Soil C stock increased by 13 t C ha−1 under Miscanthus but P and K stocks decreased. • Miscanthus removal caused net GHG emissions of 1.5 t CO2eq ha−1. • Removal effects on the GHG balance strongly depended of the following land-use type

  1. Can the exceptional chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis found in Miscanthus × giganteus be exceeded? Screening of a novel Miscanthus Japanese germplasm collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glowacka, Katarzyna; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup;

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to search for genotypes with greater potential than Mxg for photosynthesis and frost survival under these conditions. Methods A total of 864 accessions representing 164 local populations of M. sacchariflorus (Msa), M. sinensis (Msi) and M. tinctorius (Mti) collected across Japan were studied...... superior tolerance. Msa accession ‘73/2’ shows rates of light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis at chilling temperatures that are comparable with those of the most cold-tolerant C3 species. This adds further proof to the thesis that C4 photosynthesis is not inherently limited to warm climates....

  2. Reconstructing temporal variation of fluoride uptake in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from a high-fluoride area by analysis of fluoride distribution in dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Rhede, Dieter; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Trace element profiling in the incrementally formed dentine of mammalian teeth can be applied to reconstruct temporal variation of incorporation of these elements into the tissue. Using an electron microprobe, this study analysed fluoride distribution in dentine of first and third mandibular molars of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a high-fluoride area, to assess temporal variation in fluoride uptake of the animals. Fluoride content in the early-formed dentine of first molars was significantly lower than in the late-formed dentine of these teeth, and was also lower than in both, the early and the late-formed dentine of third molars. As early dentine formation in M1 takes place prior to weaning, this finding indicates a lower dentinal fluoride uptake during the pre-weaning compared to the post-weaning period. This is hypothetically attributed to the action of a partial barrier to fluoride transfer from blood to milk in lactating females and a low bioavailability of fluoride ingested together with milk. Another factor contributing to lower plasma fluoride levels in juveniles compared to adults is the rapid clearance of fluoride from blood plasma in the former due to their intense skeletal growth. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered to explain why in kangaroos from high-fluoride areas, the (early-formed) first molars are not affected by dental fluorosis while the (later-formed) third and fourth molars regularly exhibit marked to severe fluorotic lesions. PMID:26736058

  3. «Hanseníase e Doença de Chagas»: estudos realizados no Sanatório São Francisco de Assis, Bambuí, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    1970-02-01

    Full Text Available Em hansenianos internados num sanatório em Bambui, Minas Gerais, área endêmica de doença de Chagas, encotrou-se 38.63% de positividade da reação de Guerreiro & Machado, realizando-se exames clínicos, radiològicos e eletrocardiográficos em pacientes do grupo positivo e negativo. Os resultados são comparados a outros dados da região, sugerindo que o tratamento sulfônico. nestes casos, não interferiu na positividade daquela reação. Não parece ter havido influência do processo leprótico sobre a evolução da doença de Chagas e nem desta sóbre a lepra. Os estudos realizados sôbre o grupo não chagásico deixam entrever a possibilidade da existência de conseqüências cardiovasculares da hanseniase, aparentemente mal delimitadas e pouco estudadas na literatura.

  4. O bagaço da cana-de-açúcar em combinação com folhas caulinares de bambu para seu emprego em chapas de partículas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, G.J.; Battistelle, R.A.G.; Varum, H.

    2010-01-01

    O desenvolvimento e o progresso industrial beneficiaram a humanidade com muitas facilidades e avanços tecnológicos importantes. Porém, trouxeram consigo conseqüências avassaladoras como os impactos ambientais causados pela exploração indiscriminada de recursos naturais. Assim surgiam alternativas ecologicamente corretas a fim de reduzir os impactos ambientais e gerenciar da melhor forma o uso dos recursos naturais, como o de pesquisas desenvolvidas com materiais de construção alternativos. ...

  5. Avaliação de estrutura de bambu como elemento construtivo para casa de vegetação Evaluation of the bamboo structure use as constructive element for greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Mary; Claudio S. Kenmochi; Nilton N. Cometti; Paulo M Leal

    2007-01-01

    O uso da tecnologia do cultivo protegido no Brasil, para a produção de hortaliças e plantas ornamentais, passou por diversas fases de adaptação, visando a atender às necessidades de oferta e de qualidade dos produtos, com a preocupação de minimizar os custos de produção e os efeitos negativos do clima. A grande maioria dessas adaptações partiu da iniciativa dos próprios agricultores, utilizando-se de diferentes materiais e de outros artifícios para contornar problemas cotidianos. O experiment...

  6. Bambu como matéria prima para papel: estudo de processos de cozimento em material de Bambusa tuldoides Munro Bamboo as a raw material for the paper industry: studies of three cooking processes with Bambusa tuldoides Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Ciaramello

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Três processos de cozimento - soda, soda-enxôfre e sulfito neutro de sódio - com várias dosagens de reagente, foram estudados para a obtenção de pasta crua para papel, com material de Bambusa tuldoides Munro. Os maiores rendimentos foram obtidos com o sulfito neutro, seguido do soda-enxôfre. O emprego exclusivo da soda, em dosagem igual ou superior a 20% do pêso sêco dos cavacos, trouxe queda no rendimento. Nos testes físico-mecânicos, os papéis se mostraram altamente porosos e resistentes ao rasgo, mostrando-se o material promissor na produção de pasta não branqueada, semelhante a "kraft" de pinheiros. As diferenças, entre os diversos cozimentos, com relação às características do papel foram pouco acentuadas. Para aprodução de celulose branqueada, o processo soda-enxôfre, com 22% de NaOH e 2,2% de S, foi o mais promissor.A comparison was made of three cooking processes - soda, soda-sulfur, and neutral sodium sulfite - using four different amounts of alkalis to extract the pulp from Bambusa tuldoides Munro. Yields superior to 50% were obtained in the majority of cookings; but they decreased when 20% or more of NaOH, in relation to the dry weight of chips, were employed. The highest rate of pulp to raw material was obtained with the neutral sodium-sulfite process. The paper produced was highly porous, very good in the tearing and reasonable in folding, tensile-and bursting strength.

  7. Caracterização química, física e mecânica de briquetes de duas variedades de bambu. Chemical, physical and mechanical characterization of briquettes from two bamboo varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martucheli AMARAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por energia de fontes renováveis vêm aumentando a cada dia, propiciando o uso de biomassa para que esta possa vir a ser uma alternativa viável como combustível sólido, sendo esta limpa e potencialmente expressiva em termos econômicos. Investigações sobre briquetes para uso doméstico também têm aumentado, pois este material compacto é de fácil transporte e apresenta elevado poder energético, além de contribuir para a preservação ambiental ao substituir matérias-primas não renováveis. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar física, mecânica e quimicamente os briquetes de resíduos oriundos de Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta e Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris, analisando o seu potencial para a produção de combustível sólido. Os teores de cinzas e voláteis reportados para a variedade vitatta foram de 7,19 e 75,54% na devida ordem, e para a variedade vulgaris, de 7,09 e 73,95%, respectivamente. O produto final de cada material compactado teve expansão longitudinal considerada normal, sendo estas de 7,3% para vitatta e 7,5% para vulgaris e apresentaram boa resistência à compressão suportando forças de 510,44 e 499,80 N, respectivamente, para variedade vitatta e vulgaris. Portanto, os briquetes produzidos usando-se resíduos das duas espécies estudadas neste trabalho, Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta e Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris, apresentaram propriedades químicas, físicas e mecânicas satisfatórias para seu uso final como combustível sólido. Nowadays, the request for renewable energy sources are increasing, leading to the use of biomass as a viable alternative for solid fuel, being cleaner and potentially significant regarding to economical values. The search for domestic use of briquettes has also increased because the solid compact has high source of energy power and can be easily transported, as well as contributes to environmental preservation as a substitute to the use of non-renewable materials. The objective of this study was the physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of briquettes produced with waste of two bamboo varieties, Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta and Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris, analyzing their potential for solid fuel production. The ash and volatile contents reported for vitatta variety were 7.19 and 75.54% in proper order, and for vulgaris variety were of 7.09 and 73.95% respectively. The final product of each compacted material had a longitudinal expansion considered normal, being that of 7.4% for vitatta and 7.5% for vulgaris, and presented a proper compressive strength, tolerating forces of 510.44 and 499.80 N, for vitatta and vulgaris varieties respectively. Therefore, the briquettes produced in this study using the waste of the two species Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta and Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris, have presented satisfactory chemical, physical and mechanical properties for the final use as solid fuel.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of cassava wastewater in fixed bed reactor using bamboo medium support; Digestao anaerobica de agua residuaria de fecularia em reator de leito fixo utilizando meio suporte de aneis de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watthier, Elisangela; Andreani, Cristiane L.; Silva, Jefferson L.G. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: eliswa@hotmail.com; Gomes, Simone D. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento Ambiental

    2012-11-01

    Cassava wastewater causes damage to the environment due to high organic loads and presence of cyanide and hydrocyanic acid. An alternative treatment anaerobic which add value for biogas production. To allow use of higher load sand reducing the TDH support means are used. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the anaerobic treatment of liquid effluent of cassava industry, using bamboo as support media. The wastewater used was derived from starch factory located in Toledo. Was used PVC reactor with a diameter of 15 cm and length 90 cm. Were used as support means 52 bamboo rings and useful reactor volume 61. A total of 13 load increasing, from 1,675 to 15.158 g.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}, until reaching the maximum load bearable. For each load data was collected for 15 days by daily samples at entrance and exit of the reactors. The samples were analyzed: DQO, alkalinity, volatile acidity and biogas production. There was a system instability in 12,394 g.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}, with values of AV/AT above 0.5, but the system began to show signs of stability in the next load. The reactor showed biogas production up 1.57 L.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}. (author)

  9. Comparison between two different supporting media at the manipueira anaerobic treatment: bamboo and polyurethane; Comparacao entre dois diferentes meios de suportes no tratamento anaerobico da manipueira: bambu e poliuretano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Douglas Guedes Batista; Citolin, Antonio Carlos; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Alcantara, Michael Steinhorst; Mendonca, Elisabete Ferro [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: simoned@unioeste.br

    2009-07-01

    It was compared the anaerobic bio digestion for the processing starch waste water in natura at horizontal reactors with continuous flux, 15 cm diameter and 90 cm, using two supporting media: bamboo and polyurethane, varying the load rate. The organic load evaluated were 0.548, 1.156, 1.471, 3.049 gCOD.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1} and it was shown that there wasn't supporting media influence on the total and volatile solid removals, with greatest reductions 85 % and 93 %, significantly equals by the Tukey test, for the 1.156 and 1.471 gDQO.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1} loads. The biogas production was greatest at the bio digestion with bamboo acting as supporting media, resulting in 1.696 L{sub biogas}.gSV{sub consumida}{sup -1} for the organic load value of 3.049 gDQO.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Introducing Dendrocalamus latiflorus to Sinaloa Mexico:Strategy for Food Safety Tackling the Climate Change%墨西哥锡那罗亚引种麻竹:应对气候变化的粮食安全战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Daniel Stamatis Portugal

    2016-01-01

    Sinaloa Mexico is the most important region of food production of Latin America. Since 2009 , unexpected frost winds hitting the region has caused burning 25% of the total crop production ( Equal to the value of 500 $million USD) per year. Introducing Dendrocalaus latiflorus to Sinaloa as a main “cash crop”, aims to compensate for the lost, bringing 170 000 hectares of new bamboo forests in northwest Mexico. Such action will provide fresh bamboo shoots for market in south of USA, Mexico and Central America. This article aims to illustrate the potency of bamboo as a powerful ally and a social business model for humankind during the climate change. Focusing on the direction of a pilot project to establish a bamboo social business in Mexico, with a large contribution from China. As a consequence, the quality of life for habitants in Sinaloa will be strongly influenced by the socioeconomic aspects of bamboo and other complementary systems.%墨西哥锡那罗亚是拉丁美洲最重要的粮食生产区。2009年以来,霜冻和大风不断袭击该区,造成作物减产25%,损毁作物17万hm2,每年损失粮食折合5亿美元。在锡那罗亚州,引种麻竹作为一种主要的经济作物,可以弥补因气候变化导致的粮食损失,并可为墨西哥西北部地区增加17万hm2的竹林。麻竹鲜笋亦可销往墨西哥其他地区、美国南部和中美洲各国。文章旨在阐述当前气候变化背景下竹子资源为人类带来巨大效益的潜力,并可进行商业性生产。在中国的大力帮助下,在墨西哥设计建立了一个竹子商业性生产的试验项目,以此说明竹子在提高人们生活质量方面的潜力。总之,竹子及其相关产业的社会经济价值会极大地影响墨西哥锡那罗亚人们的生活方式。

  11. 麻竹山地笋用林笋期叶片光合及呼吸性状研究%STUDY ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND RESPIRATORY CHARACTER OFLEAVES OF FOREST PLANTED ON MOUNTAIN AND USED FOR SHOOT OF DENDROCALAMUS LATIFLORUS DURING GROWING SHOOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱尔发; 洪伟; 郑郁善; 陈卓梅; 陈礼光

    2001-01-01

    Through analyzing the various position leaves character of 3 ages bamboo, including net photosyntheticrate, light respiratory rate, dark respiratory rate, CO2 compensation point and light compensation point, in five-years - old forest during different growing shoot stages in stated - own forestry farm of Nanjin, results showed thatleaves had vigorous physiological function during prosperity stage of growing shoot. Net photosynthetic rate was high-er, light respiratory rate, dark respiratory rate, CO2 compensation point and light compensation point were lower,the photosynthetic coefficients was larger.2- year bamboo and 3 - year bamboo had stronger photosynthetic ability. Different photosynthetic and respiratory indexes of various position leaves were not consistent, but in generally, mid-dle leaf had stronger assimilation ability.

  12. Cultiver Miscanthus x giganteus en parcelles agricoles : du diagnostic agro-environnemental à la conception-évaluation ex ante de systèmes de culture à vocation énergétique

    OpenAIRE

    Lesur, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation biofuels could provide renewable energy while reducing the globaleconomy dependence on oil and mitigating climate change. However, their greenhouse gasemission balances, as well as their energy and environmental balances, are discussed,especially when they are produced from agricultural feedstock. The use of agriculturalfeedstock for energy purposes also raises the issue of competition with food production. Inthis context, this work contributes to the assessment of the susta...

  13. Change of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Fruit Body Development Process of Panus giganteus%猪肚菇子实体发育过程中抗氧化酶活性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董洪新; 程显好; 朱林; 蔡德华; 李玉

    2010-01-01

    研究猪肚菇子实体不同发育时期膜脂过氧化产物丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性变化情况.结果表明:随着猪肚菇子实体生长和衰老,子实体中MDA逐渐积累,膜脂过氧化程度加重:SOD和CAT活性先升高后降低,SOD、CAT活性最高值分别出现在杯形期和钉头期,而POD活性则基本稳定.因此,活性氧代谢失调引发的生物膜结构破坏是猪肚菇子实体衰老的重要原因之一.

  14. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens)=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Christina da Silva Wanderley; Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL) on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fert...

  15. Culicídeos associados a entrenós de bambu e bromélias, com ênfase em Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Culicids associated with bamboo internodes and bromeliads, with emphasis on Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Martins da Silva; Valdecir Nunes; José Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) larvae were recorded for the first time in the internodes of bamboo cuts found in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The bamboo, Bambusa sp., was introduced in the area of Imbucuí-Mirim town, across the municipal district of Paranaguá and towards the interior of the Atlantic Forest. A total of 251 larvae of Aedes albopictus (37.9%), Culex (Microculex) spp. (13.9%), Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901 (39.8%), Toxorhynchites sp. (0.4%) and...

  16. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites; Estudo da influencia dos teores de fibra, agente compatibilizante e tamanho de fibra nas propriedades de compositos de polipropileno com fiobra de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caranti, Lilian R.A.; Bonse, Baltus C.; Costa, Ricardo A. da, E-mail: prebbonse@fei.edu.br [Dept. da Engenharia dos Materiais, Centro Universitario de FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  17. Root biomass and soil carbon response to growing perennial grasses for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedicated bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), miscanthus [Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg)], indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) can provide cellulosic feedstock for biofuel production while maintaining or improving soil and en...

  18. The Purification of the Antifungal Protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus%巨大曲霉产抗真菌蛋白(AFP)的分离纯化及在制麦过程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元月; 林智平; 王德良; 郭立芸; 贾凤超

    2011-01-01

    本研究从巨大曲霉AF-11发酵上清液中提取抗真菌蛋白(AFP),并在实验室和生产制麦条件下分析AFP在制麦过程中的应用及影响。试验结果显示,AFP可有效抑制大麦表面霉菌的生长,控制真菌毒素残留,降低啤酒喷涌概率,并且对麦芽、麦汁质量无负面影响。%In this study, the antifungal protein (AFP) was isolated from the the fermentation of AFP in malting were analysed under conditions of Laboratory and malting. Results showed that AFP can effectively and sigificantly inhibit the growth of mold on barley, and reduce both the residues of mycotoxin, and corresponding gushing potential, however, the data also show that its application has no negative effect on the quality of mah and wort.

  19. 酒竹人工林土壤呼吸对氮输入的响应及其因子分析%Effects of nitrogen levels on soil respiration of sympodial bamboo plantation and factor analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟成; 王曙光; 盛海燕; 郑友苗; 王树东; 钟哲科

    2013-01-01

    of bamboo species such as Oxytenanthera braunii Pilger ap . Engler , Dendrocalamus brandisii Kurz and D . giganteus Munro is encouraged by the government but without scientific directions . And chemical fertilizers are usually applied into fields unscientifically and blindly in the villages of southwest China . Subsequently , what will happen to the soil structure and how to balance soil nutrient environment in the situation of chemical fertilizer abuse? In the context of climate change , the amount of nitrogen allocated to the soil is predicted to increase with the productivity of terrestrial ecosystem , and may alter soil carbon storage capacities . To provide the proof of soil respiration responding to the nitrogen input for sympodial bamboo afforestation at the beginning period , we set up four nitrogen fertilization (CO( NH2 ) 2 ) levels in mid‐high mountain of southeast China , i .e . N content of 0 , 40 , 80 , 160 kg/hm2 (expressed on N0 , N40 , N80 , N160 , respectively) , using the two‐year old stump of wine bamboo which were planted every five meters . The soil respiration rate is measured by using trenching method and infrared gas analyzer . The responding mechanism is discussed through analyzing the change of soil temperature at 10 cm depth ( T10) , as well as changes of soil water‐soluble organic carbon content (WSOC) and soil water content (SW) . Results showed that soil respiration rate was quite different between rainy and dry seasons . The soil respiration rate increased at the end of April or in the beginning of May when the rainy season arrived . Its wave crest arrived in July , Aug . and Sept . , and then the rate decreased along with the dry season in Nov . , Dec . , Feb . and Mar . , then the trough of soil respiration rate appeared . The variation rule of T 10 , WSOC and SW was similar as this way . Exponential function could be used to describe the relationship between T 10 and respiration rate . Meanwhile , WSOC and SW showed a linear

  20. New records of Bambusoideae(Poaceae)from Yunnan and neighbouring area, China%云南及近邻地区竹亚科植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜凡

    2001-01-01

    报道了云南竹亚科新记录种5种1变种,即吊丝竹(Dendrocalamus minor(McClure)Chia et H. L. Fung),花吊丝竹(Dendrocalamus minor var. amoenus(Q. H. Dai et C. F. Huang)Hsueh et D. Z. Li),黔竹(Dendrocalamus tsiangii(McClure)Chia et H. L. Fung),马甲竹(Bambusa tulda Roxb.),坭竹(Bambusa gibba McClure)和料慈竹(Bambusa distegia(Keng et Keng f.)Chia et H. L. Fung).后两者亦分别为贵州、广西的地理分布新记录种.同时,根据对标本和种植于'99昆明世博会竹园的活竹丛的研究,讨论了毛环竹亦即毛环单竹(Bambusa yunnanensis N. H. Xia)的分类学问题,将其归并到料慈竹(Bambusa distegia(Keng et Keng f.)Chia et H.L.Fung)中.

  1. The thin green line: sustainable bioenergy feedstocks or invaders in waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa L. Smith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous fast growing and highly competitive exotic crops are being selected for production of renewable bioenergy. Tolerance of poor growing conditions with minimal inputs are ideal characteristics for bioenergy feedstocks, but have attracted concern for their potential to become invasive. Miscanthus × giganteus is one of the most promising bioenergy crops in the US, but grower adoption is hindered by high establishment costs due to sterility. Newly developed fertile tetraploid M. × giganteus may streamline cultivation while reducing establishment costs. However, fertile seed dramatically increases the potential propagule pressure, and thus probability of off-site plant establishment. To empirically evaluate the invasive potential of fertile M. × giganteus in the Southeastern US, we compared fitness and spread potential relative to ten grass species comprising 19 accessions under both high and low levels of competition and disturbance. We chose species known to be invasive in the US (positive controls: Arundo donax, naturalized M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus, Phalaris arundinacea, Sorghum halepense and non-invasive (negative controls; Andropogon gerardii, ornamental M. sinensis, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Saccharum spp.. This novel design allows us to make relative comparisons of risk among species with varying invasiveness. After three years of establishment and growth in Blacksburg, Virginia, neither aboveground disturbance nor interspecific weed competition influenced fitness for fertile M. × giganteus or our positive and negative control groups. Fertile M. × giganteus produced 346% and 283% greater aboveground biomass than our positive and negative species, respectively. However, fertile M. × giganteus produced 74% fewer inflorescences m-2 than our positive controls and 7% and 51% fewer spikelets inflorescence-1 than the positive and negative control species. After 18 months of growth, we observed the vegetative and seedling

  2. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Tournas; E.J. Katsoudas

    2008-01-01

    Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso) were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC). The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming...

  3. Evaluating silicon concentrations in biofuel feedstock crops Miscanthus and switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon (Si) concentrations in biofuel feedstock crops have a critical role in combustion processes. The purpose of this study was to quantify Si concentrations in plant biomass samples and to evaluate the contributing factors for Si concentrations. We determined total Si concentrations in Miscanthus x giganteus (M. x giganteus) collected from various research trial plots in the eastern U.S. and in Miscanthus spp. and Panicum virgatum, 'Cave-in-Rock' (switchgrass) from an additional eight trial plots established across Illinois. Whole aboveground plant biomass at each site were air-dried and ground. Total Si concentrations in plant samples were determined by dry-ashing plant tissue in a muffle furnace, followed by alkaline fusion and then colorimetric analysis. Average Si concentrations in statewide M. x giganteus plant samples ranged from 0.72% to 1.6% and samples from within Illinois ranged from 0.55% to 2.4%. The overall median value of concentrations in M. x giganteus samples among all sites was 1.08%. The median value in switchgrass samples (1.5%) was 1.4 times higher than that for M. x giganteus. Among six other Miscanthus spp. samples from the Urbana trial plot in Illinois, Si concentrations were about 1/3 that of M. x giganteus. Variation in Si concentrations tended to be associated with temperature and precipitation of the location where the biofuel crops are being grown. We did not find any relationship between soil type and plant Si concentrations. Long-term evaluations of soil mineral concentrations and additional environmental factors are required to better understand the contributing factors for Si concentrations. -- Highlights: → Si concentrations were determined in Miscanthus and switchgrass biomass. → Biomass samples were from trials in the eastern USA. → Median switchgrass Si concentration was 1.4 times higher than Miscanthus. → Temperature and precipitation seemed to control Si concentrations. → Soil mineral and additional environmental

  4. Modeling long-term yield trends of Miscanthusxgiganteus using experimental data from across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesur, Claire; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène; Makowski, David;

    2013-01-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus is a perennial grass that is considered to have a high feedstock potential for bioenergy production. Assessment of that potential is however highly related to the crop yields and to their change through the crop lifetime, which is expected to be longer than 20 years. M....... giganteus is known to have an establishment phase during which annual yields increased as a function of crop age, followed by a ceiling phase, the duration of which is unknown. We built a database including 16 European long-term experiments (i) to describe the yield evolution during the establishment...

  5. Structure and Property of Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition, fiber characteristics, crystalline structure, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the five species of bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis cv.Pachyloe, Bambusa tootisk, Arundinaia amabilis, B.vulgaris cv. Vittata, and Dendrocalamus affinis) were studied with IR, X-ray, DSC and chemical analyses. The results indicated that the benzene-ethanol extractive content of bamboo was higher than that of wood, the content of lignin and the content of pentosan were 19.1% - 25.3% and 14.9% - ...

  6. Nitrogen management of switchgrass and miscanthus on marginal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscanthus × giganteus and switchgrass yield and fertilizer N requirements have been well studied in Europe and parts of the United States, but few reports have investigated their production on eroded claypan soils economically marginal for grain crops. This study was conducted to evaluate yield pot...

  7. Visualizing heterogeneity of photosynthetic properties of plant leaves with two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iermak, Ievgeniia; Vink, Jochem; Bader, Arjen N.; Wientjes, Emilie; Amerongen, van Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to analyse the distribution and properties of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) in palisade and spongy chloroplasts of leaves from the C3 plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the C4 plant Miscanthus x giganteus. This was ac

  8. Effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size reduction is a crucial factor in transportation logistics as well as cellulosic conversion. The effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus x giganteus was determined. Miscanthus was ground using a hammer mill equipped with screens having 0.08, 2.0 or 6.0...

  9. Ecological characteristics and in situ genetic associations for yield-component traits of wild Miscanthus from eastern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Lindsay V; Dzyubenko, Elena; Dzyubenko, Nikolay;

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Miscanthus is a genus of perennial C4 grasses native to East Asia. It includes the emerging ligno-cellulosic biomass crop M. ×giganteus, a hybrid between M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Biomass yield and cold tolerance are of particular interest in Miscanthus, given that th...

  10. Management factors affecting establishment and yield of bioenergy miscanthus on claypan soil landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus has been well studied for its establishment and yield in Europe and certain parts of the US Midwest but little has been done to investigate these properties when grown on degraded soils, which are typified as being less productive, and consequently, economically...

  11. Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low.

  12. EFEITO DA APLICAÇÃO DA URÉIA EM DIFERENTES DOSES E ÉPOCAS SOBRE UM HÍBRIDO DE MILHO PARA SILAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Rocha Athayde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn has a high potential in grain production in Brazil but some factors restrict the expression of maximum yield. The achievement of economically viable products, require an adequate mineral nutrition and nitrogen is the nutrient that modulates, with greater effect this production. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different doses and timing of urea application in coverage in the town of Bambuí-MG. The work was developed in the production sector of the Federal Institute of Minas Gerais - Campus Bambuí, in a Typic Dystrophic in crop year 2010/11. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots, with four N rates (100, 150, 200 and 250 kg N ha-1 in the plot and cover three different times (21, 28 and 35 days after planting in the sub plot with four replications. All applications were done manually and the N source used was urea (45% N. We checked that for the hybrid AG 1051, grown in the region of Bambuí for the production of silage by CFSEMG the recommended dose (1999 was sufficient to meet the nutritional demands of the hybrid and the estimated productivity gain, since there were no responses of the hybrid depending on the doses applied. In the parameters evaluated, the application time did not influence significantly the parameters evaluated, except at the time when it was applied a dose of 200 kg ha-1 where there was a greater increase in application performed at 28 days. A cultura do milho apresenta elevado potencial na produção de grãos, entretanto no Brasil alguns fatores restrigem a expressão da capacidade máxima de produtividade da cultura. A obtenção de produtividades economicamente viáveis, demandam uma nutrição mineral adequada e o nitrogênio é o nutriente que, modula, com maior efeito esta produção. O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar os efeitos de diferentes doses e época de aplicação de uréia em cobertura, no município de Bambuí-MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no setor de

  13. Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kenneth Grace

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann. Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009. Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers; and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10 were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure.

  14. 4种防霉剂对重组竹性能的影响%Effects of Four Mold Inhibitor on Properties of Reconsolidated Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏万姝; 覃道春

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the anti-mould effect of Dendrocalamus affinnis reconsolidated bamboo bonded with phenolic resin. Four fungicides, IPBC, DDAC, TCMTB and IPBC+DDAC, were incorporated with bamboo lumber during processing at three loading levels. The PCP-Na was used as the control fungicide. Result shows that IPBC is a potential reconsolidated bamboo fungicide based on the comprehensive consideration of its physical and mechanical properties as well as anti-mold effects.%以慈竹(Dendrocalamus affinnis)为原料,酚醛树脂(PF)为胶黏剂,有机碘化物(IPBC)、二癸基二甲基氯化铵(DDAC)、苯噻氰(TCMTB)、有机碘化物+二癸基二甲基氯化铵(IPBC+DDAC)为防霉剂制备防霉重组竹,以五氯酚钠(PCP-Na)作为对照药剂,并通过室内抗菌试验比较5种防霉剂的性能.结果表明:综合物理力学性能、防霉效果,IPBC是一种有潜力的重组竹防霉剂.

  15. Construção em bambú

    OpenAIRE

    Caeiro, João Gabriel de Matos

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Mestrado em Arquitectura Objectivos deste trabalho são questões do âmbito da ecologia e sustentabilidade para a arquitectura descomprometida face a dogmas e paradigmas, não inocentes face aos interesses e conspirações financeiras. Estudei as potencialidades e viabilidade de um material emergente _ o bambu. Numa experiência que pretendeu unir a teoria académica com a prática, o trabalho manual muitas vezes esquecido na nossa formação e de vital importância para o correcto inten...

  16. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth. PMID:24743957

  17. O GERENCIAMENTO DOS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS DO MUNICÍPIO DE BAMBUÍ/MG E SEUS POSSÍVEIS REFLEXOS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DA ATIVIDADE TURÍSTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Carla Moreira Bento, Stefânia Mara de Faria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos sólidos são um dos grandes problemas da atualidade, provocando impactos sócio-econômicose ambientais. Nessa perspectiva, é interessante analisar como a gestão desses resíduos pode afetar naimagem e desenvolvimento turísticos de uma localidade. O objetivo dessa pesquisa é analisar como omunicípio de Bambuí, região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais, gerencia os resíduos sólidos urbanos queproduz e como este gerenciamento pode influenciar no seu desenvolvimento turístico. A metodologiaempregada envolveu revisão bibliográfica, trabalhos de campo e entrevistas. Depreende-se que o municípioem questão apresenta um gerenciamento inadequado dos resíduos sólidos, comprometendo a sadiaqualidade de vida da comunidade e do meio ambiente de Bambuí, bem como a imagem e desenvolvimentoturísticos, sinalizando para a necessidade da realização integrada do planejamento ambiental e do turismo.

  18. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC. The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming units (cfu per gram. German chamomile harbored the highest fungal contamination. The most common fungi found in herbal teas were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, and yeasts. Among the coffee substitutes, only the chocolate-mint coffee was contaminated with low numbers (<1.0 × 103 cfu g−1 of E. rubrum, Ulocladium spp. and Phoma spp., and with yeasts (<100–6.8 × 103 cfu g−1. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were recovered from 100% of the herbal tea, chocolate-mint and Mediterranean Espresso, and from 50% of the Bambu instant Swiss coffee samples. The highest APC counts of 1.2 × 107 cfu g−1 were observed in spearmint leaves.

  19. Die Cestoden der Marsupialia und Monotremata

    OpenAIRE

    Zschokke, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Ueber Bandwürmer aus Monotremen und Marsupialiern war bis heute nur wenig bekannt, und die wenigen Notizen und Abbildungen entsprechen nur in ungenügendem Maasse den Anforderungen einer wissenschaftlichen Beschreibung und der neueren, auf anatomische Merkmale sich gründenden Cestodensystematik. Im Jahre 1819 beschrieb RUDOLPHI (20) in seiner "Synopsis" unter dem Namen Taenia festiva einen Bandwurm aus den Lebergängen und der Gallenblase von Macropus giganteus, und BREMSER (3) lieferte in den ...

  20. Miscanthus combustion properties and variations with Miscanthus agronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, XC; Darvell, LI; Jones, JM; Barraclough, T; Yates, NE; Shield, I.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the interaction of agronomy and its effects on fuel quality has been carried out for Miscanthus x giganteus grown in the UK through the UK’s SUPERGEN Bioenergy Consortium activities. Work on Miscanthus yield responses to N, K and S fertilizer will be reported elsewhere, and this study is focused on how fertilisers affected Miscanthus fuel quality. Six different fertiliser treatments were chosen to give interesting contrasts from the field experiment investigating yield responses; n...

  1. Production and analysis of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants of madagascar.Caracterisation by RMN13C, CPG(Ir) et CPG-SM

    OpenAIRE

    Rabehaja Rakotondragaby, Delphin Justin,

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted under an agreement of co-supervision between the Universities of Antananarivo (Madagascar) and Corsica (France). It contributed to the characterization of five malagasy plants through the chemical composition of their essential oils (EO). Four aromatic and medicinal plants: Cymbopogon giganteus var. madagascariensis, Tana bojeriana, Croton kimosorum and Croton sp. grow wild in the south-western region of Madagascar (Toliara) whereas the species Vepris madagascarica is...

  2. Evaluation of the ECOSSE model for simulating soil organic carbon under Miscanthus and short rotation coppice-willow crops in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Dondini, Marta; Richards, Mark; Pogson, Mark; Jones, Edwards O.; Rowe, Rebecca L.; Keith, Aidan M.; Niall P McNamara; Smith, Joanne U.; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) of two dedicated energy crops: perennial grass Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus) and short rotation coppice (SRC)-willow. The amount of SOC sequestered in the soil is a function of site-specific factors including soil texture, management practices, initial SOC levels and climate; for these reasons, both losses and gains in SOC were observed in previous Miscanthus and SRC-willow studies. The ECOSSE model was developed to simu...

  3. Parasitic macrofungi (Basidiomycetes on fruit shrubs and trees in the Tarnów town (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of 6 years of research carried out in the Tarnów town, southern Poland, are presented. Total number of 27 species of Basidiomycetes were recorded on 7 species of fruit shrubs and trees. Some of them were found on hosts new for Poland, on Malus domestica - Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma australe, Meripilus giganteus, Stereum hirsutum and Volvariella bombycina; on Juglans regia - Ganoderma applanalum and Hineola auricula-judae.

  4. Strong biological controls on Sr/Ca ratios in aragonitic marine bivalve shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillikin, David Paul; Lorrain, Anne; Navez, Jacques; Taylor, James W.; André, Luc; Keppens, Eddy; Baeyens, Willy; Dehairs, Frank

    2005-05-01

    It is well known that skeletal remains of carbonate secreting organisms can provide a wealth of information about past environments. Sr/Ca ratios have been successfully used as a temperature proxy in corals and sclerosponges. Previous work on aragonitic bivalve shells has not been conclusive but suggests a major control of growth rate on Sr/Ca ratios. As many studies have used bivalve growth rates to determine temperature, we tested if Sr/Ca ratios could predict temperature through its relationship with growth rate. Shells from the two species of clams from the same family (veneroidea) studied here, Saxidomus giganteus and Mercenaria mercenaria, show vastly different seasonal Sr/Ca profiles. A strong relationship between average annual Sr/Ca ratios and annual growth rate was found in S. giganteus shells from both Washington (R2 = 0.87) and Alaska (R2 = 0.64), USA, but not in M. mercenaria shells from North Carolina, USA. Furthermore, the Sr/Ca-growth rate relationship was also evident upon a more detailed inspection of subannual growth rates in S. giganteus (R2 = 0.73). Although there were significant positive correlations between Sr/Ca ratios and temperature in S. giganteus shells, the correlations were weak (0.09 control in either clam species, since thermodynamics predict a negative correlation between Sr/Ca ratios and temperature in aragonite. This points toward dominance of biological processes in the regulation of Sr2+. This is also reflected by the largely differing Sr/Ca partition coefficients (DSr) in these shells (DSr ≈ 0.25), when compared to inorganic, coral, and sclerosponge studies (DSr ≈ 1), all of which show a negative dependence of Sr/Ca on temperature. We suggest that caution be taken when using Sr/Ca in any biogenic aragonite as a temperature proxy when the DSr greatly deviates from one, as this indicates the dominance of biological controls on Sr/Ca ratios.

  5. Eaten Out of House and Home: Impacts of Grazing on Ground-Dwelling Reptiles in Australian Grasslands and Grassy Woodlands

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Howland; Dejan Stojanovic; Iain J. Gordon; Manning, Adrian D.; Don Fletcher; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and r...

  6. Nuclear SSR Markers for Miscanthus, Saccharum, and Related Grasses (Saccharinae, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R. Hodkinson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for the characterization of the biomass crop Miscanthus, especially M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and tested for cross-species amplification. Methods and Results: Twenty-nine SSR markers (di- and tetranucleotide repeats were developed from DNA sequences obtained from 192 clones from an enriched genomic library of M. sinensis. All markers were successfully amplified in M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and 19 amplified across a broad range of Miscanthus species. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity values (19 locus sample were 0.88 and 0.89, respectively, for M. sinensis, 0.48 and 0.54 for M. sacchariflorus, and were the lowest in M. ×giganteus (0.33, 0.41. Thirteen out of 19 primer pairs showed cross-species amplification in non-Miscanthus sensu stricto taxa. Conclusions: The new set of 29 SSR markers will be of high value for characterizing Miscanthus germplasm collections, for prebreeding, and for assessing variation in natural populations.

  7. Statistical analysis on adaptive evolution of SQUA genes in angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yongyan; ZHONG Yang; TIAN Bo; YANG Ji; LI Dezhu

    2005-01-01

    SQUAMOSA (SQUA) subfamily includes important perianth identity genes of MADS-box gene family. SQUA genes of Dendrocalamus latiflorus were sequenced, and phylogenetic form on SQUA genes in angiosperms was analyzed. Relative rate and adaptive evolution after SQUA gene duplication in recent common ancestor of monocots and eudicots were analyzed using the methods of relative rate test, statistic on synonymous and non-synonymous coden substitution sites and likelihood rate test. The results show that both of relative rate and synonymous and non-synonymous coden substitution in eudicot clade are significantly higher than those in monocot clade, and the value of dN/ds uncovered possible positive selective pressure in eudicot clade.

  8. New Distributed Records of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) in Southwest, China%我国西南地区竹亚科(禾本科)属种新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜凡

    2001-01-01

    本文报道我国西南地区竹亚科新记录种3种及1栽培品种.其中美浓麻竹Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro cv. Mei-nung W. C. Lin为云南、贵州新分布,也为中国大陆新分布;廉序竹属Drepanostachyum及多毛廉序竹D. hirsutiss mum W. D. Li et Y. C. Zhong为广西新分布;青秆竹Bambusa tuldoides Munro为广西、贵州新分布;桂单竹B. guangxiensis Chia et H. L. Fung为贵州新分布.

  9. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

  10. A comparison of canopy evapotranspiration between perennial rhizomatous grasses and Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, G.; Bernacchi, C.; Dohleman, F.

    2008-12-01

    Perennial rhizomatous C4 grasses are currently considered one of the most promising vegetation types to accommodate a cellulosic feedstock based liquid fuel economy. The current focus on using these vegetation types as a source of renewable fuel has sparked numerous concerns associated with environmental impacts. Of particular interest is the impact that altering the composition of vegetation at the landscape scale would have on local and regional hydrological cycles. We hypothesize that evapotranspiration, ET, will be higher for perennial grasses relative to maize as a result higher leaf area, higher above-ground biomass and prolonged growing seasons. To test this hypothesis, a technique in which ET is estimated as the residual in the energy balance equation from measurements of net radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes was employed. Measurements were made during the 2007 growing season for three replicate plots of the perennial rhizomatous grasses Miscanthus giganteus and Panicum virgatum, as well as for Zea mays planted at the University of Illinois South Farms. When averaged across the entire growing season, ET for M. giganteus was double relative to Z. mays, and 130% of P. virgatum ET. When compared over the periods in which all three species experienced mature and closed canopies (from day of year 200 to 250), M. giganteus still showed higher rates of ET compared with Z. mays, however, the increase was only ~15%. We conclude that ET associated with perennial alternative energy crops are higher relative to annual row crop; with most ET disparity, particularly for P. virgatum, being driven by phenology, quicker canopy closure and a prolonged growing season. Physiological rates of ET were highest for M. giganteus, followed by Z. mays, followed P. virgatum. Differences in phenology were more important than those of physiology for ET overshadowing effects from increased biomass associated with M. giganteus and/or a physiological difference between these

  11. Técnicas de colheita para tomate de mesa Harvesting methods for fresh market tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a qualidade de frutos provenientes de colheita utilizando cestas de bambu e sacolas de lona plástica em campos de produção na região de Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Utilizou-se como testemunha frutos não submetidos ao manuseio. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (sistemas de colheita x dias após a colheita com três repetições. Foram observados o tempo de colheita, incidência de danos físicos (% originados no campo e/ou no processo de colheita, perda de masa (% durante o armazenamento, e a qualidade visual após armazenamento por 21 dias a temperatura ambiente (23ºC. O tempo necessário para realizar a colheita no mesmo número de plantas utilizando-se cesta de bambu foi superior em 20%, em relação à sacola plástica. A incidência de danos físicos (% e perda de massa (%, apesar de maiores nos frutos colhidos com sacola, não foram significativamente diferentes dos colhidos com cestas de bambus. Observou-se maior perda de massa (% durante o armazenamento nos frutos colhidos utilizando-se sacolas de lonas plásticas. Após armazenamento por 21 dias, frutos colhidos com sacola plástica apresentavam maiores perdas do que aqueles colhidos utilizando-se cestas de bambu, principalmente devido a danos físicos e podridões.Quality of tomato fruits harvested using traditional bamboo baskets was compared to fruits harvested using harvest bags in the Mogi Guaçu region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruits not submitted to handling were used as control. The trial was totally randomized (harvest system x days after harvest in a factorial design. The observed data were time spent for each harvest operation, mechanical injury (% caused either in the field or/and in the process of harvesting, weight loss (% during storage and final quality of fruits after storage for 21 days at room temperature (23ºC. The time necessary for the harvest with bamboo baskets was 20% higher than using plastic bags. The results

  12. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento acerca da resistência dos compostos ligno-celulósicos ao ataque de microrganismos é primordial para servir de base à prevenção da deterioração e a correta destinação de emprego do material. Nesse sentido, avaliou-se a resistência natural a fungos apodrecedores de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com partículas de madeira (Eucalyptus grandis e/ou bambu (Bambusa vulgaris. Foram produzidas, em laboratório, chapas aglomeradas nas dimensões 50x50x0,95cm e massa específica pré-estabelecida em 0,70g cm-3, nas proporções de 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100 de madeira e bambu, respectivamente. A massa de partículas representou 91% da massa seca de cada painel, sendo, o restante, formado pelo adesivo ureia-formaldeído (8% e parafina (1%. Para determinação da resistência natural ao ataque de fungos xilófagos, os painéis foram testados em laboratório e utilizados os fungos Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda e Trametes versicolor (podridão branca, de acordo com a ASTM D 2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, foi observado que os painéis confeccionados com mistura de partículas de madeira e bambu apresentaram menor resistência ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores. Painéis que utilizaram apenas bambu ou madeira apresentaram resistência biológica semelhante. Dentre os fungos, T. versicolor atacou mais severamente os painéis.The knowledge about lignocellulosic compounds strength to the attack of microorganisms is essential for preventing deterioration and also for knowing the correct usage of the material. Accordingly it was evaluated the natural resistance of wood panels made of particles of wood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris to decay fungi. Particleboards were produced in laboratory, each of them with dimensions 50x50x0.95cm and density pre-set at 0.70g cm-3, in proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 of wood and bamboo, respectively. The particles mass represented 91% of the

  13. 69 - Caracterização biofísica da técnica de mariposa

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tiago M

    2004-01-01

    O caminho histórico das ciências aplicadas à Natação, parece ser longo e com origens na Medicina aplicada a esta actividade (Clarys, 1996). Em meados de 3000 A.C., é referida a utilização de uma protecção em bambu no pénis dos egípcios que se banhavam no Nilo, dado que segundo eles, na água do rio existiria algum organismo que penetrava no corpo por esse órgão. Aproximadamente em 1250 A.C., é ilustrada uma reanimação cardiorespiratória durante uma batalha. Estes são alguns dos exemplos que de...

  14. C4 bioenergy crops for cool climates, with special emphasis on perennial C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; de Melo Peixoto, Murilo; Friesen, Patrick; Deen, Bill

    2015-07-01

    There is much interest in cultivating C4 perennial plants in northern climates where there is an abundance of land and a potential large market for biofuels. C4 feedstocks can exhibit superior yields to C3 alternatives during the long warm days of summer at high latitude, but their summer success depends on an ability to tolerate deep winter cold, spring frosts, and early growth-season chill. Here, we review cold tolerance limits in C4 perennial grasses. Dozens of C4 species are known from high latitudes to 63 °N and elevations up to 5200 m, demonstrating that C4 plants can adapt to cold climates. Of the three leading C4 grasses being considered for bioenergy production in cold climates--Miscanthus spp., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)--all are tolerant of cool temperatures (10-15 °C), but only cordgrass tolerates hard spring frosts. All three species overwinter as dormant rhizomes. In the productive Miscanthus×giganteus hybrids, exposure to temperatures below -3 °C to -7 °C will kill overwintering rhizomes, while for upland switchgrass and cordgrass, rhizomes survive exposure to temperatures above -20 °C to -24 °C. Cordgrass emerges earlier than switchgrass and M. giganteus genotypes, but lacks the Miscanthus growth potential once warmer days of late spring arrive. To enable C4-based bioenergy production in colder climates, breeding priorities should emphasize improved cold tolerance of M.×giganteus, and enhanced productivity of switchgrass and cordgrass. This should be feasible in the near future, because wild populations of each species exhibit a diverse range of cold tolerance and growth capabilities.

  15. The first complete skeleton of Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 Cervidae, Mammalia, from Bilshausen (Lower Saxony, Germany: description and phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pfeiffer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first well preserved, articulated skeleton of a young male deer of Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 was excavated from early Middle Pleistocene sediments of the clay pit of Bilshausen (Unter-Eichsfeld, Lower Saxony. This find made it possible, for the first time, to establish, using cladistic techniques, the systematic position of Megaloceros verticornis among Pleistocene and Holocene plesiometacarpal and telemetacarpal cervids. By contrast to the antler and tooth characters, the postcranial characters, in particular, are suitable for phylogeny reconstruction. Megaloceros verticornis from Bilshausen shows great similarity with M. giganteus of the Upper Pleistocene of Europe in its skeletal morphology, and bootstrap values (BP = 100 show strong support for the monophyly of M. giganteus and M. verticornis. The analysis yields no evidence, however, of a close relationship between Dama and Megaloceros, which has been widely discussed in the literature because of the presence of large, palmated antlers in both genera. Aus der Tongrube von Bilshausen (Unter-Eichsfeld, Niedersachsen konnte das erste, vollständige Skelett eines jugen Hirsches von Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 aus mittelpleistozänen Sedimentablagerungen geborgen werden. Dieser Fund ermöglichte es erstmalig, die systematische Stellung von Megaloceros verticornis im System plesiometacarpaler und telemetacarpaler Hirsche des Pleistozäns und Holozäns auf breiter Basis zu untersuchen. Im Gegensatz zu den Geweih- und Zahnmerkmalen eignen sich die postcranialen Merkmale des Skelettes besonders gut für eine phylogenetische Rekonstruktion der Hirsche. Die Gemeinsamkeit Großer Schaufelgeweihe bei Dama dama und dem Riesenhirsch Megaloceros giganteus hat dazu geführt, beide in eine enge phylogenetische Beziehung zu setzen, was in der Literatur zu einer anhaltenden Kontroverse geführt hat. Die Analyse der Morphologie der postcranialen Elemente zeigt jedoch, dass es keine

  16. AcEST: BP917151 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available roplastic... 244 9e-65 sp|Q75KR1|PPDK2_ORYSJ Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase 2 OS=Oryza sa... 244 9e-65 sp|O234...AAVGQIVFSA 439 YKS V+ATGLPASPGAAVGQ+ FSA Sbjct: 466 AYKSHVVATGLPASPGAAVGQVCFSA 491 >sp|Q75KR1|PPDK2..._ORYSJ Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase 2 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. japonica GN=PPDK2 PE=3 SV=1 L...kinase OS=Miscanthus x giganteus GN=C4ppdk2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 947 Score = 245 bits (626), Expect = 7e-64 Id

  17. AcEST: DK960749 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chloroplastic... 353 3e-97 sp|Q39735|PPDK_FLABI Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, chloroplastic... 352 9e-97 sp|Q75KR1|PPDK2...DTP DA++ARNNGA+GIGLCRTEHMFFA Sbjct: 616 VMANADTPNDALTARNNGAQGIGLCRTEHMFFA 648 >sp|Q75KR1|PPDK2..._ORYSJ Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase 2 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. japonica GN=PPDK2 PE=3 SV=1 Length...C4-specific pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase OS=Miscanthus x giganteus GN=C4ppdk2

  18. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ANTOV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  19. Stable isotopes reveal trophic segregation by sex and age in the southern giant petrel in two different foodwebs

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, Manuela G.; González-Solís, Jacob; Keith A. Hobson; Donázar, José A.; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Blanco, Guillermo; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated trophic ecology variation among colonies as well as sex- and age-related differences in the diet of the southern giant petrel Macronectes giganteus, a long-lived seabird that is sexually dimorphic in size. We measured stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) in blood samples collected during breeding at Bird Island (South Georgia, Antarctica) in 1998 and at 2 colonies in the Argentinean area of Patagonia in 2000 and 2001. Individuals from South Georgia showed lower δ13C and δ15N values th...

  20. GIANT MISCANTHUS AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One unconventional source of energy, which may be applied in numerous production and municipal processes, is energy accumulated in plants. As a result of photosynthesis, solar energy is transformed into chemical energy accumulated in a form of carbohydrates in the plant biomass, which becomes the material that is more and more sought by power distribution companies and individual users. Currently, a lot of research on obtaining biogas from energy crops is conducted. Corn silage is used most often, however, there is a demand for alternative plants. The experiment described in this article was conducted with the use of giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus Giganteus.

  1. A doença de Chagas em Minas Gerais: esbôco crítico dos trabalhos publicados até 1951 Chagas' disease in Minas Geraes: a critical sudy of the papers published up to 1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pellegrino

    1953-12-01

    engrandece a ciência latino-americana. Os trabalhos publicados sôbre a doença de Chagas em Minas Gerais, compreendendo tôdas as inves tigações aí realizadas e as contribuições que com material procedente do Estado se realizaram fora dêle, foram divididos em cinco grandes grupos: l.º — Trabalhos realizados em Lassance 2.º — Trabalhos realizados em Bambuí 3.º — Trabalhos realizados em Belo Horizonte 4.º — Trabalhos realizados em outras zonas do Estado 5.º — Profilaxia da doença de Chagas em larga escala. I — Os trabalhos realizados em Lassance cobrem um longo período de quase 30 anos, período êsse que vai desde 1909, data da descoberta de um novo tripanosoma e da descrição da nova entidade mórbida do homem feita por CHAGAS, ate 1936, data da publicação de trabalhos de pesquisadores de Manguinhos, apresentados no ano anterior à Nona Reunião da Sociedade Argentina de Patologia Regional convocada em homenagem à memória do grande tropicalista brasileiro CARLOS CHAGAS. Pràticamente, as pesquisas desenvolvidas em Lassance e os trabalhos realizados com o abundante material que de lá foi canalizado para o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz — investigações condensadas em uma centena de publicações — foram feitas por CHAGAS e colaboradores durante a vida do descobridor da esquizotripanose. Neste período, CHAGAS e pesquisadores que, sob sua orientação, trabalharam em Lassance e Manguinhos, descreveram a nova doença nas suas diversas...The critical study of the papers published up to 1951 on Chagas' disease in the State of Minas Geraes (Brazil, was divided into five chapters: 1 Work made in Lassance; 2 Work made in Bambuí; 3 Work made in Belo Horizonte; 4 Work made in other parts of the State; 5 Large-scale prophylaxis of Chagas' disease. 1 The work made in Lassance covers a long period of almost 30 years, from 1909, when a new trypanosoma was discovered and the corresponding disease was described by Chagas, up to 1936. The researches made in

  2. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses. PMID:25401309

  3. Food and foraging preferences of three pteropodid bats in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Sudhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the food, foraging and flight height in three species of pteropodid bats, namely Cynopterus sphinx, Rousettus leschenaultii and Pteropus giganteus was conducted in Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts of southern Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 37 species of plants were identified as potential food plants of the pteropodid bats. The preference for fruits by pteropodids varied according to the developmental stages of fruits namely, immature, unripe and ripe. There is a relationship between the foraging activities of bats and the moon phase. Bats exhibit a varied foraging pattern and flight height. A variation in the foraging flight height was observed in C. sphinx and R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultii was observed to have a higher foraging echelon than that of the C. sphinx. In our study we found that the C. sphinx forages normally at canopy level (up to 3.5m, R. leschenaultii forages at upper canopy levels (up to 9m and P. giganteus at a height above the canopy area (>9m.

  4. Visualizing heterogeneity of photosynthetic properties of plant leaves with two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iermak, Ievgeniia; Vink, Jochem; Bader, Arjen N; Wientjes, Emilie; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2016-09-01

    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to analyse the distribution and properties of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) in palisade and spongy chloroplasts of leaves from the C3 plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the C4 plant Miscanthus x giganteus. This was achieved by separating the time-resolved fluorescence of PSI and PSII in the leaf. It is found that the PSII antenna size is larger on the abaxial side of A. thaliana leaves, presumably because chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll are "shaded" by the palisade cells. The number of chlorophylls in PSI on the adaxial side of the A. thaliana leaf is slightly higher. The C4 plant M. x giganteus contains both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, which have a different PSI/PSII ratio. It is shown that the time-resolved fluorescence of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells can be analysed separately. The relative number of chlorophylls, which belong to PSI (as compared to PSII) in the bundle sheath cells is at least 2.5 times higher than in mesophyll cells. FLIM is thus demonstrated to be a useful technique to study the PSI/PSII ratio and PSII antenna size in well-defined regions of plant leaves without having to isolate pigment-protein complexes.

  5. Visualizing heterogeneity of photosynthetic properties of plant leaves with two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iermak, Ievgeniia; Vink, Jochem; Bader, Arjen N; Wientjes, Emilie; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2016-09-01

    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to analyse the distribution and properties of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) in palisade and spongy chloroplasts of leaves from the C3 plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the C4 plant Miscanthus x giganteus. This was achieved by separating the time-resolved fluorescence of PSI and PSII in the leaf. It is found that the PSII antenna size is larger on the abaxial side of A. thaliana leaves, presumably because chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll are "shaded" by the palisade cells. The number of chlorophylls in PSI on the adaxial side of the A. thaliana leaf is slightly higher. The C4 plant M. x giganteus contains both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, which have a different PSI/PSII ratio. It is shown that the time-resolved fluorescence of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells can be analysed separately. The relative number of chlorophylls, which belong to PSI (as compared to PSII) in the bundle sheath cells is at least 2.5 times higher than in mesophyll cells. FLIM is thus demonstrated to be a useful technique to study the PSI/PSII ratio and PSII antenna size in well-defined regions of plant leaves without having to isolate pigment-protein complexes. PMID:27239747

  6. Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agindotan, Bright O; Ahonsi, Monday O; Domier, Leslie L; Gray, Michael E; Bradley, Carl A

    2010-10-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus, energycane, and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) are three potential biomass crops being evaluated for commercial cellulosic ethanol production. Viral diseases are potentially significant threats to these crops. Therefore, identification of viruses infecting these bioenergy crops is important for quarantine purposes, virus resistance breeding, and production of virus-free planting materials. The application is described of sequence-independent amplification, for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops. The method involves virus partial purification from a small amount of infected leaf tissue (miniprep), extraction of viral RNA, amplification of randomly primed cDNAs, cloning, sequencing, and BLAST searches for sequence homology in the GenBank. This method has distinct advantage over other virus characterization techniques in that it does not require reagent specific to target viruses. Using this method, a possible new species was identified in the genus Marafivirus in switchgrass related to Maize rayado fino virus, its closest relative currently in GenBank. Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), genus Potyvirus, was identified in M.xgiganteus, energycane, corn (Zea mays), and switchgrass. Other viruses identified were: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), genus Potyvirus, in johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense); Soil borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), genus Furovirus, in wheat (Triticum aestivum); and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), genus Comovirus, in soybean (Glycine max). The method was as sensitive as conventional RT-PCR. This is the first report of a Marafivirus infecting switchgrass, and SCMV infecting both energycane and M. x giganteus.

  7. Cellulase and xylanase activity during the decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes in a tropical oxbow lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciessere, L; Cunha-Santino, M B; Bianchini, I

    2011-07-01

    Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91) and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia sp., Eichhornia azurea and Cyperus giganteus) on the surface and water-sediment interface (w-s interface) of an oxbow lagoon (Óleo lagoon) within a natural Brazilian Savanna Reserve. Overall, the enzymatic degradation of aquatic macrophytes in Óleo lagoon occurred during the whole year and was initiated together with leaching. Xylanase production was ca. 5 times higher than cellulase values due to easy access to this compound by cellulolytic microorganisms. Enzymatic production and detritus mass decay were similar on the surface and w-s interface. Salvinia sp. was the most recalcitrant detritus, with low mass decay and enzymatic activity. E. azurea and C. giganteus decomposition rates and enzymatic production were high and similar. Due to the physicochemical homogeneity observed in the Óleo lagoon, the differences between the decay rates of each species are mostly related with detritus chemical quality. PMID:24031706

  8. Long-term Miscanthus Yields Influenced by Location, Genotype, Row Distance, Fertilization and Harvest Season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup;

    2014-01-01

    Foulum and on coarse sand in Jyndevad. Effects of genotype, row distance and fertilization were investigated. In both trials, yield development over time was characterized by an increase during the first years, optimum yields after 7–8 years and a decrease to a lower level which remained relatively...... constant from year 11 to 20. Spring harvest reduced the yield by 34–42 % compared to autumn harvest. In Foulum annual fertilization with 75 kg ha−1 N increased the yield of the genotype Goliath (Miscanthus sinensis) by 26 %. Additional N fertilization only increased the yield of Goliath little, and the...... genotype Giganteus (Miscanthus × giganteus) did not respond to fertilization at all. The highest mean yield in Foulum for the period 1997–2012 was obtained with the shortest row distance (∼18,000 rather than ∼12,000 plants ha−1) and harvested in late autumn, namely 13.1 and 12.0 Mg ha−1 DM annually for...

  9. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses.

  10. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil Comunidade de aves em um fragmento de floresta de araucária em relação a mudanças na paisagem circundante no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation Este estudo avaliou a dinâmica da comunidade de aves em um fragmento florestal ao longo de sete anos e correlacionou às mudanças ocorridas na paisagem circundante. A área de estudo localiza-se na Região Sul do Brasil (Estado do Paraná e a vegetação está representada por Floresta Ombrófila Mista. O período de amostragem ocorreu entre os anos de 1988 a 1994 e o método utilizado foi captura-marcação e recaptura. Para análise da mudança no uso e cobertura da paisagem foram utilizadas imagens Landsat TM e um sistema de informação geográfico. Quatro classes foram usadas, sendo: plantios com espécies exóticas, floresta nativa, capoeiras (vegetação nativa < 2 m de altura e áreas abertas (campo abandonado, pastagens, área agrícola e solo exposto. Foi analisada a relação entre as mudanças na paisagem e as mudanças na abundância e diversidade de aves de floresta, de área aberta, de borda e especialistas de bambu. Foram calculadas as estimativas de riqueza para cada ano estudado. A riqueza registrada na área de estudo foi de 96 espécies e as estimativas foram 114, 118 e 110 espécies para Chao 1, Jackknife 1 e Bootstrap, respectivamente. A comunidade de aves variou em abundância, riqueza e diversidade entre os anos estudados. Considerando a diversidade de espécies, os valores observados em 1991, 1993 e 1994 foram significativamente diferentes. As modificações na paisagem tamb

  11. Comparative Study on Phosphorus Contents of Soil in Karst Rocky Desertification Area during Eco-restoration Process in Guangxi Province%石漠化生态恢复过程中土壤磷含量的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 刘旭辉; 曾忠良; 周春梅; 蓝崇钰

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study change law of phosphorus content of soil in karst rocky desertification region(KRD) during eco-restoration process such as Northwest Guangxi Province.[Method] The soil samples were collected from typical KRD in Pingguo County and Yizhou City.The determining quotas of different soil samples such as soil total phosphorus content and available phosphorus content were detected,in addition the soil total phosphorus content,available phosphorus content, urease activity, catalase activity and organic matter content in different soil samples were analyzed comparatively.[Result] Aspect,vegetation type and recovery time generated obviously influences on phosphorus contents in different soil samples.The concrete influence order was listed as follow: phosphorus content in soil of south slope was higher than that in soil of north slope;phosphorus content in soil where Zenia insignis Chun was planted was higher than that in soil of closed forest and that of soil where Dendrocalamus minor Var. amoen was planted,additionally,phosphorus increased with recovery time. Urease activity could be used as a monitoring index of soil fertility because it is related to the change of phosphorus content.[Conclusion] The soil of karst rocky desertification region in Northwest Guangxi Province could be recovered gradually if excessive human disturbance was stopped.If proper natural method of recovery promoted by human was taken,the recovery would reach a better result.

  12. Isolation and ectopic expression of a bamboo MADS-box gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bo; CHEN Yongyan; YAN Yuanxin; LI Dezhu

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA named DlMADS18 was isolated from the young spikelets of the sweet bamboo, Dendrocalamus latiflorus by RACE. DNA sequence analysis showed that DlMADS18 was composed of full ORF and 3'UTR, but without 5′UTR. The cDNA contained 1039 nucleotides and encoded a putative protein of 249 amino acid residues. The gene displayed the structure of a typical plant MADS box gene, which consisted of an MADS domain, K domain, a short I region, and the C-terminal region. Phylogenetic analysis of plant MADS box genes based on amino acid sequences revealed that DlMADS18 was grouped into the AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6)-like subfamily. It was most likely homologous to the OsMADS6 of rice (Oryza sativa), with 88% sequence identity for the entire amino acid sequences. The DlMADS18 also showed relatively high amino acid sequence identity (59%) to AGL6 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To study the functions of DlMADS18, DlMADS18 cDNA clone driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis plants. Transgenic plants of DlMADS18 exhibited the phenotypes of curled leaves, dwarfism, and early flowering with clustered terminal flowers. These results indicated that DlMADS18 may probably be involved in controlling the flowering time of D. Latiflorus.

  13. Fuel properties and combustion characteristics of some promising bamboo species in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh Kumar; N.Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fuel characteristics of five important bamboo species viz., Dendrocalamus strictus, D. brandisii, D. stocksii, Bambusa bambos and B. balcooa. The selected species cover more than 85%of the total growing stock of bamboo in India. Basic density varied from 0.48 to 0.78 g⋅cm-3 among the bamboo species studied. Ash content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content ranged between 1.4%-3.0%, 77.2%-80.8%and 17.6%-21.1%, respectively. Variation in calorific value (18.7-19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) was marginal. Fuel value index var-ied widely (586-2120) among bamboo species. The highest calorific value (19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) and fuel value index (2120) were found in B. bal-cooa. Ash elemental analysis revealed that silica and potassium are the major ash forming minerals in bamboo biomass. Silica content ranged from 8.7%to 49.0%, while potassium ranged from 20.6%to 69.8%. We studied combustion characteristics under oxidizing atmosphere. Burning profiles of the samples were derived by applying the derivative thermo-gravimetric technique which is discussed in detail. The five bamboo species were different in their combustion behaviour, mainly due to differences in physical and chemical properties. We compare fuel prop-erties, ash elemental analysis and combustion characteristics of bamboo biomass with wood biomass of Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus tereticor-nis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

  14. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  15. Effects of high nutrient supply on the growth of seven bamboo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piouceau, Julien; Bois, Grégory; Panfili, Fréderic; Anastase, Matthieu; Dufossé, Laurent; Arfi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, bamboo has emerged as an interesting plant for the treatment of various polluted waters using plant-based wastewater treatment systems. In these systems, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in wastewater can exceed plant requirements and potentially limit plant growth. The effects of two nutrient rates on the growth of seven bamboo species were assessed in a one-year experiment: Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrsostachys siamensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Gigantochloa wrayi, Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa multiplex and Bambusa vulgaris. Nutrient rates were applied with a 20:20:20 NPK fertilizer as 2.6 and 13.2 t.ha.yr(-1) NPK to three-year-old bamboo planted in 70 L containers. Morphological characters, photosynthetic responses, and NPK content in bamboo tissues were investigated. Under high-nutrient supply rate, the main trend observed was an increase of culm production but the culms' diameters were reduced. For the seven species, the above ground biomass yield tended to increase with high-nutrient rate. Increasing in nutrient rates also improved the photosynthetic activity which is consistent with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus contents measured in plant tissues. All the bamboo species tested appears suitable for wastewater treatment purposes, but the species Bambusa oldhamii and Gigantochloa wrayi showed the higher biomass yield and nutrient removaL PMID:24933901

  16. The evolution and utility of ribosomal ITS sequences in Bambusinae and related species: divergence, pseudogenes, and implications for phylogeny

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xui-Xing Song; Xu-Ping Gao; Ming-Yan Jiang; Guang-Li Liu; Xiao-Fang Yu; Qi-Bing Chen

    2012-08-01

    Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences are commonly used for phylogenetic reconstruction because they are highly reiterated as components of rDNA repeats, and hence are often subject to rapid homogenization through concerted evolution. Concerted evolution leads to intragenomic uniformity of repeats even between loci on nonhomologous chromosomes. However, a number of studies have shown that the ITS polymorphism within individuals is quite common. The molecular systematics of Bambusinae and related species were recently assessed by different teams using independently generated ITS sequences, and the results disagreed in some remarkable features. Here we compared the ITS sequences of the members of Bambusa s. l., the genera Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Guadua, Melocalamus, Monocladus, Oxytenanthera, Thyrsostachys, Pleioblastus, Pseudosasa and Schizostachyum. We have reanalysed the ITS sequences used by different research teams to reveal the underlying patterns of their different results. After excluding the sequences suspected to represent paralogous loci, a phylogenetic analysis of the subtribe Bambusinae species were performed using maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. The implications of the findings are discussed. The risk of incorporating ITS paralogues in plant evolutionary studies that can distort the phylogenetic signal should caution molecular systematists.

  17. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles. PMID:27113084

  18. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  19. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  20. Effects of indigenous woody plantations on total nutrients of mine spoil in Singrauli Coalfield, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. N. Singh; D. H. Zeng

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on high-density young plantations of three native trees (Albizia lebbeck, Albizia. procera and Tectona grandis) and one native woody grass species (Dendrocalamus strictus) to examine their influence on total nutrient concentrations of coal mine spoil during early phase of plantation establishment. Soil samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC), Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus (TP) at spoil depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm under 4- and 5-year-old plantations of all species. A significant effect on concentrations of total SOC, TKN and TP were observed due to plantation age, species and soil depth. However, corresponding concentrations (SOC, TKN and TP) were substantially lower at spoil profile of 10-20 cm. In comparison, plantation of A. lebbeck showed greater SOC and nutrient concentrations followed by D. strictus, A. procera and T. grandis, respectively. Therefore, present study clearly indicates attributing qualities of plantation towards improving redeveloping soil of mine spoil varied with species.

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand N. Singh; ZEHG De-hui; CHEN Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals(Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus.The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd.However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu.Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil.

  2. Nesting behaviour of the Baya Weaver bird, Ploceus philippinus (Ploceidae and the life-cycle of the Plains Cupid butterfly, Chilades pandava (Lycaenidae with the red-listed Cycas spheric and C. beddomei (Cycadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baya Weaver bird, Ploceus philippinus utilizes the well developed leaves of Cycas sphaerica for nest construction and offspring production. It constructs nest on the leaf tips of this species; the nest material used is exclusively Dendrocalamus strictus. This bird species does not utilize Cycas beddomei for nest construction and offspring production. The Plains Cupid butterfly, Chilades pandava utilizes the newly emerging leaves of both C. sphaerica and C. beddomei for raising its offspring. In both the Cycas species, the new leaves emerge as a crown at the top of the plant; the larvae of C. pandava feed on these leaves and make the plant as leafless until the next leaf flushing season. New leaf production occurs after coning event in Cycas species; coning is not annual event. In consequence, the plants utilized by C. pandava for the production of its offspring remain leafless until the next coning season and their survival during this period depends on the nutrient status within the shoot system and in the soil system. The study suggests that there is no direct or indirect interaction between C. pandava and P. philippinus. C. sphaerica serves as a host plant for these two animal species at different times; but the interaction of these animal species is dependent on the leaves only; C. pandava on newly emerging leaves while P. philippinus on well developed leaves.

  3. ETHNOBOTANY OF THARUS OF DUDHWA NATIONAL PARK, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati K Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tharus are inhabited on southern foothills of the Himalayas along Indo-Nepal border. They have been using many plant species to meet their day-to-day needs. The aim of this study was to collect information on the traditional uses of different plants and to document the potential economic use of these plants. Fieldwork was conducted over a period of two years in Dudhwa National Park, utilizing the “transect walk” method of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA. The data was analyzed using the following techniques: frequency of citation and informant consensus factor (Fic. The present communication gives information on 86 species belonging to 38 families of plants used by Tharu tribes of Dudhwa National Park, Uttar Pradesh. The frequency of citation was very high for Alstonia scholaris (fire-wood, Antidesma acidum, Artocarpus lakoocha (edible, Bauhinia vahlii, Butea monosperma (food plate, Dendrocalamus strictus (hut preparation, Hibiscus cannabinus (rope, Oryza rufipogon (food, Phoenix acaulis (edible and Tamarix dioica (broom.

  4. Standardization of harvesting age of bamboo shoots with respect to nutritional and anti-nutritional components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok K.Pandey; Vijayalakshmi Ojha

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo shoots can be harvested at different ages but the data on the changes in nutritional composition with age are scanty.We standardized harvesting age of bamboo shoots in central India to obtain best quality produce with respect to nutritional composition.The shoots harvested on different days (2-20 days after emergence from ground)were analyzed for their nutritional (dietary fibres,carbohydrates,proteins,total phenols,ascorbic acid,sodium,potassium,phosphorus,calcium,magnesium and phenolic acids) and anti nutritional (cyanogen) constituents.A significant variation (at p ≤ 0.5) was observed in the nutritional composition of shoots of Dendrocalamus asper,D.strictus and Bambusa tulda harvested at different days.An overall decrease was observed in proteins and total phenols while dietary fibres and carbohydrates increased with ages.Significant variation (atp ≤ 0.5) was also observed in phenolic acids while minerals did not vary significantly.Results revealed that the optimum harvesting age for D.asper,D.strictus and B.tulda was on 10-14 days,6-10 days and 10-16 days (after emergence from the ground) respectively.These results can be used to obtain quality bamboo shoots.

  5. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles.

  6. Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat SUTNAUN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.

  7. Adsorptive Removal of Formaldehyde by Chemically Bamboo Activated Carbon with addition of Ag nanoparticle: Equilibrium and Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pita Rengga Wara Dyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon was prepared from dried waste bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper using chemical activation with KOH. The carbon was prepared with the activating agent in a mass ratio of KOH and dried bamboo (3:1 at 800oC. Using impregnation technique, the bamboo-based activated carbon has developed with modified Ag nanoparticle (Ag-AC to capture formaldehyde. The Ag-AC has characteristics of moderate surface area of 685 m2/g and average pore size of 2.7 nm. The adsorption equilibriums and kinetics of formaldehyde on Ag-AC measured. The influences of initial formaldehyde on adsorption performance have measured in a batch system. The equilibrium data were evaluated by isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin. The Langmuir model well describes the adsorptive removal of formaldehyde on Ag-AC in this study. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations were applied to test the experimental data. The pseudo-second-order exhibited the best fit for kinetic study.

  8. GESTÃO DE CUSTOS NA AUTARQUIA PÚBLICA: UM ESTUDO DE CASO NA COORDENADORIA REGIONAL DE BAMBUÍ DO INSTITUTO MINEIRO DE AGROPECUÁRIA

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    Uellington Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Como no setor público não existe tradição em se mensurar os custos e o desconhecimento dos custos é um indicador de ineficiência dos serviços públicos, este estudo tem por objetivo aplicar as técnicas de gestão de custos para realizar a análise econômica e obter um diagnóstico dos custos de cada um dos serviços prestados pela Regional de Bambuí do Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária (IMA, além de aferir se os preços de venda estão condizentes com tais custos. Para tanto, foi apurada a análise econômica pelo método de custeio por absorção e custeio variável ou direto, identificaram-se os pontos de equilíbrio contábil por quantidade e por faturamento dos serviços prestados e foram estimados os preços ideais de tais serviços por meio do método de formação de preços com base nos custos plenos. Este estudo possui abordagem metodológica quantitativa, com análise descritiva e explicativa a partir de uma pesquisa documental e de estudo de caso. Os resultados apontam que a Instituição obteve retorno econômico em apenas dois dos oito serviços prestados, os quais cobriram os déficits dos demais serviços e propiciaram superávit para a Autarquia. Portanto, este estudo contribuiu para gerar informações de natureza gerencial a Coordenadoria Regional de Bambuí e demostrar que as técnicas de gestão de custos são perfeitamente empregáveis as entidades do setor público. Cabe aos gestores da instituição utilizar de forma eficiente e eficaz as informações de custos geradas, de maneira que não afete a operacionalidade da Coordenadoria e que procure cumprir as diretrizes estaduais.

  9. Concomitância de infecção chagásica e esquistossomose numa população brasileira

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    Kurt Kloetzel

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A população estudada, composta de 201 indivíduos do sexo masculino, 85% dos quais com idade superior a 30 anos, exibiu elevada prevalência de esquistossomose mansônica (95% pela intradermoreação e 79% pela reação de hemaglutinação, bem como sorologia positiva para T. cruzi em pelo menos 28% dos casos. A severidade da infecção chagásica, avaliada através do ECG e de um exame clínico, mostrou-se bastante superior àquela reportada de diversas outras regiões endêmicas, notadamente o Rio Grande do Sul, e semelhante àquela descrita para Bambuí (M.G.: 47% dos indivíduos com positividade sorológica apresentavam alterações eletrocardiográficas, contra apenas 24% daqueles com sorologia negativa. A correlação entre sorologia e sintomas e sinais clínicos também foi tentada. Embora se trate de região trabalhada pelas equipes da SUCAM, é de se ressaltar que a transmissão de T. cruzi ainda não foi interrompida.The population surveyed in this study comprised 201 males, 85% of which over 30 years of age. The prevalence of schistasoriasis mansoni was very high (95% positives by the intradermal test, 79% by the hemaglutination test, and at least 28% of the subjects exhibited positive serology for T. cruzi (hemaglutination test. The severity of Chagas' infection, as indicated by an EKG and clinical examination, was found to be very much higher than in some other endemic areas, such as the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and comparable to findings previously reported from Bambuí (State of Minas Gerais: 47% of those with positive serology exhibited électrocardiographic abnormalities, as against 24% of the individuais negative for Chagas' infection. We have also attempted to draw some correlations between serological findings and clinical signs and symptoms. While the area surveyed is included in the control programms run by the Public Health authorities, it has to be stressed that the transmission of trypanosomiasis has not yet been

  10. Thermal comfort in reduced models of broilers' houses, under different types of roofing materials Conforto térmico em modelos reduzidos de galpões para frangos de corte, utilizando-se de diferentes tipos de coberturas

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    Eduardo A. de Almeida

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was developed to evaluate the use of different types of roofing materials regularly used in poultry houses. Measurements of thermal comfort were made through the use of techniques such as the Black Globe and Humidity Index (BGHI, the Thermal Heat Load (THL and Enthalpy (H. Conducted in the State University of Goiás, during the months of April and May, 2011, the experiment was composed of five different treatments: AC - Asbestos cement tiles, BA -Bamboo tiles, BAP - Bamboo tiles painted in white, FB -Vegetable fiber tiles and bitumen, FBP -Vegetable fiber tiles and bitumen painted in white. The experiment consisted in 15 repetitions, which were considered the different days of measurements taken. Throughout the studied period, the time of the day considered the least comfortable was the one observed at 2:00pm, and the coverage of vegetable fiber and bitumen showed the highest value of BGHI (84.1 when compared to other types of coverage, characterizing a situation of lower thermal comfort, and no difference was found for THL and H on treatments in the studied region.Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes tipos de coberturas em instalações para aves, por meio do Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro e Umidade (ITGU, Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR e Entalpia (H. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Estadual de Goiás, entre os meses de abril e maio de 2011, sendo composto por cinco tratamentos (coberturas: CA -Telha de cimento-amianto; BA -Telha de bambu; BAP -Telha de bambu pintada de branco; FB -Telha de fibra vegetal e betume; FBP -Telha de fibra vegetal e betume pintada de branco, com 15 repetições, sendo as repetições os dias de medição. Dentre os horários estudados, o considerado menos confortável foi às 14h, sendo que a cobertura de fibra vegetal e betume foi a que apresentou maior valor de ITGU (84,1 quando comparada às demais coberturas, caracterizando uma situação de menor

  11. Comparing the prevalence rates of social phobia in a community according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R Comparando estimativas de prevalência da fobia social na comunidade empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R

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    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based study aimed to compare the prevalence rates of social phobia using DSM-III-R and CID-10, based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, in a Brazilian community. METHODS: This survey was carried out in a representative sample of 1,041 residents from Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil (attrition rate = 14.7%. The Brazilian version of the CIDI was used. One-month, one-year and lifetime social phobia prevalence rates were estimated, employing the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 classifications, using the CIDI computer program. RESULTS: One-month, one-year, and life prevalence rates of social phobia, based on the DSM-III-R (7.9, 9.0 and 11.7% respectively were higher than those based on the ICD-10 (4.7, 5.2 and 6.7% respectively; p OBJETIVO: Este estudo populacional visa comparar estimativas de prevalência de fobia social empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R em uma comunidade brasileira. MÉTODOS: O levantamento foi realizado em uma amostra representativa de 1.041 residentes de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil (perda = 14,7%. Foi utilizada a versão brasileira da Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida foram estimadas empregando-se as classificações CID-10 e DSM-III-R, utilizando-se o programa de computador da CIDI. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida da fobia social, baseadas na DSM-III-R (7,9, 9,0 e 11,7% respectivamente foram mais elevadas que aquelas baseadas na CID-10 (4,7, 5,2 e 6,7%, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para todos. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados reforçam a hipótese de que as taxas de prevalência de fobia social são mais elevadas quando baseadas na DSM-III-R em comparação com a CID-10.

  12. KARAKTERISTIK DAN PENDEKATAN KINETIKA GLOBAL PADA PIROLISIS LAMBAT SAMPAH KOTA TERSELEKSI

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    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available CHARACTERISTICS AND GLOBAL KINETIC APPROACH ON THE SLOW PYROLYSIS OF SELECTED MUNICIPAL WASTE. Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW has a great potential as a clean renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers through thermochemical conversion processes called pyrolysis. However, despite their enormous potential as energy sources, their thermal characteristics are still not well known. In the present study, the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics of MSW single components (i.e bamboo wastes, banana leaves wastes, wrapping wastes, and styrofoam wastes and their mixture were investigated. The 20 grams sample were heated in a furnace under nitrogen environment from ambient temperature to 400°C at a heating rate of 10°C/min and held for 30 min. The results of the research showed that bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes could be catogorized as low stability organics, while wrapping wastes could be catagorized as polymer mixture materials, while styrofoam wastes could be catagorized as plastic materials. The research also revealed that the global kinetic method  could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy. Sampah kota mempunyai potensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi sumber energi alternatif terbarukan melalui proses pirolisis. Namun demikian, pemahaman mengenai karakteristik termal proses pirolisis dari sampah kota masih belum banyak diketahui. Dalam penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa thermogravimetry dari komponen-komponen tunggal sampah kota yang meliputi sampah bambu, sampah daun, sampah bahan pengemas, dan sampah styrofoam maupun campuran antara komponen-komponen tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan karakteristik pirolisis komponen-komponen yang diteliti, meliputi profil proses devolatilisasi dan energi kinetik. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menempatkan sampel seberat 20 gram dalam sebuah tungku dan menaikkan temperatur tungku dengan laju pemanasan 10°C/min. Temperatur akhir sampel

  13. Macroelements and heavy metals in some lignicolous and tericolous fungi

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    Karaman Maja A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of Basidiomycotina fungi as bioindicators and the increasing tendency of air and soil contamination nowadays, content of macroelements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na, and some of heavy metals (microelements: Fe, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn in sporocarps of 22 species of macrofungi from National park Fruška Gora was analyzed in this work. The majority of them are lignicolous species from the class: Homobasidiomycetes order Aphyllophorales s. lato and two of them belong to subdivision Ascomycotina. Special attention was given to the medically important fungal species widely distributed in this area: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma applanatum, Coriolus. versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Meripilus giganteus and Omphalotus olearius. Since fungi uptake macro- and microelements from the substrate, the soil and tree samples were also analyzed. The aim of this study was to determine the common concentration data of these elements in unpolluted area. According to the obtained results, fungi tended to accumulate K, P and N with lower variability recorded than that for Ca, Mg and Na due to essential importance of these elements in fungal metabolic processes, independently from ecological group affiliation and habitats. The analysing substrate (wood contain higher concentration of Ca and Pb in relevance to fungi. As a result of transfer factors (TFs that were estimated from the ratio of "concentration in fungi on dry weight basis" to "concentration in the tree or soil on dry weight basis" analyzed fungi tended to accumulate Cu and Zn, and partially Cr. Among the species that accumulate microelements the following species could be emphasized: Meripilus giganteus (except for Zn Schizophyllum commune (except for Pb, Ganoderma applanatum (except for Fe and Zn. Superaccumulators of Fe were the lignicolous, medically imortant species M. giganteus, G. lucidum, Sch. commune, and tericolous ones: C. atramentari- us, F. velutipes, and P. vernalis. Good Cu

  14. Concomitância de infecção chagásica e esquistossomose numa população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Kloetzel

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A população estudada, composta de 201 indivíduos do sexo masculino, 85% dos quais com idade superior a 30 anos, exibiu elevada prevalência de esquistossomose mansônica (95% pela intradermoreação e 79% pela reação de hemaglutinação, bem como sorologia positiva para T. cruzi em pelo menos 28% dos casos. A severidade da infecção chagásica, avaliada através do ECG e de um exame clínico, mostrou-se bastante superior àquela reportada de diversas outras regiões endêmicas, notadamente o Rio Grande do Sul, e semelhante àquela descrita para Bambuí (M.G.: 47% dos indivíduos com positividade sorológica apresentavam alterações eletrocardiográficas, contra apenas 24% daqueles com sorologia negativa. A correlação entre sorologia e sintomas e sinais clínicos também foi tentada. Embora se trate de região trabalhada pelas equipes da SUCAM, é de se ressaltar que a transmissão de T. cruzi ainda não foi interrompida.

  15. Science, health and development: Chagas disease in Brazil, 1943-1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, S Petraglia

    2005-12-01

    The present paper discusses the historical construction and legitimacy of Chagas disease as a distinct nosological entity and as a public health issue in Brazil. It focuses on the activities of a group of researchers from Oswaldo Cruz Institute who worked at the Centre for the Study and Prevention of Chagas disease, located in Bambuí, Minas Gerais. Led in the 1940s and 50s by Emmanuel Dias, disciple of Carlos Chagas, the group made important contributions to the clinical characterization of Chagas disease as a cardiac illness, established the fact that it was technically possible to control the disease by using residual insecticides, and engaged in intense political mobilization to have the disease included as part of the Health Ministry sanitation campaigns. My hypothesis is that the group's work was a determining factor in the overcoming of certain unresolved controversies that had surrounded the medical and social identity of the disease since the 1920s. I examine to what extent this process was directly linked both to post-war optimism over new possibilities of combating infectious diseases and to the national and international debate on the relation between health and economic and social development.

  16. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil and the surroundings

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    PAULO GALVÃO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  17. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age.

  18. Chemical characterization of the lignins of corn and soybean agricultural residues Caracterização química das ligninas dos resíduos agrícolas de milho e de soja

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    E.O.S. Saliba

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Corn (CR and soybean (SR culture wastes were submitted to extraction with organic solvents for lignin isolation (LGS. The obtained lignin was chemically characterized, and based on studies of functional groups and microanalyses, it was possible to determine the minimum formula. LGS of CR has characteristics that resemble wood and of bamboo lignin, possessing a larger amount of methoxyl groups and vanillin.Foram utilizados dois restos de cultura, resíduo de milho (CR e resíduo da cultura de soja (SR e o material foi submetido à extração com solventes orgânicos para isolamento da lignina (LGS. A lignina assim obtida foi caracterizada quimicamente. Com base em estudos de grupos funcionais e microanálise foi possível determinar a fórmula mínima para as ligninas. A LGS de CR tem características que a assemelham à lignina de madeira e do bambu, apresentando maior quantidade de grupos metoxila e de vanilina derivada.

  19. [Coping with functional disability among the elderly by means of religious beliefs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Wagner Jorge; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Pereira, Josiane Katherine; Firmo, Josélia de Oliveira Araújo

    2013-08-01

    The way people deal with the stress of life is known as the process of coping or confrontation. We speak of religious coping when a person uses religious belief and behavior to facilitate problem solving, to prevent or alleviate stressful negative emotional consequences, notable among which is functional disability. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of religion as a strategy for coping with disability among the elderly. A qualitative approach, consisting of an observational ethnographic study was employed, the sample for which included 57 elderly individuals from Bambuí, Minas Gerais. The model of signs, significances and actions was used in collecting and analyzing data. The religiosity of the elderly respondents suggested that their religious beliefs and traditions help explain and address the suffering experienced by them in the presence or imminence of functional disability. Religious coping reinforces the fatalism existing in the religious belief that mirrors the inevitability of old age with disability as an accepted and natural social code, but also helps to minimize the social responsibility for the care of the elderly and reveals the disbelief in existing public health services. PMID:23896914

  20. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age. PMID:26691789

  1. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

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    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  2. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  3. The effect of harvest time, dry matter content and mechanical pretreatments on anaerobic digestion and enzymatic hydrolysis of miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydendal-Nielsen, Susanne; Hjorth, Maibritt; Baby, Sanmohan; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Uffe; Gislum, René

    2016-10-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus was harvested as both green and mature biomass and the dry matter content of the driest harvest was artificially decreased by adding water in two subsamples, giving a total of five dry matter contents. All five biomass types were mechanically pretreated by roller-milling, extrusion or grinding and accumulated methane production and enzymatically-accessible sugars were measured. Accumulated methane production was studied using sigmoid curves that allowed comparison among the treatments of the rate of the methane production and ultimate methane yield. The green biomass gave the highest methane yield and highest levels of enzymatically-accessible cellulose. The driest biomass gave the best effect from extrusion but with the highest energy consumption, whereas roller-milling was most efficient on wet biomass. The addition of water to the last harvest improved the effect of roller-milling and equalled extrusion of the samples in efficiency. PMID:27455125

  4. Optimisation of slow-pyrolysis process conditions to maximise char yield and heavy metal adsorption of biochar produced from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, E; Lewys-James, A; Rao Ravella, S; Thomas-Jones, S; Perkins, W; Gallagher, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to identify biomass feedstocks and optimum pyrolysis process conditions to produce a biochar capable of adsorbing metals from polluted groundwater. Taguchi experimental design was used to determine the effects of slow-pyrolysis process conditions on char yield and zinc adsorption. Treatments were repeated using six candidate feedstocks (Lolium perenne, Lolium perenne fibre, Miscanthus x giganteus, Salix viminalis, Fraxinus excelsior and Picea sitchensis) and the resultant chars were tested for metal adsorption performance. Chars produced from L. perenne and its extracted fibre displayed the greatest zinc adsorption performance and removed 83.27-92.96% respectively. Optimum process conditions in terms of both char yield and zinc adsorption performance were achieved from slow-pyrolysis at 300°C for 2h using a feedstock with a particle size of less than 1mm. PMID:27179953

  5. Chemical composition in relation with biomass ash structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Biomass combustion can be more complicated like combustion of fossil fuels because it is necessary to solve problems with lower ash melting temperature. It can cause a lot of problems during combustion process. Chemical composition of biomass ash has great impact on sinters and slags creation in ash because it affects structure of heated ash. In this paper was solved relation between chemical composition and structure of heated ash from three types of biomass (spruce wood, miscanthus giganteus and wheat straw). Amount of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and K2O was determined. Structure of heated ash was optically determined after heating to 1000 °C or 1200 °C. Results demonstrated that chemical composition has strong effect on structure and color of heated ash.

  6. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described. PMID:11217462

  7. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described.

  8. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. PMID:21457476

  9. Oxygen demand during mineralization of aquatic macrophytes from an oxbow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Jr, I; Cunha-Santino, M B; Peret, A M

    2008-02-01

    This study presents a kinetic model of oxygen consumption during aerobic decomposition of detritus from seven species of aquatic macrophytes: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Salvinia auriculata, Oxycaryum cubense and Utricularia breviscapa. The aquatic macrophytes were collected from Oleo Lagoon situated in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain (SP, Brazil). Mineralization experiments were performed using the closed bottles method. Incubations made with lake water and macrophytes detritus (500 mL and 200 mg.L(-1) (DM), respectively) were maintained during 45 to 80 days at 20 degrees C under aerobic conditions and darkness. Carbon content of leachates from aquatic macrophytes detritus and dissolved oxygen concentrations were analyzed. From the results we concluded that: i) the decomposition constants differ among macrophytes; these differences being dependent primarily on molecular and elemental composition of detritus and ii) in the short term, most of the oxygen demand seems to depend upon the demineralization of the dissolved carbon fraction. PMID:18470379

  10. Uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L.): dependence on stomatal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, A.; Kley, D.; Wildt, J.; Segschneider, H. J.; Förstel, H.

    The uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers ( Helianthus annuus L. var. giganteus) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3), using concentrations representative for moderately polluted air, has been determined by gas exchange experiments. Conductivities for these trace gases were measured at different light fluxes ranging from 820 μEm -2s -1 to darkness. The conductivities to water vapor and the trace gases are highly correlated. It is concluded that the uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers and tobacco plants is linearly dependent on stomatal opening. While the uptake of NO is limited by the mesophyll resistance, the uptake of NO 2 is only by diffusion through the stomata. Loss processes by deposition to the leaf surfaces are more pronounced for O 3 than for NO and NO 2.

  11. Structural studies of naturally occurring toxicogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, J. P.

    1977-10-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), saxitoxin, is a neurotoxin isolated from Alaska butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus), mussels (Mytilus californianus) and axenic cultures of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella. The structure of saxitoxin has been determined through the use of single crystal X-ray diffraction. It possesses a unique tricyclic arrangement of atoms containing two guanidinium moieties and also a hydrated ketone. The relative stereochemistry is presented as well as the absolute configuration. The chemical constitution of a tremorgenic metabolite, paxilline, isolated from extracts of the fungus Penicillium paxilli Bainier has been determined. Paxilline represents a previously unreported class of natural compounds formed by the combination of tryptophan and mevalonate subunits. The complete stereostructure of two other fungal metabolites, paspaline and paspalicine, closely related to paxilline but isolated from Claviceps paspali Stammes have also been determined and are presented. The stereochemistries of paxilline, paspaline and paspalicine are identical at corresponding chiral centers.

  12. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

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    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  13. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

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    Maria José Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%. Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8% and Mycenas rosea (44.8% presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4% and Russula delica (53.1%. Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract. This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis germplasm in China.

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    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass native to East Asia. Endowed with great biomass yield, high ligno-cellulose composition, efficient use of radiation, nutrient and water, as well as tolerance to stress, Miscanthus has great potential as an excellent bioenergy crop. Despite of the high potential for biomass production of the allotriploid hybrid M. ×giganteus, derived from M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis, other options need to be explored to improve the narrow genetic base of M. ×giganteus, and also to exploit other Miscanthus species, including M. sinensis (2n = 2x = 38, as bioenergy crops. In the present study, a large number of 459 M. sinensis accessions, collected from the wide geographical distribution regions in China, were genotyped using 23 SSR markers transferable from Brachypodium distachyon. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed. High genetic diversity and differentiation of the germplasm were observed, with 115 alleles in total, a polymorphic rate of 0.77, Nei's genetic diversity index (He of 0.32 and polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.26. Clustering of germplasm accessions was primarily in agreement with the natural geographic distribution. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation in the M. sinensis germplasm and it was grouped into five clusters or subpopulations. Significant genetic variation among subpopulations indicated obvious genetic differentiation in the collections, but within-subpopulation variation (83% was substantially greater than the between-subpopulation variation (17%. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed for multiple traits among 300 M. sinensis accessions. Nine SSR markers were found to be associated with heading date and biomass yield. The diverse Chinese M. sinensis germplasm and newly identified SSR markers were proved to be valuable for breeding Miscanthus varieties with desired bioenergy traits.

  15. 矮牵牛pMA DS4基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of pMADS4 Gene from Petunia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 樊金会; 董秀春; 李青; 束怀瑞

    2008-01-01

    利用RT-PCR方法从矮牵牛(Petunia hybrida)中克隆了MADS盒基因pMADS4,进行了全序列测定.测序结果显示,所得到的基因与发表的序列同源率为100%.该基因长度为910 bp,含有一个开放阅读框,编码253个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白,具有典型的植物MADS盒基因的结构,该蛋白序列与玉米(Zea mays)ZAG3、麻竹(Dendrocalamus latiflorus)DIMADS18和拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)AGL6的同源性分别为64%、64%和61%,说明pMADS4是AGL6在矮牵牛中的同源基因,推测它们具有相似的功能,都促进开花并且调节花器官形成.进化树分析显示,AP1/AGL9亚家族分为SEP、AGL6和AP1三个分枝,且AGL6分枝又进一步分为三组,分别与裸子植物、单子叶植物和双子叶植物类群相对应,预测通过分离植物的AGL6同源基因可以准确的判断植物所属类群.通过蛋白预测说明pMADS4蛋白以同源或异源二聚体的形式存在,具有结合DNA的功能.%MADS box gene Pmads4 WAS ISOLATED FROM Petunia hybrida by RT-PCR. The result of the sequencing showed that this nucleotide sequence of Pmads4 GENE HAS 100% edentity with the published sequences. The gene is 910 bp in length, with an open reading frame encoding a 253 amino acid protien, which displayed the structure of typical plant MADS box protein and is close similar to ZAG3 of Zea mays, DIMADS18 of Dendrocalamus latiflorus and AGL6 homolog and might have the same function as other AGL 6 homologous genex, which might promote flower and regulate floral organ formation. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that AP1/AGL9 group was split into SEP, AGL6 and AP1 clades. The AGL6 clade was further divided into three groups which coincided with gymnosperm, dicotyledon and monocotyledon taxa and we put forward a gypothesis to tag species according to the A GL6-like genes. The predicted structure showed that the subunits of Pmads4 protein interact to form both homodimers and heterodimers and the protein dimers have

  16. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed. PMID:26779233

  17. Water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species assessed with sap flux measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eMei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea and Gigantochloa apus with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1 a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes, the stem heat balance method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2 an in situ calibration of thermal dissipation probes with the stem heat balance method for the four bamboo species, and (3 field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula and Hevea brasiliensis during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the stem heat balance method is well suited for bamboos but that thermal dissipation probes need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD, and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  18. Remote Sensing Based Biophysical Characterization of Tropical Deciduous Forest in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Goroshi, S.; Sharma, N. K.; Bairagi, G. D.; Sharma, R.; Jalil, P.; Jain, A.; Sonakia, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper reports the measurements of biophysical parameters using field and satellite data over a tropical deciduous forest Kanha National Park (KNP), central India. Field measurement (GBH, LAI, litter, soil moisture) was carried out over ten quadrates of 0.1ha in KNP for characterization of biophysical parameters with specified measurement protocol and sampling. Satellite based remote sensing analysis (LAI, Phenology, and NPP) was carried out using multi date observations of IRS-LISS-III, IMS-1MX, SPOT-VEGETATION and EOS-MODIS instruments. Rank correlation analysis using field data collected in the selected quadrates at KNP showed Sal (Shorea robusta) is dominant forest species followed by Lendia, Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Saja, Harra and Dhawda etc. Field measurement of Sal showed GBH range from 20 cm to 170 cm. Different forest classes such as Sal; Sal mixed with Jamun, Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) etc, including grasslands/scrubland were classified with overall accuracy of 85.56 percent using March, May and October multi spectral data. Sal has distinct growth characteristics (low vegetation growth/ leaf fall in March instead of May) as compared to other vegetation species. As per the Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurement using hemispherical photographs, Sal showed the highest LAI (6.95 m2/m2) during September and lowest LAI (2.63 m2/m2) during March. Overall good agreement (r= 0.79) was found between the LAI generated from LISS-III and MODIS data product. It was observed from SPOT-VEGETATION analysis that NPP varied from 8.4 tC/ha/year (dry deciduous forest) to 14.25 tC/ha/year (Moist deciduous forest) in KNP.

  19. A intrusão diamantífera Abel Régis (Carmo do Paranaíba, MG: kimberlito ou lamproíto? The diamond-bearing Abel Régis intrusion (Carmo do Paranaíba, MG: kimberlite or lamproite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz de Sá C. Chaves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Centenas de intrusões de natureza kimberlítica ou relacionadas são conhecidas na Província Diamantífera do Alto Paranaíba, em Minas Gerais e Goiás. O pipe Abel Régis, localizado em Carmo do Paranaíba e descoberto pela De Beers na década de 1970, é um desses corpos, que tem sido, em geral, considerado como um kimberlito. Na área da intrusão, ocorrem metassedimentos neoproterozóicos do Grupo Bambuí, os quais são atravessados pelo pipe cretácico (? de forma superficial aproximadamente circular, com cerca de 1.400 m de diâmetro. Foram distinguidas diversas fácies petrográficas no corpo, que é um dos poucos de toda a província mineral onde encontram-se preservadas feições da zona de cratera. Como o acervo de informações pré-existentes não era esclarecedor quanto à mineralogia de tal corpo, efetuaram-se também estudos com microssonda eletrônica, os quais demonstraram significativas mudanças quanto ao até então admitido. As mais importantes foram: predomínio local de Cr-espinélio sobre ilmenita entre os minerais indicadores, ilmenitas pouco magnesianas e presença abundante do K-feldspato sanidina. Essas características, somadas ao aspecto em forma de taça apresentado pelo corpo, permitem sugerir, em princípio, que a intrusão Abel Régis possa ser de natureza lamproítica.Hundreds of kimberlite or related intrusions are known in the Alto Paranaíba Diamondiferous Province, in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás. The Abel Régis intrusion, located in Carmo do Paranaíba county is one of these bodies that was discovered in the 1970´s by De Beers, and has generally been recognized as kimberlite. Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Bambuí Group are found in the intrusion area. These rocks are cut by the Cretaceous(? body outcropping as a nearly circular section with 1,400 m in diameter. Distinct petrographic facies, including crater facies, can be recognized in the body. As the previous data was not

  20. Desempenho de híbridos de tomate de crescimento indeterminado em função de sistemas de condução de plantas Performance of tomato hybrids of indeterminate growth depending on training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro S Matos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar dois sistemas de tutoramento e condução de plantas na produtividade e seus componentes em híbridos de tomateiro dos segmentos Salada Longa Vida e Santa Cruz de crescimento indeterminado, visando ao consumo in natura. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 5x2, quatro repetições, sendo avaliados cinco híbridos comerciais, três pertencentes ao grupo Salada Longa Vida ('Alambra', 'Paron' e 'Forty' e dois do grupo Santa Cruz ('Débora Pto' e 'Ellus', em dois sistemas de condução de plantas (bambu e fitilho. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo, em Itatiba (SP, de julho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008. Foram consideradas todas as plantas de cada parcela e avaliaram-se a produtividade total, produtividade comercial, produção por planta, massa média de frutos, número total de frutos, número de frutos comercializáveis, número de frutos das classes '3A', '2A' e '1A', número de frutos manchado e com lóculo aberto. Não houve interação entre cultivar e sistema de condução de planta para maioria das características avaliadas, exceto número total de frutos, número de frutos comercializáveis e número de frutos da classe '2A'. O sistema de condução de plantas com uma haste tutorada com fitilho proporcionou incremento na massa média de frutos e número de frutos da classe '3A', e decréscimo do número de frutos da classe '1A', sem reduzir a produtividade total e comercial quando comparado ao método de condução tradicional no bambu com duas hastes por planta.The objective of this work was to determine the effect of training and of two staking systems for plants on yield potential and its components of tomato hybrids of the Salad Extended Shelf Life and Santa Cruz types of indeterminate growth, aiming in natura market. In this experiment we adopted the randomized block design with the treatments in a 5x2 factorial scheme, and four

  1. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults

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    Jussara Mendonça Alvarenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population.

  2. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the "signs, meanings, and actions" model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were "nervousness", "sleep problems", and "worry" due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life's problems in old age. Although it relieves the "nerves", the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population. PMID:26039388

  3. Evolution of the clinical and epidemiological knowledge about Chagas disease 90 years after its discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Aluízio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different periods may be considered in the evolution of knowledge about the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease since its discovery: (a early period concerning the studies carried out by Carlos Chagas in Lassance with the collaboration of other investigators of the Manguinhos School. At that time the disease was described and the parasite, transmitters and reservoirs were studied. The coexistence of endemic goiter in the same region generated some confusion about the clinical forms of the disease; (b second period involving uncertainty and the description of isolated cases, which lasted until the 1940 decade. Many acute cases were described during this period and the disease was recognized in many Latin American countries. Particularly important were the studies of the Argentine Mission of Regional Pathology Studies, which culminated with the description of the Romaña sign in the 1930 decade, facilitating the diagnosis of the early phase of the disease. However, the chronic phase, which was the most important, continued to be difficult to recognize; (c period of consolidation of knowledge and recognition of the importance of Chagas disease. Studies conducted by Laranja, Dias and Nóbrega in Bambuí updated the description of Chagas heart disease made by Carlos Chagas and Eurico Villela. From then on, the disease was more easily recognized, especially with the emphasis on the use of a serologic diagnosis; (d period of enlargement of knowledges on the disease. The studies on denervation conducted in Ribeirão Preto by Fritz Köberle starting in the 1950 decade led to a better understanding of the relations between Chagas disease and megaesophagus and other visceral megas detected in endemic areas.

  4. Velhice, incapacidade e cuidado na saúde pública

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    Karla Cristina Giacomin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O envelhecimento populacional modifica profundamente o escopo de atuação da saúde coletiva, altera o perfil de morbimortalidade e aumenta a demanda por cuidados crônicos. Na população idosa, a incapacidade serve como indicador de saúde e balizador de ações e políticas. Esta pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, fundamentada na antropologia interpretativa e na perspectiva êmica, tem por objetivo compreender a forma de pensar e agir dos idosos diante da “velhice com incapacidade” e suas relações com a saúde pública. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais no domicílio, com roteiro semiestruturado, junto a 57 idosos residentes na cidade, inclusive participantes da coorte de Bambuí. A metodologia de Signos, Significados e Ações orientou a coleta e a análise dos dados, possibilitando a investigação antropológica das representações e comportamentos concretos associados à incapacidade na velhice na cultura local. Emergiram da análise duas categorias acerca das relações entre velhice, incapacidade e cuidado na saúde pública: experiências de cuidado na velhice com incapacidade; o medo da falta de cuidados. Os resultados revelam que a saúde pública precisa rever seus conceitos sobre incapacidade na velhice e incorporar a dimensão funcional da saúde e o cuidado à velhice com incapacidade na agenda.

  5. Papel da autonomia na auto-avaliação da saúde do idoso Papel de la autonomía en la autoevaluación de la salud del anciano Role of autonomy in self-assessment of health by the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Uchôa Penido Fonseca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender os significados atribuídos à auto-avaliação da saúde do idoso. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo, realizado com 17 idosos (> 70 anos de ambos os sexos residentes em Bambuí, MG, em 2008. Foi utilizada abordagem antropológica baseada no modelo de signos, significados e ações que relaciona ações individuais, códigos culturais e contexto macrossocial. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas centradas na auto-avaliação da saúde, descrição de saúde "boa" e saúde "ruim" e nos critérios utilizados pelos idosos na auto-avaliação da saúde. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: A idéia organizadora dos relatos vincula a autoavaliação da saúde do idoso às lógicas "participar da vida" e "ancoragem à vida". A primeira tem a autonomia como fio condutor, englobando as seguintes categorias: permanecer ativo dentro das capacidades funcionais instrumentais avançadas, ser dono da própria vida (como oposição a ser dependente, ser capaz de resolver problemas e poder agir como desejar. A segunda lógica unifica as seguintes categorias: capacidade de interação, estar engajado em relações significativas e poder contar com familiares, amigos ou vizinhos. CONCLUSÕES: A saúde é entendida pelos idosos como ter autonomia no exercício de competências funcionais demandadas pela sociedade, tais como capacidade de responder às obrigações familiares e capacidade de desempenhar papéis sociais. Ao definir sua saúde como boa ou razoável, o idoso não se caracteriza como pessoa livre de doenças, mas como sujeito capaz de agir sobre o ambiente.OBJETIVO: Comprender los significados atribuidos a la auto-evaluación de la salud del anciano. PROCEDIMIENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudio cualitativo, realizado con 17 anciano (>70 años de ambos sexos residentes en la ciudad de Bambuí, Sureste de Brasil, en 2008. Fue utilizado abordaje antropológica basada en el modelo de signos, significados y acciones que

  6. Revisión taxonómica y estratigráfica de esporas cicatricosas del Cretácico Inferior de Patagonia: 1. Géneros Appendicisporites Weyland & Krieger, Nodosisporites Deák y Plicatella Maljavkina Taxonomic and stratigraphic revision of Lower Cretaceous cicatricose spores from Patagonia: 1. Genera Appendicisporites Weyland & Krieger, Nodosisporites Deák and Plicatella Maljavkina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Archangelsky

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentitas del Cretácico Inferior halladas en distintas localidades de la Cuenca Austral, Patagonia, incluyen numerosos tipos de esporas cicatricosas de helechos que pertenecen a la familia Anemiaceae. En esta contribución inicial se presenta el estudio taxonómico de 13 especies que se refieren a los géneros Appendicisporites Weyland & Krieger, Nodosisporites Deák y Plicatella Maljavkina. Se discuten los criterios más actualizados sobre la caracterización de estos géneros, los que permiten sugerir varios cambios sistemáticos de taxones descriptos previamente en Argentina. El material procede de perfiles de superficie y de sondeos de la Plataforma Continental, y corresponde a varias unidades litoestratigráficas cuyas edades oscilan entre el Valanginiano y Albiano. Por primera vez se citan para Argentina las especies Nodosisporites cf. N. genuinus (Bolkhovitina Davies, Appendicisporites cf. N. unicus (Markova Singh, Plicatipollenites jansonii (Pocock Davies, P. cf. P. degenerata (Thiergart Davies y P. pseudotripartita (Bolkhovitina como una nueva combinación. Además se aceptan las combinaciones realizadas por otros autores de las siguientes especies argentinas: P. archangelskyi Davies (por Cicatricosisporites giganteus Archangelsky & Gamerro y Plicatipollenites baqueroensis (Archangelsky & Gamerro Davies. Finalmente, se efectúan comentarios sobre la distribución estratigráfica de las especies estudiadas en perfiles y secciones de subsuelo.Lower Cretaceous sediments found in different localities of the Austral Basin in Patagonia, contain several cicatricose fern spore types belonging to the family Anemiaceae. This initial contribution is a taxonomic study of 13 species referred to the genera Appendicisporites Weyland & Krieger, Nodosisporites Deák and Plicatella Maljavkina. The most recent criteria to characterise these genera are discussed and systematic changes of taxa previously described in Argentina are suggested. The

  7. N2O Emission from energy crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in N2O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N2O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO2. The contribution of N2O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N2O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N2O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N2O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N2O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N2O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N2O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N2O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N2O ha-1 yr-1. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO2 ha-1 yr-1 compared to a total CO2 reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO2 ha-1 yr-1 using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N2O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO2 reduction per unit dry matter. Following the guidelines for good agricultural practice concerning the efficiency of the nitrogen usage, it seems

  8. Adaptações morfoanatômicas de Cyperaceae ao ambiente aquático Morphology and anatomic adaptations of Cyperaceae aquatic habits

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    D.C. Rocha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No ecossistema aquático há uma faixa de umidade gradiente no solo que interfere diretamente na ocupação das espécies à margem da lâmina de água. Essa zonação ecológica reflete os graus de adaptação que as plantas apresentam para tolerar o alagamento ou a dessecação. O presente trabalho visou apresentar a análise morfoanatômica de cinco espécies de Cyperaceae encontradas em diferentes zonas no entorno da represa Alagados, em Ponta Grossa-PR, Brasil: Cyperus giganteus, Rhynchospora corymbosa var. aspérula, Cyperus densicaespitosus, Cyperus rigens e Eleocharis sp. Estruturas caulinares e foliares das cinco espécies de Cyperaceae foram analisadas a partir de cortes histológicos. Concluiu-se que, das cinco plantas analisadas, somente três caracterizam-se como plantas aquáticas, sendo duas classificadas como plantas emergentes e uma como submersa fixa devido às características adaptativas que apresentam para obter sucesso nesse ambiente.In the aquatic ecosystem there is gradient moisture in the soil that interferes directly in the occupation of species on the margin of the water blade. This ecological zone reflects the degrees of adaptation that plants present to tolerate flooding or drying. This work aimed to present a morphological and anatomical analysis of five species of Cyperaceae, found at different zones in the surroundings of the Alagados Dam, in Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil: Cyperus giganteus and Rhynchospora corymbosa var. asperula, Cyperus densicaespitosus, Cyperus rigens and Eleocharis sp. Stem and foliar structures of five species of Cyperaceae were analyzed by histological cross-section. It was concluded that of the five plants examined, only three are aquatic plants, with two being classified as emerging plants and one as fixed submerged, based on the adaptive characteristics they present to succeed in this environment.

  9. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

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    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  10. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  11. Crevillente 15 y Crevillente 16, dos nuevos yacimientos con macromamíferos en el Mioceno superior de Alicante (España

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    Alberdi, M. T.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new fossiliferous localities with macromammals from the Upper Miocene of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain are studied. Crevillente 15 and Crevillente 16 are geographically very close and have provided similar fossil assemblages dated as Middle Turolian (MNI2. The stratigraphic position of these localities has been related to Crevillente 2, which is the most important locality in the general area. The lithologic interval that includes both new outcrops has also been described. The paleontological study of the macrommamal remains allows us the identification of the following taxa: Simocyon sp., Paramachairodus cf. orientalis. Machairodus giganteus. Microstonys major. Cervidae indet., Tragoportax gaudryi, cf. Hispanodorcas sp., Hipparion concudense cf. aguirrei. Dicerorhinus schleiermacheri. Deinotherium cf. giganteum and Tetralophodon longirostris. This work supplies new data concerning the, hitherto poorly known, Turolian mammal assemblages in the eastern margin of the Iberian Peninsula.En el presente trabajo se estudian dos nuevos yacimientos descubiertos recientemente en el área de Crevillente (Alicante, los cuales han proporcionado restos de macromamíferos. Ambos afloramientos, denominados Crevillente 15 y Crevillente 16, se encuentran próximos entre sí, y sus respectivas asociaciones fósiles son muy semejantes, indicando una edad Turoliense medio (MN12. Desde el punto de vista geológico, se ha precisado la posición estratigráfica de las localidades con respecto a Crevillente 2, que es el yacimiento más importante de los conocidos en esta área. Además, también se ha descrito la estratigrafía de detalle del tramo en que se encuentran los dos niveles estudiados. Por otro lado, se ha llevado a cabo la descripción y el estudio sistemático de los restos de macromamíferos recuperados. Esto ha permitido diferenciar once taxones: Simocyon sp., Paramachairodus cf. orientalis, Machairodus giganteus. Microstonyx major, Cervidae indet

  12. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  13. 印度喜马拉亚东部3个经济竹种的分布、生长和生产力%Distribution,growth and productivity of commercial edible bamboo species in the three states of Eastern Himalaya,India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.P. Bhatt; L.B. Singha; Kundan Singh; M.S. Sachan

    2004-01-01

    对印度喜马拉亚东部3个州的经济竹种的分布、生长和生产力进行了研究.在梅加拉亚那邦,发现了牡竹属、巴苦竹和梨竹属3个经济竹种.巴苦竹是在米佐拉姆的记载,方竹属和牡竹属是在锡金记载的笋用竹.所有竹种除野生外均在庭院中栽培.据观察,竹子的产量与海拔的变化密切相关,巴苦竹最大产量出现在低海拔的而非高海拔的林分中.牡竹在梅加拉亚邦每丛生长69株,每公顷1839株,大大高于庭院种植的低海拔株数(每丛16株,每公顷303株).而在天然林中,在高海拔总株数为每丛29株,每公顷1186株,在低海拔中每丛22株,每公顷178株.%Distribution, growth and productivity of commercial edible bamboo species of three tribal states of Eastern Himalaya, India have been studied. In Meghalaya, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa balcooa and Melocanna baccifera have been found commercial bamboo species. M. Baccifera was the commercial edible species for Mizoram, whereas, Chimonobambusa hookeriana and D. Hamiltonii have been recorded commercial edible species for Sikkim. All the species are also cultivated in homegardens besides their occurrence in natural forests. Significant altitudinal variations have been observed in bamboo productivity. A maximum culm productivity ofB. Balcooa was observed at lower elevation compared to higher elevations in forest stands. D.hamiltonii produced a total of 69 individual/clump (1,839/ha) in Meghalaya, which was quite higher to that of lower elevation (16/clump & 303/ha) in the home gardens. Whereas, in natural forest, its total culm productivity was 29/clump & 1,186/ha in higher elevation and 22/clump & 178/ha in lower elevation, respectively.

  14. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  15. Long-term impacts of land-use change on dynamics of tropical soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-cheng; HUANG Jian-hui; PAN Qing-min; TANG Jian-wei; HAN Xing-guo

    2004-01-01

    Land-use changes, especially the conversion of native forest vegetation to cropland and plantations intropical region, can alter soil C and N pools and N availability for plant uptake. Deforestation, followed by shiftingcultivation and establishment of rubber tree plantation, is a common land-use change in Xishuangbanna, southwestChina. However the influence of this kind of land-use change on soil C and N dynamics in this region remains poorlyunderstood. This study was conducted to assess the effects of land-use change on soil C and N pools. Soil sampleswere collected on five adjacent plots, which belong to three land-use types including secondary forest-an acuminatebanana( Musa itinerans) secondary forest and a male bamboo( Dendrocalamus membranaceae) secondary forest,shifting cultivation, and rubber tree ( Hevea brasiliensis (H. B. K. ) Muell. Arg. ) plantation (one plot is 3-year-old,and another is 7-year-old). We measured soil bulk density (BP), pH value, moisture content and concentrations ofsoil organic carbon(SOC), total soil nitrogen(TSN), and inorganic N(NO-3 -N and NH~ -N) at 0-3, 3-20, 20-40and 40-60 cm depths, and calculated C and N pools in 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 0-60 cm soil layers.Compared with the adjacent secondary forests, shifting cultivation and establishment of rubber tree plantationsresulted in significant decline in concentrations and stocks of SOC and TSN in 0-20 and 0-60 cm soil layers, andincrease in pH and bulk density at 0-3, 3-20, and 20-40 cm depths. Soil moisture content decreased only in 0-20 cm surface soils in shifting cultivation and plantations. The dynamics of mineral N was much more complex,which had different trends among depths and ecosystems. Compared with the secondary forests, SOC stocks in 0-20 cm surface soils in shifting cultivation and rubber tree plantations(3-year-old plantation and 7-year-old plantation)decreased by 34.0%, 33%, and 23%; and TSN stocks decreased by 32.2%, 20.4%, and 20.4%, respectively,whereas the

  16. Examining the impact of land cover change for biofuel production on the Midwestern U.S. hydroclimate using a regional climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, K. J.; Twine, T. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Bagley, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have been proposed as cellulosic feedstocks for U.S. biofuel production because their high productivity and low inputs could reduce net CO2 emissions. Possible biogeochemical feedbacks of widespread production have been extensively studied, but less attention has been given to the two-way biophysical interactions between the land surface and regional climate. Miscanthus uses significantly more water than maize, resulting in large evapotranspiration (ET) increases upon conversion from maize to Miscanthus that could impact regional precipitation, precipitation recycling, and soil moisture. In this study, we simulate perennial grass production in a fully coupled regional climate model with dynamic vegetation, enabling an investigation into the two-way responses between these potential biofuels and the climate over the Mississippi River Basin. We incorporated algorithms of miscanthus and switchgrass growth and management from the Agro-IBIS model into with WRF-CLM4crop, a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to the Community Land Model with dynamic crop growth and irrigation enabled. Using suggested production regions from the United States Department of Energy, we performed simulations driven with 10 years of NCEP-DOE Reanalysis (NCEP2) data, with 25%, 50%, and 75% of current croplands replaced by perennial grass feedstocks. Our results provide spatially explicit maps of how simulated ET increased with conversion and the resulting regional cooling, greater precipitation, and precipitation recycling over the region.

  17. Dietary flexibility and niche partitioning of large herbivores through the Pleistocene of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivals, Florent; Lister, Adrian M.

    2016-08-01

    Tooth wear analysis techniques (mesowear and microwear) are employed to analyze dietary traits in proboscideans, perissodactyls and artiodactyls from 33 Pleistocene localities in Britain. The objectives of this study are to examine the variability in each taxon, to track dietary shifts through time, and to investigate resource partitioning among species. The integration of mesowear and microwear results first allowed us to examine dietary variability. We identified differences in variability among species, from more stenotopic species such as Capreolus capreolus to more eurytopic species such as Megaloceros giganteus and Cervus elaphus. Broad dietary shifts at the community level are seen between climatic phases, and are the result of species turnover as well as dietary shifts in the more flexible species. The species present at each locality are generally spread over a large part of the dietary spectrum, and resource partitioning was identified at most of these localities. Mixed feeders always coexist with at least one of the two strict dietary groups, grazers or browsers. Finally, for some species, a discrepancy is observed between meso- and microwear signals and may imply that individuals tended to die at a time of year when their normal food was in short supply.

  18. Efficacy of corn and rice seed-borne mycoflora in controlling aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel K. Madbouly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Food commodities such as cereals are subjected to spoilage and bio-deterioration during storage by mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. Efforts are done to biologically control toxigenic A. flavus and subsequently prevent or at least minimize its aflatoxin production ability, without the need of using synthetic fungicides. Antifungal activity of corn and rice seed-borne mycoflora was tested against aflatoxigenic A. flavus in vitro, using bioassays such as dual culture technique; ability to produce volatile and non-volatile metabolites; ability to inhibit germination and reduce germ tube length of A. flavus conidia; in vivo reduction of aflatoxins level in corn seeds co-inoculated with the pathogen and antagonists. Penicillum crustosum, Aspergillus giganteus, Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus fumigatus isolates showed promising antifungal activities and varying efficiencies of reducing aflatoxins level; however, only A. fumigatus isolate was non-aflatoxigenic. It could be concluded that A. fumigatus could be used effectively as a biopreservative to increase shelf life of cereals during storage, but after testing its tendency to produce other mycotoxins or causing human Aspergillosis.

  19. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  20. Spatial correlation of confocal Raman scattering and secondary ion mass spectrometric molecular images of lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Chu, Li-Qiang; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Bohn, Paul W

    2010-04-01

    A detailed chemical and structural understanding of pre-enzymatic processing of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs) is a key objective in the development of renewable energy. Efficient rendering of biomass components into fermentable substrates for conversion into biofuel feedstocks would benefit greatly from the development of new technologies to provide high-quality, spatially resolved chemical information about LCMs during the various processing states. In an effort to realize this important goal, spatially correlated confocal Raman and mass spectrometric images allow the extraction of three-dimensional information from the perennial grass, Miscanthus x giganteus. An optical microscopy-based landmark registry scheme was developed that allows samples to be transferred between laboratories at different institutions, while retaining the capability to access the same physical regions of the samples. Subsequent to higher resolution imaging via confocal Raman microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry was used to place these regions within the overall sample architecture. Excellent sample registry was evident in the highly correlated Raman and SIMS images. In addition, the correlation of vibrational Raman scattering with mass spectra from specific spatial locations allowed confirmation of the assignment of intracellular globular structures to hemicellulose-rich lignin complexes, an assignment which could only be made tentatively from either image alone. PMID:20205411

  1. Potentials For Agro-Energy Crops Production: Example Of Miscanthus Cultivation In Serbia

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    Dražić Gordana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with priorities of sustainable development in Serbia, production and use of biomass is crucial for provision of annually renewable national sources of energy and for environmental quality conservation. Rural development has typically focused on improving agricultural production and promoting market orientation, however, as the examples of other countries in the EU accession process have shown (e.g. Slovakia, such an approach could threaten the survival of rural population. Biomass production is one of the key sectors with significant potential for diversification of rural economy. The results of multiannual research work supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia through national scientific projects and several international initiatives are summarized in this paper. The research activities focus on Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. The production potentials of miscanthus on fertile and degraded soils were investigated since 2009 in experimental plots established on moderate and extremely degraded lands in Serbia, applying various agrotechnical measures in different ecological conditions. The results show that fertile agricultural land as well as moderate degraded areas provide suitable conditions for miscanthus biomass and viable rhizomes production for energy and ecoremediation purposes.

  2. Détermination de la cellulose, des hémicelluloses, de la lignine et des cendres dans diverses cultures lignocellulosiques dédiées à la production de bioéthanol de deuxième génération

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    Godin, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and ash contents in various lignocellulosic crops for second generation bioethanol production. Various green energy crops are available for the production of renewable energy vectors such as second generation bioethanol. The efficiency of the energy recovery potential of these lignocellulosic crops depends on the crop husbandry, their content of main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash and on the second generation bioethanol production process. The lignocellulosic crops investigated in this study are miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus J.M.Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, fiber corn (Zea mays L., "cocksfoot-alfalfa" mixture (Dactylis glomerata L. – Medicago sativa L., comfrey (Symphytum officinale L., jerusalem artichoke (aerial part (Helianthus tuberosus L. and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.. The samples came from different energy crop trials and their content in cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was quantified using the Van Soest method. The ash content has also been quantified. The lignocellulosic crops with the best theoretical potential to produce second generation bioethanol based on their biochemical composition (with a yield of 100% for the hydrolysis and the fermentation of cellulose and hemicelluloses are in decreasing order miscanthus, switchgrass, fescue, fiber sorghum, fiber corn and hemp. On one hand, these crops are composed of high amounts of cellulose and hemicelluloses and, on the other hand, the lignin and ash concentration are low. A principal component analysis showed that commeniloïd monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous lignocellulosic crops formed two differentiated categories.

  3. Mother-offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission-fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18-25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission-fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality.

  4. Mother–offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission–fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18–25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission–fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality. PMID:26045958

  5. Use of Cupriavidus basilensis-aided bioabatement to enhance fermentation of acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium beijerinckii.

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    Agu, Chidozie Victor; Ujor, Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2016-09-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors (LDMICs) prevent efficient fermentation of Miscanthus giganteus (MG) hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals. To address this problem, we explored detoxification of pretreated MG biomass by Cupriavidus basilensis ATCC(®)BAA-699 prior to enzymatic saccharification. We document three key findings from our test of this strategy to alleviate LDMIC-mediated toxicity on Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during fermentation of MG hydrolysates. First, we demonstrate that growth of C. basilensis is possible on furfural, 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, vanillin, and ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic and vanillic acid, as sole carbon sources. Second, we report that C. basilensis detoxified and metabolized ~98 % LDMICs present in dilute acid-pretreated MG hydrolysates. Last, this bioabatement resulted in significant payoffs during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by C. beijerinckii: 70, 50 and 73 % improvement in ABE concentration, yield and productivity, respectively. Together, our results show that biological detoxification of acid-pretreated MG hydrolysates prior to fermentation is feasible and beneficial. PMID:27400988

  6. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  7. Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

  8. Kinetics of Pyrolysis and Gasification Using Thermogravimetric and Thermovolumetric Analyses

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    Czerski Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide gasification process of Miscanthus giganteus biomass was examined using two methods. First an isothermal thermovolumetric method was applied. The measurement was conducted at 950°C and pressure of 0.1 MPa. Based on the continuous analysis of different kinds of gases formed during the gasification process, the thermovolumetric method allowed the determination of yields and composition of the resulting gas as well as the rate constant of CO formation. Then a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method was applied, during which the loss of weight of a sample as a function of temperature was recorded. In the course of the measurement, the temperature was raised from ambient to 950°C and the pressure was 0.1 MPa. As a result, a change in the carbon conversion degree was obtained. Moreover, TGA methods allow distinguishing various stages of the gasification process such as primary pyrolysis, secondary pyrolysis and gasification, and determining kinetic parameters for each stage. The presented methods differs from each other as they are based either on the analysis of changes in the resulting product or on the analysis of changes in the supplied feedstock, but both can be successfully used to the effective examination of kinetics of the gasification process. In addition, an important advantage of both methods is the possibility to carry out the gasification process for different solid fuels as coal, biomass, or solid waste in the atmosphere of a variety of gasification agents.

  9. Volatile organic compound emissions from Miscanthus and short rotation coppice willow bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Nichola; Cape, J. Neil; Heal, Mathew R.

    2012-12-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix spp.) are increasingly important bioenergy crops. Above-canopy fluxes and mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in summer for the two crops at a site near Lincoln, UK, by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and virtual disjunct eddy covariance. The isoprene emission rate above willow peaked around midday at ˜1 mg m-2 h-1, equivalent to 20 μg gdw-1 h-1 normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, much greater than for conventional arable crops. Average midday peak isoprene mixing ratio was ˜1.4 ppbv. Acetone and acetic acid also showed small positive daytime fluxes. No measurable fluxes of VOCs were detected above the Miscanthus canopy. Differing isoprene emission rates between different bioenergy crops, and the crops or vegetation cover they may replace, means the impact on regional air quality should be taken into consideration in bioenergy crop selection.

  10. An optimized chloroplast DNA extraction protocol for grasses (Poaceae proves suitable for whole plastid genome sequencing and SNP detection.

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    Kerstin Diekmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining chloroplast genome sequences is important to increase the knowledge about the fundamental biology of plastids, to understand evolutionary and ecological processes in the evolution of plants, to develop biotechnological applications (e.g. plastid engineering and to improve the efficiency of breeding schemes. Extraction of pure chloroplast DNA is required for efficient sequencing of chloroplast genomes. Unfortunately, most protocols for extracting chloroplast DNA were developed for eudicots and do not produce sufficiently pure yields for a shotgun sequencing approach of whole plastid genomes from the monocot grasses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a simple and inexpensive method to obtain chloroplast DNA from grass species by modifying and extending protocols optimized for the use in eudicots. Many protocols for extracting chloroplast DNA require an ultracentrifugation step to efficiently separate chloroplast DNA from nuclear DNA. The developed method uses two more centrifugation steps than previously reported protocols and does not require an ultracentrifuge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The described method delivered chloroplast DNA of very high quality from two grass species belonging to highly different taxonomic subfamilies within the grass family (Lolium perenne, Pooideae; Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicoideae. The DNA from Lolium perenne was used for whole chloroplast genome sequencing and detection of SNPs. The sequence is publicly available on EMBL/GenBank.

  11. BIODEGRADATION OF AGRO-WASTES BY SOME NIGERIAN WHITE-ROT FUNGI

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    Oluseyi Damilola Adejoye

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Three white-rot fungi: Daedalea elegans, Polyporus giganteus, and Lenzites betulina were screened for their lignin degrading abilities on rice straw, maizecob, sawdust of Terminalia superba, and sugarcane bagasse at different time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days. All the fungi demonstrated varying levels of ligninolytic capability with different degrees of lignin degradation in all the fermented substrates. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the mycelia extension of Daedalea elegans grown on the different agro-industrial wastes. D. elegans gave maximum extension of 4.5 cm on sugarcane bagasse. The highest lignin reduction of 92.9% (p<0.05 was recorded in maize cob fermented with Daedalea elegans after 90 days. On the basis of lignocellulosic material degraded, it is concluded that the white-rot fungi offer a better alternative to conventional ways of disposing these waste substances. This paper considers the ability of indigenous white-rot fungi to degrade lignin as a way of using them in effective waste management.

  12. Interspecific variation in the diets of herbivores in an industrial environment: implications for exposure to fluoride emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; Death, Clare E; Coulson, Graeme; Newby, Lora; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric fluorides (gaseous and particulate) are deposited on, and absorbed by, vegetation. Ingested fluoride accumulates in calcified tissues of vertebrates, and if it is excessive, it may lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis. The prevalence, form and severity of the effects vary greatly between species. Foraging strategy can be an important determinant of fluoride exposure in herbivores, because foliar fluoride concentrations vary between plant species, for example, according to vertical and lateral position in the vegetation. We combined microhistological analysis of diet and analysis of foliar fluoride levels to examine interspecific variation in dietary fluoride exposure of macropodid marsupials (swamp wallaby Wallabia bicolor, red-necked wallaby Notamacropus rufogriseus and eastern grey kangaroo Macropus giganteus), in the buffer zone of an aluminium smelter in Victoria, Australia. Dietary niche differentiation between species was evident. The swamp wallaby and the red-necked wallaby were browsers or mixed feeders, depending on the classification system used. The eastern grey kangaroo was a grazer, consuming almost entirely grasses. However, foliar fluoride did not vary significantly between the main plant groups consumed. Our results indicate that interspecific variation in diet at this site is unlikely to explain variation in fluoride exposure.

  13. The influence of drought and heat stress on long-term carbon fluxes of bioenergy crops grown in the Midwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eva; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Zeri, Marcelo; Masters, Michael D; Miller, Jesse N; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; DeLucia, Evan H; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2016-09-01

    Perennial grasses are promising feedstocks for bioenergy production in the Midwestern USA. Few experiments have addressed how drought influences their carbon fluxes and storage. This study provides a direct comparison of ecosystem-scale measurements of carbon fluxes associated with miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), restored native prairie and maize (Zea mays)/soybean (Glycine max) ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of a naturally occurring drought during 2012 on key components of the carbon cycle and plant development relative to non-extreme years. The perennials reached full maturity 3-5 years after establishment. Miscanthus had the highest gross primary production (GPP) and lowest net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in 2012 followed by similar values for switchgrass and prairie, and the row crops had the lowest GPP and highest NEE. A post-drought effect was observed for miscanthus. Over the duration of the experiment, perennial ecosystems were carbon sinks, as indicated by negative net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB), while maize/soybean was a net carbon source. Our observations suggest that perennial ecosystems, and in particular miscanthus, can provide a high yield and a large potential for CO2 fixation even during drought, although drought may negatively influence carbon uptake in the following year, questioning the long-term consequence of its maintained productivity.

  14. Bioenergy crops grown for hyperaccumulation of phosphorous in the Delmarva Peninsula and their biofuels potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Akwasi A; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Mullen, Charles A; Dien, Bruce S; Hashem, Fawzy M; Dadson, Robert B

    2015-03-01

    Herbaceous bioenergy crops, including sorghum, switchgrass, and miscanthus, were evaluated for their potential as phytoremediators for the uptake of phosphorus in the Delmarva Peninsula and their subsequent conversion to biofuel intermediates (bio-oil) by fast pyrolysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Four cultivars of sorghum, five cultivars of switchgrass and one miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) were grown in soils with two different levels of poultry manure (PM) applications. Little variation was seen in phosphorus uptake in the two different soils indicating that the levels of available phosphorus in the soil already saturated the uptake ability of the plants. However, all plants regardless of trial took up more phosphorus than that measured for the non- PM treated control. Sorghum accumulated greater levels of nutrients including phosphorus and potassium compared to switchgrass and miscanthus. The levels of these nutrients in the biomass did not have an effect on carbohydrate contents. However, the potential yield and composition of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis were affected by both agronomics and differences in mineral concentrations.

  15. Model for Energy Analysis of Miscanthus Production and Transportation

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    Alessandro Sopegno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computational tool is developed for the estimation of the energy requirements of Miscanthus x giganteus on individual fields that includes a detailed analysis and account of the involved in-field and transport operations. The tool takes into account all the individual involved in-field and transport operations and provides a detailed analysis on the energy requirements of the components that contribute to the energy input. A basic scenario was implemented to demonstrate the capabilities of the tool. Specifically, the variability of the energy requirements as a function of field area and field-storage distance changes was shown. The field-storage distance highly affects the energy requirements resulting in a variation in the efficiency if energy (output/input ratio from 15.8 up to 23.7 for the targeted cases. Not only the field-distance highly affects the energy requirements but also the biomass transportation system. Based on the presented example, different transportation systems adhering to the same configuration of the production system creates variation in the efficiency of energy (EoE between 12.9 and 17.5. The presented tool provides individualized results that can be used for the processes of designing or evaluating a specific production system since the outcomes are not based on average norms.

  16. Effect of thermal and alkaline pretreatment of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass on biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Li, Yongqiang; Hao, Xiying

    2016-01-01

    Giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and Chinese fountaingrass (Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng), cultivated for landscaping and soil conservation, are potential energy crops. The study investigated the effect of combined thermal and alkaline pretreatments on biogas production of these energy crops. The pretreatment included two types of alkali (6% CaO and 6% NaOH) at 22, 70 and 100 °C. The alkaline pretreatment resulted in a greater breakdown of the hemicellulose fraction, with CaO more effective than NaOH. Pretreatment of giant miscanthus with 6% CaO at 100 °C for 24 h produced a CH4 yield (313 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS)) that was 1.7 times that of the untreated sample (186 mL g(-1) VS). However, pretreatment of Chinese fountaingrass with 6% CaO or 6% NaOH at 70 °C for 24 h resulted in similar CH4 yields (328 and 302 mL g(-1) VS for CaO and NaOH pretreatments) as the untreated sample (311 mL g(-1) VS). Chinese fountaingrass was more easily digestible but had a low overall CH4 yield per hectare (1,831 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)) compared to giant miscanthus (6,868 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)). This study demonstrates the potential of thermal/alkaline pretreatment and the use of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass for biogas production.

  17. Lignicolous fungi as potential natural sources of antioxidants

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    Karaman Maja A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of an interest in natural derived metabolites around the world higher fungi (Basidiomycotina have taken on great importance in biochemical investigations. A large number of structurally divergent compounds - both cellular components and secondary metabolites - have been extracted and found to possess significant biological activity, such as an immunomodulative effect on the human body. Effects of fungal biomolecules as potential natural antioxidants have not been examined so far. Biochemical analysis have included in vitro testing of the influence of different extracts (water methanol, chloroform of selected fungal sporocarps on Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LP in a lecithin liposome system by TBA assay, as well as various other procedures. Qualitative analysis by TLC revealed a distinction both between different extracts of the same fungal species and between similar extracts of different species. The results obtained on antioxidative activities (LP inhibition and "scavenging" activity indicate that MeOH extracts manifested a degree of activity higher than that of CHCl3 extracts with respect to antioxidative activity, the extracts can be ranged in the following declining order: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma applanatum Meripilus giganteus, and Flammulina velutipes. The obtained results suggest that the analyzed fungi are of potential interest as sources of strong natural antioxidants in the food and cosmetics industries, whereas synthetic ones have proved to be carcinogenic.

  18. The Middle Triassic marine reptile biodiversity in the Germanic Basin, in the centre of the Pangaean world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus

    2012-03-01

    The Middle Triassic fossil reptile localities near Bayreuth (Bavaria, southern Germany) consist of shallow marine autochthonous glauconitic marls and terebratulid-rich tempestite carbonates of the newly defined Bindlach and Hegnabrunn formations. Single bones and incomplete skeletons of marine reptiles have been recorded in bone beds within in the Illyrian and Fassanian stages. These include the remains of the sauropterygians Neusticosaurus sp., Lariosaurus cf. buzzii [1], Nothosaurus mirabilis [2], Paranothosaurus giganteus [2], Placodus gigas [3], Cyamodus rostratus [4], Cyamodus münsteri [5], Pistosaurus longaevus [6], and ichthyosaursOmphalosaurus sp., and Shastasaurus sp. or proterosaur Tanystrophaeus conspicuus [7]. New skeletal reconstructions are based on the osteological analysis of three dimensionally preserved bones and skeletal remains. The large number of marine endemic placodont macroalgae feeders (P. gigas) in the Bayreuth sites coincides with the presence of invertebrate palaeocommunities that are characteristic of macroalgae meadow paleoenvironments. Most of the reptile species and genera from the Bayreuth localities also occur in beds of similar ages from the Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy) or Perledo (Italy) lagoonal areas. Ichthyosaurs and pistosaurs were adapted for open marine conditions, and may have migrated from the Panthalassa Oceans into the shallow marine Germanic Basin to reproduce, whereas placodonts and many other sauropterygians seem to have lived permanently in those shallow marine habitats, with large squamates and thecodont or smaller archosaurs in coastal areas.

  19. Effect of Miscanthus cultivation on metal fractionation and human bioaccessibility in metal-contaminated soils: comparison between greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Kleckerová, Andrea; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Douay, Francis; Waterlot, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The in situ stabilization of metals in soils using plants with great biomass value is a promising, cost-effective, and ecologically friendly alternative to manage metal-polluted sites. The goal of phytostabilization is to reduce the bioavailable concentrations of metals in polluted soil and thus reduce the risk to the environment and human health. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating Miscanthus × giganteus efficiency in phytostabilizing metals on three contaminated agricultural sites after short-term exposure under greenhouse conditions and after long-term exposure under field conditions. Particular attention was paid to the influence of Miscanthus cultivation on (i) Cd, Pb, and Zn fractionation using sequential extractions and (ii) metal bioaccessibility using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion test. Data gave evidence of (i) different behaviors between the greenhouse and the field; (ii) metal redistribution in soils induced by Miscanthus culture, more specifically under field conditions; (iii) higher environmental availability for Cd than for Pb and Zn was found in both conditions; and (iv) overall, a higher bioaccessible fraction for Pb (about 80 %) and Cd (65-77 %) than for Zn (36-52 %) was recorded in the gastric phase, with a sharp decrease in the intestinal phase (18-35 % for Cd, 5-30 % for Pb, and 36-52 % for Zn). Compared to soils without culture, the results showed that phytostabilization using Miscanthus culture provided evidence for substantial effects on oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  20. The Hunsrück biota: A unique window into the ecology of Lower Devonian arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jes; Bergmann, Alexandra; Bartels, Christoph; Schoenemann, Brigitte; Sedlmeier, Stephanie; Kühl, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    The approximately 400-million-year old Hunsrück biota provides a unique window into Devonian marine life. Fossil evidence suggests that this biota was dominated by echinoderms and various classes of arthropods, including Trilobita, stem lineage representatives of Euarthropoda, Chelicerata and Eucrustacea, as well as several crown group Chelicerata and Eucrustacea. The Hunsrück biota's exceptional preservation allows detailed reconstructions and description of key-aspects of its fauna's functional morphologies thereby revealing modes of locomotion, sensory perception, and feeding strategies. Morphological and stratigraphic data are used for a critical interpretation of the likely habitats, mode of life and nutritional characteristics of this diverse fauna. Potential predators include pycnogonids and other chelicerates, as well as the now extinct stem arthropods Schinderhannes bartelsi, Cambronatus brasseli and Wingertshellicus backesi. Mainly the deposit feeding Trilobita, Marrellomorpha and Megacheira, such as Bundenbachiellus giganteus, represents scavengers. Possibly, opportunistic scavenging was also performed by the afore-mentioned predators. Most of the studied arthropods appear to have been adapted to living in relatively well-illuminated conditions within the photic zone. Fossil evidence for associations amongst arthropods and other classes of metazoans is reported. These associations provide evidence of likely community structures.

  1. The prevalence of anti-leptospiral agglutinins in sera of wildlife in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A R; Wilks, C R; Spratt, D M; Presidente, P J

    1981-04-01

    Anti-leptospiral agglutinins were found in the serum from 18 (7 species) of 419 (25 species) animals sampled from various areas of southeastern Australia. Positive serologic reactions were observed in 5 of 25 (20%) brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), 1 of 26 (3.8%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), 2 of 12 (16.7%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 1 of 3 (33.3%) koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), 3 of 41 (7.3%) common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), 2 of 100 (2%) bush rat (Rattus fuscipes) and 4 of 12 (25%) rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). The majority (55.5%) of serologic reactions were to serovar hardjo. No serologic reactions were observed in samples from echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), swainson's antechinus (Antechinus swaisonsii), long-nosed bandicoot (Perameles nasuta), brown bandicoot(Isoodon obesulus), common ringtail (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), greater glider (Schoinobates volans), eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), water rat (Hydromys chrysogaster), black rat (Rattus rattus), eastern swamp rat (Rattus lutreolus), broad-toothed rat (Mastacomys fuscus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), hog deer (Axis porcinus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). PMID:7241704

  2. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  3. Shedding light on the microbial community of the macropod foregut using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Maree Gulino

    Full Text Available Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering. Thirty-two OTUs were identified as 'shared' OTUS (i.e. present in all samples belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales. These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry.

  4. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  5. Interspecific variation in the diets of herbivores in an industrial environment: implications for exposure to fluoride emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; Death, Clare E; Coulson, Graeme; Newby, Lora; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric fluorides (gaseous and particulate) are deposited on, and absorbed by, vegetation. Ingested fluoride accumulates in calcified tissues of vertebrates, and if it is excessive, it may lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis. The prevalence, form and severity of the effects vary greatly between species. Foraging strategy can be an important determinant of fluoride exposure in herbivores, because foliar fluoride concentrations vary between plant species, for example, according to vertical and lateral position in the vegetation. We combined microhistological analysis of diet and analysis of foliar fluoride levels to examine interspecific variation in dietary fluoride exposure of macropodid marsupials (swamp wallaby Wallabia bicolor, red-necked wallaby Notamacropus rufogriseus and eastern grey kangaroo Macropus giganteus), in the buffer zone of an aluminium smelter in Victoria, Australia. Dietary niche differentiation between species was evident. The swamp wallaby and the red-necked wallaby were browsers or mixed feeders, depending on the classification system used. The eastern grey kangaroo was a grazer, consuming almost entirely grasses. However, foliar fluoride did not vary significantly between the main plant groups consumed. Our results indicate that interspecific variation in diet at this site is unlikely to explain variation in fluoride exposure. PMID:26873827

  6. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release.

  7. Managing Multiple Mandates: A System of Systems Model to Analyze Strategies for Producing Cellulosic Ethanol and Reducing Riverine Nitrate Loads in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housh, Mashor; Yaeger, Mary A; Cai, Ximing; McIsaac, Gregory F; Khanna, Madhu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Al-Qadi, Imad; Jain, Atul K

    2015-10-01

    Implementing public policies often involves navigating an array of choices that have economic and environmental consequences that are difficult to quantify due to the complexity of multiple system interactions. Implementing the mandate for cellulosic biofuel production in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and reducing hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico by reducing riverine nitrate-N loads represent two such cases that overlap in the Mississippi River Basin. To quantify the consequences of these interactions, a system of systems (SoS) model was developed that incorporates interdependencies among the various subsystems, including biofuel refineries, transportation, agriculture, water resources and crop/ethanol markets. The model allows examination of the impact of imposing riverine nitrate-N load limits on the biofuel production system as a whole, including land use change and infrastructure needs. The synergies of crop choice (first versus second generation biofuel crops), infrastructure development, and environmental impacts (streamflow and nitrate-N load) were analyzed to determine the complementarities and trade-offs between environmental protection and biofuel development objectives. For example, the results show that meeting the cellulosic biofuel target in the RFS using Miscanthus x giganteus reduces system profits by 8% and reduces nitrate-N loads by 12% compared to the scenario without a mandate. However, greater water consumption by Miscanthus is likely to reduce streamflow with potentially adverse environmental consequences that need to be considered in future decision making. PMID:26348783

  8. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (pfluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure.

  9. Importance of Chemolithoautotrophic Production to Mobile Benthic Predators in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E.; Macavoy, S.; Carney, R.

    2005-05-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico is characterized by substantial hydrocarbon seepage which provides reduced energy sources, both CH4 and H2S, for chemolithoautotrophs existing as endosymbionts within mussels and tubeworms found in dense colonies that provide habitat for an array of endemic and colonial fauna. The extent of trophic export of chemosynthetic biomass to the seep communities and the surrounding benthic communities in the Gulf, however, remains an open question. To elucidate the nutritional associations between seep residents and the surrounding benthos the carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotope values of the hagfish Eptatretus sp., the giant isopod Bathynomus giganteus and the predatory snail Phymorhyncus sp. were interpreted through a three source, dual isotope mixing model. The model was able to assess the contributions of different isotopic signals to a mixture and thus could distinguish between photosynthetic/phytodetritus based sources, methanotrophic sources and thiotrophic sources. Incorporation of chemosynthetic based food sources was minimal on the whole and species specific; however some of the organisms considered in this study did incorporate nutrition from chemolithoautotrophic sources.

  10. The influence of drought and heat stress on long-term carbon fluxes of bioenergy crops grown in the Midwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eva; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Zeri, Marcelo; Masters, Michael D; Miller, Jesse N; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; DeLucia, Evan H; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2016-09-01

    Perennial grasses are promising feedstocks for bioenergy production in the Midwestern USA. Few experiments have addressed how drought influences their carbon fluxes and storage. This study provides a direct comparison of ecosystem-scale measurements of carbon fluxes associated with miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), restored native prairie and maize (Zea mays)/soybean (Glycine max) ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of a naturally occurring drought during 2012 on key components of the carbon cycle and plant development relative to non-extreme years. The perennials reached full maturity 3-5 years after establishment. Miscanthus had the highest gross primary production (GPP) and lowest net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in 2012 followed by similar values for switchgrass and prairie, and the row crops had the lowest GPP and highest NEE. A post-drought effect was observed for miscanthus. Over the duration of the experiment, perennial ecosystems were carbon sinks, as indicated by negative net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB), while maize/soybean was a net carbon source. Our observations suggest that perennial ecosystems, and in particular miscanthus, can provide a high yield and a large potential for CO2 fixation even during drought, although drought may negatively influence carbon uptake in the following year, questioning the long-term consequence of its maintained productivity. PMID:27043723

  11. Closing the Carbon Budget in Perennial Biofuel Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Bernacchi, C.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Masters, M. D.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    At present, some 40% of corn grown in the United States, accounting for more than 26 million acres of farmland, is processed for bioethanol. Interest has arisen in converting biofuel production from corn grain ethanol to cellulosic ethanol, derived primarily from cellulose from dedicated energy crops. As many cellulosic biofuel feedstocks are perennial grasses, conversion from annual corn cropping to perennials represents a substantial change in farming practices with the potential to alter the plant-soil relationship in the Midwestern United States. Elimination of annual tillage preserves soils structure, conserving soil carbon and maintaining plant root systems. Five years of perennial grass establishment in former agricultural land in Illinois has shown a significant change in soil carbon pools and fluxes. Atmospheric carbon exchange monitoring combined with vegetation and soil sampling and respiration measurements confirm that in the first 3 years (establishment phase), perennial giant grasses Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum rapidly increased belowground carbon allocation >400% and belowground biomass 400-750% compared to corn. Following establishment, perennial grasses maintained below- and aboveground annual biomass production, out-performing corn in both average and drought conditions. Here we offer a quantitative comparison of the carbon allocation pathways of corn and perennial biofuel crops in Midwestern landscapes, demonstrating the carbon benefits of perennial cropping through increased C allocation to root and rhizome structures. Long rotation periods in perennial grasses combined with annual carbon inputs to the soil system are expected to convert these agricultural soils from atmospheric carbon sources to carbon sinks.

  12. Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

  13. Assessing the invasive potential of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.R. [The Nature Conservancy, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tancig, K.J. [PO Box 116455, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Onderdonk, D.A.; Gantz, C.A. [Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Twelve taxa under exploration as bioenergy crops in Florida and the U.S. were evaluated for potential invasiveness using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment system (WRA) modified for separate assessment at the state and national scales. When tested across a range of geographies, this system correctly identifies invaders 90%, and non-invaders 70% of the time, on average. Predictions for Florida were the same as for the U.S. Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis, Jatropha curcas, Leucaena leucocephala, Pennisetum purpureum, and Ricinus communis were found to have a high probability of becoming invasive, while Miscanthus x giganteus, Saccharum arundinaceum, Saccharum officinarum, and the sweet variety of Sorghum bicolor have a low probability of becoming invasive. Eucalyptus amplifolia requires further evaluation before a prediction is possible. These results are consistent with reports on other tests of these taxa. Given the economic and ecological impacts of invasive species, including the carbon expended for mechanical and chemical control efforts, cultivation of taxa likely to become invasive should be avoided. (author)

  14. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  15. Two late-Glacial avifaunas from eastern North Island, New Zealand : Te Aute Swamp and Wheturau Quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late-Glacial faunas from Wheturau Quarry near Gisborne and Te Aute, near Napier, North Island, New Zealand, are described and radiocarbon dates presented. These faunas suggest that the eastern North Island was covered in open shrubland until 10,500 years BP. There were significant changes in the fauna of the eastern North Island during the Early Holocene, when the dominant moa species was replaced; the key species Cnemiornis gracilis disappeared from the fauna; and others, such as Euryanas finschi became scarce. The Wheturau fauna includes the largest collection of Cnemiornis gracilis bones yet found, and a storm petrel that may be Oceanites maorianus, named from three skins collected last century off Banks Peninsula. The Te Aute site is notable for the large number of moa bones preserved, especially Euryapteryx curtus and Dinonnis giganteus. It is also the type locality for Diornis gazella Oliver, Cnermiornis gracilis Forbes, Circus teauteensis Forbes, Circus hamiltoni Forbes, and Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major Forbes. The record of Harpagornis moorei from Te Aute is shown to have been an error in identification by Hamilton, and Harpagornis is therefore unknown in the North Island. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Influência do sistema de condução do tomateiro sobre a incidência de doenças e insetos-praga Influence of the training systems of tomato plants on the incidence of diseases and insect-pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernando Wamser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos métodos de tutoramento e de condução de plantas de tomate sobre a severidade de doenças foliares e sobre a incidência de pragas em frutos em diferentes cultivares. Dois experimentos foram realizados em 2004/2005 e 2005/2006 em Caçador, SC. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de duas cultivares (Carmen e Débora Max, em 2004/2005, e Nemo Netta e San Vito, em 2005/2006; quatro métodos de tutoramento (cruzado, 'mexicano', vertical com bambu e vertical com fitilho e dois métodos de condução de plantas (com uma e duas hastes por planta mantendo o mesmo número de hastes por área em parcelas sub-subdivididas. Foram avaliadas as severidades de requeima, pinta-preta e mancha bacteriana nas folhas e a porcentagem de frutos com danos causados por doenças fisiológicas ou fitopatológicas e por brocas. Os métodos de tutoramento vertical proporcionaram menor severidade de requeima, pinta-preta e mancha bacteriana nas folhas e ataque de brocas nos frutos, em relação ao método de tutoramento cruzado. A severidade de doenças foliares e porcentagem de frutos com ataque de brocas não diferiram entre métodos de condução de plantas.The effect of different methods of staking and training tomato plants was investigated to determine the severity of leaf damage and the incidence of pests in fruits of different cultivars. Two experiments were carried out in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, in Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of the combination of two cultivars, Carmen and Débora Max, in 2004/2005, and Nemo Netta and San Vito, in 2005/2006; four staking methods, crossed fence, 'Mexican', vertical staking with bamboo and vertical staking with polypropylene cord; and two training methods, one and two stems per plant keeping the same number of stems per area. Severities of late blight, early blight and bacterial spot in leaves and the percentage of fruits with physiological and phytopathological

  17. Microepidemia de histoplasmose na zona rural de Brasília - DF - 1967: II - Estudos Epidemiológico e Parasitológico da Fonte de Infecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Schmidt

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são relatadas pesquisas parasitológicas e epiâemiológicas realizadas numa provável fonte de infecção de Histoplasmose da área rural do D. F. - Brasília, onde 14 pessoas contraíram a doença. Os estudos clínico, imunológico e radiológico foram anteriormente descritos. Os autores conseguiram isolar o H. capsulatum do solo da caverna e das vísceras e do sangue de morcegos (Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus, Pallas 1767 que nela habitavam. Resultaram negativas as tentativas de isolamento do fungo de animais sentinelas (cobaios, assim como não se obteve neles a viragem dos testes intradérmicos com histoplasmina. Em impressões de vísceras dos morcegos, constataram-se formas semelhantes as do T. gondii que posteriormente foram isoladas, em camundongos jovens, por inoculação de vísceras maceradas e sangue. Foram encontrados 2 ectoparasitos nos morcegos: Boophilus microplus e um díptero da família Streblidae. O ácaro albergava tripomastigotos do tipo cruzi, não sendo porém conseguido seu isolamento. No tubo digestivo dos quirópteros, foram retirados nematódeos (Histiostrongylus octaeantus e cestódeos do gênero Mathevotaenia. Foram capturados, em torno da entrada da caverna, 2 exemplares de Cercomys cunicularis apereoide não sendo examinados sob o ponto de vista parasitológico. Testes intradérmicos realizados em 826 habitantes da área resultaram positivos em 184 (22,27%. A gruta, fonte da infecção, está localizada em uma formação calcárea, pertencente à série Bambuí, acreditando-se, pelos aspectos tectônicos, ser da idade siluriana. No Brasil, o isolamento de H. capsulatum de solo, guanos de morcegos e vísceras de roedores já tinham sido realizados; contudo, esta foi a primeira vez que se conseguiu isolá-lo do solo de uma caverna, fonte de infecção, e das vísceras e sangue de morcegos. Os resultados obtidos com os testes intradérmicos com histoplasmina demonstraram a prevalência de

  18. Imaturos de Culicidae (Diptera encontrados em recipientes instalados em mata residual no munícipio de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Immature specimens of Culicidae (Diptera found in installed recipients in forest fragments in the Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. C. Zequi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentos de mata na área urbana ou periurbana podem ser locais favoráveis a procriação de Culicidae. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo levantar as espécies de culicídeos que utilizam criadouros artificiais, suas coexistência e as flutuações populacionais em uma reserva de mata localizada em Londrina - PR. Realizou-se coletas quinzenais de outubro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 em pneus e internódios de bambu armadilha que foram instalados ao nível do solo e outros internódios instalados a 2 m de altura. Coletou-se 12.656 espécimes, pertencentes a cinco gêneros e 11 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes nos criadouros foram Limatus durham Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 e Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894. O maior número de indivíduos foi coletado em pneus, sendo que Limatus durham e Aedes terrens, apresentaram preferência nesse criadouro. A presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, Aedes albopictus e Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924 em diferentes coletas indica que esse tipo de ambiente não deve ser ignorado nas ações de controle de vetores, merecendo constante monitoramento.Forest fragments in an urban area were found to be a situable site for Culicidae breeding. This research aims to inventory the Culicidae species that use artificial breeding sites, their coexistence, and the population variation in a fragment forest in the Londrina City, Paraná State. Biweekly collecting efforts were performed from October 1995 to September 1996 using tires and bamboo internodes traps installed at a ground level and bamboo internodes traps at two 2 m height. A total of 12,656 culicid specimens belonging to five genus and 11 species were collected. The most abundant species in those artificial breeding sites were Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Couple & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 and

  19. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reator UASB e filtro anaeróbio em série seguidos de filtro biológico percolador Treatment of swine wastewater in UASB reactor and anaerobic filter in series followed of trickling filter

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    Rose Maria Duda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de um reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB seguido de um filtro anaeróbio, instalados em série, com volume total de 300 L e 190 L, respectivamente, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. As cargas orgânicas volumétricas aplicadas no reator UASB foram de 12,4;15,5; 23,2 e 26,3 g DQOtotal (L d-1. Para o pós-tratamento do efluente do sistema anaeróbio em dois estágios utilizou-se um filtro biológico percolador com volume total de 250 L. O meio suporte utilizado nos filtros anaeróbio e biológico percolador foi composto por anéis de bambu. No sistema de tratamento anaeróbio e de pós-tratamento foram observadas eficiências médias de remoção de demanda química de oxigênio total (DQOtotal, sólidos suspensos totais (SST, nitrogênio total (NT, fósforo total (P-total, Cu e Zn de até 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 e 98%, respectivamente.The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB followed by the anaerobic filter, installed in series, was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater. The total volume of UASB and anaerobic filter were of 300 L and 190 L, respectively. The organic load rate applied on the reactor UASB were of 12.4, 15.5, 23.2 and 26.3 g total COD (L d-1. For the post-treatment of effluent the anaerobic system was used a trickling filter with total volume of 250 L. The supports used in the anaerobic filter and trickling filter were composed by bamboo rings. The efficiencies of removal the chemical oxygen demand, total solids suspended, nitrogen, total phosphorus, Cu and Zn were of up to 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 and 98%, respectively, for the anaerobic and aerobic treatment system.

  20. Parasitismo natural de ovos de triatomíneos por Telenomus fariai lima, 1927 no laboratório

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    Alexandre José Fernandes

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro/89 verificou-se que o insetário do Centro de Estudos Emmanuel Dias - Bambuí/MG apresentava alta infestação pelo micro himenóptero Telenomus fariai. Em 529 ovos de Panstrongylus megistus e Triatoma vitticeps examinados, 375 (70,9% apresentavam 1043 exemplares de T. fariai, sendo 955 (91,4% fêmeas e 90 (8,6% machos. A seguir, verificou-se também oparasitismo de ovos de Triatoma infestans, e ausência de infestação de ovos de Rhodnius neglectus. As médias de parasitóide por ovo observadas foram de 7,9 em P. megistus; 8,7 em T. vitticeps e 10 em T. infestans. A importância do relato deve-se à possibilidade da infestação de colônias mantidas para fins de pesquisa a partir da introdução em insetários de ovos procedentes do campo, com o estabelecimento de altas taxas de infestação e acentuado declínio da criação. O isolamento e a eliminação dos parasitóides pelo manejo dos ovos parasitados e vedação dos frascos do insetário com tecido de malha estreita (em tomo de 0,25mm mostraram-se eficientes no controle do T. fariai.In november/89 in the insectary of Centro de Estudos "Emmanuel Dias"/Bambui-MG a high infestation by the microhymenoptera T. fariai was found. Among the 529 eggs examined from P. megistus and T. vitticeps, 375(70.9% of them showed a total of1045parasites (91.4% females and 8.6% males. Later on it was found that T. infestans eggs were also parasitised by T. fariai but not those from R. neglectus. The observedparasitoid/egg average was 7.9 in P. megistus; 8.7 in T. vitticeps and 10 in T. infestans. The present report has special importance considering the real possibility ofT. fariai infestation due to the access of infested triatomine eggs from field captures inducing great damage to colonies maintainedfor research purposes. These eggs have to be carefully examined, isolated and eliminated. This procedure and the closing of triatomine containers with thin net (0.25 mm is show to be efficient in T

  1. SURVEI DINAMIKA PENULARAN MALARIA DI DESA BANJARETNO, KECAMATAN KAJORAN, KABUPATEN MAGELANG, JAWA TENGAH

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    Ristiyanto Ristiyanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam rangka menurunkan angka endemisilas malaria di Kabupaten Magelang telah dilakukan studi dinamika penularan. Tujuan survei dinamika penularan ini adalah mengetahui proses terjadinya penularan malaria dan faktor-faktor risiko kejadian malaria. Lokasi survei di Desa Banjaretno, Kecamatan Kajorun, Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah, Juni 2004. Metode survei adalah metode survei dinamika penularan yang telah distandardkan dalam pelatihan ICDC. Hasil survei parasit malaria menunjukkan bahwa 5 orang (5,10% dari 98 orang mengandung parasit Plasmodium falciparum. Hasil survei entomologi di liga rumah kasus malaria diperoleh angka man baiting rate (MBR nyamuk Anopheles aconitus di dalam rumah 0,5/jam/orang dan di luar rumah 1,08/jam/orang. Parity rate nyamuk tersebut 0%. Tempat perindukan di sekitar rumah kasus malaria adalah sawah, kolam, dan saluran irigasi. Penanaman padi tidak serempak, sehingga, tempat perindukan An. aconitus tersedia sepanjang tahun. Kepadatan larva nyamuk An. aconitus berkisar antara 0,3-2,1 perciduk. Hasil survei perilaku pada 31 responden (5 kasus malaria dan 26 orang tetangga kasus malaria diketahui bahwa pengetahuan, dan sikap responden mendukung untuk melakukan pencegahan penularan malaria (80% dari 31 responden, tetapi tidak diikuti dengan tindakan mencegah malaria (39,76% dari 31 responden. Semua rumah kasus malaria berdinding kayu atau bambu, belum menggunakan langit-langit, jendela dan ventilasi belum rapat nyamuk (100% rumah kasus malaria. Kebiasaan pada malam hari (5 kasus malaria yang mendukung penularan malaria adalah kebiasaan menonton TV bersama-sama pada malam hari dengan keadaan pintu dan jendela terbuka. Pelayanan kesehatan oleh Puskesmas tidak melakukan kunjungan rutin ke daerah endemis malaria karena tidak ada JMD. Hasil survei dinamika penularan ini memperlihatkan bahwa penularan malaria di Desa Banjaretno. Kecamatan Kajoran, Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah terjadi pada musim kemarau, di dalam rumah pada

  2. Obtenção de derivado de celulose a partir do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com potencial aplicação nas indústrias farmacêutica e cosmética

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    DANYELLA MARçAL SILVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A tendência de se buscar o desenvolvimento de novos veículos agregando sustentabilidade e qualidade é o desafio da pesquisa farmacêutica. Assim, a busca de novas fontes de matéria-prima parece ocupar uma grande parcela dos estudos e investimentos do setor farmacêutico. Desse modo, a celulose é um exemplo de matéria-prima com alta aplicabilidade nas indústrias farmacêutica e cosmética. Temos na natureza algumas espécies de angiospermas com potencial fornecimento de celulose, tais como coco, bambu, cana-de-açúcar, entre outras. Destas, o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar apresenta teores de celulose significativos para obtenção de compostos derivados. O Brasil ocupa o primeiro lugar na produção de etanol e açúcar através da utilização da cana-de-açúcar. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar uma dispersão obtida a partir de um composto derivado da celulose extraída do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Palavras-chave: Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Subprodutos. Celulose. Géis. ABSTRACT Assessment of a gel derived from sugarcane bagasse cellulose The development of new vehicles combining sustainability and quality is a challenge facing pharmaceutical research. Thus, the search for novel raw material sources seems to occupy a great portion of the studies and investments of the pharmaceutical sector. One example of such a raw material with wide applicability in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries is cellulose. There are several angiosperm species with potential as suppliers of cellulose, such as coconut, bamboo and sugarcane, to name a few found in Brazil. Bagasse, the fibrous residue from crushed sugarcane, has a significant cellulose content from which new compounds can be derived. Brazil currently occupies first place in the production of ethanol and sugar from sugarcane. The aim of the present study was to assess a dispersion obtained from a derivative of the cellulose extracted from sugarcane pulp. Keywords

  3. Chemostratigraphy of stable chromium isotopes in cap carbonate sequences - tracing the aftermath of Earth's Neoproterozoic icehouse climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, R.; de Andrade Caxito, F.; Gaucher, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era (1000-542 Ma) was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe. Of special interest are often occurring associations of glacial deposits with warm climate carbonate platforms, features which are preferentially explained to have resulted from extreme icehouse-greenhouse fluctuations unprecedented in the Phanerozoic record. Despite local differences in the sedimentation regime (clastic, mixed or carbonate), these events are represented by glacial deposits of diverse nature, overlain by distinctive "cap carbonate" sequences. The chemostratigraphy (particularly of δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr signatures) of carbonate sequences has been invoked as a promising alternative tool for regional and global correlation., and these signatures provide proxies for seawater composition at the time of deposition, and may indirectly signalize climatic fluctuations on land. We studied a cap carbonate profile pertaining to the Bambuí Group (Sete Lagoas Formation; Correntina section; previously studied by Caxito et al., 2012)) in the north central part of the São Franciso basin in Brazil. This section lies atop Archean to Paleoproterozoic gneisses of the São Francisco craton basement. The section begins with two-metre thick massive to finely laminated pink dolostone which grade upward into a reddish to purple limestone rhythmite. δ53Cr values of the cap dolostone are within the range typical of magmatic inventory signatures (δ53Cr = 0.1 +/- 0.1 permil; Schoenberg et al., 2008). Our preliminary few first data from the sequence above the cap dolostones show magmatic values also for samples from within the first 20 metres of laminated limestones, which then tend to increase to δ53Cr values of ~+0.3 permil in the following ca. 100 metres of carbonates. Although our data set at this stage is sparse, we note a trend that δ53Cr values correlate with fluctuations of δ13C and δ18O values (Caxito et al., 2012). These

  4. Efeito inibidor dos extratos hidroalcóolicos de coberturas mortas sobre a germinação de sementes de cenoura e alface Inhibitory effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of five plant species used as mulches on germination of lettuce and carrot seeds

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    Cláudio L. M. de Souza

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a prospecção fitoquímica e avaliar o efeito inibitório dos extratos hidroalcóolicos de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa, capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, mucuna (Mucuna aterrima e serrapilheira de bambu (Bambuza spp., sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e cenoura. O teste de germinação foi conduzido sobre papel umedecido com extrato das espécies citadas diluídos em 25, 50, 75 e 100 % (v/v, e água destilada. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de final e o índice de velocidade de germinação. O índice de velocidade de germinação e a porcentagem de germinação de sementes de cenoura e alface, reduziram significativamente nas diluições de 50 a 100 % (v/v em relação as demais diluições e ao controle. O extrato de mucuna apresentou significativamente maior efeito inibidor em comparação com os demais extratos testados, principalmente sobre a germinação de sementes de alface. A prospecção fitoquímica indicou a presença de classes de substâncias com potencial alelopático.Studies were undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from dry mass of plant species used as mulches: Melinis minutiflora, Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum, Mucuna aterrima and bamboo leaves (Bambuza spp.. The inhibitory activity was measured on germination tests of lettuce and carrot seeds. Five extract concentrations of each species were used: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % (v/v. The rate of speed germination and percentage of germination of both species decreased significatly in function of the extract concentrations in the range from 50 to 100 % (v/v. Mucuna aterrima extract was significatly more inibitory than the other extracts, mainly for lettuce seeds. Bioassays with extracts showed the presence of several groups of alleopathic compounds.

  5. PROTEROZOIC STROMATOLITES FROM CENTRAL BRAZIL: PALAEOECOLOGICAL AND TECTONIC SETTING IN PARANOA AND BAMBUI GROUPS%巴西中部元古代Paranoá和Bambui群叠层石的古生态和构造背景

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    EMGUIMARA^~ES; LSOARES; TFAIRCHILD; MADARDENNE

    2003-01-01

    Stromatolite morphologies and their terrigenous sediment association indicate depositional basin tectonic gin basin (Dardenne & Faria, 1986), while the other two groups represent a foreland basin (Guimaraes, 1993,1997, 1998, Dardenne et al. , 1998). The sediments of the Vazante Group were deposited near the mountain which forms the Brasilia Fold Belt; however, most of the area of Bambui Group originated in a cratonic region. Generalstromatolite buildings are associated with variations in environmental conditions. However, very often changes in the columnar growth direction and irregular terrigenous-rich intercalations into stromatolites characterize tectonically active settings such as in Vazante Group and in the western portion of the Paranoa and Bambui groups.%叠层石的形态和它们与陆源沉积的关系反映了沉积盆地的构造背景.在巴西中部地区,叠层石出现在中元古和新元古代的Paranoa群、Vazante群和Bambui群.根据沉积学和矿物学的研究分析,Paranoá群形成于被动边缘盆地,而另外两个群形成于前陆盆地.Vazante群沉积在形成巴西褶皱带的山脉附近,然而Bambui群的大部分都形成于克拉通地区.通常远离山脉褶皱带的Paranoá群和B2mbuí群内的叠层石建造的形态和规模的改变与环境的变化有关.在柱状生长方向的频繁变化和不规则的丰富陆源物质的夹层进入叠层石,表征活跃的构造背景,例如在Vazante,Paranoá群和Bambuí群的西部.

  6. CARACTERIZAÇÃO GEOMORFOLÓGICA DA REGIÃO DE AURORA DO TOCANTINS, BRASIL

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    Fernando de Morais

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos de geomorfologia do carste são contemporâneos ao próprio surgimento dessa ciência. A abordagem do revelo cárstico sob a ótica geomorfológica teve suas origens na região da atual Eslovênia, onde os trabalhos até hoje assumem o papel de vanguarda no desenvolvimento de métodos e procedimentos nesta área das ciências geográficas. No Brasil, os primeiros estudos apresentavam cunho mais paleontológico que geomorfológico, sendo mais desenvolvidos na porção centro-sul do país. O estado do Tocantins tem sido, mais recentemente, alvo de várias expedições exploratórias organizadas pela Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia e pela Universidade Federal do Tocantins. Assim, o presente estudo visa fazer uma explanação sobre os aspectos geomorfológicos gerais da área cárstica de Aurora do Tocantins, que apresenta o maior potencial para a ocorrência de cavernas no estado. Para tal, foram elaborados mapas temáticos sobre os aspectos fisiográficos da área além de terem sido realizados trabalhos de campo para a exploração e caracterização das maiores cavernas da área estudada. Os resultados apontaram que a maioria das cavidades que estão em franco processo de crecimento se desenvolveu sobre rochas calcárias do Grupo Bambuí. Estas feições estão em áreas dominadas por agricultura e pastagens, sendo que algumas delas utilizadas para a disposição de resíduos sólidos, a exemplo das dolinas e fendas calcárias.

  7. Topolitossequências de solos do Alto Paranaíba: atributos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos Topolitosequences of soils in Alto Paranaíba region: physical, chemical and mineralogical properties

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    Fernando Cartaxo Rolim Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pouco se conhece sobre a diferenciação pedogenética no Alto Paranaíba (MG, quando são comparados materiais de composição química tão variada, como tufitos, rochas ígneas alcalinas e ultramáficas e carbonatitos, todos de ocorrência na região. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar física, química e mineralogicamente os solos representativos de três topolitossequências do Alto Paranaíba. Para isso, foram descritos e coletados 11 perfis de solos, entre os municípios de Serra do Salitre, Patrocínio e Coromandel, representando as variações litológicas na faixa do contato geológico entre os grupos Bambuí, rochas vulcânicas ultramáficas e Araxá. Nas amostras de solos foram realizadas análises físicas e químicas de rotina, além de determinações de Fe, Al e Si após extração por ataque sulfúrico; Fe por DCB e oxalato; Fe, Ca, Mg, K, P, Ti e outros metais pesados após digestão total (ataque triácido; e determinação dos diferentes componentes da fração argila por difratometria de raios X. Os Latossolos do Alto Paranaíba são extremamente intemperizados e com índices Ki e Kr muito baixos, indicativos de solos ricos em óxidos de Fe e de Al, não possuindo uma filiação definida com os materiais de origem subjacente, indicando intensa pedoturbação e provável mistura com materiais alóctones. As assinaturas geoquímicas indicativas da natureza ultramáfica são os teores elevados de Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe e Mg. A mineralogia da fração argila dos Latossolos indica a coexistência de vermiculita com hidroxi-Al entrecamadas, caulinita, gibbsita e anatásio, evidenciando uma gênese policíclica dos minerais da fração mais fina e o elevado grau de intemperismo. Nos Cambissolos, a rápida dessilificação atual conduz à coexistência de gibbsita e óxidos de Fe com esmectitas e illitas, em virtude da rápida ação do intemperismo nos substratos de rochas máficas ou ultramáficas-alcalinas, pobres

  8. O falso dilema sobre a luta antivetorial e as perspectivas de controle da doença de Chagas no Brasil: BHC ou BNH? The false dilemma about antivectorial strategies and possibilities for controlling Chagas' disease in Brazil: BHC or BNH?

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    José R. Coura

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available As bases técnicas para o controle da doença de Chagas no Brasil foram estabelecidas com a criação do posto avançado de pesquisa do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz em Bambuí, no oeste de Minas Gerais, no começo da década de 40, sob a liderança de Emmanuel Dias. Entretanto, somente com a criação do Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais (DNERu, em março de 1956, sob a direção de Mario Pinotti, no governo de Juscelino Kubitschek, as medidas de controle foram implementadas. Das "campanhas" de controle das 12 endemias rurais estabelecidas pelo DNERu, a malária, pelo seu caráter de doença aguda e explosiva, sempre teve a maior parte orçamentária. A doença de Chagas e as outras endemias foram sempre relegadas a um plano secundário de prioridade. Por outro lado, a partir da década de 60, os "novos ecologistas" passaram a criticar o uso de inseticidas, com o slogan de que para controlar a doença de Chagas era necessário o BNH (construção de casas, e não o BHC (uso de inseticidas. Esta opinião, embora equivocada para o controle a curto prazo, teve uma enorme influência negativa sobre o controle dos vetores domiciliados. Apesar disso, algum progresso foi feito neste sentido. Na década de 70, a epidemia de meningite meningocócica e a priorização do Programa Especial de Controle da Esquistossomose (PECE, pelo Ministro Almeida Machado, com deslocamento de verbas e de pessoal da Superintendência de Campanhas (Sucam para esses programas, atrasaram ainda mais o controle da doença de Chagas. Somente na década de 80, com a decisão política do Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES de alocar 10 bilhões de cruzeiros do Finsocial, o programa de controle da doença de Chagas teve um importante desenvolvimento em 2.000 municípios de 19 Estados brasileiros. Mais uma vez o programa sofre um atraso nesta década, com o deslocamento do pessoal da Sucam para a campanha contra a epidemia da dangue. Finalmente, conclu

  9. Emissions of methane and carbon dioxide during anaerobic decomposition of aquatic macrophytes from a tropical lagoon (São Paulo, Brazil Emissões de metano e dióxido de carbono da decomposição de macrófitas aquáticas de uma lagoa tropical (São Paulo, Brasil

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    Irineu Bianchini Jr.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Massive accumulations of aquatic sedimentary plant are the main source of CH4 and CO2 emissions in floodplain lakes. To examine this connection, this study measured CO2 and CH4 formation during anaerobic decomposition of aquatic macrophytes from a floodplain lake; METHODS: Methane formation was determined to the intrinsic characteristics of the debris, and the experimental (physical and chemical conditions. Production of CH4 and CO2 were measured during anaerobic degradation of seven aquatic macrophytes: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Ludwigia inclinata, Oxycaryum cubense, and Utricularia breviscapa, all of which inhabit the littoral zone of the lagoon studied; RESULTS: Overall, methanogenesis was more sensitive to temperature variation than gross anaerobic mineralization. Although the metabolic routes that generate CO2 were always predominant, as a competing process methanogenesis was favored by increasing temperature to the detriment of CO2 formation. Although several factors (such as pH, redox potential, salinity and nutrients availability influenced yields of the final degradation products, temperature and detritus chemical composition were, in a first approach, the key factors in CH4 formation. In the oxbow lakes of the Mogi-Guaçu River Floodplain, especially Óleo Lagoon, on average, 10% of the total carbon can be regarded as the yield of CH4 formation derived from aquatic macrophyte decay, while the remaining carbon (90% became CO2.OBJETIVO: Acúmulos intensos de plantas nos sedimentos são importantes fontes de emissões de CH4 e CO2 em lagoas de várzea de inundação. Nesse estudo foram determinadas as formações de CH4 e CO2 da decomposição anaeróbia de macrófitas aquáticas de uma lagoa marginal; MÉTODOS: A formação do metano foi determinada com base nas características intrínsecas dos detritos e das condições experimentais. As produções de CH4 e CO2 foram determinadas durante

  10. 南极Gerlache海峡海鸟的取食集群及食性%Feeding aggregation and diets of seabirds at Gerlache Strait, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco FAVERO; Néstor Bubén CORIA

    2007-01-01

    Foraging associations between flying seabirds and penguins were studied from December 1997 to February 1998 at Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula. Observations were complemented with dietary information on the main species observed in aggregations. An average of 35.6±37.0 flying birds per aggregation was observed, almost all of them associated to chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica groups. The most common species were kelp gulls Larus dominicanus, South Polar skuas Catharacta maccormicki, pintado petrels Daption capensis and southern giant petrels Macronectes giganteus. The number of associations observed per sampling unit decreased as the season progressed, in some species accordingly with particular stage of their phenology. Antarctic krill Euphausia superba was particularly important in the diet of most abundant flying bird species in assemblages. The overlap index for krill sizes consumed give highest values in the comparisons between kelp gulls and chinstrap penguins. The foraging behaviour of flying birds suggested that prey was available near the surface for short time periods, likely facilitated by movements of krill avoiding penguin predation[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3):425-430,2007].%1997年12月至1998年2月,我们对南极半岛席尔瓦角善于飞翔海鸟与企鹅的取食关联性进行了研究,同时调查了取食集团中主要鸟种的食性.发现每个取食集团中有35.6-37.0只善于飞翔的海鸟,其中几乎都有纹颊企鹅群 (Pygoscelis antarctica),黑背鸥(Larus dominicanus)、灰贼鸥(Catharacta maccormicki)、花斑鹱(Daption capensis)和巨鹱(Macronectes giganteus)是各集团中最常见的鸟类.各取样单元内有相关性的种数随季节变化而减少,一些种类的减少与特定的物候期有关.南极磷虾(Euphausia superba)是绝大部分飞翔海鸟的主要食物,研究发现黑背鸥与纹颊企鹅所捕食的南极磷虾的大小最为接近.飞翔海鸟的觅食行为表明:在海面上短时停

  11. A spatial modeling framework to evaluate domestic biofuel-induced potential land use changed and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Joshua; Sharma, Bhavna; Best, Neil; Glotter, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Foster, Ian; Miguez, Fernando; Mueller, Steffen; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel bottom-up approach to estimate biofuel-induced land-use change (LUC) and resulting CO2 emissions in the U.S. from 2010 to 2022, based on a consistent methodology across four essential components: land availability, land suitability, LUC decision-making, and induced CO2 emissions. Using highresolution geospatial data and modeling, we construct probabilistic assessments of county-, state-, and national-level LUC and emissions for macroeconomic scenarios. We use the Cropland Data Layer and the Protected Areas Database to characterize availability of land for biofuel crop cultivation, and the CERES-Maize and BioCro biophysical crop growth models to estimate the suitability (yield potential) of available lands for biofuel crops. For LUC decisionmaking, we use a county-level stochastic partial-equilibrium modeling framework and consider five scenarios involving annual ethanol production scaling to 15, 22, and 29 BG, respectively, in 2022, with corn providing feedstock for the first 15 BG and the remainder coming from one of two dedicated energy crops. Finally, we derive high-resolution above-ground carbon factors from the National Biomass and Carbon Data set to estimate emissions from each LUC pathway. Based on these inputs, we obtain estimates for average total LUC emissions of 6.1, 2.2, 1.0, 2.2, and 2.4 gCO2e/MJ for Corn-15 Billion gallons (BG), Miscanthus × giganteus (MxG)-7 BG, Switchgrass (SG)-7 BG, MxG-14 BG, and SG-14 BG scenarios, respectively.

  12. Adoption of Miscanthus as a bioenergy crop on US croplands: impacts on soil carbon and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Torn, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the potential impact of cultivating Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) as a bioenergy crop on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool of the croplands of US. Similarly, the crop areas where Miscanthus can be grown up to potential yield without supplemental irrigation were identified. The productivity of Miscanthus was modeled using the biophysical model MiscanMod and spatial analysis. The productivity for harvestable biomass ranged from 11.7 to 26 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with a spatial average of 19 Mg ha-1 yr-1and a coefficient of variation of 13%. This variation resulted primarily from spatial heterogeneity of growing degree days and solar radiation interception. The model assumes adequate nutrients and moisture availability for Miscanthus growth, therefore showing a maximum possible productivity. Our result suggests that approximately 485 kg C ha-1 yr-1 would enter the SOC pool from the above ground biomass such as senesced leaves and post harvest remnants on the soil surface. Similarly, the total C input from both canopy and root system will range from 2.5 - 5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This would result in a net SOC sequestration rate of 0.36 - 0.72 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 across the croplands of the US. Productivity predictions, along with the effective rainfall estimates, were then used to project areas in which Miscanthus can be cultivated to its potential yield as a rainfed crop as well as those where it would require additional irrigation in order to meet the crop water demand. To meet the targets of the US Energy and Independence and Security Act of 2007 (36 billion gallons of biofuel ethanol per year by 2022) using Miscanthus as feedstock, 19 million ha of cropland would be needed which is 16% less than the current cropland under corn-based ethanol production.

  13. Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant phenotypes

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    Fankam Aimé G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR phenotypes is a major public health problem today in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of eleven Cameroonian spices on a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including MDR strains. Methods The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out by standard tests meanwhile the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays. Results Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and tannins in all plants extracts. The results of the antibacterial assays indicated that all tested extracts exert antibacterial activities, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values varying from 32 to 1024 μg/ml. The extracts from Dichrostachys glomerata, Beilschmiedia cinnamomea, Aframomum citratum, Piper capense, Echinops giganteus, Fagara xanthoxyloïdes and Olax subscorpioïdea were the most active. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor, PAßN, the activity of the extract from D. glomerata significantly increased on 69.2% of the tested MDR bacteria. At MIC/5, synergistic effects were noted with the extract of D. glomerata on 75% of the tested bacteria for chloramphenicol (CHL, tetracycline (TET and norfloxacin (NOR. With B. cinnamomea synergy were observed on 62.5% of the studied MDR bacteria with CHL, cefepime (FEP, NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP and 75% with erythromycin (ERY. Conclusion The overall results provide information for the possible use of the studied extracts of the spices in the control of bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes.

  14. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge.

  15. Revisión del género Polytrichadelphus (Müll. Hal. Mitt. (Polytrichaceae:musci para Colombia

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    Aponte Angélica

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la revisión de las especies colombianas de Polytrichadelphus (Polytrichaceae: Musci. El género posee un amplio rango de variación morfológica. Se reconocen siete especies para Colombia: Polytrichadelphus abriaquiae, P. aristatus, P. ciliatus, P. giganteus, P. longisetus, P. purpureus y P. valenciae; distribuidas principalmente en los bosques de niebla y vegetación de páramo. Las especies de Polytrichadelphus se encuentran sobre varios sustratos en taludes, sobre el suelo y sobre roca. Se realizó el estudio de taxonomía numérica del género Polytrichadelphus en Colombia, para lo cual se emplearon análisis de agrupamiento de grupo par con ligamiento promedio no ponderado (UPGMA y métodos de ordenación (análisis de componentes principales para establecer las relaciones fenéticas entre especies y obtener los caracteres más importantes para su delimitación. Se estudiaron un total de 20 caracteres morfológicos en 114 ejemplares del género, sometiendo 92 de ellos a los análisis numéricos. Se presenta una clave de identificación y para
    cada taxón la descripción, distribución geográfica (con mapas en Colombia, ecología y observaciones, la ilustración y la lista de especímenes estudiados.

  16. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

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    Estelle Bourdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene flu-vio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corresponds to the middle Ypresian, early Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird Gastornis parisiensis (Gastornithidae. These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the late Paleocene to middle Eocene of Europe, early Eocene of Asia and early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis giganteus in several features, including the more ventral position of the narial openings and the slender orbital process of quadrate. Two tibiotarsi and one tarsometatarsus are assigned to a new genus and species of Geranoididae, Galligeranoides boriensis gen. et sp. nov. So far, this family was known only from the early and middle Eocene of North America. The fossils from La Borie constitute the first record of the Geranoididae in Europe. We show that Gastornis coexisted with the Geranoididae in the early Eocene of both Europe (La Borie and North America (Willwood Formation. The presence of Geranoididae and the large flightless bird Gastornis on either side of the present-day North Atlantic provides further evidence that a high-latitude land connection existed between Europe and North America in the early Eocene.

  17. Rapid soil organic carbon re-accumulation after bamboo invasion on recovering landslide scars in a subtropical forest ecosystem of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Jien, Shih-Hao; Lin, Zan Liang; Chen, Ting-Chien; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Li-Chin; Mentler, Axel; Hein, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon-induced landslides occasionally strip parts of the landscape off its vegetative cover and soil layer and export large amounts of biomass and soil organic carbon (OC). The resulting landslide scars remain low in OC and vulnerable for re-activation for several years until closed vegetation is re-established. In the subtropical mountains of Taiwan and in other parts of the world, bamboo species may invade at a certain point in the succession of recovering landslide scars. Bamboo has a high potential for carbon sequestration because of its fast growth and dense rooting system. However, it is still largely unknown how these properties translate into soil OC re-accumulation rates after landslide disturbance. In this study, we investigated a chronosequence with 5 different sites on former landslide scars in the Alishan area in Central Taiwan, ranging in age from 6 to 53 years post disturbance. The younger landslide scars were colonized by Miscanthus giganteus, while after approx. 15 to 20 years of succession, bamboo (Phyllostachys) species were dominating. Biomass and soil OC stocks were measured on the recovering landslide scars and compared to an old-growth Cryptomeria japonica forest stand in the same area. Humic acids were extracted from the newly formed soils of the recovering landslide scars and analyzed for molecular characteristics. Biomass carbon accumulated rapidly in bamboo stands but was significantly lower compared to the old-growth coniferous forest. However, soil OC stocks on the recovering landslide scars approached the levels of the old-growth forest after only few decades of succession. Similarly, humic acid characteristics (obtained from fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy) rapidly changed in the early phase of succession but seemed to stabilize during the later phase of landslide recovery. Our results demonstrate the high potential of bamboo for below-ground OC sequestration and storage, and show that the fresh OC inputs are rapidly converted to

  18. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ(13)C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  19. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM THREE SPECIES OF POACEAE ON ANOPHELES GAMBIAE SPP, MAJOR VECTOR OF MALARIA

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    Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the insecticidal activities on Anopheles gambiae spp of the essential oils (EO extracted from the dry leaves of some species collected in Benin were studied. The essential oil yields are 2.8, 1.7 and 1.4�0respectively for Cymbopogon schoanenthus (L. Spreng (CS, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CC and Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst. Chiov (CG. The GC/MS analysis showed that the EO of CS had a larger proportion in oxygenated monoterpenes (86.3�20whereas those of the sheets of CC and CG are relatively close proportions (85.5�0and 82.7�0respectively with. The piperitone (68.5�  2-carene (11.5� and -eudesmol (4.6�20are the major components of the EO of CS while trans para-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (31.9� trans para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (19.6� cis para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7.2� trans piperitol (6.3�20and limonene (6.3�20prevailed in the EO of CG. The EO of CC revealed a rich composition in geranial (41.3� neral (33� myrcene (10.4� and geraniol (6.6� The biological tests have shown that these three EO induced 100�0mortality of Anopheles gambiae to 1.1, 586.58 and 1549 µg•cm-2 respectively for CC, CS and CG. These effects are also illustrated by weak lethal concentration for 50�0anopheles population (CC: 0.306; CS: 152.453 and CG: 568.327 µg•cm-2 in the same order of reactivity. The EO of CC appeared most active on two stocks (sensitive and resistant of Anopheles gambiae.

  20. Candidate perennial bioenergy grasses have a higher albedo than annual row crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy presents the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biogeophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observational and model based approaches have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biogeophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo (α), which could alter the local energy balance and cause local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. Here, we established paired fields of Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional annual row crops in the highly productive "Corn-belt". Our results show that miscanthus did and switchgrass did not have an overall higher α than current row crops but a strong seasonal pattern existed. Both perennials had consistently higher growing season α than row crops and winter α did not differ. The lack of observed differences in winter α, however, masked an interaction between snow cover and species differences, with the perennial species, compared with the row crops, having a higher α when snow was absent and a much lower α when snow was present. Overall, these changes resulted in an average net reduction in annual absorbed energy of about 5 W/m2 for switchgrass and about 8 W/m2 for miscanthus relative to annual crops. Therefore, the conversion from annual row to perennial crops alters the radiative balance of the surface via changes in α and could lead to regional cooling.

  1. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Delucia, Evan; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of three potential perennial grass bioenergy crops, Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and an assemblage of prairie species (28 species), and Zea mays-Glycine max rotation, during the establishment phase in Illinois. Ecosystem WUE (EWUE; net ecosystem productivity vs. ET) was highest in miscanthus, reaching a maximum value of 12.8 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the third year, followed by switchgrass (7.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1) and prairie (3.9 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1); the row crop was the lowest. Besides EWUE, harvest-WUE (HWUE, harvested biomass vs. ET) and net biome productivity-WUE (BWUE, calculated as net ecosystem production - harvest vs. ET) were also estimated for all crops and years. After three years of establishment, HWUE and BWUE were highest in miscanthus (9.0 ± 2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively) providing a net benefit to the carbon balance, while the row crops had a negative carbon balance and a negative BWUE. BWUE for maize/soybean indicate that this ecosystem would deplete the soil carbon stocks while using the water resources. Switchgrass had the second highest BWUE, while prairie was almost neutral indicating that long-term carbon sequestration for this agro-ecosystem would be sensitive to harvest timing with an early harvest removing more biomass, and thus carbon, from the field.

  2. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

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    Delia Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  3. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Microascaceae with emphasis on synnematous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, M; Guarro, J; Cano-Lira, J F; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; de Hoog, G S; Abbott, S P; Decock, C; Sigler, L; Gené, J

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of the synnematous genera Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus, and other related genera Gamsia, Wardomyces and Wardomycopsis, has been controversial and relies mainly on morphological criteria. These are microascaceous saprobic fungi mostly found in air and soil and with a worldwide distribution. In order to clarify their taxonomy and to delineate generic boundaries within the Microascaceae, we studied 57 isolates that include clinical, environmental and all the available ex-type strains of a large set of species by means of morphological, physiological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data of four loci (the ITS region, and fragments of rDNA LSU, translation elongation factor 1α and β-tubulin). The results demonstrate that Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus are congeneric and the genus Cephalotrichum is accepted here with Echinobotryum as a further synonym. The genera Acaulium and Fairmania, typified by A. albonigrescens and F. singularis, respectively, are distinct from Microascus and Scopulariopsis, Gamsia is distinct from Wardomyces, and Wardomycopsis is confirmed as a separate genus in the Microascaceae. Two new species of Cephalotrichum are described as C. brevistipitatum and C. hinnuleum. Nine new combinations are proposed, i.e. Acaulium acremonium, A. caviariforme, Cephalotrichum asperulum, C. columnare, C. cylindricum, C. dendrocephalum, C. gorgonifer, Gamsia columbina and Wardomyces giganteus. A neotype is designed for C. stemonitis. Lectotypes and epitypes are designated for A. acremonium, A. albonigrescens, C. gorgonifer, C. nanum and W. anomalus. Cephalotrichum cylindricum, C. microsporum, F. singularis and Gamsia columbina are also epitypified with new specimens. Descriptions of the phenotypic features and dichotomous keys for identification are provided for accepted species in the different genera. PMID:27616803

  4. A deimmunised form of the ribotoxin, α-sarcin, lacking CD4+ T cell epitopes and its use as an immunotoxin warhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tim D.; Hearn, Arron R.; Holgate, Robert G.E.; Kozub, Dorota; Fogg, Mark H.; Carr, Francis J.; Baker, Matthew P.; Lacadena, Javier; Gehlsen, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal ribotoxins that block protein synthesis can be useful warheads in the context of a targeted immunotoxin. α-Sarcin is a small (17 kDa) fungal ribonuclease produced by Aspergillus giganteus that functions by catalytically cleaving a single phosphodiester bond in the sarcin–ricin loop of the large ribosomal subunit, thus making the ribosome unrecognisable to elongation factors and leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Peptide mapping using an ex vivo human T cell assay determined that α-sarcin contained two T cell epitopes; one in the N-terminal 20 amino acids and the other in the C-terminal 20 amino acids. Various mutations were tested individually within each epitope and then in combination to isolate deimmunised α-sarcin variants that had the desired properties of silencing T cell epitopes and retention of the ability to inhibit protein synthesis (equivalent to wild-type, WT α-sarcin). A deimmunised variant (D9T/Q142T) demonstrated a complete lack of T cell activation in in vitro whole protein human T cell assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors with diverse HLA allotypes. Generation of an immunotoxin by fusion of the D9T/Q142T variant to a single-chain Fv targeting Her2 demonstrated potent cell killing equivalent to a fusion protein comprising the WT α-sarcin. These results represent the first fungal ribotoxin to be deimmunised with the potential to construct a new generation of deimmunised immunotoxin therapeutics. PMID:27578884

  5. Changes in N-transforming archaea and bacteria in soil during the establishment of bioenergy crops.

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    Yuejian Mao

    Full Text Available Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the soil by monitoring the changes in the quantity (real-time PCR and diversity (barcoded pyrosequencing of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA and nosZ and 16S rRNA genes over two years after bioenergy crop establishment. The quantities of these N-cycling genes were relatively stable in all four crops, except maize (the only fertilized crop, in which the population size of AOB doubled in less than 3 months. The nitrification rate was significantly correlated with the quantity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA not bacteria (AOB, indicating that archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers. Deep sequencing revealed high diversity of nifH, archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nosZ and 16S rRNA genes, with 229, 309, 330, 331 and 8989 OTUs observed, respectively. Rarefaction analysis revealed the diversity of archaeal amoA in maize markedly decreased in the second year. Ordination analysis of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing results showed that the N-transforming microbial community structures in the soil under these crops gradually differentiated. Thus far, our two-year study has shown that specific N-transforming microbial communities develop in the soil in response to planting different bioenergy crops, and each functional group responded in a different way. Our results also suggest that cultivation of maize with N-fertilization increases the abundance of AOB and denitrifiers, reduces the diversity of AOA, and results in significant changes in the structure of denitrification community.

  6. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  7. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ(13)C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  8. Biofuel Induced Land Use Change effects on Watershed Hydrology and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, I.; Cibin, R.; Frankenberger, J.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Volenec, J. J.; Brouder, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    High yielding perennial grasses such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and crop residues such as corn stover are expected to play a significant role in meeting US biofuel production targets. We have evaluated the potential impacts of biofuel induced land use changes on hydrology, water quality, and ecosystem services. The bioenergy production scenarios, included: production of Miscanthus × giganteus and switchgrass on highly erodible landscape positions, agricultural marginal land areas, and pastures; removal of corn stover at various rates; and combinations of these scenarios. The hydrology and water quality impacts of land use change scenarios were estimated for two watersheds in Midwest USA (1) Wildcat Creek watershed (drainage area of 2,083 km2) located in north-central Indiana and (2) St. Joseph River watershed (drainage area of 2,809 km2) located in Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan. We have also simulated the impacts of climate change and variability on environmental sustainability and have compared climate change impacts with land use change impacts. The study results indicated improved water quality with perennial grass scenarios compared to current row crop production impacts. Erosion reduction with perennial energy crop production scenarios ranged between 0.2% and 59%. Stream flow at the watershed outlet were reduced between 0.2 and 8% among various bioenergy crop production scenarios. Stover removal scenarios indicated increased erosion compared to baseline condition due reduced soil cover after stover harvest. Stream flow and nitrate loading were reduced with stover removal due to increased soil evaporation and reduced mineralization. A comparison of land use and climate change impacts indicates that land use changes will have considerably larger impacts on hydrology, water quality and environmental sustainability compared to climate change and variability. Our results indicate that production of biofuel crops can be optimized at the landscape level to provide

  9. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge. PMID:26841773

  10. Regional Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Production--Scaling Biogeochemical Cycles in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanloocke, A.; Bernacchi, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recently there has been increasing socio-economic and scientific interest in the use of alternative sources of energy to offset the negative effects of current fossil fuel dependence and consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, one of the most popular alternatives is to use ethanol produced from domestically grown crops for use as fuel in the transportation sector. In 2007, over 7.5 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in the U.S. from corn, a traditional food crop. Recent research indicates that it may be logistically impractical, ecologically counterproductive (i.e. a net carbon source), and economically devastating to produce ethanol from crops previously grown to produce food. The EBI (Energy Biosciences Institute, at University of California Berkley and University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign) is now conducting research to assess the ability of traditional crops as well as dedicated biofuel feedstocks (e.g. Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus), and Saccharum spp (sugar cane)) to provide a productive and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel. This is an important step to take before implementing the large-scale growth necessary to meet U.S. energy needs .A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS (Agricultural Integrated Biosphere Simulator) was adapted to simulate the growth of Miscanthus. The model was calibrated using data collected from sites at the University of Illinois south farms. Simulations indicated significant implications on the regional carbon and water budgets. Next this locally validated method will be extrapolated to simulate the regional scale growth of Miscanthus in the Midwestern U.S. and sugarcane in Brazil and a similar analysis will be conducted for switchgrass. The results should provide insight on optimal land-use decisions and legislation that regard meeting energy demands and mitigating climate change in the near future.

  11. Carbon and Water Fluxes of Crops Exposed to the Sequence of Naturally Occurring Heat Stress, Drought and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, E.; Miller, J. N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    As a consequence of global climate change the occurrence of extreme weather events (heat waves, cold spells, drought, etc) are predicted to become more frequent and/or intense, which will likely have a large impact on crop production. In the winter of 2013/2014 several polar vortexes were experienced in Illinois, US, resulting in periods of extreme low temperatures between -20°C and -35°C. Prior to the extreme cold winter of 2013/2014 the region experienced drought over a hot summer in 2012. Four established fields of three perennial biofuel crops (Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum L., and a mixture of native prairie species) and Zea mays/Glycine max agroecosystem have been studied since 2009 in order to investigate the effect of climate change and land-use change on carbon and water fluxes using the eddy covariance technique, as well as biomass production of these species. The combined effect of the heat and drought stress in 2012 resulted in severe water deficit of all species (up to -360 mm for miscanthus), which resulted in reduced net ecosystem exchange (NEE) during the drought for all species other than miscanthus. In the following year, during the recovery of these species from drought, miscanthus showed decreased NEE but the other species did not appear to be negatively influenced. As a consequence of the environmental stresses (heat and drought stress followed by extreme freezing), the water and carbon exchanges (such as ET, NEE, GPP, Reco) as well as growth parameters (LAI, biomass production) are shown to vary based on the stress tolerance of these species.

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics of eight different biomass fuels and comparison of combustion and emission results in a small scale multi-fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical parameters of the eight biomass fuels examined were all different. • Significant differences were found in Proximate, Ultimate and TGA results. • Energy outputs were not proportionate to dry matter energy content. • Highest flue ash production from fuels with highest fines content. • Flue gas emissions varied significantly, NOx levels correlated with fuel N content. - Abstract: This study describes the results from the investigation of 7 different biomass fuel types produced on a farm, and a commercial grade wood pellet, for their physical, chemical, thermo-gravimetric and combustion properties. Three types of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, two species of conifers, forest residues (brash), commercially produced wood-pellets and a chop harvested energy grass crop Miscanthus giganteus spp., (elephant grass) were investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in most of the raw fuel parameters examined using particle distribution, Thermogravimetric, Ultimate and Proximate analysis. Combustion tests in a 120 kW multi-fuel boiler revealed differences, some significant, in the maximum output, energy conversion efficiency, gaseous emission profiles and ash residues produced from the fuels. It was concluded that some of the combustion results could be directly correlated with the inherent properties of the different fuels. Ash production and gaseous emissions were the aspects of performance that were clearly and significantly different though effects on energy outputs were more varied and less consistent. The standard wood pellet fuel returned the best overall performance and miscanthus produced the largest amount of total ash and clinker after combustion in the boiler

  13. How Seasonal Drought Affect Carbon and Water Fluxes of Alternative Energy Crops in the US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, E.; Hussain, M. Z.; Zeri, M.; Masters, M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The cellulosic biomass of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and native prairie are considered candidate second-generation biofuels, potentially resulting in partial replacement annual row crops within the Midwestern US. There is an increasing focus to study the environmental impact of agricultural crops, however not much is known on the influence on the energy, carbon and water cycles of energy crops, especially under drought conditions. This study compares the impact of drought episodes (in 2011 and 2012) on evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE; equals to NEP/ET) for Switchgrass (SW), Miscanthus (MXG), Maize (MZ) and native prairie (NP) grown in Central Illinois using the eddy covariance technique. Due to the prolonged drought and the rapid growth development with increasing ET of MXG in 2012, large water deficit (precipitation-ET) was observed for each species up to the highest deficit of -360 mm for this species. The gross primary production (GPP) of MZ was radically decreased by the drought in 2011 and 2012, while SW and NP were not influenced. MXG increased NEP throughout the typically wet and drought years, mainly due to the decrease in respiration and by the largest GPP upon the drought in 2012. Despite having the largest water deficit, MXG showed an enhanced WUE of 12.8 and 11.4 Kg C ha-1mm-1 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, in comparison to years typical to the region with WUE of 3.7-7.3 Kg C ha-1mm-1. Other species did not show a significant enhancement of WUE. Therefore we conclude that out of the studied species, MXG has more access to water, and uses this water the most efficiently to store carbon, under drought conditions.

  14. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  15. Assessing the Impacts of Land Use Change from Cotton to Perennial Bioenergy Grasses on Hydrological Fluxes and Water Quality in a Semi-Arid Agricultural Watershed Using the APEX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Ale, S.; Rajan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP) region, where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is grown in vast acreage, has the potential to grow perennial bioenergy grasses. A change in land use from cotton cropping systems to perennial grasses such as Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. [Poaceae]) can significantly affect regional hydrologic cycle and water quality. Assessing the impacts of this potential land use change on hydrology and water quality enables the environmental assessment of feasibility to grow perennial grasses in this region to meet the U.S. national bioenergy target of 2022. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used in this study to assess the impacts of replacing cotton with switchgrass and Miscanthus on water and nitrogen balances in the upstream subwatershed of the Double Mountain Fork Brazos watershed in the THP, which contains 52% cotton land use. The APEX model was initially calibrated against observed streamflow and crop yield data. Since observed data on nitrogen loads in streamflow was not available for this subwatershed, we calibrated the APEX model against the SWAT-simulated nitrogen loads at the outlet of this subwatershed, which were obtained in a parallel study. The calibrated APEX model was used to simulate the impacts of land use change from cotton to Miscanthus and switchgrass on surface and subsurface water and nitrogen balances. Preliminary results revealed that the average (1994-2009) annual surface runoff decreased by 84% and 66% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios compared to the baseline scenarios. Average annual percolation increased by 106% and 57% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios relative to the baseline scenarios. Preliminary results also indicated Miscanthus and switchgrass appeared to be superior to cotton in terms of better water conservation and water quality, and minimum crop management requirements.

  16. A review of molecular-clock calibrations and substitution rates in liverworts, mosses, and hornworts, and a timeframe for a taxonomically cleaned-up genus Nothoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-09-01

    Absolute times from calibrated DNA phylogenies can be used to infer lineage diversification, the origin of new ecological niches, or the role of long distance dispersal in shaping current distribution patterns. Molecular-clock dating of non-vascular plants, however, has lagged behind flowering plant and animal dating. Here, we review dating studies that have focused on bryophytes with several goals in mind, (i) to facilitate cross-validation by comparing rates and times obtained so far; (ii) to summarize rates that have yielded plausible results and that could be used in future studies; and (iii) to calibrate a species-level phylogeny for Nothoceros, a model for plastid genome evolution in hornworts. Including the present work, there have been 18 molecular clock studies of liverworts, mosses, or hornworts, the majority with fossil calibrations, a few with geological calibrations or dated with previously published plastid substitution rates. Over half the studies cross-validated inferred divergence times by using alternative calibration approaches. Plastid substitution rates inferred for "bryophytes" are in line with those found in angiosperm studies, implying that bryophyte clock models can be calibrated either with published substitution rates or with fossils, with the two approaches testing and cross-validating each other. Our phylogeny of Nothoceros is based on 44 accessions representing all suspected species and a matrix of six markers of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA. The results show that Nothoceros comprises 10 species, nine in the Americas and one in New Zealand (N. giganteus), with the divergence between the New Zealand species and its Chilean sister species dated to the Miocene and therefore due to long-distance dispersal. Based on the new tree, we formally transfer two species of Megaceros into Nothoceros, resulting in the new combinations N. minarum (Nees) J.C. Villarreal and N. schizophyllus (Gottsche ex Steph.) J.C. Villarreal, and we also

  17. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  18. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing. PMID:25501680

  19. Bundle Sheath Leakiness and Light Limitation during C4 Leaf and Canopy CO2 Uptake1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromdijk, Johannes; Schepers, Hans E.; Albanito, Fabrizio; Fitton, Nuala; Carroll, Faye; Jones, Michael B.; Finnan, John; Lanigan, Gary J.; Griffiths, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Perennial species with the C4 pathway hold promise for biomass-based energy sources. We have explored the extent that CO2 uptake of such species may be limited by light in a temperate climate. One energetic cost of the C4 pathway is the leakiness (φ) of bundle sheath tissues, whereby a variable proportion of the CO2, concentrated in bundle sheath cells, retrodiffuses back to the mesophyll. In this study, we scale φ from leaf to canopy level of a Miscanthus crop (Miscanthus × giganteus hybrid) under field conditions and model the likely limitations to CO2 fixation. At the leaf level, measurements of photosynthesis coupled to online carbon isotope discrimination showed that leaves within a 3.3-m canopy (leaf area index = 8.3) show a progressive increase in both carbon isotope discrimination and φ as light decreases. A similar increase was observed at the ecosystem scale when we used eddy covariance net ecosystem CO2 fluxes, together with isotopic profiles, to partition photosynthetic and respiratory isotopic flux densities (isofluxes) and derive canopy carbon isotope discrimination as an integrated proxy for φ at the canopy level. Modeled values of canopy CO2 fixation using leaf-level measurements of φ suggest that around 32% of potential photosynthetic carbon gain is lost due to light limitation, whereas using φ determined independently from isofluxes at the canopy level the reduction in canopy CO2 uptake is estimated at 14%. Based on these results, we identify φ as an important limitation to CO2 uptake of crops with the C4 pathway. PMID:18971428

  20. 孝顺竹开花生物学特性及杂交试验%Flowering Biology and Crossing of Bambusa multiplex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁金玲; 顾小平; 岳晋军; 马乃训; 陈益泰

    2011-01-01

    为发掘利用孝顺竹在耐寒性和纤维品质方面的优良遗传基因,开展孝顺竹开花生物学特性和杂交试验研究.结果表明:孝顺竹花期较长,柱头可授性好,花粉生活力高,非常适宜作为杂交的亲本.孝顺竹×麻竹杂交后,以母本自交苗为对照,筛选出10株表型杂种,4个月龄时10株表型杂种的叶长、叶宽、叶长/宽、地径、发笋数、叶片形状、叶脉数、叶鞘高度、叶鞘繸毛、叶耳、叶舌等性状均介于母本自交子代与父本自交子代之间.AFLP标记分析表明:10株子代引入的父本特异位点占21.97%~28.10%,聚类分析显示10株杂种首先聚在一起,然后分别与父本和母本相聚.多数杂交子代在苗期表现出旺盛的生长势,15个月龄时杂种个体间秆箨刺毛性状呈现出较大的差别.%Bambusa multiplex ( Gramineae, Bambusoideae) is a sympodial bamboo species with relatively strong cold-resistance and good fibre quality. In this paper we studied its flowering characteristics and cross breeding. The results showed that B. multiplex was a favorable parental line with long florescence, strong stigma and pollen vigor. A cross between 6. Multiplex and Dendrocalamus latiftorus was conducted and 10 putative hybrids were selected by morphological characteristics in comparison with the maternal selfed progenies. Those 10 putative hybrids at four months old exhibited middle values in leaf length, leaf width, leaf length/width, diameter, shoot number, leaf shape, leaf veins, height of leaf sheath, cilia in leaf sheath, leaf auricle, leaf ligule, etc between the paternal and maternal selfed progenies. There were 21.97% -28. 10% paternal specific loci expressed in the 10 hybrids exposed by AFLP markers. Clustering analysis showed that the 10 hybrids were clustered together firstly and then grouped with their paternal and maternal parents. Most hybrids exhibited vigorous growth performance and cilia in culm sheath of each clone

  1. PENGGUNAAN METODE SURVEI PUPA UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI RISIKO PENULARAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI LIMA WILAYAH ENDEMIS DI DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Demam berdarah dengue (DBD adalah salah satu masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Untuk saat ini, belum ada obat atau vaksin untuk mencegah DBD. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dan pengendalian vektor menjadi sangat penting. Indikator yang digunakan untuk melakukan surveilans dalam pengawasan kepadatan populasi Ae. aegypti dan memprediksi risiko penularan adalah pupa indeks. Pupa indeks digunakan untuk mengukur HPI, CPI, pupa/orang, pupa/rumah, dan pupa/ kontainer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui habitat reproduksi terbesar, kepadatan penduduk dan persentase pupa di lima kecamatan di DKI Jakarta yaitu Johar Baru (Jakarta Pusat, Tanjung Priok (Jakarta Utara, Kramat Jati (Jakarta Timur, Kebun Jeruk (Jakarta Barat, dan Cilandak (Jakarta Selatan. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan teknik stratified random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan habitat pupa Ae. Aegypti, yaitu kontainer air (bak mandi, bak WC, drum, tempayan, bak wudhu, dan bak tandu, wadah air  tidak permanen (barang bekas, bekas sumur, vas/pot bunga, kolam/akuarium, tempat minum unggas, tatakan dispenser, wastafel dan bath tube, habitat alami (potongan bambu dan pelepah daun. Nilai rata-rata indeks pupa di lima wilayah penelitian adalah CPI = 8,45%; HPI = 23,98%; pupa/orang = 0,65; pupa/rumah = 3,58; dan pupa/kontainer = 0,96. Ada konsistensi nomor indeks di semua wilayah penelitian;  Jika indeks HPI tinggi, indeks pupa lainnya akan tinggi juga. Kata kunci: Aedes aegypti, pupa indeks, DBD Abstract Dengue fever is one of the most concerning health problems in Indonesia. For this time, there are merely no known medicines or vaccines to prevent this disease from manifesting. Rigorous studies are still conducted intensively.  Hence, vector prevention and control efforts become very important. Indicator used here to conduct surveillance, measure Ae.aegypti population density and predict transmission risk was pupa index. Pupa index was used to measure HPI, CPI

  2. Post-harvest quality of fresh-marketed tomatoes as a function of harvest periods Qualidade do tomate de mesa em função da época de colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Losses on tomato business chain start at harvest, a two-months period. At the beginning of the harvest, fruits concentrate at the basal part of the plant, then in the middle, and finally at the top, and undergo changes in diameter and maturity indexes as harvest progresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of handling at three different periods: (I 15 days, (II 30 days, and (III 45 days after the beginning of harvest. Tomatoes were ordinarily grown and harvested in to bamboo baskets, and transferred to plastics boxes. Fruits were classified according to ripening stage and diameter, and evaluated for mechanical damage and external defects caused by harvesting procedures. The time required for the harvest operation was measured; damage to fruits (% and weight loss (%, caused either in the field and/or during the harvesting process, were taken into consideration and related to the final quality of fruit after storage for 21 days. The same methodology was used all through the production and harvest cycle. The highest % fruit damage occurred during period II, a longer harvest time than the other two periods. Fruits not submitted to handling showed lower weight loss than handled fruits. Fruits harvested in period II and stored for 21 days showed higher losses due to mechanical injury.As perdas na cadeia produtiva do tomate de mesa iniciam-se no campo durante a colheita, a qual ocorre por cerca de dois meses. No inicio da colheita frutos concentram-se na parte basal da planta, posteriormente na região mediana e finalizam na parte superior. Frutos durante o período de colheita apresentam alterações quanto ao diâmetro e estádio de maturidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do manuseio durante a colheita na qualidade do tomate de mesa, cultivar 'Fanny' após 15, 30 e 45 dias, depois de iniciada a colheita. Tomates foram colhidos no sistema tradicional, utilizando-se de uma cesta de bambu e transferidos para caixas pl

  3. À propos de l' influence de la langue Portugaise

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    Fernando V. Peixoto da Fonseca

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur les mots castillans d'origine portugaise, le Prof. Rodrigo de Sá Noguiera écrit: "Il y a une série de mots castillans d'origine claire ou probable portugaise, que le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Espagnole dans la plupart des cas ou omet, ou considère comme d'origine différente". Ceux d'origine claire portugaise, ajoute cet étymologiste, sont ceux qui phonétiquement n'auraient pu avoir en espagnol la forme qu'ils revêtent dans cette langue, tandis qu'ils sont d'accord avec les règles de notre phonétique historique, existant, en outre, sous la même forme (p. ex. chato ou sembllable (p. ex. follaje dans la langue portugaise. Les suivants se trouvent dans ce cas: achantarse, achubascarse, afeitar, aldorta, brinco, barroco, canela, caramelo, cariño, chamada, chapa, chato, chaveta, chinela, chocal!o, chocho, chopa, choza, chubasco, chumacera, chus, chusma, cobra, conchabar, cortiña, desvaído, desvergoñadamente, fado, follaje, fuera, macho, malla, mermelada, morriña, nonio, pintada, vaivén, vergoña. Les vocables d'origine probable (et souvent sûre sont les exotiques, lesquels, dans l'opinion de Sá Nogueira, citée plus haut, ont pénétré dans l'espagnol à travers le portugais. Cet auteur en étudie les suivants: abada, albino, almadía, ananás, bambu, banana, bengala, betel, biombo, bonzo, cacatúa, cachimbo, cacimba, cafre, carcunda, carimbo, catinga, cha, coco, cobra, cornaca, fetiche, jangada, junco, macaco, malagueta, mandarín, mandinga, mandioca, manga, marimba, monzón, naire, pagoda et palanquín. Il est certain qu'ils sont beaucoup plus nombreux, ainsi que l'on s'en rend compte par les ouvrages de Monseigneur Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado et Georg Friederici. Quant au mot chapéu, dit le Prof. Sá Nogueira, il est difficile de garantir si l'espagnol l'a reçu du portugais, ou si le contraire a eu lieu, et c'est également compliqué le problème du mot castillan jeito, à acception differénte de la nôtre, raison pour

  4. Produção de tomate em função da "vibração" das plantas Tomato production in function of plant "vibration"

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    Andréa Reiko Oliveira Higuti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de frutos de diferentes híbridos de tomateiro em função da "vibração" das plantas. Foram avaliados cinco híbridos (AF-8651, Débora Pto, Jennifer, Miramar e Platinum e dois tratamentos de "vibração" (1- com "vibração" das plantas; 2- sem "vibração" das plantas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições, cujas parcelas foram constituídas pela "vibração" ou não "vibração" das plantas e as subparcelas pelos híbridos. O estímulo vibratório das plantas foi realizado individual e manualmente a partir do início do florescimento. Para isto, as plantas eram "vibradas", uma a uma, balançando-se o arame onde se prendia o tutor (taquara de bambu com a mão por cerca de 5 segundos, duas vezes por dia. Foram avaliados número e massa de sementes por fruto, número e massa total de frutos por planta, número e massa de frutos comerciais por planta, massa média de frutos total e comercial por fruto, porcentagem de fixação de frutos e porcentagem de frutos comerciais em relação ao total. A "vibração" das plantas de tomateiro favoreceu a liberação de grãos de pólen, e, portanto maior fixação de frutos e maior número de sementes por fruto as quais proporcionaram maior produção de frutos, com maior porcentagem de frutos comerciais nos diferentes híbridos.The experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate the production of fruits of different hybrids of tomato plants in function of plants "vibration". Five hybrids (AF-8651, Débora Pto, Jennifer, Miramar and Platinum and two treatments of "vibration" (1 - with plant "vibration"; 2 - without plant "vibration". Randomized blocks design was used with four replication and each plot was constituted by five plants, with three useful plants per plot. The vibratory stimulation of the plants was carried through individual and manually from

  5. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    , de uma a sete células nos tubos grandes e de duas a 13 nos gomos de bambu. A parede de fechamento do ninho lembrava uma célula incompleta e era coberta externamente com óleo. As células foram aprovisionadas com pólen, óleo e néctar. Os ninhos foram parasitados por Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae e por outra espécie de abelha não identificada.

  6. Clínica e terapêutica da doença de Chagas

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    Francisco S. Laranja

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available 1 - Baseados na experiência adquirida nos últimos cinco anos em Bambuí, Minas Gerais, onde mais de seiscentos casos de doença de Chagas tém sido estudados, os autores fazem uma revisão das manifestações clínicas desta doença. mencionam alguns dados sôbre a incidência da esquizotripanose e chamam a atenção para a importância social desta moléstia. 2 - Sugerem a seguinte sistematização das fórmas clinicas da esquizotripanose: a Forma aguda; b Formas crônicas: 1 - Forma indeterminada (cardiacos potenciais, 2 - Forma cardíaca (cardiopatia crônica. Os autores não encontraram no material estudado em Bambuí casos classificaveis como forma nervosa crônica. 3 - Apresentam evidências de ordem clínica e experimental que justificam admitir-se a cardiopatia crônica da doença de Chagas como entidade clinica definida. 4 - As manifestações da infecção aguda são estudadas à luz da experiência adquirida com os 103 casos agudos diagnosticados em Bambuí. Dois tipos de fenômenos edematosos podem ocorrer em pacientes com esquizotripanose aguda: o edema local, de porta de entrada do parasito, e o edema generalizado (o chamado "mixedema". A patogenia dêste último é revista e sugere-se que ele seja devido a uma hipoproteinemia. O edema local parece de natureza inflamatória. As manifestações da cardiopatia aguda da doença de Chagas são descritas. Ritmo de galope, aumento da area cardíaca (em alguns casos devido a transudato pericárdico, prolongamento do espaço P-R, alterações primárias da onda T e extra-sístoles ventriculares - constituem os sinais mais importantes para o diagnóstico da cardiopatia aguda. Bloqueio de ramo direito foi encontrado em três casos fatais de cardiopatia aguda, um dos quais apresentou também pronunciado desnivelamento de ST (padrão de injúria. A morte durante a infecção aguda é usualmente precedida por manifestações convulsivas. Na maioria dos casos as manifestações, da infec

  7. O falso dilema sobre a luta antivetorial e as perspectivas de controle da doença de Chagas no Brasil: BHC ou BNH?

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    José R. Coura

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available As bases técnicas para o controle da doença de Chagas no Brasil foram estabelecidas com a criação do posto avançado de pesquisa do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz em Bambuí, no oeste de Minas Gerais, no começo da década de 40, sob a liderança de Emmanuel Dias. Entretanto, somente com a criação do Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais (DNERu, em março de 1956, sob a direção de Mario Pinotti, no governo de Juscelino Kubitschek, as medidas de controle foram implementadas. Das "campanhas" de controle das 12 endemias rurais estabelecidas pelo DNERu, a malária, pelo seu caráter de doença aguda e explosiva, sempre teve a maior parte orçamentária. A doença de Chagas e as outras endemias foram sempre relegadas a um plano secundário de prioridade. Por outro lado, a partir da década de 60, os "novos ecologistas" passaram a criticar o uso de inseticidas, com o slogan de que para controlar a doença de Chagas era necessário o BNH (construção de casas, e não o BHC (uso de inseticidas. Esta opinião, embora equivocada para o controle a curto prazo, teve uma enorme influência negativa sobre o controle dos vetores domiciliados. Apesar disso, algum progresso foi feito neste sentido. Na década de 70, a epidemia de meningite meningocócica e a priorização do Programa Especial de Controle da Esquistossomose (PECE, pelo Ministro Almeida Machado, com deslocamento de verbas e de pessoal da Superintendência de Campanhas (Sucam para esses programas, atrasaram ainda mais o controle da doença de Chagas. Somente na década de 80, com a decisão política do Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES de alocar 10 bilhões de cruzeiros do Finsocial, o programa de controle da doença de Chagas teve um importante desenvolvimento em 2.000 municípios de 19 Estados brasileiros. Mais uma vez o programa sofre um atraso nesta década, com o deslocamento do pessoal da Sucam para a campanha contra a epidemia da dangue. Finalmente, conclu

  8. Biologia de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, e o comportamento de seus cleptoparasitas foram estudados em Monte Santo, Bahia, Brasil. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de solo e óleo, dentro de cavidades preexistentes na madeira de uma construção abandonada, assim como em gomos de bambu de 8 e 9 mm de diâmetro. Os ninhos completados tinham de uma a cinco células alongadas, arranjadas em uma série linear e orientadas horizontalmente. O tempo gasto para construir uma célula foi altamente variável, sendo em geral de 4,5 a 5,5 h. Após finalizar a construção da célula, as fêmeas fizeram uma ou duas viagens para coletar um líquido incolor, provavelmente óleo floral, usado para revestir as paredes internas da célula. Para aprovisionar uma célula foram realizadas de cinco a oito viagens de coleta para obtenção de pólen e néctar, e de quatro a seis viagens para coleta de óleo. Imediatamente após a oviposição, as fêmeas fecharam as células usando o solo que elas tinham coletado previamente. Três espécies cleptoparasitas pertencentes ao gênero Coelioxys Latreille, 1809 atacaram os ninhos. Entradas de cleptoparasitas dentro dos ninhos occorreram, na maioria dos casos, enquanto a fêmea hospedeira estava ausente do ninho. As fêmeas de C. (H. trigonoides apresentaram comportamentos defensivos para evitar parasitismo, tais como expulsar os parasitas e guardar os ninhos. Machos de C. (H. trigonoides usaram o local de nidificação como abrigo durante as horas mais quentes do dia, assim como para dormir. Eles deixavam as cavidades no dia seguinte entre 09:00 e 10:30 h. Isto sugere que machos e fêmeas têm padrões temporais de atividade distintos.The nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, and the behavior of their cleptoparasites were studied at Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil. The females constructed their nests within preexisting holes in wood

  9. Sistemas de tutoramento e épocas de transplante de physalis Periods replanting and training systems of cape-gooseberry

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    Cláudia Simone Madruga Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A physalis (Physalis peruviana é uma pequena fruta com grandes potencialidades, que, associadas ao seu ciclo curto e às propriedades nutracêuticas, apresenta possibilidade de alto retorno econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema de tutoramento e a época de transplante mais adequados para o crescimento e a produção de frutos de P. peruviana nas condições edafoclimáticas do sul do Rio Grande do Sul. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Pelotas, RS, na safra de 2007/2008. O transplante de mudas de physalis foi realizado em duas épocas (época 1, 21/11/2007 e época 2 15/01/2008, sendo as plantas tutoradas em quatro sistemas de condução (sistema "V" invertido, sistema triangular, sistema vertical com bambu e sistema vertical com fitilho, semelhantes aos utilizados na cultura do tomateiro. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, sendo cada um representado por dez plantas. Os tratamentos formaram um fatorial 2x4 (épocas de transplante x sistemas de tutoramento. As variáveis analisadas foram: incremento do comprimento e da área da seção do ramo principal, área da seção do ramo principal, produtividade e eficiência produtiva. Foi evidenciado que a primeira época de transplante associada aos sistemas de tutoramento "V" invertido e triangular proporciona melhor desempenho agronômico das plantas de physalis.The cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana is a small fruit with great potentialities that whether associated to its short cycle and nutraceutical properties it shows high economical return. The work aimed to evaluate the best training system and replant period to plant growth, production and fruit quality of P. peruviana under edaphoclimatic at conditions of southern Rio Grande do Sul. The trial was carried out in Pelotas, RS, in 2007/2008 crop. Transplanting seedlings cape-gooseberry was conducted in two seasons Plant replanting was done in two periods (period 1, 21

  10. Qualidade do tomate de mesa em diferentes etapas, da fase de pós-colheita Tomato quality in different postharvest phases

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    Marcos David Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A classificação manual para tomate de mesa e a utilização da caixa K para transporte ainda predomina em diversas regiões no Brasil. O presente trabalho buscou caracterizar frutos da cultivar Débora provenientes de plantios comerciais quanto ao estádio de maturidade, diâmetro e defeitos físicos e danos na etapa de colheita e no recebimento do produto na CEASA, de Campinas. Objetivou-se também avaliar a incidência de danos físicos, a perda de peso e alterações na qualidade em frutos retirados diretamente no campo de produção e nas etapas da colheita (1, recebimento em um barracão para classificação manual (2, após classificação manual e embalagem (3 e na comercialização do produto na CEASA (4. Para está amostragem retirou-se 120 frutos em cada etapa. Defeitos e danos físicos presentes foram analisados utilizando-se uma escala de notas. Frutos amostrados em campo já demonstravam danos físicos, provenientes principalmente da abrasão com as estacas de bambu e fios de amarrio, ataque de insetos e distúrbios fisiológicos e nutricionais. Os frutos foram colhidos predominantemente no estádio de maturação verde-maduro (48%. Na amostragem retirada na CEASA dois dias após a colheita está porcentagem era de 26,3%, com misturas de diâmetros, sendo que 55,4% dos frutos encontravam-se entre 50-60 mm e 43,9% acima de 60 mm. Observou-se um incremento nos danos físicos e na perda de peso e conseqüente perda na qualidade com o aumento do manuseio e transporte do produto. Frutos retirados diretamente da planta mostraram-se mais aptos a consumo após armazenagem por 21 dias (45% do que frutos amostrados na CEASA (5,8%.Manual classification using wooden boxes (K are still very common in Brazil. The main goal of this work was to characterize tomatoes of the cultivar Débora type, for maturity index, diameter and external defects at harvest time and at Retail Market, CEASA, Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. This research also

  11. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reatores anaeróbios horizontais seguidos de reator aeróbio em batelada sequencial Swine waste water treatment in horizontal anaerobic reactor followed by aerobic sequencing batch reactor

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    Ariane C. dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de um sistema combinado anaeróbio-aeróbio para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura, com concentrações médias de sólidos suspensos totais (SST de 18.624 e 11.395 mg L-1. Foram utilizados quatro reatores anaeróbios horizontais com volume total de 49,5 L cada, um com manta de lodo (RAHML e três de leito fixo (RAHLF, instalados em série e seguidos de um reator aeróbio operado em batelada sequencial (RBS com volume total de 339 L e com alimentação contínua. Nos RAHLF, foram utilizados como meios suporte de anéis de bambu, anéis plásticos de eletroduto corrugado e anéis de bucha (Luffa cillyndrica, respectivamente. Os tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH e as cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV aplicadas no RAHML foram de 12 e 10 h e 53 e 61 g DQO (L d-1, respectivamente. O RBS foi operado com ciclo de 24 h e COV de 0,34 e 0,50 g DQO (L d-1. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQOtotal e SST para o conjunto de reatores anaeróbios horizontais, em série, foram de 96 e 99%, e de 96 e 95%, respectivamente. As maiores produções volumétricas de metano ocorreram nos RAHLF, com valores médios de até 0,744 m³ CH4 (m³ reator d-1. A inclusão do RBS permitiu melhorar a qualidade do efluente e a estabilidade do sistema de tratamento, atingindo eficiências de remoção de DQOtotal e SST de 99 e 99%, e de 98 e 99%, respectivamente. No RBS, ocorreu nitrificação e desnitrificação, com remoções de N-amoniacal de até 65%.An anaerobic-aerobic combined system was evaluated to treat swine wastewater with an average total suspended solids (TSS concentration of 18,624 to 11,395 mg L-1. The anaerobic treatment system was constituted by four horizontal reactors each one having a total volume of 49.5 L, one with sludge blanket (HASBR and tree with fixed film (HAFFR installed in series, followed by an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR with continue feeding, with total volume of 339 L. In the

  12. Landscape patterns of bioenergy in a changing climate: implications for crop allocation and land-use competition.

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    Graves, Rose A; Pearson, Scott M; Turner, Monica G

    2016-03-01

    Rural landscapes face changing climate, shifting development pressure, and loss of agricultural land. Perennial bioenergy crops grown on existing agricultural land may provide an opportunity to conserve rural landscapes while addressing increased demand for biofuels. However, increased bioenergy production and changing land use raise concerns for tradeoffs within the food-energy-environment trilemma. Heterogeneity of climate, soils, and land use complicate assessment of bioenergy potential in complex landscapes, creating challenges to evaluating future tradeoffs. The hypothesis addressed herein is that perennial bioenergy production can provide an opportunity to avoid agricultural land conversion to development. Using a process-based crop model, we assessed potential bioenergy crop growth through 2100 in a southern Appalachian Mountain region and asked: (1) how mean annual yield differed among three crops (switchgrass Panicum virgatum, giant miscanthus Miscanthus x giganteus, and hybrid poplar Populus x sp.) under current climate and climate change scenarios resulting from moderate and very high greenhouse gas emissions; (2) how maximum landscape yield, spatial allocation of crops, and bioenergy hotspots (areas with highest potential yield) varied among climate scenarios; and (3) how bioenergy hotspots overlapped with current crop production or lands with high development pressure. Under both climate change scenarios, mean annual yield of perennial grasses decreased (-4% to -39%), but yield of hybrid poplar increased (+8% to +20%) which suggests that a switch to woody crops would maximize bioenergy crop production. In total, maximum landscape yield increased by up to 90 000 Mg/yr (6%) in the 21st century due to increased poplar production. Bioenergy hotspots (> 18 Mg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) consistently overlapped with high suburban/exurban development likelihood and existing row crop production. If bioenergy production is constrained to marginal (non-crop) lands

  13. Factors influencing biochar hydrophobicity and the influence of biochar content on the hydrological and erosional response of a silt loam under simulated rainfall

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    Aston, Steve; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The production of biochar and its application to soil has the potential to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation while simultaneously improving soil quality. Several authors have reported that biochar is hydrophobic. Few studies to date have investigated the effects of biochar on soil hydrology and erosion during rainfall. Hydrophobicity was assessed by using a goniometer to measure water-droplet contact-angles on the surfaces of biochar particles. Biochars were produced from Salix viminalis, Miscanthus giganteus and Picea sitchensis feedstocks that were pyrolyzed at 350, 500, 600 and 800° C in a nitrogen-purged tube furnace. The influence of biochar on soil hydrology was investigated using hydrophobic biochar produced from hardwoods pyrolysed in a ring kiln at ~400° C. The biochar was ground and sieved to organic matter content of soils and eroded sediments was measured by loss-on-ignition. The hydrophobicity of biochar was influenced both by the initial material (biomass type and particle size) and the pyrolysis temperature. For each biomass type, hydrophobicity was reduced with increasing pyrolysis temperature. This can be attributed both to the destruction of alkyl functionalities and shrinkage of particles during pyrolysis, smoothing their surfaces. A biochar content of 5g kg-1 did not affect the aggregate stability of a silt loam, but biochar contents of 25 and 50 g kg-1 reduced aggregate stability by 11 and 23% respectively. Lower aggregate stability accelerated formation of surface seals in soils with high biochar content, so rainwater infiltration was reduced, meaning runoff coefficients increased with increasing biochar content. Sub-surface flow was reduced with increasing biochar content. Biochar content did not affect the total amounts of sediment eroded by runoff and splashing from soils of differing biochar content. However, correlations between rainfall duration and erosion became weaker with increasing biochar content. The

  14. Regional Impacts of Miscanthus Biofuel Feedstock Production on the Hydrologic Cycle

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    Vanloocke, A. D.; Twine, T. E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2009-12-01

    Socio-economic and scientific interest toward the use of renewable energy to offset fossil fuel dependence and greenhouse gas emissions is increasing. Currently, the majority of the US renewable energy production is focused on replacing gasoline with corn ethanol. In 2008, 18% of the US corn yield was used to displace ~5% of US gasoline consumption. This represents progress toward meeting the goals of offsetting 30% of liquid fossil fuel consumption by 2030 as established by the US government in the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI). However, a growing body of research indicates that it may not be beneficial or even possible for corn ethanol alone to meet the AEI goals. Highly productive bioenergy feedstocks requiring fewer inputs such as Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus) are ideal candidates, relative to maize, to provide a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel. It is anticipated that Miscanthus is likely to have minimal environmental impacts and could be potentially beneficial to the environment. In order to meet the AEI goals, Miscanthus production on the scale of 1x10 ha would be needed. Before this level of production occurs, uncertainty over the environmental impacts of large-scale implementation should be addressed particularly with regards to the hydrologic cycle. We calibrated and evaluated a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version), to simulate the impacts of land-use-change from current land-use practices to Miscanthus production on the hydrologic cycle. Simulations for the Midwestern US (0.5°grid cell resolution) were generated using the same climate forcing for current land cover and additional scenarios where Miscanthus was planted in varying densities (10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). Analyses indicate that for most of the Midwestern US, large increases in evapotranspiration (~100 to 250 mm/yr) and decreases in drainage (~ -100 to -250 mm/yr) occur when high densities

  15. Scaling water use of perennial grasses from the plot to Midwestern U.S.

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    Bernacchi, C. J.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Hickman, G. C.; Zeri, M.; Twine, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Perennial rhizomatous C4 grasses are currently considered, in many regions, one of the most promising vegetation types to supply biomass for bioenergy production. Because one goal of bioenergy production is to benefit the environment, the potential environmental impacts and services that would be associated with large scale production must be investigated. Of particular interest is the impact that altering the composition of vegetation at the landscape scale would have on regional hydrological cycles driven by higher rates of evapotranspiration (ET). To assess this, we implemented micrometeorological measurements using two independent techniques over multiple growing seasons for replicated plots of two perennial rhizomatous grasses, Miscanthus giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and two traditional crop species, Zea mays (maize) and Glycine Max (soybean), planted throughout Central Illinois. When averaged across the entire growing season, ET for miscanthus was double relative to annual crops, and 140% of P. virgatum ET. The differences between the perennial grasses and annual crops were primarily due to longer growing season associated with the perennial grasses, but Miscanthus also demonstrated higher instantaneous water use. These results, coupled with physiological measurements of these species, were then used to parameterize and validate a dynamic vegetation model, Agro-IBIS, to investigate the large-scale consequences of land-use change on ecosystem hydrology from existing agriculture to various perennial grass production scenarios ranging from 10% to 100%. Results show that uniform production scenarios of less than 25% have little impact on regional hydrology but 'hotspots' with higher percentage land cover devoted to perennial grasses can have important consequences in localized areas. Given the increasing demand on water, we investigated whether the increased carbon gain associated with bioenergy crops was sufficient to offset the

  16. Landscape patterns of bioenergy in a changing climate: implications for crop allocation and land-use competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rose A; Pearson, Scott M; Turner, Monica G

    2016-03-01

    Rural landscapes face changing climate, shifting development pressure, and loss of agricultural land. Perennial bioenergy crops grown on existing agricultural land may provide an opportunity to conserve rural landscapes while addressing increased demand for biofuels. However, increased bioenergy production and changing land use raise concerns for tradeoffs within the food-energy-environment trilemma. Heterogeneity of climate, soils, and land use complicate assessment of bioenergy potential in complex landscapes, creating challenges to evaluating future tradeoffs. The hypothesis addressed herein is that perennial bioenergy production can provide an opportunity to avoid agricultural land conversion to development. Using a process-based crop model, we assessed potential bioenergy crop growth through 2100 in a southern Appalachian Mountain region and asked: (1) how mean annual yield differed among three crops (switchgrass Panicum virgatum, giant miscanthus Miscanthus x giganteus, and hybrid poplar Populus x sp.) under current climate and climate change scenarios resulting from moderate and very high greenhouse gas emissions; (2) how maximum landscape yield, spatial allocation of crops, and bioenergy hotspots (areas with highest potential yield) varied among climate scenarios; and (3) how bioenergy hotspots overlapped with current crop production or lands with high development pressure. Under both climate change scenarios, mean annual yield of perennial grasses decreased (-4% to -39%), but yield of hybrid poplar increased (+8% to +20%) which suggests that a switch to woody crops would maximize bioenergy crop production. In total, maximum landscape yield increased by up to 90 000 Mg/yr (6%) in the 21st century due to increased poplar production. Bioenergy hotspots (> 18 Mg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) consistently overlapped with high suburban/exurban development likelihood and existing row crop production. If bioenergy production is constrained to marginal (non-crop) lands

  17. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  18. The Interplay of Bioenergy Crop Production and Water Resource Availability in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale growing of bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), may introduce new challenges for water resource availability in the US. However, the strength of the interplay between bioenergy crop production and water resource availability is highly uncertain at the spatial scale and determined by (1) the spatial distribution of land cover types; (2) availability of soil water resources; (3) climate conditions and (4) biophysical characteristics of different bioenergy crops, such as water use efficiency (WUE), tolerances to extreme water and thermal conditions (dry, high temperature, low temperature etc.) and photoperiod adaptability, etc. To address potential water availability concerns the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops needs to be optimized by considering the maximum WUE and the minimum dependence and impact on water resource availability. To address this objective, we apply a coupled biophysical and biogeochemical model (ISAM), to investigate spatial variability in the interplay between water resources and bioenergy crop production in the US. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock and Alamo switchgrasses, and corn (grain and stover). The interplay between bioenergy crop and corn production with water resources is quantitatively evaluated by calculating WUE and average water stress for different bioenergy crops and change in plant available soil water between bioenergy crops and natural vegetation. Our results indicate that low soil water availability limits production of bioenergy grasses in central and eastern Great Plains. Growing energy grasses here strengthens water depletion and limits its potential production. Miscanthus has the highest WUE in the central Midwest, followed by corn stover and Cave-in-Rock. However, growing Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock here strengthens soil water depletion and induces water stress on their production. Though production

  19. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  20. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Chaoka, S.; Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Second generation bioenergy crops, such as miscanthus (Miscantus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), are regarded as clean energy sources, and are an attractive option to mitigate the human-induced climate change. However, the global climate change and the expansion of perennial grass bioenergy crops have the power to alter the biogeochemical cycles in soil, especially, soil carbon storages, over long time scales. In order to develop a predictive understanding, this study develops a coupled hydrological-soil nutrient model to simulate soil carbon responses under different climate scenarios such as: (i) current weather condition, (ii) decreased precipitation by -15%, and (iii) increased temperature up to +3C for four different crops, namely miscanthus, switchgrass, maize, and natural prairie. We use Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS), version 5.4.0, to capture biophysical and hydrological components coupled with a multilayer carbon and ¬nitrogen cycle model. We apply the model at daily time scale to the Energy Biosciences Institute study site, located in the University of Illinois Research Farms, in Urbana, Illinois. The atmospheric forcing used to run the model was generated stochastically from parameters obtained using available data recorded in Bondville Ameriflux Site. The model simulations are validated with observations of drainage and nitrate and ammonium concentrations recorded in drain tiles during 2011. The results of this study show (1) total soil carbon storage of miscanthus accumulates most noticeably due to the significant amount of aboveground plant carbon, and a relatively high carbon to nitrogen ratio and lignin content, which reduce the litter decomposition rate. Also, (2) the decreased precipitation contributes to the enhancement of total soil carbon storage and soil nitrogen concentration because of the reduced microbial biomass pool. However, (3) an opposite effect on the cycle is introduced by the increased

  1. The impact of extreme drought on the biofuel feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    hussain, M.; Zeri, M.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have been identified as the primary targets for second-generation cellulosic biofuel crops. Prairie managed for biomass is also considered as one of the alternative to conventional biofuel and promised to provide ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. These perennial grasses possess a number of traits that make them desirable biofuel crops and can be cultivated on marginal lands or interspersed with maize and soybean in the Corn Belt region. The U.S. Corn Belt region is the world's most productive and expansive maize-growing region, approximately 20% of the world's harvested corn hectares are found in 12 Corn Belt states. The introduction of a second generation cellulosic biofuels for biomass production in a landscape dominated by a grain crop (maize) has potential implications on the carbon and water cycles of the region. This issue is further intensified by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation to the climate change induced drought periods, as was seen during the extreme droughts of 2011 and 2012 in the Midwest. The 2011 and 2012 growing seasons were considered driest since the 1932 dust bowl period; temperatures exceeded 3.0 °C above the 50- year mean and precipitation deficit reached 50 %. The major objective of this study was to evaluate the drought responses (2011 and 2012) of corn and perennial species at large scale, and to determine the seasonability of carbon and water fluxes in the response of controlling factors. We measured net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) and water fluxes of maize-maize-soybean, and perennial species such as miscanthus, switchgrass and mixture of prairie grasses, using eddy covariance in the University of Illinois energy farm at Urbana, IL. The data presented here were for 5 years (2008- 2012). In the first two years, higher NEE in maize led to large CO2 sequestration. NEE however, decreased in dry years, particularly in 2012. On the other

  2. Contribution of stable isotopes (C,N,S) in collagen of late Pleistocene large mammal trophic ecology and landscape use: a case study in Goyet and Scladina cave (30-40,000 years BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Germonpré, Mietje

    2010-05-01

    Two Belgian caves yielded very rich large mammal associations dating around 30 to 40,000 years ago: Goyet and Scladina cave (layer 1A). These sites are only 5 km apart but the cave entrances open on different valleys, in a quite diverse landscape ranging between open, unprotected uplands, steep cliffs and sheltered sun-exposed gorges, with the larger Meuse valley nearby. This mosaic scenery permitted during the Last Glacial a rich diversity of fossil flora and fauna. The faunal association includes a large diversity of taxa including Aurochs Bos primigenius, steppe bison Bison priscus, reindeer Rangifer tarandus, giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, horse Equus ferus, woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, cave bear Ursus spelaeus, brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, cave lion Panthera leo spelaea, and cave hyaena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. All the 90 studied bones and teeth yielded collagen with excellent collagen preservation, allowing reliable investigations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic biogeochemistry. The combination of three different isotopic tracers allows to deciphering the effects of food selection and landscape use by different herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. This is the first study to include sulfur isotopic signatures in the study of late Quaternary large mammal palaeobiology. This new tracer yields evidence on mobility and differences in pasture areas, as different geological bedrock may exhibit various sulfur isotopic signatures that will pass on the herbivores and further on their predators. Using this feature in addition to the trophic information provided by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, it appears that for some species present in both sites, such as horse and woolly rhinoceros, the individuals found in each site probably did not use the same pasture areas. This seems to also the case for the overwhelmingly vegetarian cave bears. In addition, individuals from the same species

  3. Molecular evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA in Ungulata (mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzery, E; Catzeflis, F M

    1995-11-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene has been sequenced in 4 Ungulata (hoofed eutherians) and 1 marsupial and compared to 38 available mammalian sequences in order to investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA molecule. Ungulata were represented by one artiodactyl (the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, suborder Suiformes), two perissodactyls (the Grevy's zebra, Equus grevyi, suborder Hippomorpha; the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, suborder Ceratomorpha), and one hyracoid (the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The fifth species was a marsupial, the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Several transition/transversion biases characterized the pattern of changes between mammalian 12S rRNA molecules. A bias toward transitions was found among 12S rRNA sequences of Ungulata, illustrating the general bias exhibited by ribosomal and protein-encoding genes of the mitochondrial genome. The derivation of a mammalian 12S rRNA secondary structure model from the comparison of 43 eutherian and marsupial sequences evidenced a pronounced bias against transversions in stems. Moreover, transversional compensatory changes were rare events within double-stranded regions of the ribosomal RNA. Evolutionary characteristics of the 12S rRNA were compared with those of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNAs. From a phylogenetic point of view, transitions, transversions and indels in stems as well as transversional and indels events in loops gave congruent results for comparisons within orders. Some compensatory changes in double-stranded regions and some indels in single-stranded regions also constituted diagnostic events. The 12S rRNA molecule confirmed the monophyly of infraorder Pecora and order Cetacea and demonstrated the monophyly of the suborder Ruminantia was not supported and the branching pattern between Cetacea and the artiodacytyl suborders Ruminantia and Suiformes was not established. The monophyly of the order Perissodactyla was evidenced

  4. Effect of soil weathering degree on the increase of cotton biomass and silicon mineralomass after amendment with biochar highly concentrated in phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Yans, Johan; Dufour, Nicolas; Houben, David; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is beneficial for plants, but not essential. It plays a crucial role in improving the yields of Si-accumulator crops through alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses. The demand of Si fertilizers will likely increase due to soil desilication and removal of harvested biomass. Since plants accumulate Si in the form of readily soluble phytoliths, plant-derived biochar is considered as a Si source for Si accumulator crops. In addition to its beneficial effects on soil fertility and carbon sequestration, biochar is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional Si amendments. Here, we study the impact of biochar materials with different phytolith concentrations on the bioavailability of Si in soils differing in weathering stage, and its effect on cotton biomass and Si mineralomass. Two biochar materials were used: Miscanthus x giganteus (Si concentration: 34.6 g/kg) and soft woody material (Si concentration: 0.9 g/kg). A conventional wollastonite (CaSiO3) treatment was carried for comparison purpose. The concentration of bioavailable Si was determined through 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction. Biochars were incorporated at the rate of 3% (w/w) in two soils: a slightly weathered Cambisol and a highly weathered Nitisol. The Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si in the Cambisol (CaCl2 extractable Si/total Si concentration) is significantly smaller (0.9%) than the one of wollastonite (5.2%). In the highly weathered Nitisol, the Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si is much larger (1.4%) than that of wollastonite (0.7%). Miscanthus biochar significantly increases the cotton biomass and Si mineralomass relative to soft wood biochar. The increase is larger in the highly weathered Nitisol than in the slightly weathered Cambisol. Principal component analyses and linear regression show that both the larger release rate of bioavailable Si and CEC are the main factors responsible for the increase of

  5. Clitocine reversal of P-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance through down-regulation of transcription factor NF-κB in R-HepG2 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is one of the major reasons for failure in cancer chemotherapy and its suppression may increase the efficacy of therapy. The human multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1 gene encodes the plasma membrane P-glycoprotein (P-gp that pumps various anti-cancer agents out of the cancer cell. R-HepG2 and MES-SA/Dx5 cells are doxorubicin induced P-gp over-expressed MDR sublines of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and human uterine carcinoma MES-SA cells respectively. Herein, we observed that clitocine, a natural compound extracted from Leucopaxillus giganteus, presented similar cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant cell lines compared with their parental cell lines and significantly suppressed the expression of P-gp in R-HepG2 and MES-SA/Dx5 cells. Further study showed that the clitocine increased the sensitivity and intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in R-HepG2 cells accompanying down-regulated MDR1 mRNA level and promoter activity, indicating the reversal effect of MDR by clitocine. A 5'-serial truncation analysis of the MDR1 promoter defined a region from position -450 to -193 to be critical for clitocine suppression of MDR1. Mutation of a consensus NF-κB binding site in the defined region and overexpression of NF-κB p65 could offset the suppression effect of clitocine on MDR1 promoter. By immunohistochemistry, clitocine was confirmed to suppress the protein levels of both P-gp and NF-κB p65 in R-HepG2 cells and tumors. Clitocine also inhibited the expression of NF-κB p65 in MES-SA/Dx5. More importantly, clitocine could suppress the NF-κB activation even in presence of doxorubicin. Taken together; our results suggested that clitocine could reverse P-gp associated MDR via down-regulation of NF-κB.

  6. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  7. Water Use Efficiency for Establishing Biofuel Crops in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, C. J.; Zeri, M.; Hussain, M. Z.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Masters, M.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    The production of biofuels from cellulosic plant material is expected to increase worldwide as countries look for alternative sources of energy. The choice of feedstocks suitable for ethanol production from cellulosic material must take into account several factors, such as productivity, response to local climate, and environmental impacts on the carbon, nitrogen and water cycles. With regards to the carbon cycle, the best options for biofuel crops are species that are highly productive in terms of harvestable biomass, but without depleting the soil carbon pools by requiring annual tillage before planting, as is the case of corn (Zea mays), the current dominant biofuel in the US. Perennial species such as miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) have many advantages over annual crops due to the reduced use of fertilizer and less irrigation requirements relative to maize. The efficiency of plants in using water while accumulating biomass is an important factor when choosing the best biofuel crop to be planted in a certain location. Water use efficiency (WUE) is the term generally used to refer to the ratio of carbon accumulated over water used during a certain period of time. Water use efficiency is an important metric when cellulosic biofuels are considered, since it takes into account the benefits (carbon accumulated in soils or harvested) and the environmental impact (the use of water). This quantity is derived in many ways based on the metric of carbon for an ecosystem. Net ecosystem production (NEP) is the net balance of carbon derived from GPP - Re, where GPP is the gross primary production and Re is the ecosystem respiration. The ratio of NEP over total water used during the year (TWU) will be referred as EWUE, from "ecosystem" WUE. The value of EWUE represents ecological benefit of the feedstock, since it accounts for the carbon that might be accumulated in soils. Another metric is the HWUE, after "harvest" WUE, which

  8. Developing an Experimental Watershed for Monitoring the Impacts of Bioenergy Production on Marginal Lands of the Northeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, B. M.; Adler, P. R.; Kemanian, A. R.; Saha, D.; Montes, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern U.S. over 400,000 acres have been placed into conservation programs to reduce erosion and improve water quality. Most of this acreage is within the Chesepeake Bay watershed. Many of these acres may be suitable for raising second generation bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) or miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). Bioenergy production may provide a viable economic incentive to keep marginal lands in perennial crop production, and improve water quality. However, the environmental impacts and benefits of second generation bioenergy crop production are not well understood on marginal lands. We designed an experimental watershed to compare switchgrass and miscanthus production against typical conservation grasslands. The Mattern Watershed is a horseshoe shaped 1st order watershed located near Leck Kill, PA, and is representative of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Province. The upper portions of the watershed have been and are currently used for tillage corn and bean production. The lower portions of the watershed are excessively wet and have been in a conservation easement since 2005. In spring 2012 we planted eight 0.4 ha replicate plots of switchgrass (4 fertilized and 4 with no fertilizer) and four 0.4 ha plots of miscanthus into the lower portions of the watershed an additional four 0.4 ha plots were left in conservation grassland using a randomized block design. We compare biomass production, biomass elemental content, N2O emissions, soil moisture, shallow groundwater quality, surface runoff, and soil organic carbon in order to determine which treatment most effectively produces bioenergy feedstock, mitigates greenhouse gas emissions, and improves water quality. The experimental watershed will provide an unparalleled opportunity to verify and parameterize watershed, and bigeochemical models. Preliminary results suggest that early in the growing season cool season grasses minimized shallow groundwater NO3 and N2O

  9. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C B Poore

    Full Text Available The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species

  10. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  11. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  12. 丛生竹秆基各笋目的出笋成竹生物学特性研究%Study on Biological Characteristics of Bamboo Shooting from Base of Sympodial Bamboo Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益权; 顾小平; 吴晓丽; 郑仁红; 朱维双

    2011-01-01

    调查了西南地区人工栽培的梁山慈竹、撑绿竹、硬头黄竹着生于秆基两侧的4对大型芽(又叫笋目、芽眼、芽目)的出笋成竹生物学特性,计算各年龄母竹和各笋目位置的出笋率、成竹率、新竹相对生长率.结果表明:随着母竹年龄的增加,出笋成竹能力明显下降,1年生母竹出笋成竹能力最强,2年生母竹迅速下降,3年生母竹基本丧失繁殖能力;各笋目的出笋成竹能力为2目>头目>3目>4目,3目、4目显著低于头目、2目.综合分析母竹年龄和笋目位置表明:1年生母竹的头目、2目萌发力最强,是留笋长竹的最佳笋芽.通过有序样本聚类分析,将3个竹种的出笋期划分为初期、盛期和末期,初期出笋数少但成竹率高,中后期出笋数增加,但成竹率却明显下降;笋目萌发年龄和出笋时间与笋目位置有关,分布在秆基中下部的头目、2目萌发年龄较早,在出笋期的出笋时间也较早,而位于秆基中上部的3目、4目萌发年龄较迟,出笋时间也较晚.根据各笋目的出笋成竹特性,从抚育、间伐和水肥管理等方面提出了调控林分出笋的经营管理对策.%Sympodial bamboo is an important bamboo resource in China. Three sympodial bamboo plantations (Dendrocalamus farinosus, Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii, and Bambusa rigida ) planted in Southern Sichuan province were studied. Four pairs bamboo buds which located at stem basal were named at first bud, second bud, third bud and fourth bud from bottom to top in sequence, bamboo shooting and growth of four pairs bamboo buds were surveyed. The survival rate of bamboo shoots, shooting rate and relative growth rate of mother bamboos with different ages and buds location were calculated respectively. The result showed that the reproductive capacity decreased rapidly with increasing age, one-year-old mother bamboo had the best reproductive capability, but decreased quickly in the second

  13. Diet composition and foraging ecology of Asian elephants in Shangyong,Xishuangbanna, China%西双版纳尚勇亚洲象的食物组成与取食生态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进; 邓晓保; 张玲; 白智林

    2006-01-01

    .6 % ), Rosaceae (3 spp.,3.6% ), Euphorbiaceae (5 spp., 3.3% ), Ulmaceae (2 spp., 3.0% ) and Mimosaceae (4 spp., 2.9% ). The most important plants in elephants' diet are Ficus spp. ( Moraceae, 9.0 % ), Dendrocalamus spp. ( Gramineae, 4.5 % ), Musa acuminata ( Musaceae, 4.2 % ), Microstegium ciliatum ( Gramineae, 3.5 % ) and Amalocalyx yunnanensis ( Apocynaceae, 3.1% ). Asian elephants consumed a variety of plants in terms of life form, including tree, vine, shrub and herb. Early successional species comprise a higher proportion of diet than late successional plants (42 spp. taking 59% vs. 32 spp. taking 37% ). Browse species contributed a larger proportion of diet compared to grazing species (77 spp. taking 91% vs. 6 spp. taking 9% ). The number of plant taxa (species, genus, family) in elephant's diet each month is negatively correlated with monthly rainfall and mean temperature. The study may help to develop proper strategies for wildlife management especially referring to the human-elephant conflict, which is now a serious issue in the conservation of Asian elephants in this area.

  14. 内蒙古西部额济纳旗晚奥陶世生物地理和奥陶-志留系分界%LATE ORDOVICIAN BIOGEOGRAPHY AND ORDOVICIAN-SILURIAN BOUNDARY IN THE ZHUSILENHAIERHAN AREA, EJIN, WESTERN INNER MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎嘉余; 陈旭; 詹仁斌; 周志强; 郑昭昌; 王怿

    2003-01-01

    Upper Ordovician-lowest Silurian strata crop out near Danmianshan, about 10 km west of Zhusilenghaierhan Mt., about 55 km south of Yagan, 135 km east of Ejin Banner town, western Inner Mongolia (Alxa block). The strata along with their related major fossil groups (such as graptolites, corals and trilobites) have been studied by Zheng et al. (1982), Zhu et al. (1987), and Ge et al. (1990). Recent field examination in this area was carried out by the authors in the summer of 2002. Our subsequent investigation on collections has led to the discovery Holorhynchus (virgianids, Brachiopoda) from the Late Ordovician rocks, to make sure that there occur no latest Ordovician Hirnantia fauna, and to define the Ordovician-Silurian boundary on the basis of the occurrence of Normalograptus lubricus. The Ashgill brachiopod biogeography is discussed.Holorhynchus giganteus Kiaer, 1902 has been found from the Badanjilin Fomation (mid Ashgill) at the No. 3 section of Zheng et al. (1987) in this area for the first time. This is also the first record of the genus Holorhynchus in Late Ordovician of China. Holorhynchus has been known to be characterized by the total absence of a ventral median septum, together with smooth shell exterior and short, separated outer brachial plates (e.g. St. Joseph, 1938; Cocks, 1982). Through sectioning, however, the discovery of an apical median setum in ventral valve of immature specimens (less than 8mm wide) of H. giganteus led to a revised generic diagnosis for the genus (see Rong et al. in preparation). Actually, this structure is also known from an internal mold material and a transverse section of the identical species in South Norway (Cocks, 1982) and Zeravshano-Gissar Mountains, Tadzhikistan (Nikiforova and Sapel'nikov, 1973) respectively. Holorhynchus from the Badanjilin Formation at the No.3 section of Zheng et al. (1987) is associated with the brachiopods Altaethyrella, Ovalospira, Leptellina, Sowerbyella, Pectenospira, and the Agetolites

  15. A inserção institucional do controle da doença de Chagas

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    Antônio Carlos Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1943, a partir da criação do "Centro de Estudos e Profilaxia da Moléstia de Chagas" da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz de Bambuí em Minas Gerais, são concebidas as bases tecnológicas e metodológicas para o controle extensivo da enfermidade. Para isso foi decisivo o advento de um novo inseticida (o gammexane, P 530 e a demonstração de sua eficácia no controle dos vetores da doença de Chagas. Como resultado prático desses acontecimentos em "maio de 1950 foi oficialmente inaugurada, em Uberaba, a primeira campanha de profilaxia da doença de Chagas, no Brasil". Mesmo que se dispusesse desde então de meios para fazer o controle da transmissão vetorial da endemia chagásica, não se dispunha dos recursos financeiros exigidos para fazê-lo de forma abrangente e regular. O baixo nível de prioridade conferida a essa atividade se expressava em sua inserção institucional. Em 1941, foram criados os Serviços Nacionais, de malária, peste, varíola, entre outros, enquanto a doença de Chagas fazia parte da Divisão de Organização Sanitária (DOS, que reunia enfermidades consideradas de menor importância. Em 1956 o Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais (DNERu incorporou todas as chamadas grandes endemias em uma única instituição, mas na prática isso não significou a implementação das ações de controle da doença de Chagas. Com a reestruturação do Ministério da Saúde em 1970, a Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública (SUCAM abarcou todas as endemias rurais, e a doença de Chagas passou a ter o status de Divisão Nacional, na mesma posição hierárquica daquelas outras doenças transmitidas por vetores antes consideradas prioritárias. Essa condição determinou a possibilidade de uma repartição de recursos mais equilibrada, o que efetivamente ocorreu, com a realocação de pessoal e insumos do programa de malária para o controle vetorial da doença de Chagas. Em 1991, a Fundação Nacional de Saúde sucedeu a SUCAM

  16. Avaliação de coberturas mortas em cultura de alface sob manejo orgânico Evaluation of mulches on organically grown lettuce

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    Fabio F de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura morta do solo com leguminosas e gramíneas é uma prática cultural que traz benefícios aos sistemas de produção. Foi conduzido um experimento no município de Seropédica, estado do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta sobre a reinfestação de ervas espontâneas e sobre o desempenho agronômico de alface, em cultivo orgânico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas de oito plantas na área útil. Os tratamentos foram: bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., bambu (Bambuza sp., capim Cameroon (Penisetum purpureum, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, eritrina (Erythrina poeppigiana, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, guandu (Cajanus cajan, mucuna cinza (Mucuna pruriens e controle (sem cobertura dos canteiros. Estimou-se a decomposição in situ e a liberação de nitrogênio de cada cobertura morta. Foram avaliados dois ciclos consecutivos de alface, cultivar Regina, na mesma área, visando a comparar o efeito residual das coberturas mortas. Observou-se maior acúmulo de N nos resíduos vegetais das leguminosas (máximo de 1.010 kg ha-1 com mucuna-cinza. Em relação à decomposição da cobertura morta, avaliada na colheita do primeiro ciclo de alface (35 dias após o transplante, as leguminosas apresentaram percentuais inferiores aos das gramíneas de massa seca e N remanescentes. A reinfestação dos canteiros pelas ervas espontâneas não diferiu significativamente entre coberturas mortas, variando entre 31 e 58 plantas m-2, mas a redução da densidade populacional da vegetação reinfestante chegou a 83% em comparação ao tratamento controle. Em ambos os ciclos de cultivo da alface, a massa fresca (de 315,8 a 366,0 e de 202,9 a 225,0 g planta-1, respectivamente nos primeiro e segundo ciclos, o diâmetro da cabeça (de 30,8 a 31,7 e de 25,5 a 28,5 cm e o teor de N (de 32,3 a 38,8 e de 28,0 a 30,3 g kg-1 foram superiores

  17. HABITAÇÃO E ENTORNO NA TRAJETÓRIA DO BAIRRO DE CUSTODÓPOLIS

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    AZEREDO, V.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Custodópolis é um bairro da cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ estigmatizado por localizar-se do outro lado do Rio Paraíba do Sul. Ocupado por uma população vulnerável ante a pobreza em suas dimensões econômicas, de capital social, capital humano, de proteção e de habitat (BUSSO, 2002, p.12. Estas dimensões conjugadas marcam o bairro de sua origem aos dias atuais. O objetivo é resgatar esse percurso, pela via habitacional e de entorno, nas condições de vulnerabilidade e risco socioambiental. Para o alcance desse objetivo utilizou-se os recursos metodológicos de Observação Direta (com registro em diário de campo e uso de fotografia, Fonte Documental e Entrevistas Semiestruturadas (com antigos e atuais moradores. Os resultados apontaram para trajetória de precarizações. Sobre a origem do bairro não há precisão, mas na memória de antigos moradores, se remete as décadas de vinte ou trinta do século passado. O lugar foi pouco a pouco sendo ocupado por cortadores de cana, que o transformaram em ponto de encontro na espera de caminhões que os levassem para as lavouras da região. Para atendimento a essa demanda foi montada uma vendinha e aos poucos tais trabalhadores se apropriaram do território e improvisaram suas casas no meio do mato com materiais como barro, bambu, folhas de palmeira ou sapé. Na falta de telha usavam palha. Vista do alto parecia uma “Cidade de Palha”, denominação antiga do local. No seu entorno havia brejo e lagoa que cederam espaço para canaviais. Não havia ruas, mas trilhas. Nem luz só lamparina. A água era de cacimba, os muros de gaiolinhas (tipo de planta, as camas de pau, os fogões a lenha. O proprietário das terras era um médico e político chamado Custódio Siqueira que as transformou em lotes para venda e, em sua homenagem, o bairro passou a ser chamado Custodópolis. Na travessia do rural-urbano o bairro experimentou melhorias, através da oferta pública de iluminação,

  18. Start-up of horizontal anaerobic reactors with sludge blanket and fixed bed for wastewater treatment from coffee processing by wet method Partida de reatores anaeróbios horizontais com manta de lodo e de leito fixo para tratamento de águas residuárias do beneficiamento de frutos do cafeeiro por via úmida

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    Roberto A. de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was evaluated the start-up procedures of anaerobic treatment system with three horizontal anaerobic reactors (R1, R2 and R3, installed in series, with volume of 1.2 L each. R1 had sludge blanket, and R2 and R3 had half supporter of bamboo and coconut fiber, respectively. As an affluent, it was synthesized wastewater from mechanical pulping of the coffee fruit by wet method, with a mean value of total chemical oxygen demand (CODtotal of 16,003 mg L-1. The hydraulic retention time (HRT in each reactor was 30 h. The volumetric organic loading (VOL applied in R1 varied from 8.9 to 25.0 g of CODtotal (L d-1. The mean removal efficiencies of CODtotal varied from 43 to 97% in the treatment system (R1+R2+R3, stabilizing above 80% after 30 days of operation. The mean content of methane in the biogas were of 70 to 76%, the mean volumetric production was 1.7 L CH4 (L reactor d-1 in the system, and the higher conversions were around at 0.20 L CH4 (g CODremoved-1 in R1 and R2. The mean values of pH in the effluents ranged from 6.8 to 8.3 and the mean values of total volatile acids remained below 200 mg L-1 in the effluent of R3. The concentrations of total phenols of the affluent ranged from 45 to 278 mg L-1, and the mean removal efficiency was of 52%. The start-up of the anaerobic treatment system occurred after 30 days of operation as a result of inoculation with anaerobic sludge with active microbiota.Foram avaliados os procedimentos de partida de sistema de tratamento com três reatores anaeróbios horizontais (R1, R2 e R3, instalados em série, com volume de 1,2 L cada. O R1 com manta de lodo e o R2 e R3 através de suporte de bambu e fibra de coco, respectivamente. Como afluente,foram sintetizadas águas residuárias do despolpamento mecânico dos frutos do cafeeiro por via úmida, com valor médio de demanda química de oxigênio total (DQOtotal de 16.003 mg L-1. O tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH em cada reator foi de 30 h. As

  19. Impacto da conversão floresta - pastagem nos estoques e na dinâmica do carbono e substâncias húmicas do solo no bioma Amazônico Impact of forest-pasture conversion on stocks and dynamics of soil carbon and humic substances in the Amazon

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    Edson Alves de Araújo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou as consequências do desmatamento e a utilização do solo com Brachiaria brizantha em relação ao estoque e dinâmica de C e frações húmicas em duas floresta-pastagem no Acre. A primeira localizada sequências município de Rio Branco em área de Floresta Aberta com bambu e palmeira e duas pastagens de B. brizantha de 3 e 10 anos com predomínio de Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo alítico plíntico. O segundo situado no município de Senador Guiomard em área de Floresta Densa e pastagem de B. brizantha de 20 anos em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. Em cada local foram coletadas, em triplicata, amostras de solos nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. Nestas amostras foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas, o C das substâncias húmicas e da matéria orgânica leve, e a composição isotópica do solo e das respectivas frações orgânicas até 1 m de profundidade, determinando o percentual de C derivado da pastagem e da floresta. Houve incremento nos estoques de C do solo e nos valores de δ13C do solo com o tempo de utilização da pastagem, em ambas as sucessões. A porcentagem de C derivado de pastagem foi expressiva na camada superficial do sistema com 20 anos de uso, com proporções que chegaram a 70% do C total. Os valores de δ13C para os ácidos húmicos variaram de -12,19 a -17,57 ‰, indicando maior proporção de C derivado da pastagem. A estabilidade estrutural da MOS, inferida pela relação humina com as frações ácido fúlvico e ácido húmico (HUM/FAF+FAH, tenderam a diminuir nos ecossistemas de pastagem quando comparada com as florestas naturais.This study evaluates the impacts of converting natural Amazonian forests in Brazil to pasture dominated by Brachiaria brizantha concerning to C dynamics and humic fractions in two soil chronosequences in the Acre State, Brazil. The first site, dominated by Plinthic Red Yellow Argissols (Ultisols, is located in the municipality

  20. Ecologia das comunidades de metazoários parasitos, do xaréu, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus e do xerelete, Caranx latus Agassiz (Osteichthyes, Carangidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus and the horse-eye jack, Caranx latus Agassiz (Osteichthyes, Carangidae from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty specimens of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus, 1766 and fifty-five specimens of Caranx latus Agassiz, 1831 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23ºS, 41-45ºW, Brazil, from October 1998 to October 1999, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. All specimens of C. hippos were parasitized, and the majority of specimens of C latus (96.4% were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Nineteen species of parasites were collected in C. hippos: 5 digeneans, 5 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 2 copepods. Seventeen species of parasites were collected in C. latus: 6 digeneans, 2 monogeneans, 3 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes were the majoriry, 76.4% and 63.3%, of the total number of parasite specimens collected in C. hippos and C. latus, respectively. The monogeneans Allopyragraphorus hippos (Hargis, 1956 and Cemocotyle carangis (MacCallum, 1913 were the most dominant species with the highest parasitic prevalence in the parasite community of C. hippos and C. latus, respectively. The metazoan parasites of the two host species showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Bucephalus varicus Manter, 1940. A. hippos, Protomicrocotyle mirabilis (MacCallum, 1918, Cucullanus pulcherrimus Barreto, 1918, and Lemanthropus giganteus KrΦyer, 1863 had a positive correlation only between the host's total length and abundance andlor prevalence in C. hippos. Bucephalus varicus, Tergestia pectinata (Linton, 1905, C. carangis, and Pseudoterranovo sp. had a positive correlation between the host's total length and abundance and/or prevalence in C. latus. In C. hippos, the copepod Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898 had the highest values of prevalence and abundance in the female hosts. No parasite species showed influence of the host's sex on their prevalence and abundance in C. latus. The mean diversity and the parasite species richness of the

  1. Comparison of GHG fluxes from conventional and energy crop production from adjacent fields in the UK, using novel technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, James Benjamin; Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Stockdale, James; Vallack, Harry; Blei, Emanuel; Bentley, Mark; Howarth, Steve

    2016-04-01

    With combustion of fossil fuels driving anthropogenic climate change, allied to a diminishing global reserve of these resources it is vital for alternative sources of energy production to be investigated. One alternative is biomass; ethanol fermented from corn (Zea mays) or sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) has long been used as a petroleum substitute, and oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) is the principal feedstock for biodiesel production in Germany, the third biggest producer of this fuel globally. Diverting food crops into energy production would seem counter-productive, given there exists genuine concern regarding our ability to meet future global food demand, thus attention has turned to utilising lignocellulosic material: woody tissue and non-food crop by-products such as corn stover. For this reason species such as the perennial grass Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) are being cultivated for energy production, and these are referred to as second generation energy crops. They are attractive since they do not deplete food supplies, have high yields, require less fertiliser input than annual arable crops, and can be grown on marginal agricultural land. To assess the effectiveness of a crop for bioenergy production, it is vital that accurate quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is obtained for their cultivation in the field. We will present data from a series of studies investigating the GHG fluxes from the energy crops OSR and Miscanthus under various nutrient additions in a comparison with conventional arable cropping at the same site in the United Kingdom (UK). A combination of methods were employed to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from both soil and vegetation, at various temporal and spatial scales. Conventional manual chambers were deployed on a monthly regime to quantify soil GHG fluxes, and were supplemented with automated soil flux chambers measuring soil respiration at an hourly frequency. Additionally, two novel automated chamber systems

  2. Comparison of GHG fluxes from conventional and energy crop production from adjacent fields in the UK, using novel technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, James Benjamin; Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Stockdale, James; Vallack, Harry; Blei, Emanuel; Bentley, Mark; Howarth, Steve

    2016-04-01

    With combustion of fossil fuels driving anthropogenic climate change, allied to a diminishing global reserve of these resources it is vital for alternative sources of energy production to be investigated. One alternative is biomass; ethanol fermented from corn (Zea mays) or sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) has long been used as a petroleum substitute, and oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) is the principal feedstock for biodiesel production in Germany, the third biggest producer of this fuel globally. Diverting food crops into energy production would seem counter-productive, given there exists genuine concern regarding our ability to meet future global food demand, thus attention has turned to utilising lignocellulosic material: woody tissue and non-food crop by-products such as corn stover. For this reason species such as the perennial grass Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) are being cultivated for energy production, and these are referred to as second generation energy crops. They are attractive since they do not deplete food supplies, have high yields, require less fertiliser input than annual arable crops, and can be grown on marginal agricultural land. To assess the effectiveness of a crop for bioenergy production, it is vital that accurate quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is obtained for their cultivation in the field. We will present data from a series of studies investigating the GHG fluxes from the energy crops OSR and Miscanthus under various nutrient additions in a comparison with conventional arable cropping at the same site in the United Kingdom (UK). A combination of methods were employed to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from both soil and vegetation, at various temporal and spatial scales. Conventional manual chambers were deployed on a monthly regime to quantify soil GHG fluxes, and were supplemented with automated soil flux chambers measuring soil respiration at an hourly frequency. Additionally, two novel automated chamber systems

  3. Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae nas regiões neotropical e neártica Taxonomy of the subfamily Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae in neotropical and neartic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo

    2000-11-01

    . O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. nigricans (C. L. Koch, C. plumatus (L. Koch, C. praeceps (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. silvaticus (Chickering, C. uncatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Erendira luteomaculatta (Petrunkevitch, E. pallidoguttata (Simon, E. subsignata (Simon, Falconina albomaculosa (Schmidt, F. crassipalpis (Chickering, F. gracilis (Keyserling, Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch, Paradiestus egregius (Simon, P. giganteus (Karsch, P. penicillatus (Mello-Leitão, P. vitiosus (Keyserling, Septentrinna bicalcarata (Simon, S. paradoxa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, S. retusa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Simonestus pseudobulbolus (Caporiacco, S. robustus (Chickering, S. semiluna (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, Stethorrhagus maculatus (L. Koch and Xeropigo smedigari (Caporiacco; from Diestus, Corinna alticeps (Keyserling, C. kochi (Simon, Simonestus occidentalis (Schenkel, S. separatus (Schmidt and S. validus (Simon; from Lausus, Corinna grandis (Simon and Abapeba sicarioides (Mello-Leitão; from Medmassa, Corinna andina (Simon and C. venezuelica (Caporiacco; from Megalostrata, Erendira atrox (Caporiacco and Erendira pictitorax (Caporiacco; from Parachemmis, Tupirinna trilineata (Chickering. Five combinations are restaured: Corinna aenea Simon, Creugas cinnamius Simon, Creugas gulosus Thorell, Falconina melloi (Schenkel, Paradiestus aurantiacus Mello-Leitão. Twenty five new synonymies are proposed: Diestus altifrons Mello-Leitão with Corinna nitens (Keyserling; Corinna tomentosa Simon, C. tridentina Mello-Leitão, Hypsinotus flavipes Keyserling, H. humilis Keyserling and Xeropigo scutulatus Simon with Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard-Cambridge; Corinna cribosa Mello-Leitão and C. stigmatica Simon with Falconina gracilis (Keyserling; Corinna casueta Chickering with SIMONestus separatus (Schmidt; Corinna abnormis Petrunkevitch, C. antillana BRYANT, C. consobrina Simon, C. inornata Kraus, C. nervosa F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. wolleboeki Banks, Creugas cetratus Simon, C. senegalensis Simon

  4. Fluxes of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide over four potential biofuel crops in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, M.; Hickman, G. C.; Bernacchi, C.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are important greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change. Agriculture is a significant source of N2O to the atmosphere due to the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers. Fluxes of N2O and CO2 are measured using the flux-gradient technique over four different crops at the Energy Farm, a University of Illinois research facility in Urbana, Illinois. Measurements started in June of 2009 and are part of a project that aims to assess the impacts of potential biofuel crops on the carbon, water and nitrogen cycles. The species chosen are Maize (Zea mays), Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Prairie (a mix of several native species). The choice of species was based on their potential for the production of second-generation biofuels, i.e., fuels derived from the decomposition of the cellulosic material in the plant biomass. The use of corn residue for cellulosic biofuels might impact the carbon cycle through the reduction of soil organic content. Miscanthus is a perennial grass with great potential for biomass production. However, the total water used during the growing season and its water use efficiency might impose limits on the regions where this biofuel crop can be sustainably planted on a large scale. Switchgrass and the prairie species are less productive but might be suited for being well adapted and easy to establish. This study is the first side-by-side comparison of fluxes of N2O for these agro-ecosystems. The measurements are performed at micrometeorological towers placed at the center of 4 ha plots. The air is sampled at two heights over the vegetation and is analyzed in a tunable diode laser (TDL) installed nearby. A valve system cycles the TDL measurements trough all the intakes in the plots. The fluxes are calculated using the flux-gradient method, which requires the knowledge of the scalar vertical gradient as well as of the friction velocity (u*) and the Monin

  5. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  6. Genetic modification of oil crops for optimisation of oil quality regarding industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    physical distances between molecular markers, both important considerations for physical mapping and positional cloning. Practical applications of FISH and GISH in rapeseed breeding are discussed. In sunflower, hybrid varieties are used almost exclusively for oilseed production. Since the genetic basis is considered narrow, broadening of the variability seems to be particularly necessary in this crop. With this aim, numerous interspecific hybrids have been made in Helianthus. Interspecific hybrid progenies with superior ability to regenerate shoots from apical meristems were successfully selected, which now facilitate the development of lines for improved biotechnological applications. Early generations of interspecific hybrids originating from crosses between two H. annuus CMS lines 'HA89' and 'Baso', and 10 wild species were screened for their ability to regenerate in vitro. Evaluation of 36 progenies led to identification of four progenies from crosses involving H. mollis, H. giganteus, H. strumosus, and H. decapetalus, which showed a superior regeneration potential. For these progenies, means of 2.3-3.5 shoots per cultured explant at a frequency of 51.3-62.4% of explants producing shoots were observed. Regeneration in vitro was clearly determined by the genotype. Fifty percent of all investigated interspecific hybrids performed better than the inbred line 'HA89' demonstrating that the high regeneration potential available in the wild species can be efficiently transferred to cultivated sunflower. In addition, two of the interspecific hybrids derived from H. strumosus and H. decapetalus not only showed a superior regeneration potential but also proved to be competitive to commercial hybrids with regard to important agronomic traits, e.g. oil content and seed weight. (author)

  7. Effect of biochar on mineral nitrogen content in soils with different pH values%生物质炭对不同pH值土壤矿质氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗煜; 赵小蓉; 李贵桐; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 林启美

    2014-01-01

    concentration. The causes for high fertility of these soils are multiple, but the source of the large amounts of organic matter and their high nutrient retention has been attributed to the extraordinarily high proportions of black carbon. Besides, the high available nitrogen (N) is from both direct nutrient addition by the biochar and greater nutrient retention. It is also reported biochar can influence soil N concentrations via affecting soil process, such as N transformation. However, it remains largely unknown how biochar affect N transformations.In this study, biochars were produced at 350°C (BC350) and 700°C (BC700) by using Miscanthus giganteus, and applied with and without ryegrass into soils with low (pH=3.8) and high pH values (pH=7.6) incubated for 180 days. Our results showed that the addition of biochar to soils had an average increase of total N content of 22% and 17%, respectively in acid and alkaline soils. Biochars had obvious effect on NH4+-N in acid soil. After 87 days of incubation, NH4+-N was declined to very low concentration. BC350 had a slight increase of NO3--N in acid soil. Compared with BC350, soils with BC700 significantly (p0.05) was observed in treatments with and without ryegrass, neither between day 87 and 180, suggesting mineralization was largely occurred at the early incubation time in the soil with biochar added. The effects of biochar on the form and content of soil mineral nitrogen were closely related to the biochar’s abilities including ammonium adsorption, enhancing soil pH value, enhancing ammonia volatilization, and microbial biomass nitrogen formation. In the practical application, using biochar as coating materials in producing the slow-release fertilizer to improve nitrogen use efficiency seems to be very promised, and more research is needed in this area in the near future.

  8. The impact of land-use and global change on water-related agro-ecosystem services in the midwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLoocke, Andrew D.

    Humans have and are likely to continue to dramatically alter both the global landscape through the conversion of natural ecosystems into agriculture, and the atmosphere through the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels to meet the need for food and energy. Associated with these land use and global changes are major alterations in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, water, and nitrogen, which have important implications on the growth and function of ecosystems and the services they provide for humanity. This dissertation investigates the impacts on water-related agro-ecosystem services associated with increasing concentrations of the tropospheric pollutant ozone ([O 3]) and land use change for cellulosic feedstocks in the Midwestern United States. This study focused on quantifying changes in water-related agro-ecosystem services including direct changes to water quantity, water use efficiency (WUE) that links the carbon cycle to water, and water quality that links the nitrogen cycle to water. In the context of these land-use and global changes and the associated changes in water-related agro-ecosystem services, the goals of this research are to: 1) determine the concentration at which soybean latent heat flux (lambdaET) is sensitive to O3, test whether decreases in lambda ET are linked with the concentration of O3, and find whether an increase in O3 has an impact on WUE 2) determine the regional distribution of water use and WUE for Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) two of the leading candidate cellulosic feedstocks, relative to Zea mays L. (maize), the current dominant ethanol feedstock 3) determine the change in streamflow in the Mississippi-Atchafalya River Basin (MARB) and the export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic region associated with large-scale production of miscanthus and switchgrass. Micrometeorological measurements were made at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment

  9. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    harvesting (eg: Populus spp., Salix spp., Arundo donax L., Miscanthus x giganteus ). The system is crossed by a dense network of ditches supplying water to the crops through lateral infiltration and partial submersion; a wetland system consisting in a flooded area where the re-colonization of spontaneous vegetation takes place. The designed monitoring system includes sensors in surface- and ground-water. The ground-water monitoring system consists of a set of 15 piezometer clusters. At each cluster three piezometers (3 inch diameter, screened in the last 30 cm) are set at about 3 m, 2 m and 1 m depth to allow multilevel monitoring and sampling so to investigate a large part of the aquifer and the relationships between the surface-water and ground-water systems. An unsaturated pilot monitoring station has been designed and it will be set in operation to gain information on infiltration and/or exfiltration processes and evapotranspiration. Ten sensors for continuously monitoring groundwater head, temperature and electrical conductivity are in operation. Surface water are monitored by means of six gauging stations where sensors are recording at least head, temperature and electrical conductivity. At four of them continuous sampling takes place with a composite daily sample made up of four samples, each gathered every six hours. A complete hydrological monitoring protocol has been set in place starting by meteorological data aquisition. As well as continuous monitoring with in-situ sensors and composite sampling with automatic samplers, discrete monitoring on monthly basis takes place. Main physico/chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. The experimental area is in operation since December 2013. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Consorzio 1 - Toscana Nord for technical support. References Pistocchi C., Silvestri N., Rossetto R., Sabbatini T., Guidi M., Baneschi I., Bonari E

  10. Physio-chemical characterization of biochars pyrolyzed from miscanthus under two different temperatures%不同温度下热裂解芒草生物质炭的理化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗煜; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 向欣; 赵小蓉; 李贵桐; 林启美※

    2013-01-01

    potential in improving soil fertility, but also in remediating polluted soil. So far, we have understood little about miscanthus biochar, which becomes a bottleneck for applying the biochar as a soil conditioner. In this paper, miscanthus giganteus straw was dried at 105°C for 24 h, milled to<1 mm, and pyrolysed in a Carbolite CWF 1 200 furnace with a sealable retort (Carbolite, Hope, UK), flushed with argon. The furnace was initially heated to 100°C. The temperature then increased to 350 (BC350) or 700°C (BC700) at 1°C min−1, and finally held at 350 or 700°C for 30 min. The resulting biochars were subsequently cooled to room temperature overnight, while maintaining the argon flush, and were collected and then their characteristics were determined with different methods. The aim was to investigate the nature of the biochar and its changes with temperature. The results showed that the physio-chemical properties of the biochar were largely determined by the carbonization temperature. The miscanthus biochar produced at 350℃ (BC350) contained more water-soluble components, indicating it giving higher soil fertility if applied in soil. For example, as biochar was added to soil at application rates equivalent to 5%of total soil organic C, this gave 222 and 16 µg water-extractable C g-1 soil for biochar350 and biochar700, respectively. The latter C concentration is clearly negligible. The same trend was found for NH4+-N, but on a much smaller scale: 1.75 and 0.18 µg NH4+-N g-1 biochar, equivalent to 0.09 and 0.01 µg N g-1 soil, for biochar350 and biochar700, respectively. BC700 had higher pH, C/N ratio, water-holding capacity (WHC), and surface area. Theδ13C value, however, showed no difference between BC350 and BC700, while extractable NO3−-N was not detected in the water extracts from both biochars. The paper also discussed the potential value and its prospects of industrial application of miscanthus biochar, with current biochar producing equipment development