WorldWideScience

Sample records for bamboo phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

  1. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    CERN Document Server

    Crow, E

    2000-01-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of...

  2. Soil respiration and carbon balance in a Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) forest in subtropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang X.; Fan S; Qi L; Guan F; Cai C; Du M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in soil respiration (RS) in different forest ecosystems is crucial to estimate the global carbon balance. Bamboo forest is a special forest type in southern China covering an area of 5.38 million ha, 70% of which are Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) forests. Bamboo forests contribute more than 10% to the whole carbon stock of forest ecosystems in China, and therefore play a critical role in the regional and nati...

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huayu; Li, Lichao; Lou, Yongfeng; Zhao, Hansheng; Gao, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to play a major role in maintaining water and hydraulic conductivity balance in the plant system. Numerous studies have showed AQPs execute multi-function throughout plant growth and development, including water transport, nitrogen, carbon, and micronutrient acquisition etc. However, little information on AQPs is known in bamboo. In this study, we present the first genome-wide identification and characterization of AQP genes in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) using bioinformatics. In total, 26 AQP genes were identified by homologous analysis, which were divided into four groups (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, and SIPs) based on the phylogenetic analysis. All the genes were located on 26 different scaffolds respectively on basis of the gene mapped to bamboo genome. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Ph. edulis was more close to Oryza sativa than Zea mays in the genetic relationship. Besides, qRT-PCR was used to analyze gene expression profiles, which revealed that AQP genes were expressed constitutively in all the detected tissues, and were all responsive to the environmental cues such as drought, water, and NaCl stresses. This data suggested that AQPs may play fundamental roles in maintaining normal growth and development of bamboo, which would contribute to better understanding for the complex regulation mechanism involved in the fast-growing process of bamboo. Furthermore, the result could provide valuable information for further research on bamboo functional genomics. PMID:26993482

  4. Alkali extraction and physicochemical characterization of hemicelluloses from young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel

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    Qiang Luo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two hemicellulose fractions were obtained by extraction of one-month- old young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel. The fractionation procedure employed 2% NaOH as extractant, followed by filtration, acidification, precipitation, and washing with 70% ethanol solution. The total yield was 26.2%, based on the pentosan content in bamboo. The physicochemical properties were determined and sugar composition analysis showed that the hemicelluloses consisted mainly of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and a small amount of uronic acid. Furthermore, based on FT-IR and NMR spectra analyses, the structure of hemicelluloses was determined to be mainly arabinoxylans linked via (1→4-β-glycosidic bonds with branches of arabinose and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid. The molecular weights were 6387 Da and 4076 Da, corresponding to the hemicelluloses HA and HB. Finally, the thermal stability was elucidated using the TG-DTG method. The obtained results can provide important information for understanding young bamboo and the hemicelluloses in it.

  5. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi, E-mail: mitsutoshi.ume@gmail.com; Takenaka, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth. - Highlights: • The bamboo efficiently utilizes boron by the retranslocation and local accumulation. • Zinc found in nodes at high concentrations may support

  6. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Shangbin Bai; Guomo Zhou; Yixiang Wang; Qianqian Liang; Juan Chen; Yanyan Cheng; Rui Shen

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences ...

  7. Mathematical expression for the relationship between internode number and internode length for bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Inoue; Kentaro Kuraoka; Fumiaki Kitahara

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between internode number and internode length for one of the largest bamboo,Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz.For 50 sample culms with various sizes felled in a pure stand of P.pubescens,the intemode number was assigned from base to tip and the length for each intemode was directly measured.The result indicated that the intemode length should be cumulated from base to tip,and then the cumulated intemode length should be relativized by the total culm length.It was inappropriate to relativize the internode length by the maximum intenode length.In addition,the relationship between the relative internode number (the internode number relativized by the total number of internodes) and the relative cumulated internode length should be described not by a power function but by a sigmoid function such as the third-order function.The determined function enabled us to estimate the actual internode length,with the root mean squared error being 4 cm.In conclusion,the mathematical expression presented here,i.e.,the relativization of the cumulated internode length by the total culm length and the application of the sigmoid function,will be uscful in describing the relationship between internode number and internode length for P.pubescens.

  8. Impacts of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) invasion on dry matter and carbon and nitrogen stocks in a broad-leaved secondary forest located in Kyoto, western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Keitaro; Usui, Nobuaki; Ogawa, Ryo; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    In western and central Japan, the expansion of exotic moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz.) populations into neighboring vegetation has become a serious problem. Although the effects of bamboo invasion on biodiversity have been well studied, shifts in nutrient stocks and cycling, which are fundamental for ecosystem functioning, are not fully understood. To explore the effects of P. pubescens invasion on ecosystem functions we examined above- and below-ground dry matter and c...

  9. Microbial Development in Soils Under Intensively Managed Bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-Fang; JIANG Pei-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Phyllostachys praecox C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao, a favored bamboo shoot species, has been widely planted in recent years. Four stands with different historical management practices were selected for this study to understand the evolution of soil microbial ecology by determining the effects of a new mulching and heavy fertilization practice on soil quality using microbiological parameters. Compared with the traditional practice (index 1), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbial respiration carbon (MRC) with the new management practice significantly decreased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05,respectively) with 1-2 years of mulching (index 2) and then for continued mulching significantly increased (P < 0.05). The ratios of MBC/TOC (total organic carbon) and MRC/TOC also significantly diminished (P < 0.05) with mulching. The average well color development (AWCD) and Shannon index decreased with mulching time, and the significant decrease(P < 0.05) in Shannon index occurred from index 2 to index 3. The results from a principal components analysis (PCA)showed that the scores of the first principal component for indexes 1 and 2 were significantly larger (P < 0.05) than soils mulched 3-4 years or 5-6 years. Also, the second principal component scores for index 1 were larger than those for index 2, suggesting that the ability of soil microorganisms to utilize soil carbon was decreasing with longer use of the new management practice and causing a deterioration of soil biological properties.

  10. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  11. Characterization of the floral transcriptome of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis at different flowering developmental stages by transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis.

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    Jian Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an arborescent and perennial plant, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J. Houzeau, synonym Phyllostachys heterocycla Carrière is characterized by its infrequent sexual reproduction with flowering intervals ranging from several to more than a hundred years. However, little bamboo genomic research has been conducted on this due to a variety of reasons. Here, for the first time, we investigated the transcriptome of developing flowers in Moso bamboo by using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing and mapping short reads to the Moso bamboo genome and reference genes. We performed RNA-seq analysis on four important stages of flower development, and obtained extensive gene and transcript abundance data for the floral transcriptome of this key bamboo species. RESULTS: We constructed a cDNA library using equal amounts of RNA from Moso bamboo leaf samples from non-flowering plants (CK and mixed flower samples (F of four flower development stages. We generated more than 67 million reads from each of the CK and F samples. About 70% of the reads could be uniquely mapped to the Moso bamboo genome and the reference genes. Genes detected at each stage were categorized to putative functional categories based on their expression patterns. The analysis of RNA-seq data of bamboo flowering tissues at different developmental stages reveals key gene expression properties during the flower development of bamboo. CONCLUSION: We showed that a combination of transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis was a powerful approach to identifying candidate genes related to floral transition and flower development in bamboo species. The results give a better insight into the mechanisms of Moso bamboo flowering and ageing. This transcriptomic data also provides an important gene resource for improving breeding for Moso bamboo.

  12. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS OF MOSO BAMBOO (Phyllostachys heterocycla AT DIFFERENT MOISTURE CONTENT

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    Zhijia Liu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a type of biomass materials that has great potential as a bio-energy resource in China. The thermal-mechanical behavior of bamboo plays an important role in the formation process of pellets. To investigate the effect of moisture content (MC on thermal-mechanical behavior of bamboo, the storage modulus and loss factor of moso bamboo was determined using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA from -50 to 150 oC. The experimental results showed that the general feature of bamboo thermal-mechanical properties with temperature is similar to other cellulosic materials, and they are affected by MC. A substantial decrease of storage modulus over the entire temperature range implies that bamboo underwent a glass to rubber transition. Bamboo, at lower MC, has a higher storage modulus, which decreases the mechanical strength of pellets. The loss factor exhibited two major transitions for all samples. There was an α-transition (α1, attributed to glass transition of lignin, peaking in a higher temperature range. The second major relaxation (α2, located in a lower temperature range, was attributed to glass transition of hemicelluloses. Activating lignin and hemicelluloses using moisture and temperature in the temperature range of glass transition can be very helpful to achieve durable particle-particle bonding.

  13. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Li, Song; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Peng, Danli; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Moso bamboo is recognized as phytoremediation plant due to production of huge biomass and high tolerance in stressed environment. Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to investigate mechanism of copper tolerance and to evaluate copper accumulation capacity of Moso bamboo. In hydroponics experiment there was non significant variation in MDA contents of leaves compared with control. SOD and POD initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 5 μM Cu and then decreased consistently with application of 25 and 100 μM Cu. Application of each additional increment of copper have constantly enhanced proline contents while maximum increase of proline was observed with application of 100 μM copper. In pot experiment chlorophyll and biomass initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with application of each additional increment of Cu. Normal growth of Moso bamboo was observed with application of 100 mg kg-1 copper. However, additional application of 300 or 600 mg kg-1 copper had significantly inhibited growth of Moso bamboo. The concentration of Cu in Moso bamboo has attained the levels of 340, 60, 23 mg kg-1 in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The vacuoles were the main organs which accumulated copper and reduced toxicity of copper as studied by TEM-DEX technology.

  14. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Li, Song; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Peng, Danli; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Moso bamboo is recognized as phytoremediation plant due to production of huge biomass and high tolerance in stressed environment. Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to investigate mechanism of copper tolerance and to evaluate copper accumulation capacity of Moso bamboo. In hydroponics experiment there was non significant variation in MDA contents of leaves compared with control. SOD and POD initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 5 μM Cu and then decreased consistently with application of 25 and 100 μM Cu. Application of each additional increment of copper have constantly enhanced proline contents while maximum increase of proline was observed with application of 100 μM copper. In pot experiment chlorophyll and biomass initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with application of each additional increment of Cu. Normal growth of Moso bamboo was observed with application of 100 mg kg−1 copper. However, additional application of 300 or 600 mg kg−1 copper had significantly inhibited growth of Moso bamboo. The concentration of Cu in Moso bamboo has attained the levels of 340, 60, 23 mg kg−1 in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The vacuoles were the main organs which accumulated copper and reduced toxicity of copper as studied by TEM-DEX technology. PMID:26337551

  15. Interactions between shoot age structure, nutrient availability and integration in the giant bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Werger, M.J.A.; Kroon, de H.; During, H.J.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2000-01-01

    The age structure of adult shoots, the nutrient availability of the habitat, and their interaction, are important factors influencing the productivity of bamboo groves. In a field fertilization experiment over two years we examined the impact of physiological integration on the emergence, growth, an

  16. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress, response of antioxidants and detection of intracellular cadmium in organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Chen, Junren; Islam, Ejazul; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Yan, Wenbo; Peng, Danli; Liu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz.) is recognized as a potential phytoremediation plant due to its huge biomass and high tolerance to environmental stresses. The objectives of this study were to investigate mechanism related to cadmium (Cd) tolerance and to evaluate Cd accumulation capacity of moso bamboo. The results of the pot experiment showed that Cd accumulation by bamboo increased with increasing the Cd levels in soil and the values in stem ranged from 28.51 to 132.13 mg kg(-1). Meanwhile chlorophyll in leaves and total biomass showed a decreasing trend. The bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for roots and stem in all the treatments were more than 1.0 and the translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.70 to 1.06. In hydroponics experiment, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased in Cd treated plants as compared with control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced at initial stage and then decreased consistently with the increase of Cd addition. The proline concentrations were also increased due to the presence of Cd, particularly at 25 μM Cd treatment. According to TEM-EDX analysis, the cytoplasm was the main site for accumulation of Cd in moso bamboo. On the basis of overall results, it is suggested that moso bamboo could be successfully used for the remediation of low Cd (no more than 5 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soils. PMID:27015570

  17. Effect of three cooking methods on nutrient components and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shootPhyllostachys praecox C.D.Chu et C.S.Chao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-jie ZHANG; Rong JI; Ya-qin HU; Jian-chu CHEN; Xing-qian YE

    2011-01-01

    Three cooking methods,namely boiling,steaming,and stir-frying for 5 to 10 min,were used to evaluate the effect on nutrient components,free amino acids,L-ascorbic acid,total phenolic contents,and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).Results showed that boiling and stir-frying had a great effect on the nutrient components and they decreased the contents of protein,soluble sugar,and ash,and caused a great loss in the total free amino acids (decreased by 38.35% and 34.86%,respectively).Significant differences (P<0.05) in free amino acids were observed in the samples cooked by different methods.Stir-fried bamboo shoots had a high fat content which increased by 528.57% because of the addition of edible oil.After boiling,the L-ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents were significantly reduced,while steaming increased total phenolic content by 3.98% and stir-frying well-preserved L-ascorbic acid (78.87% of its previous content).Results of the antioxidative property study showed that stir-frying could increase antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots.It is concluded that stir-frying is more suitable for bamboo shoots because it could obtain the maximum retention of antioxidant capacities.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Family and the Expression Patterns of DREB Genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Liu, Jun; Mu, Shaohua; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor family, one of the largest families unique to plants, performs a significant role in terms of regulation of growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a fast-growing non-timber forest species with the highest ecological, economic and social values of all bamboos in Asia. The draft genome of moso bamboo and the available genomes of other plants provide great opportunities to research global information on the AP2/ERF family in moso bamboo. In total, 116 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in moso bamboo. The phylogeny analyses indicated that the 116 AP2/ERF genes could be divided into three subfamilies: AP2, RAV and ERF; and the ERF subfamily genes were divided into 11 groups. The gene structures, exons/introns and conserved motifs of the PeAP2/ERF genes were analyzed. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns and divergence showed the PeAP2/ERF genes underwent a large-scale event around 15 million years ago (MYA) and the division time of AP2/ERF family genes between rice and moso bamboo was 15–23 MYA. We surveyed the putative promoter regions of the PeDREBs and showed that largely stress-related cis-elements existed in these genes. Further analysis of expression patterns of PeDREBs revealed that the most were strongly induced by drought, low-temperature and/or high salinity stresses in roots and, in contrast, most PeDREB genes had negative functions in leaves under the same respective stresses. In this study there were two main interesting points: there were fewer members of the PeDREB subfamily in moso bamboo than in other plants and there were differences in DREB gene expression profiles between leaves and roots triggered in response to abiotic stress. The information produced from this study may be valuable in overcoming challenges in cultivating moso bamboo. PMID:25985202

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Family and the Expression Patterns of DREB Genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis.

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    Huili Wu

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF transcription factor family, one of the largest families unique to plants, performs a significant role in terms of regulation of growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is a fast-growing non-timber forest species with the highest ecological, economic and social values of all bamboos in Asia. The draft genome of moso bamboo and the available genomes of other plants provide great opportunities to research global information on the AP2/ERF family in moso bamboo. In total, 116 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in moso bamboo. The phylogeny analyses indicated that the 116 AP2/ERF genes could be divided into three subfamilies: AP2, RAV and ERF; and the ERF subfamily genes were divided into 11 groups. The gene structures, exons/introns and conserved motifs of the PeAP2/ERF genes were analyzed. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns and divergence showed the PeAP2/ERF genes underwent a large-scale event around 15 million years ago (MYA and the division time of AP2/ERF family genes between rice and moso bamboo was 15-23 MYA. We surveyed the putative promoter regions of the PeDREBs and showed that largely stress-related cis-elements existed in these genes. Further analysis of expression patterns of PeDREBs revealed that the most were strongly induced by drought, low-temperature and/or high salinity stresses in roots and, in contrast, most PeDREB genes had negative functions in leaves under the same respective stresses. In this study there were two main interesting points: there were fewer members of the PeDREB subfamily in moso bamboo than in other plants and there were differences in DREB gene expression profiles between leaves and roots triggered in response to abiotic stress. The information produced from this study may be valuable in overcoming challenges in cultivating moso bamboo.

  20. Genome-wide identification and characterization of TIFY family genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and expression profiling analysis under dehydration and cold stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Si-Han; Guo, Han-Du; Zhong, Xiao-Juan; He, Jiao; Li, Xi; Jiang, Ming-Yan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Ma, Ming-Dong; Chen, Qi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The proteins containing the TIFY domain belong to a plant-specific family of putative transcription factors and could be divided into four subfamilies: ZML, TIFY, PPD and JAZ. They not only function as key regulators of jasmonate hormonal response, but are also involved in responding to abiotic stress. In this study, we identified 24 TIFY genes (PeTIFYs) in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) of Poaceae by analyzing the whole genome sequence. One PeTIFY belongs to TIFY subfamily, 18 and five belong to JAZ and ZML subfamilies, respectively. Two equivocal gene models were re-predicted and a putative retrotransposition event was found in a ZML protein. The distribution and conservation of domain or motif, and gene structure were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis with TIFY proteins of Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa indicated that JAZ subfamily could be further divided to four groups. Evolutionary analysis revealed intragenomic duplication and orthologous relationship between P. edulis, O. sativa, and B. distachyon. Calculation of the non-synonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates and their ratios indicated that the duplication of PeTIFY may have occurred around 16.7 million years ago (MYA), the divergence time of TIFY family among the P. edulis-O. sativa, P. edulis-B. distachyon, and O. sativa-B. distachyon was approximately 39 MYA, 39 MYA, and 45 MYA, respectively. They appear to have undergone extensive purifying selection during evolution. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that more than 50% of PeTIFY genes could be up-regulated by cold and dehydration stresses, and some PeTIFYs also share homology to know TIFYs involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results made insights into TIFY family of Moso bamboo, an economically important non-timber forest resource, and provided candidates for further identification of genes involved in regulating responses to abiotic stress.

  1. 人面竹等10种观赏竹冬季滞尘效应与规律研究%Study on Dustfall Adsorbing Capacity of 10 Bamboos Including Phyllostachys aurea etc.in Winter and Its Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑞; 涂志华; 李炎梅; 洪雪沿; 张晔; 郑郁善

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the dustfall adsorbing capacity in winter and its laws of 10 species of ornamental bamboo in Fuzhou were chosen to systematically study the dust accumulation on the leaves of different plants in time, height and direction three aspects by direct sampling and measurement, and statistical analysis as well. The results showed that: the dustfall adsorbing capacity of Sinobambusa tootsik, Bambusa eutuldoides var. Basistriata, Thyrsostachys siatnensis, Phyllostachys aurea, Phyllostachys heterocycla 'Viridisulcata', Phyllostachys propinqua; Bambusa tuldoides 'Swolleninternode' were higher than others, and Bambusa eutuldoides var. Viridi-vittata showed a rising trend after the rain in the fourth day, Phyllostachys aurea, Phyllostachys heterocycla 'Viridisulcata', Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata', and Bambusa eutuldoides var. Basistriata have declined; Phyllostachys aurea, Sinobambusa tootsik, Phyllostachys heterocycla 'Viridisulcata', Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata', Phyllostachys propinqua, Bambusa eutuldoides var. Basistriata, Bambusa tuldoides 'Swolleninternode', in the distance the ground 150 cm unit leaf area dustfall adsorbing capacity more than 200 cm, especially Phyllostachys heterocycla 'Viridisulcata', Bambusa eutuldoides var. Basistriata, Bambusa tuldoides 'Swolleninternode' had the significant differences, other was opposite, but the difference was not significant, and in the same height. The dustfall adsorbing capacity of Sinobambusa tootsik was the strongest, Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata' was the worst. The dustfall adsorbing capacity was different in different directions in ten ornamental bamboos.%为了对福州市江滨大道的10种观赏竹冬季的滞尘效应进行监测分析,应用直接采样和统计分析的方法对其单位叶面积滞尘量在时间、高度和方向3个方面的变化进行研究.结果表明,滞尘量较高的观赏竹种为唐竹、银丝大眼竹、泰竹、人面竹、绿槽毛竹和早园竹;其中,鼓节竹和

  2. Study on Dust Retention Capacity of Phyllostachys aurea and Other 9 Ornamental Bamboo Species%人面竹等10种观赏竹春季滞尘效应与规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑞; 郑郁善

    2012-01-01

    对福州市江滨西大道10种观赏竹的春季滞尘效应进行监测,从时间、高度和方向3个方面分析其单位叶面积滞尘量的变化规律.结果表明,10种观赏竹春季单位叶面积滞尘量有显著差异,其滞尘量分别为:绿槽毛竹20.04 g/m2、泰竹9.44 g/m2、银丝大眼竹7.95 g/m2、早园竹6.94 g/m2、人面竹5.42 g/m2、斑竹5.14 g/m2、唐竹5.00 g/m2、黄金间碧竹4.37 g/m2、青丝黄竹2.84 g/m2、鼓节竹2.60g/m2.绿槽毛竹、泰竹、早园竹、人面竹、斑竹、黄金间壁竹和青丝黄竹在距离地面150 cm 处的单位叶面积滞尘量高于200 cm处,银丝大眼竹、唐竹和鼓节竹则相反,尤以银丝大眼竹2个高度差异较大.各竹种不同方向滞尘量存在差异,这与竹种栽植位置和车辆行驶方向有关.%The change of dust retention capacity of the unit leaf area of 10 ornamental bamboo species grown a-long the West Riverside Avenue in Fuzhou City was studied from three aspects, i. e. , time, height and direction by field observation in the spring season. The results showed that there was significant difference in dust retention capacity among the different bamboo species. The dust retention quantity of the 10 species was ranked in the order as; Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. ' Viridisulcata' (20.04 g/m2 ) > Thyrsostachys siamensis (9.44 g/m2) > Phyllostachys propinqua (7.95 g/m2) > Phyllostachys aurea (6.94 g/m2) > Phyllostachys bambusoides f. lacrima-deae (5.42 g/m2) > Bambusa vulgaris cv. ' Vittata' (5. 14 g/m ) and Bambusa eutuldoides var. viridi-vittata, (5.00 g/m2) > Bambusa tuldoides cv. ' swolleninternode' (2.60 g/m2). The dust retention quantity at the height of 150 cm of the most bamboo species or varieties was larger than that of at the height of 200 cm above the ground, but it was contrary for the species or varieties Phyllostachys propinqua, Bambusa eutuldoides var. viridi-vittata, and Bambusa tuldoides cv. 'swolleninternode'. There was prominent

  3. 毛竹种子人工老化过程中生理生化变化%Physiological and Biochemical Changes of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seeds in Artificial Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春菊; 范少辉; 刘凤; 曹帮华

    2013-01-01

    研究人工老化过程中毛竹种子活力及其生理生化变化过程.结果表明:人工老化处理后,种子发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数均先快速下降后缓慢下降,活力指数下降较发芽率和发芽指数快.老化6天时活力指数下降72%,老化12天时种子活力基本丧失.伴随着种子活力下降,表现出种子浸出液相对电导率和可溶性糖含量升高,MDA含量升高,POD,SOD和CAT酶活性降低,可溶性蛋白质含量降低,内源GA3和IAA含量降低,ABA含量升高,GA3/ABA比值降低等一系列生理生化变化.相关分析表明:SOD活性、CAT活性、可溶性蛋白和GA3,IAA,GA3/ABA,与种子活力呈极显著正相关;种子浸出液相对电导率、MDA和ABA含量呈极显著负相关.膜脂过氧化引起的生物膜损伤是加速毛竹种子老化的重要原因,内源激素失衡也是影响种子萌发和加速老化的主要因素之一.%The seed vigor of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and the physiological and biochemical changes involved in seed deterioration were investigated in this article.The results showed that the germination rate,germination index,and vigor index all decreased rapidly in the beginning and slowly later in response to the artifical aging.The vigor index of seeds decreased more rapidly than the germination rate and germination index.The vigor index of moso bamboo seeds decreased by 70% after 6 days of artificially accelerated aging,and lost almost all after 12 days of artificially accelerated aging.With the seed vigor declining,the physiological and biochemical changes were observed.The relative electric conductivity of the seed leachate,soluble sugar content,and MDA content of the seed extract were increased,while the soluble protein content,and the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD,CAT and POD were declined.The content of GA3 and IAA,and GA3/ABA ratio were decreased.The correlation analysis indicated there was a very significant positive correlation between

  4. 经营强度对蜀南竹海楠竹保护的影响%The Influences of Management strength on the Phyllostachys pubescens Population in the Shunan Bamboo Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐森强; 张翠微; 何桂蓉; 何亚平; 王启荣

    2012-01-01

    竹林区竹类种质保育需要建立避免人为干扰的竹类自然生态系统,但现有的竹林粗放遍及各处的经营策略则直接威胁到竹类种质栖息地的保护。通过对蜀南竹海人工经营和未经营下楠竹林群落环境与种群结构的对比分析,认为保护区内楠竹林经营强度改变了植物群落结构,导致植物物种多样性的丧失,地表灌木、草本和凋落物的盖度降低,生物量减少;考虑天然楠竹林结构演替,楠竹的人工经营(纯林经营)是维持楠竹林生产力和楠竹林的必然途径。基于现代林业理论,提出了县域楠竹林适度经营与保护的空间分工性、集约化策略,以期获得保护区长期的生态经济社会效益与生态安全屏障的优化格局。%The bamboo germplasm conservation in bamboo forest regions requires to establish the natural ecosystem with an shortage of artificial disturbance,but the current management strategies that are widely adopted in the bamboo distribution habitats have directly stressed the habitat conservation of bamboo germplasm.Based on an analysis of the community environment and population structure features of moso bamboo forests which were managed and not managed in the Shunan Bamboo Sea,it was found that the different intensive management degree in the conservation region changed the plant community structure,and led to the loss of plant species diversity,and reduced the surface shrubs,herb and litter coverage,and biomass.Considering the natural bamboo forest structure,artificial management was the necessary way of maintaining the high productivity and moso bamboo forest.According to modern forest theory,this paper proposed the strategy of spatial separation and directional cultivation for moderate utility and conservation of bamboo forest in order to gain the long-term ecological,economic and social benefits and the optimization pattern of ecological safety barrier in the conservation zone.

  5. Survey Study of Moso Bamboo Management Techniques Dissemination in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By PRA survey to 1 245 farmer households of 10 key Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production counties, the source and demand of the management techniques in Zhejiang were studied. The conducted principal factor analysis revealed that experience and traditional knowledge are currently major technical sources of farmer households' Moso bamboo forest management techniques and that the demonstrative household is a highly expected technical source, in which the prime factor is interpersonal dissemination ...

  6. Structure and Property of Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition, fiber characteristics, crystalline structure, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the five species of bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis cv.Pachyloe, Bambusa tootisk, Arundinaia amabilis, B.vulgaris cv. Vittata, and Dendrocalamus affinis) were studied with IR, X-ray, DSC and chemical analyses. The results indicated that the benzene-ethanol extractive content of bamboo was higher than that of wood, the content of lignin and the content of pentosan were 19.1% - 25.3% and 14.9% - ...

  7. Visualization of Cellulose Microfibrils of Phyllostachys pubescens Fibers with Atomic Force Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscope(AFM) was used to investigate the arrangement of cellulose microfibrils (CMF) in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) fibers. Two methods of sample preparation were used here for different purposes. The first method was chemical maceration with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid, through which the obtained fibers were suitable for observing the orientation of CMF in the primary wal1. The other method was to prepare tangential microtomed sections with a thickness o...

  8. Evaluation on Phyllostachys Pubescens Forest Ecosystem Services Value in Suichang County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyun Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the ecological benefits of Moso bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens, based on the method of “The assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China”, assessing Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value in Suichang County. Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value are divided into six groups: water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation in this study. Chinese Fir Plantation as the control was to compare. The results showed that: (1 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County was 1260.40 million yuan/a, services values of water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation were respectively 741.00 million yuan/a, 81.00 million yuan/a, 331.00 million yuan/a, 21.6 million yuan/a, 32.2 million yuan/a ,53.6 million yuan/a. (2 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County has increased 302.80 million yuan/a, the growth was about 31.62%. (3 In the six groups, all of Moso bamboo ecosystem services value more than the same area of Chinese Fir forest plantation. These provide a reference basis for the similar region to evaluate Moso bamboo ecosystem services value, demonstrating the important contribution of Moso bamboo to the forest ecosystem of Suichang County's sustainable development.

  9. Insights into the Bamboo Genome: Syntenic Relationships to Rice and Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jie Gui; Nai-Xun Ma; Tian-Zhen Zhang; Long-Jiang Fan; Yan Zhou; Yu Wang; Sheng Wang; Sheng-Yue Wang; Yan Hu; Shi-Ping Bo; Huan Chen; Chang-Ping Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family and plays a significant role in the forest industry.We produced 1.2 Mb of tetraploid moso bamboo(Phyllostachys pubescens E.Mazel ex H.de Leh.)sequences from 13 bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC)clones,and these are the largest genomic sequences available so far from the subfamily Bambusoideae.The content of repetitive elements(36.2%)in bamboo is similar to that in rice.Both rice and sorghum exhibit high genomic synteny with bamboo,which suggests that rice and sorghum may be useful as models for decoding Bambusoideae genomes.

  10. Lead accumulation and tolerance of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings:applications of phytoremediation%植物修复的应用:毛竹苗对铅的积累与耐性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan LIU; Song LI; Ejazul ISLAM; Jun-ren CHEN; Jia-sen WU; Zheng-qian YE; Dan-li PENG; Wen-bo YAN; Kou-ping LU

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment was aimed at identifying the lead (Pb) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyl ostachys pubescens) seedlings grown under different Pb treatments. Experimental results indicated that at the highest Pb concentration (400 μmol/L), the growth of bamboo seedlings was inhibited and Pb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached the maximum of 148.8, 482.2, and 4282.8 mg/kg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the excessive Pb caused decreased stomatal opening, formation of abundant inclusions in roots, and just a few inclusions in stems. The ultrastructural analysis using transmission elec-tron microscopy revealed that the addition of excessive Pb caused abnormal y shaped chloroplasts, disappearance of endoplasmic reticulum, shrinkage of nucleus and nucleolus, and loss of thylakoid membranes. Although ultrastructural analysis revealed some internal damage, even the plants exposed to 400 µmol/L Pb survived and no visual Pb toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis were observed in these plants. Even at the highest Pb treatment, no sig-nificant difference was observed for the dry weight of stem compared with controls. It is suggested that use of Moso bamboo as an experimental material provides a new perspective for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil owing to its high metal tolerance and greater biomass.%目的:探索毛竹在修复铅污染土壤的植物修复潜力。  创新点:使用了毛竹作为一种全新的植物修复材料进行研究。得到了毛竹幼苗在铅胁迫下的生长与生理反应情况,不同植物组织对铅的吸收与积累情况,铅胁迫下毛竹幼苗表层与细胞超微结构的特征。  方法:根系形态分析(图3)、植物重金属含量分析(表1)、扫描电镜分析(图4)和透射电镜分析(图5)。  结论:各组织部位铅浓度的值揭示了,毛竹是一个很好的固定铅污染土

  11. Silicon’s organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles.

  12. Physiological changes of leaves in response to cold in Phyllostachys propinqua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiao-ling; Yang Qing; Guo Shou-hua; Liu Yan-fang; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    There are no previous records about planting bamboo in Changli, Hebei Province, north China. Since they were introduced in 2004, the propinquity bamboo (Phyllostachys propinqua McClure) has demonstrated good adaptability to the cold climate in Changli. The overwintering status of the bamboo and some of its physiological changes after the winter have been studied to ascertain the adaptability of the bamboo to the cold weather in Changli and to establish a firm basis for growing the plants in larger areas in northern China. The bamboo lived through the winter without any protection. The leaves of windward bamboos growing at various intervals have been studied for their viability and health after the winter. The changes in some physiological indices of the leaves were measured in the following spring. Results showed that the bamboo is partly green even at a temperature as low as -22.3℃ in Changli. During the winter, some leaves died and some partly died. Leaves are light in color and turn gradually to a dark green when the temperature increases in the following spring. As new leaves develop, the contents of chlorophyll and water and the ratio of free and bound water in the old leaves increase as does transpiration. At the same time the contents of free amino acid, proline, soluble sugar, malondialdehede (MDA), permeability of the membrane, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities decrease. The direction of these physiological indices changes when the new leaves begin to sprout. The old leaves reduce their rate of photosynthesis, their blade functions decline gradually and the leaves fall off towards the middle of June. The cold wind affects the survival of bamboo leaves in winter, but has little effect on new leaves growing at the start of the following year. The results indicate that the propinquity bamboo can survive the winter in Changli quite well.

  13. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  14. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China.

  15. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Phyllostachys bambusoides and Arundinaria racemosa, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Upadhyaya; A.Arunachalam; K.Arunachalam; A.K.Das

    2012-01-01

    We investigated decomposition and nutrient release patterns of leaf and sheath litter of two important highland bamboo species (viz.Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb.(Zucc.) and Arundinaria racemosa Munro) by using a litter bag technique.Our objective was to improve understanding of the addition of organic matter and nutrients to soil from the litter of two abundant highland bamboo species,species that support the local population of the region in many ways.N concentration and N/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) in leaf litter of P.bambusoides.Significantly,larger values of lignin concentration,C/N ratio,and lignin/N ratio were found in the sheath litter ofA racemosa.Weight loss of both leaf and sheath litter was strongly positively correlated with N and N/P ratio,and significantly negatively correlated (p<0.01) with C/N ratio.Liginn/N had a negative correlation with decay rate.In both species,only lignin concentration of the litter showed strong positive correlation with N release.Litter decomposition and N release patterns were similar for the two bamboo species,whereas,P release rate from leaf litter was higher in P.bambusoides and differed significantly between sheath and leaf litter for both species.The complex pattern of nutrient release through mineralization and immobilization during litter decomposition ensures nutrient availability in both managed and natural bamboo stands subjected to anthropogenic disturbances.

  16. Identification and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Bamboo Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Uehara Tohru; Li Jianzhang; Furuno Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of solvent extracts from two main bamboo species, moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and madake bamboo (P. Bambusoides) in Japan, was first evaluated by scavenging free radical of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the inhibition activity for peroxidation of linoleic acid, and the reduction power. The methanol-extracts of moso bamboo culms and madake bamboo leaves presented stronger antioxidant activity compared with DPPH scavenging activity. Methanol-extract of moso bamboo culms was further fractionated by different solvents and n-butanol soluble fraction exhibited the most significant activity in the DPPH scavenging assay. The fractionation of n-butanol soluble extract was isolated by silica gel column with gradient mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol. The isolated fractions were directed by the antioxidant activity measured by scavenging the stable DPPH free radical. It was observed that most of the eluted fractions showed the antioxidative activity. Fractions acquired from elution with the mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol (10:1-5:1) showed stronger antioxidant activity than the other fractions.

  17. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM. PMID:27558833

  18. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem's SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM. PMID:27558833

  19. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM.

  20. Preliminary study of application effect of bamboo vinegar on vegetable growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Yu Zhi-ming; Wu Wen-qiang; Wu Qing-li

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescense) vinegar, with different diluents, on the growth of lettuce, cole and cucumber based on field tests. The results show that moso bamboo vinegar with 500-800 times dilution had good effect on the growth of tested vegetables. The harvest of vegetables increased from 18.8%-20.2% compared with a control. The height and the weight of the average single vegetable tested also increased. The main components of moso bamboo vinegar were analyzed by GC-MS and the positive effect on the growth was, in the first instance, attributed to a synergistic effect of trace amounts of the main components of bamboo vinegar.

  1. [Effects of Phyllostachys edulis invasion of native broadleaf forest on soil fungal community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-chun; Liang, Xue; Li, Yong-fu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Jun-hui; Xu, Qiu-fang

    2016-02-01

    To investigate variation of soil fungal community in response to invasion of Phyllostachys edulis into native broadleaf forest, we characterized the community structure and the abundance of fungi in soil under bamboo (BB), mixture forest of bamboo and broadleaf (MF) and broadleaf forest (BL) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the most obvious difference in the soil fungal community structure was observed between the BB and BF stands, followed by that between the MF and BL. Shannon index and evenness index of soil fungi were higher in the MF than in the BB and BL. pH and NH4+-N content were the most important environmental gradients on the distribution of fungal community under BB, while NO3(-)-N content significantly affected the distribution of the fungal community under BL. The abundance of fungi in BL was significantly higher than that in BB and MF, and the fungi abundance showed a negative correlation with soil pH but a positive correlation with NO3(-)-N content. These results implied that heterotrophic nitrification driven by fungi could occur in soil of BL, and this process might be changed by the bamboo invasion. PMID:27396134

  2. Genome size and sequence composition of moso bamboo: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the world's most important bamboo species. It has the largest area of all planted bamboo―over two-thirds of the total bamboo forest area―and the highest economic value in China. Moso bamboo is a tetraploid (4x=48) and a special member of the grasses family. Although several genomes have been sequenced or are being sequenced in the grasses family, we know little about the genome of the bambusoids (bamboos). In this study, the moso bamboo genome size was estimated to be about 2034 Mb by flow cytometry (FCM), using maize (cv. B73) and rice (cv. Nipponbare) as internal references. The rice genome has been sequenced and the maize genome is being sequenced. We found that the size of the moso bamboo genome was similar to that of maize but significantly larger than that of rice. To determine whether the bamboo genome had a high proportion of repeat elements, similar to that of the maize genome, approximately 1000 genome survey sequences (GSS) were generated. Sequence analysis showed that the proportion of repeat elements was 23.3% for the bamboo genome, which is significantly lower than that of the maize genome (65.7%). The bamboo repeat elements were mainly Gypsy/DIRS1 and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons (14.7%), with a few DNA transposons. However, more genomic sequences are needed to confirm the above results due to several factors, such as the limitation of our GSS data. This study is the first to investigate sequence composition of the bamboo genome. Our results are valuable for future genome research of moso and other bamboos.

  3. Species and distribution of mountain bamboos in Shennongjia, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; ZHAOBen-yuan; ZHUZhao-quan

    2003-01-01

    Inventory recorded 4 genera and 11 spacies of mountain bamboss in Shennongjia,Central China.Of these,4 species (Phyllostachys nigra var.henonis,Ph,heteroclada,Ph.nidularia and Ph.Bambuskoides) beiong to the monopodial bamboo,4 species(lndocalamus latifolius,I.longiauritus,l.wilsoni and l.tessellatus)to the amphipodial barnboo,and 3 species(Fargesia spathaces,F.munelae and Yushania contusa)to the sympodial bamboo.Monopoodial bamboos grow on the gentle slopes below 1800m asl,occurring from the subtropical belt to the temperate belt in the vertical climatic spectrum of the mountain;Sympodial bamboos occur in higher elevations,ranging from the warm temperate(1200m),across the mediate temperate and cold temperate,to the mountaintops of the frigid temperate belt(3100m).Amphipodial bamboos occur in all climate types except the frigid temperate belt.three dominant species,F.spathacea,F.murielae and Y.confusa,currently cover 12%,9% and 3% of the mountain ranges in Shannongjia,respectively.

  4. SALIENT FEATURES OF BAMBOO FIBRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrata Das

    2007-01-01

    @@ Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fibre produced from bamboo. Starchy pulp is produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and multiphase bleaching. Further chemical processes produce bamboo fibre.

  5. SALIENT FEATURES OF BAMBOO FIBRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrata; Das

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fibre produced from bamboo.Starchy pulp is produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and multi- phase bleaching.Further chemical processes produce bamboo fibre.

  6. Growth Cycle of Phyllostachys edulis Stand in Tianmu Mountain Based on Spectrum Analysis%基于谱分析的天目山毛竹林生长周期

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤孟平; 沈利芬; 赵赛赛; 仇建习; 徐文兵; 庞春梅; 赵明水; 梅爱君

    2014-01-01

    A growth cycle of moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys edulis) stand is an important basis in management decision. In general,there is two years cycle of on-year or off-year phenomenon during moso bamboo stand growing. This study used a less disturbed moso bamboo stand in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province as a research object ,one permanent plot of 100 m × 100 m was established and divided into 100 units by adjacent grid inventory and has been annually surveyed for 5 years. The spectrum analysis of time series was applied to explore the growth cycle of moso bamboo stand. The results show that moso bamboo stand is uneven-aged forest,and its age diversity increases year after year from 1 -14 year to 1 -18 year during investigation. It was especially found that there is cycle diversity during the growth of moso bamboo stand. The cycle diversity includes two years cycle,three years cycle and six years cycle. Among the multiple cycles,two years cycle and six years cycle are significant. Therefore,the growth characteristics of multiple cycles,especially two years cycle and six years cycle,should be considered in moso bamboo stand management decision to take reasonable management measures to realize moso bamboo stand sustainable management.

  7. The High Yielding Technology of Transplanting Phyllostachy spraecox C.D.Chu et C.S.Chao%雷竹引种丰产高效技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继雄

    2011-01-01

    雷竹是优良的笋用竹,颇受人们喜爱,经济效益显著,生产上具有推广价值.作者根据引种成功经验,从科学引种、精心营造、适时施肥、覆盖增温、采笋养竹、调整立竹密度与结构、合理除梢、病虫害防治8个方面系统介绍雷竹引种丰产高效技术措施.%Phyllostachy spraecox C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao is a kind of elite favorite edible bamboo. It is of great value to plant and popularize it. This paper introduced the technology of planting Phyllostachy spraecox C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao in 8 aspects: The scientific way to plant, the method to set a stable planting environment, the proper way to fertilize, the measures to increase soil temperature, the correct way to harvest, the proper distance to be kept between parent bamboos, the reasonable mode to remove the tip, and the approach to protect the bamboo from pest.

  8. Application of bamboo for flexural and shear reinforcement in concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nathan Alan

    As the developing world is industrializing and people migrate to cities, the need for infrastructure is growing quickly and concrete has become one of the most widely used construction materials. One poor construction practice observed widely across the developing world is the minimal use of reinforcement for concrete structures due to the high cost of steel. As a low-cost, high-performance material with good mechanical properties, bamboo has been investigated as an alternative to steel for reinforcing concrete. The goal of this research is to add to the knowledge base of bamboo reinforced concrete (BRC) by investigating a unique stirrup design and testing the lap-splicing of flexural bamboo reinforcement in concrete beams. Component tests on the mechanical properties of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) were performed, including tensile tests and pull-out tests. The results of the component tests were used to design and construct 13 BRC beams which were tested under monotonic gravity loading in 3 and 4-point bending tests. Three types of beams were designed and tested, including shear controlled, flexure controlled, and lap-spliced flexure controlled beams. The test results indicated that bamboo stirrups increased unreinforced concrete beam shear capacities by up to 259%. The flexural bamboo increased beam capacities by up to 242% with an optimal reinforcement ratio of up to 3.9%, assuming sufficient shear capacity. Limitations of the bamboo reinforcement included water absorption as well as poor bonding capability to the concrete. The test results show that bamboo is a viable alternative to steel as tensile reinforcement for concrete as it increases the ultimate capacity of the concrete, allows for high deflections and cracks, and provides warning of impending structural failure.

  9. [Species-abundance distribution patterns along succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-min; Fan, Cheng-fang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing-pei; Fang, Kai; Fan, Fang-li; Yang, Guang-yao

    2015-12-01

    To detect the ecological process of the succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain, five niche models, i.e., broken stick model (BSM), niche preemption model (NPM), dominance preemption model (DPM), random assortment model (RAM) and overlap- ping niche model (ONM) were employed to describe the species-abundance distribution patterns (SDPs) of 15 samples. χ² test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to test the fitting effects of the five models. The results showed that the optimal SDP models for P. glauca forest, bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broadleaved forest were DPM (χ² = 35.86, AIC = -69.77), NPM (χ² = 1.60, AIC = -94.68) and NPM (χ² = 0.35, AIC = -364.61), respectively. BSM also well fitted the SDP of bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broad-leaved forest, while it was unsuitable to describe the SDP of P. glauca forest. The fittings of RAM and ONM in the three forest types were all rejected by the χ² test and AIC. With the development of community succession from P. glauca forest to broadleaved forest, the species richness and evenness increased, and the optimal SDP model changed from DPM to NPM. It was inferred that the change of ecological process from habitat filtration to interspecific competition was the main driving force of the forest succession. The results also indicated that the application of multiple SDP models and test methods would be beneficial to select the best model and deeply understand the ecological process of community succession. PMID:27111994

  10. 施用营养液对毛竹叶片气孔超微结构的影响%APPLIED NUTRIENT SOLUTION EFFECT ON ULTRASTRUCTURE OF STOMA OF LEAVES OF PHYLLOSTACHYS HETEROCYCLA CV. PUBESCENS AFTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤华明; 刘银春; 刘金福

    2001-01-01

    Under scanning electron microscope, the cell of leaves of five samples of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens in different ayes was observed, into the base of whose culms nutrient solution was injeited one year be-fore. It was found that the stomatal density, size and degree of opening had increased greatly as compared with CK.It was useful for transpiration, raising the suction and assimilation of CO2, enhancing the photosynthesis and respir-ation, increasing the metabolism and accumulating organic matter. It helped to improve yield of bamboo.

  11. Flocculation characteristics of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla: An efficient and eco-friendly flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Hangcheng; Yao, Juming

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a synthesis process and flocculation characteristics of an eco-friendly flocculant based on bamboo pulp cellulose (BPC) from Phyllostachys heterocycla. Ployacrylamide (PAM) was grafted onto the BPC by free-radical graft copolymerization in homogeneous aqueous solution. The optimal synthesis conditions of the bamboo pulp cellulose-graft-ployacrylamide flocculant (BPC-g-PAM) and its performance on wastewater treatments were investigated. A UV-based method was used to rapidly determine the degree of substitution (DS) of BPC. The results showed that, under the optimal synthesis conditions, the obtained BPC-g-PAM held a grafting ratio of 43.8% and DS of 1.31. Turbidity removal of the product reached 98.0% accompanying with the significant flocculation and sedimentation in target suspensions. The flocculation mechanism was explored by means of zeta potential method. For negatively charged contaminants, like kaolin clay particles, the BPC-g-PAM could remove the contaminants efficiently via bridging and charge neutralization in acidic or neutral environment.

  12. Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-11-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon's biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon's erosion of soil particles.A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2 x a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2 x a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26x10(10) kg of silicon in the

  13. Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen-ji; LIN Peng; HE Jian-yuan; YANG Zhi-wei; LIN Yi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon's biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon's erosion of soil particles.A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts ofmoso bamboos, and the underaboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%,3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26× 1010 kg of silicon in the organic pool made up by the moso bamboo forests in the subtropical area of China.

  14. Seasonal variations in whole-ecosystem BVOC emissions from a subtropical bamboo plantation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Yu, Shuquan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emissions and environmental conditions were measured over a six month period in a Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys violascens) forest in a subtropical region in China. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions were measured using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system on an above-canopy tower. From July to November of 2012, isoprene contributed 99.1% of terpenoid emissions. α-pinene, constituting 0.8% of total observed terpenoid emissions, was the only monoterpene for which a significant flux was detected. Emissions of the sesquiterpenes longifolene and α-cedrene were observed at very low rates. Isoprene and α-pinene emissions exhibited strong diurnal variations, with lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around noon. BVOC peak emissions typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak and coincided with the daily temperature peak. This behavior can be described reasonably well by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic emission model. During the campaign (i.e., from 7 July, 2012 to 19 Jan., 2013), the mean (and maximum) emission fluxes (mg m-2 h-1) were 0.95 (10.32) for isoprene, 0.010 (0.176) for α pinene, 0.001 (0.063) for longifolene, and 2.6 × 10-4 (0.009) for α-cedrene, respectively. During the winter season, when the ground was covered by organic mulch to increase soil temperature and to increase the yield of bamboo shoot, there was no evident impact on BVOC emissions. The observed seasonal variation followed the general behavior predicted by the MEGANv2.1 model, with lower emissions associated with cooler conditions, but the magnitude of the emission decrease was greater than expected indicating driving variables are missing from the model. Emission factors, representing the emission expected for a Leaf Area Index of 5 at a temperature of 30 °C and PAR of 1500 μmol m-2 s-1, during the peak growing season for this site were 0.008 mg m-2 h-1 for α-pinene and 3.3 mg m-2 h-1 for isoprene. The isoprene emission

  15. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  16. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guoqi [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wang, Lihai, E-mail: xu12nefu@sina.cn [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Junliang [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wu, Jinzhuo [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  17. Bamboo and the Chinese Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2003-01-01

    THE bamboo plant, fargesia spathacea, is the staple food of the giant panda and a cultural icon in Chinese history. In sharp contrast to other plants, the bamboo only blossoms every 60 to 80 years, and perishes soon after. It takes one to three decades for its seeds to grow. In the past 3 million years bamboos have undergone more than 50,000 extensive blooms. Pandas survived by migrating,but this is no longer an option owing to the sharp decrease of bamboo forests. The last two bloomings of bamboo caused 250 giant pandas to starve to death.

  18. Genome-wide characterization of the biggest grass, bamboo, based on 10,608 putative full-length cDNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chuanrang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the availability of rice and sorghum genome sequences and ongoing efforts to sequence genomes of other cereal and energy crops, the grass family (Poaceae has become a model system for comparative genomics and for better understanding gene and genome evolution that underlies phenotypic and ecological divergence of plants. While the genomic resources have accumulated rapidly for almost all major lineages of grasses, bamboo remains the only large subfamily of Poaceae with little genomic information available in databases, which seriously hampers our ability to take a full advantage of the wealth of grass genomic data for effective comparative studies. Results Here we report the cloning and sequencing of 10,608 putative full length cDNAs (FL-cDNAs primarily from Moso bamboo, Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens, a large woody bamboo with the highest ecological and economic values of all bamboos. This represents the third largest FL-cDNA collection to date of all plant species, and provides the first insight into the gene and genome structures of bamboos. We developed a Moso bamboo genomic resource database that so far contained the sequences of 10,608 putative FL-cDNAs and nearly 38,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated in this study. Conclusion Analysis of FL-cDNA sequences show that bamboo diverged from its close relatives such as rice, wheat, and barley through an adaptive radiation. A comparative analysis of the lignin biosynthesis pathway between bamboo and rice suggested that genes encoding caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase may serve as targets for genetic manipulation of lignin content to reduce pollutants generated from bamboo pulping.

  19. Preliminary Determination on Chemical Components of Leaves from Phyllostachys vivax McClure cv. aureocaulis%黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶化学成分的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衡锋

    2011-01-01

    [目的]测定黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶的化学成分.[方法]以当年生和3年生黄秆乌哺鸡竹成竹为试材,从竹子的顶梢、中部和基部采集样品,对其水提取物.采用硝酸铝-亚硝酸钠比色法测定总黄酮含量,福尔马林还原比色法测定总酚含量,凯氏定氮法和分光光度法测定蛋白质和总糖含量.[结果]黄秆鸟哺鸡竹新叶中总黄酮含量较高,老叶中总酚含量较高,黄酮含量平均为1.65%,总酚含量平均为2.35%;竹叶的蛋白质含量平均为21.37%;竹叶的总糖含量平均为36.99%,多糖含量平均为25.01%.[结论]黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶中的水提取物含量平均为24.64%,水溶性糖含量平均为11.98%,除含糖类外,还含有黄酮、酚类和蒽醌等化合物,因此黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶具有很好的抗癌保健作用.可开发为一种代茶饮料.%[Objective ] The study aimed to determin the chemical components of leaves from Phyllostachys vivax McClure cv. aureocaulis.[ Method] With that year and 3-year old Phyllostachys vivax as the tested material,the samples were collected from the top, middle and basal of the bamboo shoots and were extracted by hot water extraction. The total flavone content and the total phenol content in the water extract of Aureocaulis were determined by using Al ( NO3 ) 3-NaNO2 and Forint-reagent-reversion colorimetry resp. , its the protein content and total sugar content were measured by using Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods resp. [ Result ] The total flavone content in new leaves of Phyllostachys vivax was higher and the total phenol content in the old leaves of Phyllostachys vivaxs was higher. Generally, the total flavone content in Phyllostachys vivax leaf averaged by 1.65 % and its total phenol content averaged by 2.35%. The protein content in Phyllostachys vivax leaf averaged by 21.37% and its total sugar content averaged by 36.99%. [ Conclusion]Phyllostachys vivax leaves had mean water extract content of 24.64% and had

  20. Variation in Vegetation Structure and Soil Properties, and the Relation Between Understory Plants and Environmental Variables Under Different Phyllostachys pubescens Forests in Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changshun; Xie, Gaodi; Fan, Shaohui; Zhen, Lin

    2010-04-01

    Biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are key sustainable forestry objectives. Research on the effects of bamboo forest management on plant diversity and soil properties are therefore necessary in bamboo-growing regions, such as southeastern China’s Shunchang County, that have not been studied from this perspective. We analyzed the effects of different Phyllostachys pubescens proportions in managed forests on vegetation structure and soil properties using pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forests as a contrast, and analyzed the relation between understory plants and environmental variables (i.e., topography, stand and soil characteristics) by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The forest with 80% P. pubescens and 20% hardwoods (such as Phoebe bournei, Jatropha curcas, Schima superba) maintained the highest plant diversity and best soil properties, with significantly higher plant diversity than the C. lanceolata forest, and better soil physicochemical and biological properties. The distribution of understory plants is highly related to environmental factors. Silvicultural disturbance strongly influenced the ability of different bamboo forests to maintain biodiversity and soil quality under extensive management, and the forest responses to management were consistent with the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis (i.e., diversity and soil properties were best at intermediate disturbance levels). Our results suggest that biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are important management goals for sustainable bamboo management. To achieve those objectives, managers should balance the inputs and outputs of nutrients and protect understory plants by using appropriate fertilizer (e.g., organic fertilizer), adjusting stand structure, modifying utilization model and the harvest time, and controlling the intensity of culms and shoots harvests.

  1. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  2. Evidence of sulfur-bound reduced copper in bamboo exposed to high silicon and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined copper (Cu) absorption, distribution and toxicity and the role of a silicon (Si) supplementation in the bamboo Phyllostachys fastuosa. Bamboos were maintained in hydroponics for 4 months and submitted to two different Cu (1.5 and 100 μm Cu2+) and Si (0 and 1.1 mM) concentrations. Cu and Si partitioning and Cu speciation were investigated by chemical analysis, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Copper was present as Cu(I) and Cu(II) depending on plant parts. Bamboo mainly coped with high Cu exposure by: (i) high Cu sequestration in the root (ii) Cu(II) binding to amino and carboxyl ligands in roots, and (iii) Cu(I) complexation with both organic and inorganic sulfur ligands in stems and leaves. Silicon supplementation decreased the visible damage induced by high Cu exposure and modified Cu speciation in the leaves where a higher proportion of Cu was present as inorganic Cu(I)S compounds, which may be less toxic. - Highlights: • We examine the role of Si supplementation in mitigating Cu toxicity in bamboos. • In all plant parts, Cu was present under two oxidation states Cu(I) and Cu(II). • In stems and leaves, Cu(I) was bound to both organic and inorganic sulfur ligands. • Si supplementation decreased visible damages and modified Cu speciation. • The formation of an inorganic Cu(I)S compound may be involved in Cu storage. - Si supplementation modifies Cu speciation in a bamboo species used in phytoremediation

  3. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  4. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qunCao; Yong-deYue; Zhen-huaPeng; Ri-maoHua; FengTang

    2004-01-01

    The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65mg/L,53.94mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of bamboo.

  5. Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

    2013-02-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

  6. Evidence of sulfur-bound reduced copper in bamboo exposed to high silicon and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Blanche; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Keller, Catherine; Cazevieille, Patrick; Tella, Marie; Chaurand, Perrine; Panfili, Frédéric; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2014-04-01

    We examined copper (Cu) absorption, distribution and toxicity and the role of a silicon (Si) supplementation in the bamboo Phyllostachys fastuosa. Bamboos were maintained in hydroponics for 4 months and submitted to two different Cu (1.5 and 100 μm Cu(2+)) and Si (0 and 1.1 mM) concentrations. Cu and Si partitioning and Cu speciation were investigated by chemical analysis, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Copper was present as Cu(I) and Cu(II) depending on plant parts. Bamboo mainly coped with high Cu exposure by: (i) high Cu sequestration in the root (ii) Cu(II) binding to amino and carboxyl ligands in roots, and (iii) Cu(I) complexation with both organic and inorganic sulfur ligands in stems and leaves. Silicon supplementation decreased the visible damage induced by high Cu exposure and modified Cu speciation in the leaves where a higher proportion of Cu was present as inorganic Cu(I)S compounds, which may be less toxic. PMID:24418975

  7. Effervescent Granules Prepared Using Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Moso Bamboo Leaves: Hypoglycemic Activity in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhou Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens leaves are used as folk medicines in central-western China to treat diabetes. To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the effervescent granules prepared using E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo leaves (EBEG in HepG2 cells, EBEG were prepared with 5% of each of polysaccharides and chlorogenic acids from moso bamboo and E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves, respectively. HepG2 cells cultured in a high-glucose medium were classified into different groups. The results displayed EBEG-treated cells showed better glucose utilization than the negative controls; thus, the hypoglycemic effect of EBEG was much greater than that of granules prepared using either component alone, thereby indicating that this effect was due to a synergistic action of the components. Further, glucose consumption levels in the cells treated with EBEG (156.35% at 200 μg/mL and the positive controls (metformin, 162.29%; insulin, 161.52% were similar. Thus, EBEG exhibited good potential for use as a natural antidiabetic agent. The hypoglycemic effect of EBEG could be due to the synergistic action of polysaccharides from the moso bamboo leaves and chlorogenic acids from E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves via the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphate displacement enzyme.

  8. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  9. Acetylation of Chinese bamboo flour and thermoplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-fang; CHEN Qin-hui; LIN Jin-huo; ZHUO Dong-xian; WU Xiu-ling

    2008-01-01

    Chinese bamboo flour was chemically modified by acetylation with acetic anhydride by using trichloroacetic acid as an activation agent and the optimized condition for acetylation of bamboo flour was determined as the trichloroacetic acid amount 6.0 g per 1.5-g bamboo flour, ultrasosonication duration 40 min and the reaction time 1 h at 65℃. The composition, microstructure and thermal behavior of acetylated bamboo flour were preliminarily characterized by FT-IR, DSC and SEM etc. The acetylated bamboo flour can be molded into sheets at 130℃ and 10 MPa, indicating the modified bamboo flour possesses thermalplastic performance.

  10. In vitro morphogenic response of leaf sheath of Phyllostachys bambusoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurika H. Komatsu; Katherine Derlene Batagin-Piotto; Gilvano Ebling Brondani; Ant(o)nio Natal Goncalves; Marcilio de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Nodal segments from secondary branches of saplings of Phyllostachys bambusoides were inoculated in MS medium to assess the in vitro morphogenic response of leaf sheath through the induction to callogenesis by Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) at different concentrations of carbohydrate under the same conditions with presence or absence of luminosity. In our experiment, secondary explants were kept in MS medium containing 8.0 mg·L-1 of Picloram for the callus formation. Calluses were transferred in MS medium supplemented with sucrose, fructose and glucose (control, 2%, 4% and 6%). Results show that Picloram induced the callogenesis in leaf sheath. The secondary embryogenesis was formed in yellow-globular callus. The sucrose as carbohydrate source in the absence of light was more efficient to induce rhizogenesis. Glucose was more efficiency in the presence of light. Callogenic induction and further embryogenesis evidenced the competence and determination of leaf sheath cells.

  11. Effect of Management Practices on Seasonal Dynamics of Organic Carbon in Soils Under Bamboo Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guo-Mo; XU Jian-Ming; JIANG Pei-Kun

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples for conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM) practices were taken over a year at2-month intervals to determine the effect of management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) and to quantify seasonal dynamics in SOC for bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex H. de Lehaie) stands. The results with IM compared to CM showed large decreases in total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and the MBC/TOC ratio in the soils. With all IM plots in the 0-20 cm depth across sampling periods,average decreases compared with CM were: TOC, 12.1%; MBC, 26.1%; WSOC, 29.3%; the MBC/TOC ratio, 16.1%;and the WSOC/TOC ratio, 20.0%. Due to seasonal changes of climate, seasonal variations were observed in MBC and WSOC. Soil MBC in the 0-20 cm depth in September compared to May were 122.9% greater for CM and 57.6% greater for IM. However, due primarily to soil temperature, soil MBC was higher during the July to November period, whereas because of soil moisture, WSOC was lower in July and January. This study revealed that intensive management in bamboo plantations depleted the soil C pool; therefore, soil quality with IM should be improved through application of organic manures.

  12. Relationship between Spatial Structure and Biomass of a Close-to-Nature Phyllostachys edulis Stand in Tianmu Mountain%天目山近自然毛竹林空间结构与生物量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤孟平; 徐文兵; 陈永刚; 邓英英; 赵明水

    2011-01-01

    在浙江省天目山国家级自然保护区内的近自然毛竹林内设置1块100 m×100 m的固定标准地,用相邻网格调查法划分100个调查单元,用全站仪对每株毛竹进行精确定位调查,基于GIS的Voronoi图空间分析功能,确定空间结构单元,选择聚集指数、年龄隔离度、竞争指数和目标竹最近邻竹株数4个空间结构指数,运用主成分分析法,分析近自然毛竹林空间结构与生物量的关系.结果表明:各空间结构因子的重要性表现为聚集指数>年龄隔离度>最近邻竹株数>竞争指数;聚集指数与单位面积生物量的负相关关系最明显,较高聚集程度是提高单位面积生物量的前提条件;年龄隔离度的增加有助于提高毛竹林单位面积生物量,高产毛竹林的年龄隔离度≥0.5:单位面积生物量随最近邻竹株数增加而降低,当目标竹有4株最近邻竹时,最有可能获得高产;随竞争指数增加, 毛竹林单位面积生物量有下降趋势,但不明显.%In a fixed plot of 100 m × 100 m in a close-to-nature Phyllostachys edulis stand, which was divided into 100 units by adjacent grid inventory in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province, a whole station was used to measure coordinates of each bamboo tree. Spatial structure unit was established with Voronoi diagram spatial analysis function of GIS. Four spatial structure indices, including aggregation index, age mingling, competition index and the nearest bamboo number, were selected and principal component analysis-was conducted to analyze the relationship between spatial structure and biomass of the P. edulis stand. The results showed that the ranking of spatial structure indices in their importance was; aggregation index > age mingling > the nearest bamboo number > competition index. Aggregation index was significantly negatively correlated with bamboo biomass per unit area,* and high aggregation was a basic precondition for

  13. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  14. 4种竹子木质素合成酶PAL的基因克隆和序列分析%Gene Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Bamboo Lignin Synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潞滨; 刘蕾; 张淑萍; 何聪芬; 胡桃; 庄彩云

    2009-01-01

    苯丙氨酸解氨酶(Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase,PAL;EC 4.3.1.5)是木质素生物合成过程的关键酶和限速酶.应用RACE(Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends)方法,获得了白哺鸡竹(Phyllostachys dulcis)、高节竹(Phyllostachys prominens)、龙鳞竹(Phyllostachys pubescens heterocycla)、丽水苦竹(Pleioblastus maculosoides Wen)等4种竹子PAL基因的全长序列,并进行了生物信息学分析.结果表明,PAL基因的开放读码框长度为2 136 bp,共编码712个氨基酸,具有2个外显子和1个内含子.其中高节竹、龙鳞竹、丽水苦竹PAL基因内含子长度为121 bp,白哺鸡竹PLA基因内含子长度为84 bp.推测其氨基酸序列,并分析PAL蛋白单体的三维结构,结果显示PAL蛋白均含有大量的α螺旋和β折叠结构.基于邻接法的进化树对31个物种的PAL基因的氨基酸序列分析表明,竹类植物PAL基因的保守性较高,与禾本科植物玉米、甘蔗的亲缘关系较近,与双子叶植物辣椒等的亲缘关系较远.%Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL EC 4.3.1.5) is one of the key enzymes in the process of lignin synthesis.In this paper,PAL gene sequences from four varieties of bamboo:Phyllostachys dulcis,Phyllostachys prominens,Phyllostachys pubescens heterocycla and Pleioblastus maculosoides Wen,were obtained by Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE).The results show that each PAL gene has two exons and an intron and every Open Reading Frame (ORF) is 2 136 bp in length,encoding 712 amino acids.The bamboo PAL amino acid sequences and threedimensional structures were then analyzed and inferred.The results indicate that all of the PAL proteins contain a large number of α-helix and β plated sheet structure.The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on PAL sequences of bamboo and other 27 plants indicates that PAL gene sequence in bamboo is relatively conservative,and bamboo has a very close relationship with that of Zea may and Saccharum officinarum,and a remote relationship with

  15. Standard for Bamboo and its International Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhaohui; JIANGZehui; SUNQixiang

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on the present status of standards for bamboo is made. The main group has 15 standards related to bamboo-based panel, bamboo-based panel for form and container with bamboo-based panel. The main technological parameters and making of main types of bamboo-based panels in standards have been analyzed for readers to understand the related standards more easily. Analysis of influence of new national standards of indoor decorating and refurbishing materials on standards for bamboo-based panels in China has been done. The paper compares Chinese standard on methods of tests for bamboo with the respective Indian standard. It is tested that speed' s influence on result of bamboo properties by the experimental data. It is possible to reunite some standards on bamboo in China and India into the uniform international standards on the basis of absorption of the reasonable parts. All the standards for bamboo will be changed with the development of bamboo products and technological process. The paper analyzes the insufficient aspects of the standards and proposes the trend toward international standards. A good standard not only promotes bamboo to well recycling utilization but also mitigates the press of protection of natural forest to realize sustainable development forest.

  16. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB, were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31, 2 : 1 (BS21, 1 : 1 (BS11, 1 : 2 (BS12, and 1 : 3 (BS13. Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21.

  17. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038

  18. Composition of the epicuticular waxes coating the adaxial side of Phyllostachys aurea leaves: Identification of very-long-chain primary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The present study presents comprehensive chemical analyses of cuticular wax mixtures of the bamboo Phyllostachys aurea. The epicuticular and intracuticular waxes were sampled selectively from the adaxial side of leaves on young and old plants and investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The epi- and intracuticular layers on young and old leaves had wax loads ranging from 1.7 μg/cm(2) to 1.9 μg/cm(2). Typical very-long-chain aliphatic wax constituents were found with characteristic chain length patterns, including alkyl esters (primarily C48), alkanes (primarily C29), fatty acids (primarily C28 and C16), primary alcohols (primarily C28) and aldehydes (primarily C30). Alicyclic wax components were identified as tocopherols and triterpenoids, including substantial amounts of triterpenoid esters. Alkyl esters, alkanes, fatty acids and aldehydes were found in greater amounts in the epicuticular layer, while primary alcohols and most terpenoids accumulated more in the intracuticular wax. Alkyl esters occurred as mixtures of metamers, combining C20 alcohol with various acids into shorter ester homologs (C36C40), and a wide range of alcohols with C22 and C24 acids into longer esters (C42C52). Primary amides were identified, with a characteristic chain length profile peaking at C30. The amides were present exclusively in the epicuticular layer and thus at or near the surface, where they may affect plant-herbivore or plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:27402630

  19. Effects of 137Cs γ-rays irradiation and NaN3 treatment on germination rate and protective enzyme activity for seeds of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv · Pubescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv · Pubescens were treated by using 137Cs γ-rays irradiation and NaN3, and the effects of two mutation methods on the germination rates and protective enzyme activities in the germinating seeds were investigated, and set up a theoretical foundation for mutation breeding of bamboo. The results showed that 10Gy irradiation could promote seed germination. As the dose increased, seed germination rate was significantly inhibited in the case of NaN3 treatment. This showed that a mutagenic effect of γ-rays was more obvious than that of NaN3. The effects of different doses of γ-rays and different concentrations of NaN3 on the protective enzyme activity were extremely significant. And the obvious changing point occurred at both low and high doses (concentrations). The protective enzyme activity could reflect the sensitivity. The LD50 for the 137Cs γ-rays radiation and NaN3 concentration were 95.9Gy and 0.16 mmol/L, respectively, which could be considered as the optimum dose (concentration) for mutation breeding of bamboo. (authors)

  20. Comparing composition of Phyllostachys edulis ' Pachyloen' in native and introduced habitats%原产地与引种地厚壁毛竹竹材成分质量分数比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方楷; 杨清培; 郭起荣; 施建敏; 李建; 杨光耀

    2012-01-01

    Nine chemical components and twelve mineral elements in bamboo wood of Phyllostachys edulis ' Pachyloen' from native and introduced habitats were studied. The diversity of bamboo wood among native and introduced habitats were revealed by two-tail variance analysis, meanwhile, bamboo age was referred to as an accessory factor in taking the significance test. Results from the native and introduced habitats showed signifi cant differences for mineral elements (P N > P > S = Mg > Fe > Ca > Mn > Al > Zn > Cu > B in the native habitat, but S > Mg > Ca > Fe in the native habitat. The main chemical components in bamboo wood from introduced habitat were consistent to native habitat values, which affirm that the genetic stability of Phyllostachys edulis 'Pachyloen'. [Ch, 2 tab. 17 ref.]%对原产地和引种地厚壁毛竹Phyllostachys edulis‘Pachyloen’竹材的9种化学成分和12种营养元素进行了测定与分析.结果表明:原产地竹材的冷水抽出物、热水抽出物、10.0 g·kg-1氢氧化钠抽出物、苯醇抽出物、木质素、纤维素、戊聚糖、灰分、二氧化硅质量分数分别为0.055 3,0.064 6,0.298 2,0.027 7,0.290 0,0.395 6,0.260 3,0.015 7,0.001 5 g·g-1.引种地竹材中热水抽出物、木质素、纤维素、戊聚糖、灰分、二氧化硅质量分数略高于原产地.原产地竹材营养元素按质量分数高低排列为钾(6.41 g·kg-1)>氮(3.03 g·kg-1)>磷(0.43 g·kg-1)>锰、硫(0.39 g·kg-1)>铁(161.52 mg·kg-1)>钙(132.99 mg· kg--1)>锰(82.43 mg· kg-1)>铝(17.31 mg·kg 1)>锌(10.47 mg· kg-1)>铜(5.58 mg·kg-1)>硼(0.52 mg· kg-1),但引种地竹材硫(0.34 g·kg-1)>锰(0.25 g·kg-1)>钙(186.23g·kg-1)>铁(112.23 g·kg-1).引种地与原产地间的竹材营养元素存在显著性差异(P<0.05),但化学成分差异未达到检验显著性水平.

  1. 原竹预制构件房屋设计与制造技术%Design and manufacture technology of prefabricated bamboo house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高黎; 王正; 王戈; 程海涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and manufacture technology of prefabricated modular bamboo house, which can meet the modern residential requirements. Firstly,Moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens) was conditioned to approximate constant mass in atmospheric conditions,then main physical-mechanical properties were tested and design stresses were calculated. After that,modular construction components including trusses and walls were assembled by using special connections and joints to combine and reinforce bamboo together. The truss was tested safe enough under specified load; lateral bearing capacity of the wall was 0. 78 t and could be used as load-bearing wall in two-storey building. Based on the experiments,a modular bamboo house was built up with the designed components. The results show that it is technically feasible to use bamboo as main materials in modern prefabricated house.%以原竹为主要原料设计与制造符合现代居住要求的预制构件房屋,内容包括毛竹的处理与设计强度计算,建筑构件的连接、模块化设计与性能测试,以及预制构件房屋的建造等。结果表明:屋架在实际使用载荷下具有足够的安全性能;墙体的抗侧承载力为0.78t,可用作1—2层住宅承重墙体。通过建设示范房屋证明利用原竹进行现代房屋的设计建造是完全可行的。

  2. Rapid soil organic carbon re-accumulation after bamboo invasion on recovering landslide scars in a subtropical forest ecosystem of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Jien, Shih-Hao; Lin, Zan Liang; Chen, Ting-Chien; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Li-Chin; Mentler, Axel; Hein, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon-induced landslides occasionally strip parts of the landscape off its vegetative cover and soil layer and export large amounts of biomass and soil organic carbon (OC). The resulting landslide scars remain low in OC and vulnerable for re-activation for several years until closed vegetation is re-established. In the subtropical mountains of Taiwan and in other parts of the world, bamboo species may invade at a certain point in the succession of recovering landslide scars. Bamboo has a high potential for carbon sequestration because of its fast growth and dense rooting system. However, it is still largely unknown how these properties translate into soil OC re-accumulation rates after landslide disturbance. In this study, we investigated a chronosequence with 5 different sites on former landslide scars in the Alishan area in Central Taiwan, ranging in age from 6 to 53 years post disturbance. The younger landslide scars were colonized by Miscanthus giganteus, while after approx. 15 to 20 years of succession, bamboo (Phyllostachys) species were dominating. Biomass and soil OC stocks were measured on the recovering landslide scars and compared to an old-growth Cryptomeria japonica forest stand in the same area. Humic acids were extracted from the newly formed soils of the recovering landslide scars and analyzed for molecular characteristics. Biomass carbon accumulated rapidly in bamboo stands but was significantly lower compared to the old-growth coniferous forest. However, soil OC stocks on the recovering landslide scars approached the levels of the old-growth forest after only few decades of succession. Similarly, humic acid characteristics (obtained from fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy) rapidly changed in the early phase of succession but seemed to stabilize during the later phase of landslide recovery. Our results demonstrate the high potential of bamboo for below-ground OC sequestration and storage, and show that the fresh OC inputs are rapidly converted to

  3. Analysis of Fertilization Effect of Moso Bamboo Forest in Different Slope Positions%不同坡位毛竹林施肥效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林妹

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究施肥对不同坡位毛竹林的影响,以提高毛竹产量,增加农民收入。[方法]对福建省尤溪县西芹村不同施肥管理和不同坡位毛竹出笋量、新竹地径和枝下高进行研究。[结果]施肥管理和不施肥管理新竹枝下高和出笋量均为显著差异,施肥管理能有效提高竹林产量;不同坡位样地内的新竹枝下高和出笋量均为显著差异,而新竹地径差异性不显著,不同坡位上新竹枝下高、新竹地径、出笋量从大到小均依次为下坡位、中坡位、上坡位,下坡位竹林生产量最高。[结论]在毛竹低产林改造过程中,采用施肥管理,对毛竹林产量会产生显著的影响;在实践生产中,下坡位水肥条件较好,更有利于竹林出笋和竹材生产。%Objective] To research the effects of fertilization on Moso bamboo forest in different slope positions to enhance the yield of Moso bamboo,and to increase farmers′income.[ Method] We researched the bamboo ( Phyllostachys heterocycla) shoots quantity, ground diameter of new bamboo, and clear bole height in Xiqin Village, Youxi County, Fujian Province in different slope positions under different fertilization managements.[ Result] Fertilization management had significant differences with no fertilization management in bamboo shoots quantity and clear bole height.Fertilization management could effectively improve the output of bamboo.Clear bole height and bamboo shoots quantity in different slope positions showed significant differences; while ground diameter of new bamboo had no significant differences.Bamboo shoots quantity, ground diameter of new bamboo, and clear bole height from big to small were in the order of minus grade, mesoslope and upslope. Bamboo production in minus grade was the highest.[ Conclusion] During the renovation of low-yield bamboo forest, fertilization management is adopted, which has significant impacts on yield of bamboo forest

  4. Evaluating the Environmental Health Effect of Bamboo-Derived Volatile Organic Compounds through Analysis the Metabolic Indices of the Disorder Animal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ming; HU Zheng Qing; STRONG P James; SMIT Anne-Marie; XU Jian Wei; FAN Jun; WANG Hai Long

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the bamboo VOCs (volatile organic compounds) effect on animal physiological indices, which associated with human health. Methods GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile organic compounds from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocyla cv. pubescens). The effect of VOCs on environmental health was evaluated by analyzing the metabolic indices of the type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results Spectra of VOC generated by GC/MS were blasted against an in-house MS library confirming the identification of 33 major components that were manually validated. The relative constituent compounds as a percentage of total VOCs determined were alcohols (34.63%), followed by ether (22.02%), aldehyde (15.84%), ketone (11.47%), ester (4.98%), terpenoid (4.38%), and acids (3.83%). Further experimentation established that the metabolic incidence of the disease can be improved if treated with vanillin, leaf alcohol,β-ionone and methyl salicylate. The effects of these VOCs on type 2 diabetes were evident in the blood lipid and blood glucose levels. Conclusion Our model suggests that VOCs can potentially control the metabolic indices in type 2 diabetes mice. This experiment data also provides the scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of ornamental bamboos and some reference for other similar study of environmental plants.

  5. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  6. Utilization of Bamboo as Lightweight Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon SRIVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich panels consisting of bamboo faces and oil palm trunk core were manufactured using melamine urea formaldehyde with the resin content of 250 g/m2 (solid basis. The parameters examined were node and density of bamboo faces. Physical (board density, thickness swelling and water absorption and mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture properties of the sandwich board obtained were investigated and compared with other bamboo products and commercial wood based products. Result showed that this panel had better dimensional stability than those of other bamboo products but lower bending strength. Node of bamboo had no significant effect on any board properties examined. Most of board properties were influenced by bamboo face density. Comparing the properties to commercial wood based products, this panel could be used as wall/floor applications.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bhonde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a perennial, renewable, eco friendly, green, fast growing natural material found in almost all part of the world. Bamboo is a lightweight material with good tensile strength. The tensile strength specific weight ratio of bamboo is 20 times more than that of steel. Researchers are working on bamboo as a substitute to steel reinforcement in concrete. An experimental investigation of bamboo reinforced concrete slab cast in the laboratory and subjected to concentrated load at mid span is presented in this paper. The crack pattern, load-elongation curve and the experimental values were investigated. Bamboo reinforced concrete may be a feasible alternative to Steel Reinforced Cement Concrete Structural elements

  8. 毛竹辐射诱变实生苗期选择研究%St udy on Seedling Selection of Phyllostachys edulis Treated with Irradiation Mut ation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡新玲; 刘俊龙; 苗婷婷; 吴中能; 于一苏; 高健

    2015-01-01

    Absrt act:The main growth characters of Phyllostachys edulis seedlings whose seeds were irradiated by 5 different doses of 60 Coγrays were investigated and explored by using principal component analysis method, for the sake of finding new excellent gene re-sources and widening the hereditary basis of Phyllostachys edulis.The results indicated that near 90%information of seven growth characters ( average single-plant ground diameter, average single-plant seedling height, maximum ground diameter, maximum seedling height, number of tillers, canopy diameter, and root breadth) could be condensed into three principle components.The first principle component mainly consisted of plant height and ground diameter factors.Five superior seedlings were finally screened out by calculating and comparing the values of key principal components of various varieties, and the results were similar to the prac-tical phenotype of bamboo seedlings in the nursery.%为从辐射处理的毛竹实生苗中发掘优异基因资源,拓宽毛竹遗传基础,以不辐照的种子为对照,对经5个不同辐射剂量处理过毛竹种子繁育出的实生苗主要生长性状指标(单株平均地径和单株平均苗高、最大地径、最大苗高、分蘖数、冠幅和根幅)进行主成分分析。结果表明,主成分分析可将7个性状综合为3个主成分,其累计贡献率近90%,第1主成分是以株高和地径因子为主导。通过计算各品种的主成分值进行比较,最终选出了5株综合生长性状优良的实生毛竹苗单株,其结果与圃地竹苗生长表型相近。

  9. 庐山香果树毛竹混交林空间格局研究%Spatial distribution pattern in Emmenopterys henryi and Phyllostachys edulis mixed forest in Lushan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭焱松; 张晓波; 桂忠明; 杜娟; 周赛霞

    2013-01-01

    Phyllostachys edulis at all scales.Population patterns and spatial association depended on spatial scales,individual sizes and so did their inter-specific.Necessary management should be taken to the forest communities where Emmenopterys henry grew.Harvesting bamboos in-cluding rhizome and some other larger trees would provide a good environment for Emmenopterys henryi and restore its nature and reasonable population configuration.Otherwise,Emmenopterys henryi as a rare and endangered species would be in danger of extinction in Lushan Mountain.

  10. Methane production from steam-exploded bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Take, Harumi; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2004-01-01

    To convert unutilized plant biomass into a useful energy source, methane production from bamboo was investigated using a steam explosion pretreatment. Methane could not be produced from raw bamboo but methane production was enhanced by steam explosion. The maximum amount of methane produced, i.e., about 215 ml, was obtained from 1 g of exploded bamboo at a steam pressure of 3.53 MPa and a steaming time of 5 min. A negative correlation between the amount of methane produced and the amount of Klason lignin was observed in the methane fermentation of steam-exploded bamboo.

  11. Research on Variation of Bamboo Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo as an important biological resource has become an alternative to wood gradually,but the variation in mechanical properties leads to difficulty in its use to some extent.So deep understanding of the nature in bamboo is needed to satisfy the utilization effectively.As we have known,the density is one of mechanical properties of bamboo.Therefore,this paper studied the variation in bamboo density with the weighing method.The results showed that the density decreases gradually from the outer to the inn...

  12. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan. PMID:26802362

  13. Morphological and molecular identification of bamboo culm brown rot%刚竹秆褐腐病病原形态及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 叶利芹; 叶建仁; 徐旭凌; 曹云

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo culm brown rot occurs generally, especially in Nanjing,and influences the growth of bamboo such as Phyllostachys glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana,especially for the former. There was no any reports about Ph. glauca infected the disease previously. By isolation and culture of diseased tissue、artificial inoculation test, morphological observation of isolated strain and amplification with universal primer ITS1/ITS4, finally molecular identification with fragment amplified of 559 bp by ITS analysis, the pathogen of Ph. glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana was identified as Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.. The research result could provide the reference basis for the effective monitoring and control of the disease.%刚竹秆褐腐病在南京地区发生较普遍,影响竹林生长.其主要危害刚竹属的淡竹(Phyllostachys glauca)、黄槽刚竹(Ph.viridis f.houzeauana),其中以淡竹受害最为严重.笔者通过对刚竹秆褐腐病病组织分离培养、人工接种试验、分离菌形态学观察及采用通用引物ITS1/ITS4扩增,对扩增出的约559 bp的片段进行ITS序列分子鉴定,最终将在淡竹和黄槽刚竹等上发生的病原鉴定为木贼镰刀菌(Fusarium equiseti(Corda)Sacc.).

  14. Bamboo-based Panels for Structural Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXuhe; WANGZheng

    2005-01-01

    With technical assistance from INBAR and the Research Institute of Wood Industry of the Chinese Academy of Forestry, the construction of the Pingbian Primary School was completed in 2004,where bamboo plywood panels and laminated beams were used for the roof trusses, sheathing boards and wall panels. This is the first time that bamboo-based panels are used for structural applications.

  15. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  16. 雷竹花粉萌发率及贮藏方法研究%Pollen germination and storage of Phyllostachys violascens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 徐一帆; 林新春; 方伟

    2012-01-01

    Pollen germination and storage of Phyllostachys violascens were studied for bamboo crossbreeding. The results were summarized as follows: the pollen germination rate measured by in vitro pollen germination was lower than the pollen viability rate detected by triphenyltetrazolium chloride triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique; the pollen germination ability could be improved by supplementing with 50 mg·L-1 boric acid in the medium; the pollen germination rate of the anthers completely outcrop but not dehiscent was higher than those of ether development stages; as for the pollen collection time, 15:30 was better than 9:30; pollen viability of Ph. violascens would be lost quickly during storage, and certain humidity and low temperature at 4℃ could be beneficial to keep the pollen viability.%为更好地开展竹类植物的杂交育种工作,对雷竹花粉的萌发率及贮藏方法进行了研究.结果表明,利用离体花粉萌发法测定的雷竹花粉萌发率远低于氯化三苯四氮唑(TTC)染色法测定的花粉生活力;添加50 mg·L-1硼酸有利于雷竹花粉萌发;不同发育阶段的花粉萌发率有明显差异,以花药完全露出未开裂的花粉萌发率为最高;花粉采集时间以15:30优于9:30;雷竹花粉不耐贮藏,4℃湿藏有利于保持花粉生活力.

  17. Preliminary Accounting on Economic Value of Bamboo Resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The current area of bamboo resource in China is 7.21 million ha, 4.21 million ha of which is the pure bamboo forest The stock value of the bamboo resource is 30.312 billion Renminbi (RMB) yuan, the present value of actual output from bamboo wood and shoot is 149.062 billion RMB yuan. The bamboo forest land is valuated as much as 8.133 billion RMB yuan. It is raised to improve the production and management conditions of the 2nd and 3rd type bamboo forests to raise production capacity of wood and shoot an...

  18. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  19. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Xianmiao Liu; Zhijia Liu,; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Zehui Jiang,; Xing’e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP) met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified includin...

  20. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  1. Variation in tensile properties and relationship between tensile properties and air-dried density for moso bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Benhua FEI; Haiqing REN; Zehui JIANG; Xinge LIU

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the variation in tensile properties and the relationship between the tensile properties and the air-dried density for the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by sampling at different heights and radial positions. Results showed that the variation of the longitudinal tensile properties in the radial direction was greater than that in the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal tensile modules of elasticity (MOE) ranged from 8.49 to 32.49 GPa. MOE for the outermost layer was 3-4 times as high as that for the innermost layer. The longitudinal tensile strength (MOR) ranged from 115.94 to 328.15 MPa. MOR for the outermost layer is 2-3 times as high as that for the innermost layer. Linear and curvilinear regressions were done from tested data of MOE, MOR and air-dried density in this paper. The linear equation worked a little better than the curvilinear one to predict the longitudinal MOR and MOE from air-dried density.

  2. CO2 Emission Increases with Damage Severity in Moso Bamboo Forests Following a Winter Storm in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Xu, Hangmei; Ding, Jiuming; Chen, Han Y. H.; Wang, Jiashe; Xu, Zikun; Ruan, Honghua; Chen, Yuwei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the prevalence of disturbances in forests, the effects of disturbances on soil carbon processes are not fully understood. We examined the influences of a winter storm on soil respiration and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) of a Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycle) plantation in the Wuyi Mountains in Southern China from May 2008 to May 2009. We sampled stands that were damaged at heavy, moderate, and light levels, which yielded aboveground biomass inputs to the soil at 22.12 ± 0.73 (mean ± 1 s.e.m.), 10.40 ± 1.09, and 5.95 ± 0.73 Mg per hectare, respectively. We found that soil respiration rate and annual cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly higher in heavily damaged sites than moderately and lightly damaged sites. Soil temperature was the most important environmental factor affecting soil respiration rate across all studied stands. However, soil respiration sensitivity to temperature (Q10) decreased in heavily damaged sites. Microbial biomass carbon and its proportion to total SOC increased with damage intensity. Soil respiration rate was positively correlated to microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture. Our results indicated that the increase of soil respiration following canopy disturbance from winter storm resulted from increased microbial biomass carbon, soil moisture, and temperature.

  3. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  4. Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

  5. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  6. Thermal extraction of bamboo with various solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junghee

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is to describe the potential of improvement by liquefaction with various solvents in pyrolysis in terms of conversion of bamboo to gas and liquid and quality of the bio-oils and residues produced. Fluidised sand bath and pressure gauge reactor were used for pyrolysis. The reactor was coupled with bamboo and a solvent and after 1 hour of pyrolysis and liquefaction at 410°C, the gas produced was collected in gas bag. To extract compounds uniformly from the chemically decomposed...

  7. Help I want to grow Bamboo!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vongsingha, P.; Vos, R.J.; Armijos Moya, T.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Bamboo could be the most sustainable building material for European use, however, it is not a sustainable material in Europe considering the transportation. So Europe is the most challenging continent for us

  8. Fabrication of unsmooth bamboo-like nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of post drawing on morphology of bubbfil-spun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers was firstly investigated. Bamboo-like nanofibers were observed after drawing. The increase of surface area of the unsmooth fibers has many potential applications in various fields.

  9. Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat SUTNAUN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.

  10. 太湖地区竹林生态系统土壤硝态氮的分布特征——以浙江省安吉县为例%Soil Nitrate Distribution of Bamboo Forest Ecosystems in the Taihu Lake Region:A Case Study of Anji County in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳刚; 张彪; 董敦义; 王斌; 张灿强

    2011-01-01

    To examine the role of the bamboo forest in non-point source pollution control in the Taihu lake region,the soil profile nitrate concentration of 5 Phyllostachys pubescens plots and 5 Phyllostachys iridescins plots along the Xitiaoxi River from the upstream to the downstream were measured through July to August in 2009.The relationship between vegetation type and topographic factors and nitrate was analyzed.Results show that 1) soil nitrate concentration decreased with increasing soil depth.2) In Phyllostachys pubescens plots,the nitrate concentration at a 0-30 cm depth was higher than Phyllostachys iridescins plots;however,the soil nitrate at a 30-50 cm soil depth was higher on Phyllostachys iridescins plots than Phyllostachys pubescens plots.There was no significant differences between these two vegetation plots.3) Plots having understory vegetation types of grass and shrub had a higher nitrate concentration than understory vegetation type of grass.The differences were marked at a 30-50 cm soil depth.4) The soil nitrate concentration at a 0-10 cm soil depth in plots whose vegetation height was higher than 5 m was significantly higher than plots whose vegetation height was lower than 5 m.5) The nitrate concentration of bamboo forest soil decreased first and then increased with increasing elevation.The nitrate concentration at a 0-10cm soil depth above 200 m altitude was higher than those below 200 m altitude.The nitrate concentration at a 10-30 cm soil depth had a similar content between different elevations;however,the nitrate concentration at a 30-50 cm soil depth was higher at lower altitudes and lower at higher altitudes.6) The soil nitrate concentration at a 0-30 cm depth was higher for steep slopes and lower for gentle slopes.The soil nitrate concentration at a 30-50 cm depth for gentle slopes was higher than steep slopes.In summary,the soil nitrate of different soil depths was found to be closely related to vegetation type and topographic

  11. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, J. (Juan); Sampson, C.; Vargas, J.; Nilsson, T; Gil-Martin, L. M.; Aschheim, M.

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions), maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate), an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yi...

  12. Characteristics of Bamboo Leaf Ash Blended Cement Paste and Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Umoh A.A.; Odesola I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of bamboo leaf ash as cement supplement can contribute to reduction in cost and environmental hazard associated with cement production as well as waste pollution caused by the littered bamboo leaves. Therefore, the characteristics of cement paste and mortar incorporating bamboo leaf ash were investigated. The results of the physical properties of the pastes were within the requirements stipulated by relevant standards while that of the mortar cubes indicated that the compressive stren...

  13. Ecological functions of bamboo forest: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUBen-zhi; FUMao-yi; XIEJin-zhong; YANGXiao-sheng_; LIZheng-cai

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo forest is an important forest type in subtropical and tropical areas. Due to its biological characteristic and growth habits,bamboo is not only an ideal economic investment that can be utilized in many different manners but also has enormous potential for alleviating many environmental problems facing the world today. This review describes ecological functions of the bamboo forest on soil erosion control, water conservation, land rehabilitation, and carbon sequestration.

  14. Molecular Origin of Strength and Stiffness in Bamboo Fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Youssefian; Nima Rahbar

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo, a fast-growing grass, has a higher strength-to-weight ratio than steel and concrete. The unique properties of bamboo come from the natural composite structure of fibers that consists mainly of cellulose microfibrils in a matrix of intertwined hemicellulose and lignin called lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). Here, we have used atomistic simulations to study the mechanical properties of and adhesive interactions between the materials in bamboo fibers. With this aim, we have developed m...

  15. A STUDY ON THE SIMULATION OF ECONOMICAL THRESHOLD OF ENERGY FLOW IN PHYLLOSTACHYS PUBESCENS ECOSYSTEM%毛竹林生态系统能流经济阈值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东进; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 蓝斌

    2001-01-01

    Using the data obtained from sample plots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the dynamic model of energy flow ofPhyllostachys pubescens ecosystem was built in this paper. Based on the model, the analysis of energy flow was combined or-ganically with the methods of economical threshold, the concept of economical threshold of energy flow of Phyllostachys pu-bescen ecosystem (EET) was put forward, and the effect of compensation and super compensation were discussed further-more. The results showed that the economical threshold of energy flow of Phyllostachys pubescens ecosystem were: EETleaf =0.3133@ x3, EETbranch = 0.2440@x1 (where x1 and x3 represent energy of leave and branches respectively) ;the effect ofcompensation and super compensation existed in Phyllostachys pubescens, and the compensation point and super compensati-on point of Phyllostachys pubescens were 31.33 %, 13.61% ( expressed in defoliation rate) and 24.40%, 11.94% ( ex-pressed in branch-cut rate)respectively. Therefor, this paper will not only enrich the study of energy ecology in the Phyl-lostachys pubescens ecosystem, but also provide a scientific basis for the management of Phyllostachys pubescens.

  16. Dynamics and impact factor analysis of fly species diversity in Phyllostachys violascens stands%早竹林内蝇类多样性动态及其影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小飞; 李华荣; 田青英; 朱卫兵; 袁登荣; 刘国华; 王福升; 黄伟量; 时培建

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] Phyllostachys violascens is an important bamboo species that can produce abundant edible bamboo shoots. However, some fly species parasitize bamboo shoots, leading to degraded shoot quality and yield decrease. The objectives of this study were to study the population dynamics and species diversity of flies in P. violascens stands. It can provide necessary biological knowledge for scientifically controlling these flies. Thus, this study is valuable for improving the shoot quality and output of artificially cultivated P. violascens. [Methods] The diversity of flies in P. violascens stands was investigated using yellow sticky traps. The effects of environmental factors on the Shannon-Wiener index of the fly community were analyzed using the multiple linear regression. In addition, the method of variation partitioning was employed to analyze the β diversity caused by environmental and spatial variables. [Results] Ten species of flies from 8 families were identified in P. violascens stands in the Dajingshan forest farm, among which Chyliza bambusae, Pegomyia kiangsuensis, Anthomyia illocata, Hydrotaea dentipes and Episyrphus balteata were the dominant species. The number of adult bamboos and that of young bamboo shoots within a radius of 1.5 m around yellow sticky traps had a significant influence on the species diversity of flies; diversity declined with increasing number of adult bamboos. Total variation of the species matrix can be partitioned as follows: spatial species variation not shared by the environmental variables comprised, 8.54%, non-spatial environmental variation, 28.84%, spatially structured environmental variation, 10.46%, and unexplained variation and stochastic fluctuations, 52.16%. [Conclusion] This study revealed the temporal dynamics of flies in P. violascens stands and illustrated the main factors affecting the species diversity of flies. These results have both practical and theoretical implications for increasing the production of

  17. 腐朽过程中毛竹主要化学成分的变化%Main Chemical Components Changes of Moso Bamboo during Decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任红玲; 陆方; 张禄晟; 覃道春

    2013-01-01

    The Moso bamboos (Phyllostachys pubescens) are infected by one white-rot fungus and two brown-rot fungi. The samples are taken out every five days,and the weight loss rate, relative crystallinity and chemical functional groups are analyzed by XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). The results indicate that the weight loss increases and the crystallinity reduces as time goes by, and the brown-rot fungi cause larger weight loss. Changes of the main functional groups of bamboo show that the white-rot fungi can rapidly degrade the three main components especially the lignin, while the brown-rot fungi mainly decomposing the holocellulose.%以毛竹为原料,选择1种白腐菌和2种褐腐菌对竹材进行腐朽试验,利用X射线衍射和傅里叶红外光谱等手段,测定竹材的失重率、相对结晶度和化学官能团.结果表明,随腐朽时间的延长,竹材的失重率不断增加,结晶度不断下降.通过对腐朽竹材主要官能团的观察,发现白腐菌的侵蚀能造成竹材主成分的分解,其中对木质素的分解能力更强.褐腐菌的侵蚀主要破坏竹材综纤维素.

  18. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BAMBOO NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Yu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC has many potential applications because of its special properties. In this paper, NCC was prepared from bamboo pulp. Bamboo pulp was first pretreated with sodium hydroxide, followed by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. The concentration of sulfuric acid and the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC were studied. The results showed that sulfuric acid concentration had larger influence than the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC. When the temperature was 50oC, the concentration of sulfuric acid was 48wt% and the reaction time was 30 minutes, a high quality of nanocrystalline cellulose was obtained; under these conditions, the length of the nanocrystalline cellulose ranged from 200 nm to 500 nm, the diameter was less than 20 nm, the yield was 15.67wt%, and the crystallinity was 71.98%, which is not only higher than those of cellulose nanocrystals prepared from some non-wood materials, but also higher than bamboo cellulose nanocrystals prepared by other methods.

  19. Electrical valorization of bamboo in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENEA releases a technical benchmark of small-scale woody biomass-to-electricity technologies, as well as its application to a project to valorize bamboo in Rwanda and Burundi. Within the framework of its voluntary consulting action, ENEA has provided technical and project management support to help INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rottin) evaluate the technical feasibility of its project and assess what would be the best available technology to fit with the project's objectives and local context. This report thus includes up-to-date description of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis technologies as well as associated power-generation engines. For each, principle, advantages and drawbacks, technical maturity, adaptation to small-scale, flexibility to a change in biomass, scale-up feasibility, economical aspects or else environmental impacts are described and compared. Unit's integration within its environment, electricity use and associated business models are also addressed, and needed bamboo crop surfaces to meet power supply objectives are assessed

  20. Effect of Zn stresses on physiology, growth, Zn accumulation, and chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescen s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danli; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Li, Song; Yan, Wenbo; Chen, Junren; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Zinc (Zn) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes, growth, Zn accumulation, and leaf chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz. were investigated in two greenhouse experiments. Hydroponics experiment with Zn application of 0, 20, 100, and 400 μM revealed that lower concentration of Zn in solution led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents but inhibited SOD activity in all treatments. P. pubescens had showed strong ability to accumulate Zn in stems and reached maximum level at 100 μM with 7.91-fold increase compared with control. In pot experiment, treatment with Zn ranged from 0, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, to 3,200 mg kg(-1). Application of 800 mg kg(-1) revealed 116, 24.6, and 28.3 times increase in Zn concentration of roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Growth and chlorophyll contents of plants in pots were better promoted at 400 mg kg(-1) Zn, with 60.5 and 30.9 % enhanced roots and shoot compared with control. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was in the sequence of stem > roots > leaves. The translocation factor (TF) of stem was higher than leaves. PMID:26002363

  1. Effect of Zn stresses on physiology, growth, Zn accumulation, and chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescen s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danli; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Li, Song; Yan, Wenbo; Chen, Junren; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Zinc (Zn) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes, growth, Zn accumulation, and leaf chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz. were investigated in two greenhouse experiments. Hydroponics experiment with Zn application of 0, 20, 100, and 400 μM revealed that lower concentration of Zn in solution led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents but inhibited SOD activity in all treatments. P. pubescens had showed strong ability to accumulate Zn in stems and reached maximum level at 100 μM with 7.91-fold increase compared with control. In pot experiment, treatment with Zn ranged from 0, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, to 3,200 mg kg(-1). Application of 800 mg kg(-1) revealed 116, 24.6, and 28.3 times increase in Zn concentration of roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Growth and chlorophyll contents of plants in pots were better promoted at 400 mg kg(-1) Zn, with 60.5 and 30.9 % enhanced roots and shoot compared with control. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was in the sequence of stem > roots > leaves. The translocation factor (TF) of stem was higher than leaves.

  2. Comparative properties of bamboo and rice straw pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmiao Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP, untreated rice straw pellets (URP, carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP, and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified including dimension, density, and strength. The inorganic ash (15.94 % and gross heat value (15375 J/g of rice straw pellets could not meet the requirement of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified (≤6.0% for PFI Utility and the minimum requirement for making commercial pellets of DIN 51731 (>17500 J/g, respectively. Rice straw pellets have been a main type of biomass solid fuel and widely used. Bamboo pellets have better combustion properties compared with rice straw pellets. It is confirmed that bamboo pellets have great potential as biomass solid fuel, especially with respect to development of commercial pellets on an industrial scale in China. The information provided by this research is useful for development and utilization of bamboo resource and pellets.

  3. Effects of humidity on shear behavior of bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Askarinejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a naturally occurring biological composite, however its microstructure and hence its properties are very complex compared to the manmade composites. Due to optimization, it can be assumed that the variation in properties along the thickness of the culm be a smooth transition for better bonding strength between layers and to prevent non uniformity in stress concentration. As a consequence, biological structures are complicated and functionally graded. Hence, a realistic model that can capture the mechanical performance of bamboo is valuable in future design of robust multifunctional composites. This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies on the torsional (shear properties of bamboo. The hierarchical and multi-scale structure of bamboo and the distribution of micro-scale fibers are revealed via laser scanning and atomic force microscopy. This information was incorporated into a finite element model to analyze the mechanical behavior of bamboo under torsion and to estimate the shear modulus of bamboo along the fibers. Moreover, the effects of humidity and therefore water content on the mechanical properties of bamboo were evaluated by performing torsion tests on samples maintained in environments with different humidities. Increasing the humidity does not cause a drop in the shear modulus, however, a jump in the shear modulus did occur at around 60% humidity. Results of this study indicate that the highest strength values in samples occurred in environments with humidity levels between 60% and 80% and undergo a significant drop after that. In higher humidities, the samples behave more ductile.

  4. Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Truss Bridge for Rural Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nuralinah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of a potential renewable construction material in the village. Bamboo is known to have a high mechanical strength in direction of the fibers. The weakness of bamboo in lateral direction of the fiber could be solved by constructing a composite structure with the concrete. The appropriate construction with hold the loads in axial direction is a truss structure. In a bamboo concrete truss structure, the bars are composed from the concrete column with a bamboo reinforcement. The research studies about the performance of the bridge and the effect of loading position on the strain and deformation of bamboo reinforced concrete truss bridge. The bridge whose span and width are respectively 1.5 m and 1.2 m was prepared. Load applied to the truss bridge conducted by using vehicle load changes with position. Mounting the strains gauge in bamboo reinforcement of primary truss is to observe the strain. The LVDT is used to observe the deflection of the truss bridge. The results show that the loading position influences the strain and deformation as well as a theoretical view.

  5. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites; Estudo da influencia dos teores de fibra, agente compatibilizante e tamanho de fibra nas propriedades de compositos de polipropileno com fiobra de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caranti, Lilian R.A.; Bonse, Baltus C.; Costa, Ricardo A. da, E-mail: prebbonse@fei.edu.br [Dept. da Engenharia dos Materiais, Centro Universitario de FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  6. Research on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the increase of the utilization of bamboo, we must find out more in bamboo properties. According to the national standard GB/T15780 -1995, this paper analyzed the air-dried density and mechanical properties of Moso bamboo in different ages and stalk parts. The results showed that both the age and the stalk part have remarkable effects on air-dried density and mechanical properties. The effect of age is much more prominent than that of stalk part. The performance shows: upper > middle > down, which incr...

  7. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  8. Bamboo Fabric: A Study of Using Thick Bamboo Fiber for Producing and Developing Thai Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisika Wannajun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The way of life of Thai people has involved utensils or things which made of bamboo since the ancient time. Rural Thai people use bamboo for building houses, making handicrafts, basketwork and household utensils. At present, thick bamboo is used and developed to many new products especially the textile products. Three purposes of this research were these: (1 to investigate the background of Thai textile production, (2 to investigate current situations and difficulties of Thai textile production and (3 to investigate the use of thick bamboo fiber for producing and developing Thai textiles. Approach: Research processes divided into 2 phases were these: the first phase was a quantitative experimental research type of bamboo fibers, the second phase was an application of the results of the first phase research to the phase was a qualitative research. The instruments for collecting data for the second phase research were a survey, an interview, a focus group interview and a workshop. Research areas were Ban Lung Pra Du, Amphoe Huay Talang, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Amphoe Chonnaabot, Khon Kaen Province and Ban Tha Khon Yang, Amphoe Kantharawichai, Maha Sarakham Province. A sample of 200 people consisted of 20 key informants, 100 casual informants and 100 general informants. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were analyzed by means of an interpretation within the concepts and theories involved. Research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: (1 in terms of the background of Thai textile production, it revealed that there were human beings lived in Thailand about 7,000-8,000 years ago and they could use natural fiber from plants and animals for weaving. The evidence which confirmed this truth was the excavation of historical objects in prehistorically sites in Thailand and there were remnants clung to or filled in

  9. Flexural and Impact Resistance of FRC/Bamboo Laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flexural and impact resistance of a newly developed FRC/bamboo laminate have been investigated. The laminate considered in this study was combined with reformed bamboo plate and extruded fiber reinforced cementitious (FRC)sheet. Innovated from the raw bamboo, reformed bamboo showed high tensile strength and high strength to weight ratio. It can not only remarkably strengthen the FRC sheet but also reduce the total weight of the laminate. Flexural and impact load, broken energy, deflection and duration were measured. Test results showed that the flexural strength value for the laminate can be improved to greater than 90 MPa, while the impact resistance is increased more than 10 times for the laminate when compared with the FRC sheet only.

  10. Enhancing the combustible properties of bamboo by torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Patrick; Aguiar, Clarissa; Labbé, Nicole; Commandré, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo has wide range of moisture content, low bulk energy density and is difficult to transport, handle, store and feed into existing combustion and gasification systems. Because of its important fuel characteristics such as low ash content, alkali index and heating value, bamboo is a promising energy crop for the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Bambusa vulgaris. Three different torrefaction temperatures were employed: 220, 250 and 280°C. The elemental characteristics of lignite and coal were compared to the torrefied bamboo. The characteristics of the biomass fuels tend toward those of low rank coals. Principal component analysis of FTIR data showed a clear separation between the samples by thermal treatment. The loadings plot indicated that the bamboo samples underwent chemical changes related to carbonyl groups, mostly present in hemicelluloses, and to aromatic groups present in lignin.

  11. The potential of bamboo in the design of polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Delgado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an alternative sustainable material for use in product design and has been incorporated into the concepts of eco-design. Here, we investigated the mechanical properties and morphologies of low density polyethylene (LDPE/bamboo flour (BF composites that were modified with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tensile tests of the composites demonstrated poor adhesion between the filler and matrix. Contact angle measurement showed that the surface of LDPE was modified by the presence of the load. The thermal stability of the composites was studied by measuring the oxidation induction time (OIT. Preliminary bacterial penetration tests were performed using culture inoculums of E. coli and S. aureus to investigate the natural antibacterial and bacteriostatic properties attributed to bamboo. Furthermore, bamboo may have interesting antioxidant activity with potential for use in food packaging applications.

  12. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Owen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social networking, gaining viewpoints of young adults who are far more interested in marketing the products than manufacturing them. Additionally, a potential for bamboo as a food source and charcoal aligns with the fiesta culture of Guam. Sourcing of Bamboo vulgaris, Guamís major bamboo species, has ecological benefits, while blumeana could be cultivated for crafts for export and tourists. Future study is planned to further involve young adults utilizing social networking methods developing culturally appealing and ecologically beneficial industry for the island.

  13. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  14. Characteristics of Bamboo Leaf Ash Blended Cement Paste and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bamboo leaf ash as cement supplement can contribute to reduction in cost and environmental hazard associated with cement production as well as waste pollution caused by the littered bamboo leaves. Therefore, the characteristics of cement paste and mortar incorporating bamboo leaf ash were investigated. The results of the physical properties of the pastes were within the requirements stipulated by relevant standards while that of the mortar cubes indicated that the compressive strength generally increased with curing age, and that the mix containing 15% Bamboo Leaf Ash (BLA by mass competes favorably with that of the reference mix at 28days and above. The water absorption and apparent porosity were observed to increase with increase in BLA content, while the bulk density decreases as the percentage of BLA increases from 5% to 25% by mass. The study concluded that 15% BLA replacing cement is adequate for the production of masonry mortar.

  15. Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test

    OpenAIRE

    Naresworo Nugroho; Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR) value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct). Ct is theratio between (SR) calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bam...

  16. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  17. Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresworo Nugroho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct. Ct is theratio between (SR calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bamboo beam. This study resulted mathematical formulae to calculate the Ct value for overall range of bamboo taper based on six species namely Tali (Gigantochloa apus (Bl.Ex Schult.f Kurz, Hitam (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae Widjaja, Andong (Gigantochloa psedorundinaceae, Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad, Gombong (Gigantochloa verticillata (Willd Munro, and Mayan (Gigantochloa robusta Kurz. The first tree species were obtained from the Bogor market, while the others were harvested from bamboo clumps in Arboretum Bamboo – Bogor Agricultural University. Then the formula was applied to sketch the graphical style in order to simplify the result.

  18. Morphology and properties of recycled polypropylene/bamboo fibers composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tri; chuong, Bui; Guinault, Alain; Sollogoub, Cyrille

    2011-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is among the most widely used thermoplastics in many industrial fields. However, like other recycled polymers, its properties usually decrease after recycling process and sometimes are degraded to poor properties level for direct re-employment. The recycled products, in general, need to be reinforced to have competitive properties. Short bamboo fibers (BF) have been added in a recycled PP (RPP) with and without compatibilizer type maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Several properties of composite materials, such as helium gas permeability and mechanical properties before and after ageing in water, were examined. The effects of bamboo fiber content and fiber chemical treatment have been also investigated. We showed that the helium permeability increases if fiber content is higher than 30% because of a poor adhesion between untreated bamboo fiber and polymer matrix. The composites reinforced by acetylated bamboo fibers show better helium permeability due to grafting of acetyl groups onto cellulose fibers surface and thus improves compatibility between bamboo fibers and matrix, which has been shown by microscopic observations. Besides, mechanical properties of composite decrease with ageing in water but the effect is less pronounced with low bamboo fiber content.

  19. Growth rate determinations from radiocarbon in bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hönisch, Bärbel

    2015-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements are an important tool for determining growth rates of bamboo corals, a cosmopolitan group of calcitic deep-sea corals. Published growth rate estimates for bamboo corals are highly variable, with potential environmental or ecological drivers of this variability poorly constrained. Here we systematically investigate the application of 14C for growth rate determinations in bamboo corals using 55 14C dates on the calcite and organic fractions of six bamboo corals (identified as Keratoisis sp.) from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Calcite 14C measurements on the distal surface of these corals and five previously published bamboo corals exhibit a strong one-to-one relationship with the 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DI14C) in ambient seawater (r2=0.98), confirming the use of Keratoisis sp. calcite 14C as a proxy for seawater 14C activity. Radial growth rates determined from 14C age-depth regressions, 14C plateau tuning and bomb 14C reference chronologies range from 12 to 78 μm y-1, in general agreement with previously published radiometric growth rates. We document potential biases to 14C growth rate determinations resulting from water mass variability, bomb radiocarbon, secondary infilling (ontogeny), and growth rate nonlinearity. Radial growth rates for Keratoisis sp. specimens do not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that additional biological and/or environmental factors may influence bamboo coral growth rates.

  20. 金竹竹叶提取物在HCl中对铝的缓蚀作用研究%Corrosion Inhibition of Extracts from Phyllostachy sulphurea Leaves for Aluminum in HCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建祥; 王瑞苓; 付惠; 李向红

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared( FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to characterize the main functional groups of extracts from Phyllostachy sulphured leaves (PSLE). The inhibition effect of PSLE on the corrosion of aluminum in 1. 0 mol/L HC1 was studied by mass loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the PSLE was a good inhibitor in hydrochloric acid for aluminum, and the maximum inhibition efficiency was 77.7 %. The corrosion inhibition of bamboo leaves was good at 20℃ and 30℃. The adsorption of PSLE on the aluminum surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Adsorption heat △Hads was calculated by Van't Hoff, and the inhibition mechanism was discussed in detail according to the parameters. All EIS exhibited that corrosion inhibitor at the aluminum surface had good are resistance. PSLE was a mix-type inhibition.%通过红外光谱(FT-IR)分析,表征了金竹竹叶提取物(PSLE)的主要官能团,利用失重法、电化学阻抗谱研究了PSLE在1.0 mol/L (')HCl介质中对铝的缓蚀作用.结果表明,PSLE具有较好的缓蚀作用,最大缓蚀率达77.7%,竹叶提取物的缓蚀率在20和30℃时效果较好,在铝表面的吸附符合Langmuir吸附校正模型,通过Van't Hoff方程求出吸附热(△Hads),讨论了缓蚀作用机理,吸附过程是一个自发放热的过程.通过电化学阻抗谱,表明缓蚀剂在铝表面发生吸附后使电荷传递明显抑制,PSLE为混合抑制型缓蚀剂.

  1. Research on the properties of dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers, the moisture regains, tensile properties, friction properties and electrical conductivity of them and the white bamboo pulp fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The results show that the moisture regains of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp fibers are smaller than the white bamboo pulp fiber's, whereas their friction coefficients, breaking strengths and elongations and mass ratio resistances are a bit larger.

  2. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an elec

  3. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Synthesized Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron-Bamboo and Manganese-Bamboo Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon E. Shaibu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bamboo impregnated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI and nanoscale manganese (nMn were prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PIXE analysis. The synthesized nMn-bamboo and nZVI-bamboo composites were subsequently applied to the sorption of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB dye was investigated under various experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of MB dye and adsorbent dosage. The results showed that the synthesized nZVI-bamboo composite was more effective than nMn-bamboo composite in terms of higher MB dye adsorption capacity of 322.5 mg/g compared to 263.5 mg/g of nMn-bamboo composite. At a concentration of 140 mg/L MB dye, 0.02 g of nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites resulted in 79.6% and 78.3% removal, respectively, at 165 rpm, contact time of 120 min and at a solution pH of 7.6. The equilibrium data was best represented by Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model better explained the kinetic data for both nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites.

  4. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the treated substrate. The cellulose conversion to glucose yield reached 77.1 to 83.4% after enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids fraction for 48 h at an enzyme loading of 15 FPU cellulase/g cellulose and 30 IU β-glucosidase/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate was significantly accelerated as the ethanol organosolv pretreatment time increased, reaching the highest enzymatic glucose yield of 83.4% after 48 h at 50 °C. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors such as HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural and furfural were 0.96 g/L and 4.38 g/L in the spent liquor after the ethanol organosolv pretreatment, which were slightly lower than the concentrations quantified during H2SO4-water treatment. Spent liquor was diluted with water, and more than 87.2% of lignin in raw bamboo was recovered as ethanol organosolv lignin through the filtration process.

  5. ANALYSIS OF BAMBOO AS A FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. LOKESHA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an optimized natural composite that exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM. Biological structures such as bamboo have complicated micro-structural shapes and material distribution, and thus the use of numerical methods such as finite element method can be a useful tool for understanding the mechanical behavior of these materials. This paper explores techniques such as finite element method to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. Two-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tensile load, compression load and bending load cases, using ANSYS 12.1 version with two material options, one with isotropic material properties (averaged Young’s modulus and the second with FGM properties (spatially varying Young’s modulus. In this study the stress obtained from FGM model are much higher than those obtained from Isotropic material model and the maximum stresses are noted at the outer diameter. This is due to the fact that the higher stiffness of that fiber-dense region and also the stress redistribution through the bamboo wall.

  6. Surveys of harvest technology of winter bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-hu

    2011-01-01

    Winter bamboo shoots are widely used in Asian cuisine. We surveyed growth depth (tail depth and root depth), harvest speed, and harvest processes to provide information for developing new harvest technology. The tail depth of most winter bamboo shoots was 100-350 mm below the soil surface, and the root depth was 200-500 mm below the soil surface. Most winter bamboo shoots were difficult to locate with only the naked eye. The digging depth was 200-500 mm to cut winter bamboo shoots from the root. The highest harvest rate was 7.75 times faster than the slowest one and the average harvest speed ratio of men: women was about 1.71:1. The harvest process of winter bamboo shoots was divisible into three steps: searching, digging a hole (around the shoot) and cutting the root. The ratio of searching time to the sum of digging and cutting time was about 8:1, showing that searching required more time than digging and cutting together.

  7. Effects of Polymer Impregnation on Properties of Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchart PREECHATIWONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is targeted to investigate the effects of polymer impregnation on the properties of bamboo. Polymer impregnation can improve adhesion of flattened bamboo and also improve the resistance of polymer-impregnated bamboo to fungi. During the flattening bamboo process, linseed oil was used as a processing aid. Two different kinds of solvents, methanol and ethanol, were used to extract linseed oil. Weights of samples before and after extraction were compared. Ethanol is a better solvent than methanol to extract linseed oil since weight loss is higher. The flattened bamboo samples were adhered together by phenol-formaldehyde (PF adhesive or polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI adhesive. The adhesion test was performed in shear mode. Sample extracted with ethanol and adhered by MDI gave a maximum shear stress of 5.84 MPa while samples extracted with methanol and adhered by PF gave only 2.45 MPa. A higher percentage of wood failure was observed in samples with higher adhesion strength. In durability to fungi, a polymer-wood composite was made by impregnation of methyl methacrylate in the wood under vacuum. The composite showed better resistance to fungi, especially, in nodes. Nodes have a lower densities and less effective packing of fibers than internodes. Therefore monomers can diffuse into node and then polymerize. More polymer loading gives better durability to fungi.

  8. Hydrolysis of bamboo fiber cellulose in formic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong SUN; Lu LIN; Haibo DENG; Hong PENG; Jiazhe LI; Runchang SUN; Shijie LIU

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo fiber dissolution and hydrolysis in formic acid were studied. After hydrolysis, formic acid can be recovered in a clean state and reused. Solid water-soluble sugars were obtained. After being dipped into the formic acid solution for 30 min, the bamboo fibers started to swell. After one hour, the bamboo fibers gradually started to dissolve in the formic acid solution. The color of the liquor/solution turned green and dark. In the end, the bamboo fibers became thoroughly dissolved in the liquor after four hours. There was a clear hierarch-ical tissue structure on the fiber surface, as observed by AFM before treatment. The differential structure disap-peared after 30 min of treatment. The fiber surface became plump and glossy. After six hours reaction at 60℃, the solid sugar mixture recovered contained glu-cose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetrose, cellopentose and cellohexaose. A significant fraction of the sugar pro-ducts consisted of monomeric glucose. More than 54.5% of the bamboo fiber mass had been transformed into monomeric glucose.

  9. Soil Improvement By Using Bamboo Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asaduzzaman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing soil at a construction site may not always be totally suitable for supporting structures such as buildings, bridges, highways, and dams. In granular soil deposits, the in situ soil may be very loose and indicate a large elastic settlement. In such case, the soil needs to be improved to increase its unit weight and thus the shear strength and load bearing capacity. Sometimes the top layers of soil are undesirable and must be removed and replaced with better soil on which the structural foundation can be built. For this reason the improvement of load bearing capacity is much more important for making a structural foundation. This paper described a new soil improvement method with a minimum cost solution by using bamboo reinforcement having a length of 12 inch and 0.5 inch in diameter distributed in uniform medium dense soil at different depths (0.75 inch, 1.5 inch and 2.25 inch below the footings. Three square footings have been used (3x3 inch, 3.5x3.5 inch, 4x4 inch to carry the above investigation for such purposes. It was found that the initial vertical settlement of footing was highly affected in the early stage of loading in unreinforced soil with compared to bamboo reinforced soil. The failure load value for proposed model in any case of loading increased compared with the un-reinforced soil by increasing the depth of improving below the footing. The load carrying capacity of single layer reinforced soil is increased up to 1.77 times and 2.02 times for multiple reinforced soil system than the load carrying capacity of unreinforced condition of soil. Improvement in load carrying capacity was observed considerable in reinforced soil over the unreinforced soil. For single layer system, load carrying capacity is maximum and settlement is minimum when the reinforcement layer placed at 0.30B. For multilayer system, BCR increases with increasing number of reinforcing layer. One of which is highlighted in the paper, facilitates the

  10. Damage of bamboo and wooden materials based on linear elastic fracture mechanics in garden design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo and wood are the most widely applied and the oldest natural structural materials in the world. Currently, worldwide output of wooden material is 1 billion ton, almost the same as steel. Most of them are used as structure, such as load carrying girder, scaffold, floor and support. Wooden materials and bamboo materials with clear microstructure are composite biomaterials which can be studied under multiple scales. Irregular evolution behaviors of initial defects or damage during loading determines macro mechanical behavior of wooden and bamboo materials. Taking wood and bamboo as test materials, this study explored mechanical characteristics and damage crack behavior of wood and bamboo as well as toughening mechanism.

  11. Starch composites reinforced by bamboo cellulosic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Zhong, Tuhua; Chang, Peter R; Li, Kaifu; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-04-01

    Using a method of combined HNO(3)-KClO(3) treatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, bamboo cellulose crystals (BCCs) were prepared and used to reinforce glycerol plasticized starch. The structure and morphology of BCCs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and solid-state (13)C NMR. Results showed that BCCs were of typical cellulose I structure, and the morphology was dependent on its concentration in the suspension. BCC of 50-100 nm were assembled into leaf nervations at low concentration (i.e. 0.1 wt.% of solids), but congregated into a micro-sized "flower" geometry at high concentration (i.e. 10.0 wt.% of solids). Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the starch/BCC composite films (SBC) were enhanced by the incorporation of the crystals due to reinforcement of BCCs and reduction of water uptake. BCCs at the optimal 8% loading level exhibited a higher reinforcing efficiency for plasticized starch plastic than any other loading level.

  12. Evaluation of Torrefied Bamboo for Sustainable Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.; Pels, J.; Fryda, L.; Zwart, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production. Bamboo presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. Up to date, there are no studies on fuel properties of the bamboo specie Guadua angustifolia. Bamboo is a difficult fuel and most thermal conversion processes have stringent fuel specifications, which are challenging to fulfil with biomass streams. Bamboo is tenacious and fibrous which makes it difficult and expensive to grind. Furthermore, the characteristics with regard to handling, storage and degradability are not favourable for biomass in general. The thermal pre-treatment torrefaction is a promising upgrading technology that can enhance the fuel quality by addressing these issues. During torrefaction, biomass is heated to 250-320C in the absence of oxygen. At the end of the process the material is milled and compressed into pellets. In this way, the biomass becomes easy to grind, more hydrophobic and has a high energy density. Alternatively, wet torrefaction (Torwash) allows for combined torrefaction and washing of the feedstock. Wet torrefaction, a form of hydro-thermal treatment, in addition to dry torrefaction removes salts and minerals from biomass, improving even more the quality of the product. This is in particular interesting for feedstock containing significant amounts of undesirable alkali components for combustion or gasification, as is the case of bamboo. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of Guadua angustifolia as a fuel for heat and power applications. The results of biomass fuel properties and characteristics and quality improvement via dry and wet torrefaction are assessed. Torrefaction clearly shows the improvement of fuel properties and grindability of biomass. Wet-torrefied Guadua angustifolia is chemically an attractive fuel, with favourable fuel properties, e.g. the results showed a 98% of alkali removal, and the

  13. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  14. Energy digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Tommy G; Sikes, Robert S; Parsons, Jennifer L; Rude, Brian J; Bissell, Heidi A; Ouellette, John R

    2011-01-01

    Endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bears (Family Ursidae), within the order Carnivora. They specialize on an herbivorous diet of bamboo yet retain a gastrointestinal tract typical of their carnivorous ancestry. The evolutionary constraints of their digestive tract result in a low extraction efficiency from bamboo (<40% in reported studies). The goal of this study was to determine the energy digestibility of bamboo by giant pandas used in digestibility trials and through subsequent analyses with bomb calorimetry. Seven digestibility trials were conducted (three with bamboo-only diets and four with supplemental diets). Energy digestibilities ranged from 7.5-38.9% for mixed diets and 9.2-34.0% for bamboo-only diets. The bamboo-only trials summarized here represent, to our knowledge, the first empirical data available for energy digestibility on a bamboo diet for giant pandas. PMID:20814990

  15. Field Trial of Copper Treated Moso Bamboo in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The field trial of Moso bamboo treated with 9 copper preservatives was conducted in Guangzhou, China. The result showed that two formulations of ammonia-based copper azole (F17 and F18 ) and a formulation of amine copper added with boron (F10), as well as 2 kinds of ammonia-based ACQ, at the copper retention of 3.2 kg/m3 or over, were very resistant to decay and termites after the 5- year field test. And the durability of ACQ-B treated Moso bamboo was similar to that of treated Masson pine and slash pine at...

  16. Evaluation of shear strength of oil treated laminated bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, O; Hashim, R; Wahab, R; Ismail, Z A; Samsi, H W; Mohamed, A

    2006-12-01

    Studies were carried out on heat treatment of bamboo species Gigantochloa scortechinii Gamble using palm oil. The samples were laminated and glued. The adhesion results showed that the delamination of glue line increased as the temperature and duration of oil heat treatment increased. Maximum load and shear strength of the glue line reduced as the heat treatment become more severe. It was found that the palm oil used as the heating medium penetrated in some parts of the cell wall as well as in the cell lumen of the bamboo. PMID:16524726

  17. NTDC United with Jigan to Promote "TANBOOCEL"Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 27th,the National Textile Development Center and Hebei Jigao Chemical Fibre Co.,Ltd united together in Beijing to announce that the"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber product R&D cooperation system has been started,aiming at promoting the industrial application of"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber markedly.Mr.Sun Reizhe,vice president of China National Textile and Apparel Council,Li Binhong,Director of National Textile Development Center,gave their key speeches during this ceremony.

  18. Applicability Evaluation of Transpiration of Five Bamboo Species by Using TDP (Thermal Dissipation Probe) Method%热消散法(TDP)在5种竹子蒸腾耗水测定中的适用性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀华; 赵平; 周娟; 张振振; 孙振伟; 钟文超

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the applicability of TDP (Thermal dissipation probe) method used in transpiration measure of bamboo, the Granier empirical formula was verified and coefficients were revised by combining water-injection induced hydraulic pressure and sap flow changing device together with whole-plant container weighing menthods. In addition, the structure of vascular bundle in 5 bamboo species, includingPhyllostachys edulis,Bambusa chungii,B. textilis,Arundinaria amabilisandB. vulgariswas observed. The results showed that the distribution of vascular bundles in culms were uneven. The development of vascular bundles become mature gradually from outside to inside of clum, and the transporting water capability also become strong. The sap lfow density (Fd) andK value showed a power function relation withR2>0.83. It suggested that TDP method was an applicable technique for evaluating sap lfow density in bamboo species. Furthermore, the equation coefifcients were revised by using whole-plant container weighing method and new sap flow formula for every bamboo species were contained. The coefifcients in new sap lfow formula were different from those in Grnaier empirical formula especially α values. The daily transpiration had significant difference calculated by new equation and Granier empirical formula, especially the peak period (at noon) of sap flow in one day. Therefore, if the TDP method was carefully veriifed and the coefifcients in Granier empirical formula were revised, the TDP method could be an applicable technique for assessing water use in bamboo species.%为评价热消散法在竹子蒸腾耗水测定中的适用性,利用室内离体竹段注水变压法结合野外整株容器称重法对Granier公式进行了验证和系数校正,同时观察了5种竹子(毛竹Phyllostachys edulis、粉单竹Bambusa chungii、青皮竹B. textilis、茶秆竹Arundinaria amabilis、龙头竹B. vulgaris)的茎秆维管束结构。结果表明,茎秆维管束分

  19. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  20. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  1. Performance and Durability Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Cement Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Singh Mehra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A big part of population in India is still homeless due to raising unaffordability of housing structures. People sleeping on roadsides and living in slums is a common sight in Indian cities. To overcome this problem India today needs millions of houses for their growing population, making concrete as the most widely to be used material in the country. Concrete has found to have excellent compressive strength but poor in tensile strength, to take care of the tensile stresses steel is commonly used as reinforcing material in concrete. Production of steel is a very costly business and its use in concrete as reinforcing material increases the cost of construction by many folds. Also production of steel emits a large amount of green house gases causing considerable deterioration of the environment. The above mentioned socio-economic and environmental factors creates a necessity for finding an appropriate environment friendly and cheap material that can successfully substitute steel as reinforcement in concrete elements of a low cost dwelling for the poor and homeless people of the country. It is here that engineered bamboo can be of great value to Civil Engineers owning to its several net worthy features. Production of every tone of bamboo consumes about a tone of atmospheric CO2 in addition to releasing fresh O2. From structural point of view bamboo has been used as a structural material from the earlier times as it possesses excellent flexure and tensile strength as well as high strength to weight ratio. All this necessitates examining bamboo-reinforced cement concrete in detail for its appropriateness as a structural material for construction of a low cost dwelling unit. The study focuses on evaluating the mechanical and durability properties of cement-concrete beams both singly and doubly reinforced with bamboo splints.

  2. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  3. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  4. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  5. Dense understory dwarf bamboo alters the retention of canopy tree seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Zhang, Tengda; Guo, Qinxue; Tao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    Tree seed retention is thought to be an important factor in the process of forest community regeneration. Although dense understory dwarf bamboo has been considered to have serious negative effects on the regeneration of forest community species, little attention has been paid to the relationship between dwarf bamboo and seed retention. In a field experiment we manipulated the density of Fargesia decurvata, a common understory dwarf bamboo, to investigate the retention of seeds from five canopy tree species in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Jinfoshan National Nature Reserve, SW China. We found that the median survival time and retention ratio of seeds increased with the increase in bamboo density. Fauna discriminately altered seed retention in bamboo groves of different densities. Arthropods reduced seed survival the most, and seeds removed decreased with increasing bamboo density. Birds removed or ate more seeds in groves of medium bamboo density and consumed fewer seeds in dense or sparse bamboo habitats. Rodents removed a greater number of large and highly profitable seeds in dense bamboo groves but more small and thin-husked seeds in sparse bamboo groves. Seed characteristics, including seed size, seed mass and seed profitability, were important factors affecting seed retention. The results suggested that dense understory dwarf bamboo not only increased seeds concealment and reduced the probability and speed of seed removal but also influenced the trade-off between predation and risk of animal predatory strategies, thereby impacting the quantity and composition of surviving seeds. Our results also indicated that dense understory dwarf bamboo and various seed characteristics can provide good opportunities for seed storage and seed germination and has a potential positive effect on canopy tree regeneration.

  6. Research on Air-dried Density and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo from Different Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to further research bamboo cultivation and expand its application field, air-dried density and mechanical properties of Moso bamboo from the 2 plantations under the same site condition were measured and analyzed by using the national standard The Testing Methods for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (GB / T 15780-1995). And the single linear regression analysis was carried out. The results showed that air-dried density and mechanical properties of the 2 kinds of Moso bamboo increase with...

  7. Investigation into the Performance of Bamboo Using the Notched and the Un-Notched Specimen

    OpenAIRE

    L. Gyansah; S. Kwofie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) using the notched and the un-notched specimen. Double v-notched bamboo and un-notched bamboo specimens were used to carry out the experiment. Notched- angles of 20, 30, 60, 80 and 90º were made on each specimen. These were done to ascertain the effect of the notched-angle on the performance of the bamboo. Each specimen was placed in a Uniaxial Compression Machine and was crushed with respect to time. The results are plotted ...

  8. Simultaneous flowering of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae) at its native home in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-hua; Manfred DENICH; Thomas BORSCH

    2006-01-01

    Flowering pattern and seedling establishment of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae (Gamble) Yi) were studied in its native habitat, Mount Shennongjia in Central China. Here in 1996-2000, over 95% of the bamboo plants simultaneously flowered and died, extending from lower elevations to the higher mountains along the altitude and from southwest to northeast along the mountain settings. following the flowering. After a high mortality throughout the first winter, bamboo seedlings remained a stable density in following 2-4 years (1130-1230 seedlings· m-2). Seedling density positively related to the coverage of parent bamboo, but negatively to the herb layers.

  9. On Structure, production, and market of bamboo-based panels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since bamboo has the advantages of straight grain, beautiful color, high strength and toughness, and excellent abrasion resistance, bamboo-based panels have been widely used in the fields of vehicle, construction, ship building, furniture, and decoration to partly take the place of wood, steel, plastic etc in China. This paper briefly described the basic component units, including strip, sliver, and particle, of bamboo-based panel and pointed out that to design the structure of bamboo-based panels should follow the principle of symmetric structure, surface forming method, and structuring principle of equalizing stress. According to the processing methods and formation of component units, the authors classified the bamboo-based panels in China into 13 types and presented the manufacturing technique and uses of the bamboo products, such as plybamboo, bamboo flooring, and bamboo-wood composite products in detail. In the last part of the paper, much information were offered on the output, market, and selling prospect of each type of bamboo-based panels.

  10. 不同经营类型毛竹林土壤活性有机碳的差异%Changes in soil active organic carbon under different management types of bamboo stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少杰; 李正才; 王斌; 刘荣杰; 格日乐图; 王刚

    2012-01-01

    Under the situation of increasing problems concerning with the environmental quality in forest land and the long-term productivity of forest, it was significant to develop and improve management strategies that maintain the function and protect the resources of soils. Changes of forest management strategies may lead to change in SOC quantity and quality. It was necessary to maintain a high SOC status for long-term land use due to the multiple beneficial effects of SOC on the soil nutrient states, structure and water holding capacity etc. The effects of different silvicultural practices on soil organic carbon were still poorly approached. Thus we performed the study on changes of soil organic carbon ( SOC) in the Moso ( Phyllostachys pubescens) stands among the long-term conversion of extensively managed and intensively managed in Fuyang County, Zhejiang province, where Moso were widely distributed. Bamboo stands of different management types, which were established in 1984, were designed to investigate the effects of intensive management on SOC. The results showed: total organic carbon ( TOC ) , readily oxidation carbon ( ROC ) , water soluble organic carbon ( WSOC ) and light fraction organic matter (LFOM) in 0-10cm soil layer were significantly decreased by 8. 64% , 14. 11% , 8. 29% and 29. 70% (0-20cm) respectively after intensive management. The vertical features of different soil organic carbon under two management types of bamboo stands were observed in decline trends with increasing of soil depths, while both of the decline scopes were different. The profile distribution of soil ROC and WSOC varied to some extent since intensive practice. These different fractions of labile organic carbon mentioned above were all interrelated, significantly or extremely significantly, and they also were well correlated with total N, hydrolysis N, available K, Ca, Mg (WSOC wasn't significantly correlated with available P) , while LFOM wasn't significantly related to other

  11. Effects of different fertilization treatments on loss of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in seepage water under phyllostachy pracox stand%不同施肥对雷竹林渗漏水中可溶性有机碳、氮流失的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裴裴; 吴家森; 郑小龙; 姜培坤; 吴建军

    2014-01-01

    ,具有经济和环境双重效益,是雷竹合理施肥的发展方向。%Objectives]Lei bamboo ( Phyllostachys praecox f.preveynalis) is an excellent variety for producing bamboo shoots and is widely distributed in the subtropical area of China.In order to improve yields of bamboo shoots, intensive management practices including over-application of chemical fertilizers have been adopted by the farmers.Although the farmers obtain great economic benefits, these practices bring out a serious new problems, such as bamboo grove degradation or even death, water system pollution, decline in soil quality and so on. Although the percentage of dissolved organic carbon( DOC) and organic nitrogen( DON) in soil was very low, they were sensitive for the change of soil environment.Change in DOC and DON concentrations in the seepage water from the soil under phyllostachy praecox stand in the whole year was monitored to ascertain the effects of reducing chemical and organic fertilizer rates on the concentrations of DOC and DON.[Methods]Five treatments were designed:conventional fertilizer ( CF ) , decreased organic fertilizer ( DO ) , decreased inorganic fertilizer ( DI ) , decreased organic and inorganic fertilizer(DOI),no fertilizer (CK).Fertilizers were separately applied in May 18, September 7 and November 9 with respective 40%,30% and 30% of total amount of fertilizer, and then plowed into soil at the depth of 5 cm.[Results]The results showed that the average concentrations of DOC and DON in the seepage water for the different fertilization treatments were 33.7-45.5 mg/L and 6.6 -12.6 mg/L, respectively, whereas the average seepage loss loads of DOC and DON for the different fertilization treatments were 84.5-138.2 kg/ha and 17.2-46.3 kg/ha, respectively.The seepage loss loads of DOC from the soil with different fertilization treatments decreased as follows: CF ( 138.2 kg/ha ) >DO ( 133.7 kg/ha ) >DI ( 120.9 kg/ha ) >CK ( 99.8 kg/ha)>DOI ( 84.5 kg/ha ) , whereas the

  12. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length. Internationaly, NT is defined as the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at the length mentioned above, thus, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms, molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered, synthesized, and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures, and systems. NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature, such as high strength, unique surface structure, soft feeling, durability, water resistance, incombustibility, antimicrobial property, and so on. Indeed, NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research, by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries. This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT, its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  13. Fracture characterisation of short bamboo fibre reinforced polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, fracture behaviour of short bamboo fibre reinforced polyester composites is investigated. The matrix is reinforced with fibres ranging from 10 to 50, 30 to 50 and 30 to 60 vol.% at increments of 10 vol.% for bamboo fibres at 4, 7 and 10 mm lengths respectively. The results reveal that at 4 mm of fibre length, the increment in fibre content deteriorates the fracture toughness. As for 7 and 10 mm fibre lengths, positive effect of fibre reinforcement is observed. The optimum fibre content is found to be at 40 vol.% for 7 mm fibre and 50 vol.% for 10 mm fibre. The highest fracture toughness is achieved at 10 mm/50 vol.% fibre reinforced composite, with 340% of improvement compared to neat polyester. Fractured surfaces investigated through the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) describing different failure mechanisms are also reported.

  14. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1 control (CK, without N added, (2 low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, (3 medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, and (4 high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1 year(-1. Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+, NO3(-, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease and phosphorus (acid phosphatase and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities. Results suggest that (1 this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2 the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  15. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Owen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social netw...

  16. Optimization of Oxidator Level to Produce Binderless Bamboo Particleboard

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman; Massijaya, M.Y.; Hadi, Y.S.; Santoso, A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidation treatment of bamboo particle would be considered as one of the alternative methods to produce binderless particleboard. Since most of composite panels including particleboard is manufactured using formaldehyde base adhesive emission from the product is a main concern in contrast to binderless panels which don???t cause such problem. The main objective of this research was to determine the optimal level of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as oxidator in particleboard manufa...

  17. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    OpenAIRE

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi; MAER Bisatya Widadya; ARIFIN Lilianny Sigit

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic app...

  18. Taxonomic status of the endemic South African bamboo, Thamnocalamus tessellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Soderstrom

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Thamnocalamus tessellatus (Nees Soderstrom & Ellis, comb. nov. [= Arundinaria tessellata (Nees Munro] is the only endemic South African bamboo and occurs from the eastern districts of the Cape, through Lesotho and Natal, to the eastern Orange Free State at elevations of about 1 500-2 500 m. The Mountain Bamboo, or‘Bergbamboes’ was first described by Nees in 1841 as a member of the genus Nastus because of the similarity, tohim, of the spikelets between it and N. borbonicus, but was later transferred to the all-encompassing genus of the time, Arundinaria, the type species of which is endemic to the south-eastern United States of America. Based onour present knowledge of bamboo genera, this South African species may be excluded from Nastus because the inflorescence is not a panicle but bracteate racemiform, the vegetative branches do not arise in a verticillate manner but are a series of subequal branches that are borne in a row above the nodal line and T. tessellatus has anandroecium of three stamens and not six as in Nastus. The Bergbamboes, with sympodial rhizomes and branchcomplement of several subequal branches, can also not be maintained in Arundinaria, for monopodial rhizomesand a single branch at the node are typical of this genus. The simple, ebracteate, and exserted inflorescence ofArundinaria is also quite distinct from that of the Bergbamboes. In order to place the South African bamboo more precisely we have made comparative studies of its leaf anatomy and epidermis, gross morphology, and analyses of its inflorescence and spikelets. The results of all thesestudies reveal a striking resemblance to members of the Sino-Himalayan genus, Thamnocalamus, to which we haveaccordingly transferred the species. The results are presented, together with an interpretation of the phylogeneticposition of the Bergbamboes and possible events that led to the disjunction of species in the genus.

  19. Ideas on Policy Framework of China's Bamboo Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiyong; WANG Dengju; FAN Baomin; XIAO Jianming; CHEN Yong; LIU Yan; BAO Yingshuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the current situation of China's bamboo industry,the major policy issues,future development trends and policy orientation.And then with industry policy theory as a guide,the paper propounds the basic framework and policy proposals in resources cultivation and management,industrial structure and pattern,markets and trade,industrial organization system,finance and taxes,industrial technologyand So forth.

  20. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  1. Elastic Buckling of Bionic Cylindrical Shells Based on Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-feng Ma; Wu-yi Chen; Ling Zhao; Da-hai Zhao

    2008-01-01

    High load-bearing efficiency is one of the advantages of biological structures after the evolution of billions of years.Biomimicking from nature may offer the potential for lightweight design. In the viewpoint of mechanics properties, the culm of bamboo comprises of two types of cells and the number of the vascular bundles takes a gradient of distribution. A three-point bending test was carried out to measure the elastic modulus. Results show that the elastic modulus of bamboo decreases gradually from the periphery towards the centre. Based on the structural characteristics of bamboo, a bionic cylindrical structure was designed to mimic the gradient distribution of vascular bundles and parenchyma cells. The buckling resistance of the bionic structure was compared with that of a traditional shell of equal mass under axial pressure by finite element simulations. Results show that the load-bearing capacity of bionic shell is increased by 124.8%. The buckling mode of bionic structure is global buckling while that of the conventional shell is local buckling.

  2. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  3. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  4. PREPARATION OF BAMBOO DISSOLVING PULP FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION; PART 1. STUDY ON PREHYDROLYSIS OF GREEN BAMBOO FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prehydrolysis was used as the first treatment of bamboo materials for producing high dissolving pulp for textile applications. In this paper, green bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami was hydrolyzed in water, and the hydrolysis process was optimized. The morphology and super-molecular structures of the raw material and prehydrolyzed material were studied by SEM and XRD, respectively. Based on the optimum conditions, a study of the kinetics and mechanism showed that pentosan dissolution during the hydrolysis process was a first order reaction. When cooking temperature was 150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC, and 180 oC, the corresponding reaction rate constants were 0.00411h-1, 0.00495h-1, 0.00730h-1, and 0.00925h-1, respectively. The activation energy was 44.94 kJ/mol based on the Arrhenius empirical equation. SEM results revealed that after the pre-hydrolysis process, the bamboo structure became loose because of hemicellulose dissolution, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment. Furthermore, the degree of crystallinity was increased from 45.43% to 57.06% during the prehydrolysis. Both the treated and the untreated fibers were assumed to be cellulose I.

  5. 不同经营模式对毛竹土壤活性有机碳的影响%Effects of Different Management Models on Soil Active Organic Carbon of Bamboo Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少杰; 李正才; 王斌; 刘荣杰; 格日乐图; 王刚

    2012-01-01

    以起始于1984年的长期不同经营模式毛竹林为研究对象,探讨了夏季毛竹林集约经营后土壤有机碳的变化。结果表明:(1)集约经营后0~80 cm土层毛竹林土壤总有机碳平均增加了5.48%,易氧化碳含量平均增加了15.14%,水溶性有机碳含量平均下降了3.98%,三者均未达到显著差异。(2)两种毛竹林土壤总有机碳、易氧化碳、水溶性有机碳的剖面特征均随土层深度的增加而呈现下降趋势,但下降速度不同。集约经营在一定程度上影响毛竹土壤易氧化碳剖面特征。(3)土壤总有机碳、易氧化碳与土壤养分之间相关性均达到极显著水平,而水溶性有机碳与土壤养分之间相关性不显著。(4)集约经营提高了土壤易氧化碳占总有机碳的比例、土壤碳库活度,并在土壤剖面部分土层差异达到显著水平。但其水溶性有机碳占总有机碳的比例3.74%,低于粗放经营毛竹林的4.10%。因此,集约经营的毛竹林,通过配施恰当比例的有机无机肥,结合土壤垦复、除草、合理的竹株留养和采伐等综合竹林经营技术,以达到改善土壤质量和实现毛竹林可持续经营的目的,也可改善土壤生物化学活性。%Increasing problems concerning the environmental quality in forest land and the long-term productivity of forest emphasized a need to develop and improve management strategies that maintain and protect soil function and resources.Changes in forest management may lead to changes in soil organic carbon(SOC) quantity and quality.The maintenance of a high SOC status was desirable for long-term land use due to the multiple beneficial effects of SOC on the soil nutrient status,its structure and water holding capacity etc.The effects of different silvicultural practices on soil organic carbon were still poorly known.The changes were studied in SOC during the long-term conversion of extensively managed Moso(Phyllostachys

  6. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr‑1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr‑1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm‑2 yr‑1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  7. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, flexural modulus, and pressure in bagasse fiber was apparently different from that of bamboo due to the differences in the cross-sectional structure. In bagasse, the flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with the increase in pressure, whereas in bamboo those properties decreased. In bagasse, an increase in pressure made the fibers into a more compressed structure, increasing their flexural properties. In rigid bamboo, an increase in pressure caused the resin to extrude between fibers, and this resulted in lower flexural properties. At temperatures above 170 oC, the resin depolymerized thermally and the degree of polymerization decreased. Thus, the flexural modulus and strength decreased gradually with increase in holding temperature in both bagasse and bamboo composites. Furthermore, a maximum fiber volume fraction existed for both bagasse and bamboo plastic composites in the approximate range of 75% to 80%.

  8. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.;

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided in this...

  9. [Relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Fang; Gong, Jia-Wen; Liu, Chao; Mu, Chi; Qin, Hong

    2009-08-01

    In August of 2007 and 2008, a field investigation was made to study the relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree in Sichuan Province. The three pairs of variables, i. e., C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number, C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree, and C. buqueti wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree, fitted cubic equations well, with the correlation coefficients at P = 0.001. Based on these mathematical models, the forecast tables for C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree were established, and the thresholds of C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number were 0.13 and 0.40 individual per bamboo, respectively. PMID:19947221

  10. Chemicals loading in acetylated bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, Petermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a large tropical forest. However, the deforestation still appears annually and vastly. This reason drives a use of bamboo as wood alternative. Recently, there are many modifications of bamboo in order to prolong the shelf life. Unfortunately, the processes need more chemicals and time. Based on wood modification, esterifying of bamboo was undertaken in present of a dense gas, i.e. supercritical CO2. Calculation of chemicals loading referred to ASTM D1413-99 by using the phase equilibrium data at optimum condition by a statistical design. The results showed that the acetylation of bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 required 14.73 kg acetic anhydride/m3 of bamboo for a treatment of one hour.

  11. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  12. Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion in Bamboo Polymer Composite Enhanced with Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru; Yamashita, Naoya

    Current study presents one of effective techniques to improve mechanical properties of PLA (Poly-Lactic Acid)-based bamboo fiber composite. Commercially available Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose (MFC) obtained from wood pulp was applied as an enhancer to the composite. The bamboo fibers were extracted by steam explosion method and they were also rubbed in water to remove xylem (soft-wall cells). The liquid-based MFC, PLA and the bamboo fiber were mixed in water for several minutes and they were filtrated under vacuum pressure. To fabricate the composite, remained sheets were then hot pressed after dry. Three-point bending strength and Mode I fracture toughness of the composite were significantly improved, even when 10% of the MFC was added into the PLA/BF composite in weight. If small amount of MFC added into the bamboo fiber composite, tangled MFC fibers prevented the growth of micro crack along the interface between bamboo fiber and matrix.

  13. Seasonal Variations in Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of Leaves of Phyllostachys Taxa Using Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András NEMÉNYI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in total phenolic content (TP and total antioxidant capacity (AC during the vegetation period (April-November were analysed in Phyllostachys aureosulcata f. aureocaulis (PAA, P. flexuosa (PF, P. humilis (PH, P. sulphurea var. sulphurea (PSS. Different extraction methods were compared: infusion or decoction with water or aqueous methanol. The highest significant value for TP was measured in the case of infusion at 90 °C for 5 min, which lead to the highest value for AC. During the vegetation period the highest values of TP were measured in April and May in the case of PAA (409.5; 314.9 and 258.7; 119.0 μg GA/ml and PH (388.4; 411.6 and 252.9; 253.3 μg GA/ml. There was a clear trend in the changes of TP, with high values in April and November and a peak during August-September. Similar to TP, the highest values of AC were measured in April and May in PH (519.7; 566.3 and 513.5; 510.4 μg AA/ml and PAA (534.5; 337.8 and 394.9; 275.4 μg AA/ml. We compared the change of TP in all taxa with stress index values derived from daily maximum and minimum air temperature, cumulative precipitation plus irrigation and cumulative evapotranspiration values. A close correlation R2 = 0.32 (p=0.001 was found between stress index values and the change in TP of all taxa. The correlation is even closer R2 = 0.52 (p=0.001 with PF, PH and PSS. Our results with PAA can be explained by possible inter/intra-specific differences in freeze tolerance and cold-acclimation.

  14. Study on development and useness of Phyllostachys nigra var.henonis%毛金竹开发利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳训荣; 刘宝财

    1997-01-01

    @@ 毛金竹Phyllostachys nigra var.henonis(Milf)Stapf ex Renclle,又名小毛竹,隶属禾本科竹子亚科刚竹属,广泛分布于长江流域及河南、四川等地.遂川西南有零星分布,本场大坝里会场有天然分布,且较为集中.毛金竹年产竹笋量大而集中,可成为我场开发特色产业,推出名特优绿色食品的物质基础.另据报道,毛金竹叶提取物(LE)具有一定的抗衰老作用,可以作为一种抗衰老功能因子的新资源加以开发利用.笔者对大坝里分场天然分布的13.33hm2毛金竹进行调查,天然毛金竹林林相较差,竹龄结构不合理,粗度偏小,杆高不足,产笋量少.为了建立基地,培育资源,我场于1996年对毛金竹林进行了劈山斩杂抚育试验,并于1996年春新造毛金竹4.67hm2,每hm21095~3000株.现将试验结果报道于下.

  15. 竹叶功能成分及其饮料的研发情况%Progress of bamboo leaf functional composition and bamboo beverage development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲

    2015-01-01

    综述了竹叶的功能成分、提取技术和饮料应用的研究进展,其中包含了对不同竹属间主要功能成分异同的阐述,以期为进一步研究和利用竹叶开发保健食品和药品提供较系统的资料和信息.%The recent progress of bamboo leaf function composition,innovation extraction technology and bamboo beverage development were reviewed.The bioactive composition difference among different bamboo varieties was especially emphasized.The paper provided information for further development of bamboo leaf functional food and medicine.

  16. 毛竹一新变型——斑毛竹%Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens f.porphyrosticta, a new form from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华锡奇; 周文伟; 赖广辉

    2012-01-01

    Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens f. porphyrosticta G. H. Lai, X. Q. Hua et W. W. Zhou is described as a new. form of Ph. heterocycla cv. pubescens from China. It is different from type form and Ph. heterocycla cv. pubescens i. purpureoculmis P. X. Zhang et al. in having the young culms green when the sheaths falling without any spot, gradually developing purple spots from the autumn, and continuously dense later into purple or brownish macula, but not occupied entire internodes.%描述了毛竹(Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens)的1个新变型——斑毛竹(Ph.heterocyc口la cv.pubescens f.porphyrosticta).它不同于原变型和安吉紫毛竹(Ph.edulisf.purpureoculmis)在于其新秆刚解箨时绿色,无斑点,从当年秋季开始节间逐渐出现紫色斑点,以后不断加密并可连接成紫色或淡褐色斑块,但并不占据整个节间.

  17. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed. PMID:26779233

  18. Water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species assessed with sap flux measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eMei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea and Gigantochloa apus with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1 a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes, the stem heat balance method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2 an in situ calibration of thermal dissipation probes with the stem heat balance method for the four bamboo species, and (3 field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula and Hevea brasiliensis during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the stem heat balance method is well suited for bamboos but that thermal dissipation probes need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD, and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  19. Management techniques of moso bamboo forest at shooting period%毛竹林笋期管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林利铭

    2015-01-01

    笋是毛竹经济效益的一个重要组成部分,毛竹笋期的管理对于毛竹幼林的培育具有重要作用。总结毛竹林笋期管理技术,主要包括鞭笋管理、冬笋管理、春笋管理、小年笋保护、病虫害防治等方面内容。%Bamboo shoot is one of the most important components for bamboo economic benefits. Management at shooting pe-riod plays a vital role in cultivating young bamboo forestry. This paper summarized management techniques of moso bamboo forest at shooting period including terminal shoot management,winter bamboo shoot management,spring bamboo shoot man-agement,off-year bamboo shoot protection and control of diseases and pests.

  20. Optimization on the Conversion of Bamboo Shoot Shell to Levulinic Acid with Environmentally Benign Acidic Ionic Liquid and Response Surface Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cunshan; YU Xiaojie; MA Haile; HE Ronghai; Saritporn Vittayapadung

    2013-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) has been identified as a promising green,biomass derived platform chemical.Response surface analysis (RSA) with a four-factor-five-level central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the hydrolysis conditions for the conversion of bamboo (Phyllostachys Praecox f.preveynalis) shoot shell (BSS) to LA catalyzed with ionic liquid [C4mim]HSO4.The effects of four main reaction parameters including temperature,time,C[c4mim]HSO4 (initial [C4mim]HSO4 concentration) and XBss (initial BSS intake) on the hydrolysis reaction for yield of LA were analyzed.A quadratic equation model for yield of LA was established and fitted to the data with an R2 of 0.9868,and effects of main factors and their corresponding relationships were obtained with RSA.Model validation and results of CCD showed good correspondence between actual and predicted values.The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results indicated that the yield of LA in the range studied was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the four factors.The optimized reaction conditions were as follows:temperature of 145 ℃,time of 103.8 min,C[c4mim]HSO4 of 0.9 mol.L-1 and XBss of 2.04% (by mass),respectively.A high yield [(71±0.41)% (by mol),triplicate experiment] was obtained at the optimum conditions of temperature of 145 ℃,time of 104 min,C[C4mim]HSO4 of 0.9 mol.L-1 and XBss of 2% (by mass),which obtained from the real experiments,concurred with the model prediction [73.8% (by mol) based on available C6 sugars in BSS or 17.9% (by mass) based on the mass of BSS],indicating that the model was adequate for the hydrolysis process.

  1. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures. PMID:23830781

  2. Detection of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingrong; Ge, Yinghua; Cheng, Dandan; Nie, Zuoming; Lv, Zhengbing

    2016-09-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26 to 31-nt small non-coding RNAs that have been reported mostly in germ-line cells and cancer cells. However, the presence of piRNAs in the whitespotted bamboo shark liver has not yet been reported. In a previous study of microRNAs in shark liver, some piRNAs were detected from small RNAs sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 4857 piRNAs were predicted and found in shark liver. We further selected 17 piRNAs with high and significantly differential expression between normal and regenerative liver tissues for subsequent verification by Northern blotting. Ten piRNAs were further identified, and six of these were matched to known piRNAs in piRNABank. The actual expression of six known and four novel piRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 401 target genes of the 10 piRNAs were predicted by miRanda. Through GO and pathway function analyses, only five piRNAs could be annotated with eighteen GO annotations. The results indicated that the identified piRNAs are involved in many important biological responses, including immune inflammation, cell-specific differentiation and development, and angiogenesis. This manuscript provides the first identification of piRNAs in the liver of whitespotted bamboo shark using Solexa technology as well as further elucidation of the regulatory role of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver. These findings may provide a useful resource and may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against liver damage. PMID:27267405

  3. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures.

  4. The anatomy of dreams and bamboo-reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin Mateusz

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy of dreams and bamboo reality Hemingway used to say "if you want your people to build a boat, don't give them hammers, saws and tools – give them a longing for the sea." Today, we have lots of tools. We have computers, software, virtual reality, smart facades and offices, and various attractive systems... but we're somewhat lacking in longing ... In order to have longings, one has to have dreams, and to have dreams, one has to have courage. Antoon had it. Wanting to design with the...

  5. Effects of Ethanol Pulping on the Length of Bamboo Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Liao Junhe; Luo Xuegang

    2006-01-01

    On the conditions of different ethanol concentration, acids and catalyzers, the effects of ethanol pulping on the cellulose length of bamboo were studied. The results indicates that ethanol pulping has remarkable effects on the length of cellulose, which is clearly reduced with adding ethanol and acid. The margin of length of cellulose become smaller with the increase of the catalyzer. When the ethanol concentration was 70%, the concentration of acid was 0.3% and some NaOH was used as catalyzer, the length of cellulose was the longest.

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC, THERMAL, AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CULTIVATED BAMBOO (GIGANTOCHLOA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad ul Haq Bhat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spectroscopic, thermal, and morphological properties of two bamboo species viz. Gigantochloa brang and Gigantochloa wrayi. The nature of cell wall structure and distribution of vascular bundles in G. brang and G. wrayi were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Gigantochloa spp. at various positions and locations showed identical thermal stability and are stable up to 200 °C. The decomposition of cellulose and hemicelluloses component of the culm occurred between 220 °C and 390 °C, while the degradation of lignin takes place above 400 °C.

  7. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  8. Mechanical and thermal properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the potential of sodium silicate modification on moso bamboo particles as reinforcements for thermoplastic. Moso bamboo particles were modified with sodium silicate aqueous solutions (of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% concentrations). The mechanical properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites (BPPC) were calculated and compared with raw bamboo particles filled samples. The thermal characteristics of the BPPC were studied to investigate the feasibility of sodium silicate treatment on moso bamboo particles. The particle morphology and BPPC microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the BPPC increased before the concentration of sodium silicate solution reached 5% and got their maximum values of 15.72 MPa and 2956.80 MPa, respectively at 5% concentration. The modulus of rupture obtained the maximum value of 27.73 MPa at 2% concentration. The mechanical curve decreased as the concentration of solution went higher. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis illustrated that the sodium silicate solution treated BPPC possesses a better compatibility. More uniform dispersion of moso bamboo particles in PVC matrix was obtained after the sodium silicate treatment. Hence, the sodium silicate was a feasible and competitive agent of creating moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites.

  9. Fuel properties and combustion characteristics of some promising bamboo species in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh Kumar; N.Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fuel characteristics of five important bamboo species viz., Dendrocalamus strictus, D. brandisii, D. stocksii, Bambusa bambos and B. balcooa. The selected species cover more than 85%of the total growing stock of bamboo in India. Basic density varied from 0.48 to 0.78 g⋅cm-3 among the bamboo species studied. Ash content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content ranged between 1.4%-3.0%, 77.2%-80.8%and 17.6%-21.1%, respectively. Variation in calorific value (18.7-19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) was marginal. Fuel value index var-ied widely (586-2120) among bamboo species. The highest calorific value (19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) and fuel value index (2120) were found in B. bal-cooa. Ash elemental analysis revealed that silica and potassium are the major ash forming minerals in bamboo biomass. Silica content ranged from 8.7%to 49.0%, while potassium ranged from 20.6%to 69.8%. We studied combustion characteristics under oxidizing atmosphere. Burning profiles of the samples were derived by applying the derivative thermo-gravimetric technique which is discussed in detail. The five bamboo species were different in their combustion behaviour, mainly due to differences in physical and chemical properties. We compare fuel prop-erties, ash elemental analysis and combustion characteristics of bamboo biomass with wood biomass of Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus tereticor-nis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

  10. BENZYLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLD NAOH/UREA PRE-SWELLED BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Li,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo was pre-swelled with a cold aqueous solution of NaOH and urea, and then reacted directly with benzyl chloride to synthesize benzylated bamboo. The effects of the molar ratio of benzyl chloride to OH groups in the bamboo (1 to 4, the reaction temperature (70 to 110 °C, and the reaction time (2 to 8 h on both the product yield and the degree of substitution (DS were evaluated. Yields between 67.6 and 94.0% and DS between 0.31 and 0.74 of the benzylated bamboo were obtained under such conditions. The incorporation of benzyl groups was evidenced by FT-IR and CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the crystalline structure of the native ball-milled bamboo was markedly damaged after modification. In addition, the benzylated bamboo was subjected to thermal degradation at a high temperature with an increase in substitution. It was suggested that the benzylated bamboo with a low crystallinity as well as large non-polar groups is promising as a filler for use in the composite material industry.

  11. A Pickled Method of Bamboo Shoot%一种竹笋的腌制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠红; 黄选检

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo shoot is a kind of seasonal vegetables, and the production of bamboo shoot season is short and concentrated. It is easy to cause decay and waste because of untimely procession. At the same time, the preservation technique level is not high which can make the flavor quality of bamboo shoot drop. In this paper, using fresh bamboo shoot as raw material, a method of curing the bamboo shoot is studied. The method is simple and easy to operate. There is good taste, and no chemical additive, and preserve the original flavor of bamboo shoot and is easy to preserve in prepared bamboo shoot.%竹笋是一种季节性蔬菜,笋期集中,产笋季节短,容易造成笋加工厂旺季时来不及加工处理,鲜竹腐烂,浪费严重的问题,同时,保鲜处理技术水平不高也会导致竹笋的风味品质下降。本文以新鲜的竹笋为原料,研究了一种竹笋的腌制方法,方法简单,便于操作。所制出的竹笋口感好、易保存,不含有化学添加剂,保留了竹笋的原汁原味。

  12. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  13. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  14. Chemical properties of bio-oils produced by fast pyrolysis of bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Kohnosu, Taku; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Yoon, Seung-Lak; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo powder was analytically pyrolyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), and the effects of fast pyrolysis conditions on the product distribution of bio-oil were evaluated. 4-Vinylphenol (4VP) was identified as a major product of bamboo fast pyrolysis by ^1H-NMR and ^C-NMR spectrometry. The formation pathway of 4VP demonstrated that p-coumarate esters are present in bamboo lignin, and 4VP is likely to be derived from these p-coumarate structures. The evaluation of the effect of fa...

  15. Evaluation of statistical strength of bamboo fiber and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced green composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 吴义强

    2008-01-01

    Green composites made from bamboo fibers and biodegradable resins were fabricated with press molding.On the basis of the Weibull distribution and the weakest-link theory,the statistical strength and distribution of bamboo fiber were analyzed,and the tensile strength of green composites was also investigated.The result confirms that the tensile statistical strength of fiber fits well with two-parameter Weibull distribution.In addition,the tensile strength of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is about 330 MPa with the fiber volume fraction of 70%.This value is close to or higher than that of other natural fiber reinforced green composites.

  16. Study on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Structural Laminated Bamboo Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANGLiang; WANGZheng; GAOLi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of laminated bamboo lamber were studied by testing moisture content, delamination ratio, horizontal shear strength, MOE and MOR of the structure-use material, in the same time, these subjects of finger-joint were tested too. The results showed that, the horizontal shear strength, MOR, MOE of laminated bamboo were superior to the ordinary structure-use timber in architecture, such as Pinus. The performance of aging test was not extraordinary, although the physical and mechanical properties of laminated bamboo lamber decreased after aging test, these properties were beyond Pinus yet.

  17. Research on Breeding Traits of Turf Bamboo by ~(137)Cs γ-radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of breeding new and fine varieties of turf bamboo, 5 turf bamboo species (Sasa pygmaea, Indocalamus decorus, I. latifolius, Shibataea chinensis, and S. fortune) were radiated through 137Cs γ-ray in tissue cultures at different radiation dose. It was shown that: 1) Four species of turf bamboo were sensitive to radiation, low dose radiation had no effect on bud germination, high dose radiation delayed bud germination; 2) Radiation at 5 and 10 Gy had not impact on shoot emergence, but radiation...

  18. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an electrical power plant, and 10% will end-up in landfill, which is considered to be a realistic scenario for the Netherlands (NEN 8006) and Western Europe. In addition to the standard LCA (ISO 14040 and...

  19. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  20. Flower Organs Morphology and Structure of Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹花器官的形态与结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立方; 郭起荣; 王青; 冯云; 牟少华

    2012-01-01

    A systematic anatomic study was conducted on morphology and structure of inflorescences, spikelets, florets, stamens, pistils of Phyllostachys edulis from a typical flowering area. This study updated and supplemented comprehensive statistical data of the flower organs, and for the first time found that there are four locules in an anther which is basifixed. The systematic descriptions are as follows: P. edulis is fake inflorescences and spicate inflorescences ( indefinite inflorescence) , average length ot the inflorescences is 8.01 cm, there are 2-7 gradually auxetic scaly bracts; 4-13 spathes, there is one spikelet in each spathe; An inflorescence has about 10 fake spikelets on average, the spikelet is 3.76 cm long on average, and has 1-3 glumes and 1-6 florets, the average length betwen rachises is 0.48 cm. Average length of florets is 2. 6 cm,a floret has 2-3 shells and 3 lodicules, 2-3 stamens whose average length is 4. 34 cm. The anther has four chambers and is basifixed, its average length is 1.26 cm, the average number of pollens in an anther is 15 807, the average diameter of the pollen is 61.00 μm, it is about globular under a scanning electron microscope, the ornamentation cf its outer wall is granulated smally, it has a round germinal aperture which has a circle around, the outer diameter of the germinal aperture is 8.69 μm, the inner 4.52 μm, filaments are 2. 98 cm long on average, they stretch out 1. 59 cm when opening widely. There is a pistil, an ovary with a chamber; a reversal ovule; the average length of styles is 1. 19 cm, the stigma is 1.70 cm long on average, and exposes length of 0.95 cm when it opens widely. The duration from the appearing anther to the pollen falling out of the anther is about 1 -2 h.

  1. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  2. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat Nguyen, Huu; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Bich Nguyen, Ngoc; Duy Dang, Thanh; Loan Phung Le, My; Dang, Tan Tai; Tran, Van Man

    2013-03-01

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A & J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase.

  3. REFINING BEHAVIOUR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBRE FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NishiK.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres, there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefmer under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp. Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  4. REFINING BEHAVIOR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBER FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres,there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefiner under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp.Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  5. Effects of surface performance on bamboo by microwave plasma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanben DU; Zhaobin SUN; Linrong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Surface treatment of bamboo was carried out by microwave plasma (MWP), surface contact angle of the sample was measured using glycerin and urea-form-aldehyde resin (UFR) liquid, and the effects on the surface performance of the bamboo sample was evaluated. The results show that the surface contact angle of the sample presented a generally decreasing trend when prolonging the MWP treatment time and shortening the distance between the sample and the resonance cavity. The surface contact angle of the sample decreased by 49%-59% under the following conditions: MWP treatment for 30 s, the distance between the sample and resonance cavity at 40 mm, and measurement at 15 s after dripping with gly-cerin. The surface contact angle of the sample measured with the glycerin was lower than that with UFR. No mat-ter whether we used glycerin or UFR, the contact angle of the sample at 15 s after dripping was lower than that at 5 s after dripping. The grinding treatment had little effect on the surface contact angle of the sample after MWP treat-ment, and the modification effect of MWP treatment after grinding was better than that of sole MWP treatment.

  6. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  7. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  8. Investigating pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of torrefied bamboo, torrefied wood and their blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia; Hu, Wanhe; Wei, Penglian; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo and masson pine was torrefied with 300°C of temperature for 2.0h of residence time using GSL 1600X tube furnace in the argon atmosphere. Torrefied bamboo and masson pine particles were uniform mixed with different weight ratios. Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated through thermogravimetry (TGA). The results showed that pyrolysis and combustion process of all samples included three steps even though their characteristics were different. Torrefied biomass had a higher pyrolysis and combustion temperature, due to moisture and volatile removal and thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin during torrefaction process. Torrefaction also increased high heating value, ash content and C/H and C/O ratio of biomass. The synergy of torrefied bamboo and torrefied mason pine was not found during pyrolysis and combustion process of blends. The results from this research will be very important and helpful to develop and utilize the wastes of masson pine and bamboo for energy products.

  9. Synthesis of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes by ethanol catalytic combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin; ZOU Xiao-ping; LI Fei; ZHANG Hong-dan; REN Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Bamboo-like carbon nanotubes were synthesized by ethanol catalytic combustion (ECC) technique with combustion method. Copper plate was employed as substrate,ethanol as carbon source,and iron chloride as catalyst precursor. The as-grown black powder was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the thinner bamboo-like carbon nanotubes have a relatively good structure that the compartment layers are more regular,while the thicker carbon nanotubes have a relatively irregular bamboo-like structure:the proposed method is simple to synthesize bamboo-like carbon nanotubes and has some advantages,such as flexible synthesis conditions,simple setup,and environment-friendly.

  10. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  11. A NEW METHOD FOR MAKING CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN FROM BAMBOO BY HIGH BOILING SOLVENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiansuCHENG; WeijianCHEN; YunpingCHEN; HuashuFANG; MianjunLI; YuexianCHEN

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish a new method for making cellulose and lignin from bamboo, a high boiling solvent (HBS) pulping process with aqueous solvcnt of 1,4-butanediol was investigated. Bamboo chips were pulped with 70~90% aqueous solution of 1. 4-butanediol containing a small amount of catalyst at 180~200℃ for 30~90 min. HBS bamboo cellulose is suitable for making paper. Water-insoluble HBS lignin was separated from the liquor reaction mixture by water precipitation. Recovery high boiling solvents (RHBS) is able to recycle as a pulping solvent indicating that the HBS method is a pulping process of bamboo with saving energy, saving resources and non-pollution. HBS lignin has better chemical activity and lower ash content than lignin sulfonate.

  12. A NEW METHOD FOR MAKING CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN FROM BAMBOO BY HIGH BOILING SOLVENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiansu CHENG; Weijian CHEN; Yunping CHEN; Huashu FANG; Mianjun LI; Yuexian CHEN

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish a new method for making cellulose and lignin from bamboo, a high boiling solvent (HBS) pulping process with aqueous solvent of 1,4-butanediol was investigated. Bamboo chips were pulped with 70~90% aqueous solution of 1,4-butanediol containing a small amount of catalyst at 180~200℃ for 30-90 min.. HBS bamboo cellulose is suitable for making paper. Water-insoluble HBS lignin was separated from the liquor reaction mixture by water precipitation. Recovery high boiling solvents (RHBS) is able to recycle as a pulping solvent indicating that the HBS method is a pulping process of bamboo with saving energy, saving resources and non-pollution. HBS lignin has better chemical activity and lower ash content than lignin sulfonate.

  13. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. PMID:27311789

  14. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

  15. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    OpenAIRE

    K.Sudha Madhuri,; H.Raghavendra Rao

    2016-01-01

    The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber ...

  16. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world.

  17. Promotion of Sustainable Buildings in China- Integration of Bamboo and Renewable Energy Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    WWF China and the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INB AR) jointly launched the project "Promotion of Energy Efficient Buildings: Integration of Bamboo and Renewable Energy Technologies" together with the Urban & Rural Planning & Design Institute of Yunnan and BEAR Architecten Gouda (Holland) in March 2002. The objective of the project is to design model houses, hotels and school buildings for rural people in Yuanan Province to provide 'comfortable' living conditions with a minimum and meani...

  18. The Fracture Behaviour of Fresh Bamboo Under Uniaxial Compressive Loading Condition

    OpenAIRE

    LAWRENCE GYANSAH; A.S. Akinwonmi and M. Affam

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the development of the crushing strength of fresh Bamboo samples (Bambusa vulgaris). Crushing strength experiment was performed using Uniaxial Compression Machine. The data is plotted as crushing stress versus height, load versus time of failure and crushing stress versus thickness. Microstructures were also analyzed. Moisture content of bamboo was carried out to know the effect of moisture on the crushing strength. Results show that, increase in height reduces the str...

  19. Effects of Anatomical Characteristics of Ethiopian Lowland Bamboo on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYOUM; Kelemwork

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anatomical characteristics of Ethiopian lowland bamboo on selected physical and mechanical properties. A total of 45 solid culms from three different age groups (2-, 3- and 4- year-old) were harvested from natural bamboo forest in Ethiopia and then samples were transported to China for carrying out anatomical characteristics test. Physical and mechanical properties testing were conducted in Ethiopia. The result indicates that age and height had signi...

  20. Determination of Hemicellulose, Cellulose and Lignin in Moso Bamboo by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Li; Chanjun Sun; Binxiong Zhou; Yong He

    2015-01-01

    The contents of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are important for moso bamboo processing in biomass energy industry. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid determination of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was investigated in this study. Initially, the linear relationship between bamboo components and their NIR spectroscopy was established. Subsequently, successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to detect characteristic wavelengths for establishing th...

  1. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PANELS MANUFACTURED WITH BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.-WOOD COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of derived products from bamboo for some countries and the wood shortage in some areas of Brazil, this work analyzed the quality of boards composed by particles of Eucalyptus sp. and bamboo strips (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.. The panels were produced with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ and 10% of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The influence of the epidermis on the properties of the panels was also evaluated. The panels were constituted by five layers: core (Eucalyptus sp. or bamboo particles, layers of reinforcement (bamboo strips and finish faces (particles of same nature as the core. The press time was 8 minutes, at 120ºC. None of the treatments satisfied the quality patterns established by A208.1 (ANSI, 1987 and DIN 68761 (1-1961, (3-1971 (GERMAN STANDARDS COMMITTEE, 1971 codes. However, particleboards produced exclusively by bamboo or combined with wood presented a similar behavior to those produced exclusively of wood, showing to be a viable alternative. The modulus of rupture (MOR and elasticity (MOE were approximately the same in all treatments due to the irregular distribution of the layers in the mattress. The absence of epidermis tended to reduce the thickness swelling (2 and 24 hours and internal bond strength, however, without significant statistical difference. Therefore, other parameters of production of boards using bamboo, such as density and adhesive content, should be investigated in order to check whether the removal of epidermis is a really advantageous procedure.

  2. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively. PMID:26921563

  3. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Bamboo Accessions of India Using Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Gami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important grass with wide scale applications in paper industries, medicines, constructions industries. It is potential feedstock for advanced biofuel production due to its favourable characteristics, natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and higher CO2 sequestration. The objective of this study is to understand genetic diversity between the bamboo accessions with respect to geographical origin to correlate molecular information with feedstock characterization and adaptation to abiotic stress. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from twenty bamboo accessions collected from different regions of India and genetic variations were assessed by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR based molecular marker approach using 8 primers. Maximum genetic distance was observed between Bambusa wamin-Itanagar & B. ventricosa-Durg (0.48221 & minimum genetic distance between Bambusa balcooa-Modasa & Bambusa balcooa-Tripura (0.00787. Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris were genetically similar as compared to other accessions. The genetic distance is independent of geographical distance for the bamboo accessions considered in this study. The findings of this study will help to understand the degree of differences between bamboo accessions under the same environmental conditions and to identify the representative accessions that can be used for abiotic stress resistance studies. The information can be explored for screening of closely related bamboo accessions for abiotic stress resistance screening trials.

  4. Formability Analysis of Bamboo Fabric Reinforced Poly (Lactic Acid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fazita M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly (lactic acid (PLA composites have made their way into various applications that may require thermoforming to produce 3D shapes. Wrinkles are common in many forming processes and identification of the forming parameters to prevent them in the useful part of the mechanical component is a key consideration. Better prediction of such defects helps to significantly reduce the time required for a tooling design process. The purpose of the experiment discussed here is to investigate the effects of different test parameters on the occurrence of deformations during sheet forming of double curvature shapes with bamboo fabric reinforced-PLA composites. The results demonstrated that the domes formed using hot tooling conditions were better in quality than those formed using cold tooling conditions. Wrinkles were more profound in the warp direction of the composite domes compared to the weft direction. Grid Strain Analysis (GSA identifies the regions of severe deformation and provides useful information regarding the optimisation of processing parameters.

  5. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from bamboo leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-ni; TIAN Cheng-rui; ZHAO Li-li

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction (UE) was employed for the extraction of bamboo leaf polysaccharides (BLP).The influential parameters of UE procedure including extraction time,ultrasonic power and solid/liquid ratio were optimized by orthogonal experiments.DEAE-cellulose column chromatography was applied to purify BLP and then the radical scavenging activity of BLP was also evaluated.Optimal extraction conditions were:extraction time of 15 min,ultrasonic power of 300 W,and solid/liquid ratio of 1:15.Four kinds of polysaccharides were obtained by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography; the maximum superoxide radical scavenging rate (20.4%) of BLP was inferior to that of vitamin C (Vc,the control) and the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (50%) was equivalent to that of Vc.

  6. Adsorption Kinetics of Cd(ll) and Pb(ll) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bamboo-Based Activated Charcoal and Bamboo Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam; Francis Kalu Onwu; Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde; Mgbeahuruike A. Chinedu

    2015-01-01

    The use of bamboo dust (BD) and bamboo-based activated charcoal for adsorption of Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) ions from aqueous solutions were assessed in this work. The effect of contact time on the uptake of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and diffusivity kinetic models. Results show that pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description for the adsorption process. Kinetic studies further showed ...

  7. 竹提取物对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens幼虫的活性评价%EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操海群; 岳永德; 彭镇华; 花日茂; 汤锋

    2004-01-01

    报道了竹提取物对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens幼虫的毒杀作用.研究结果表明,巨县苦竹(Pleioblastusjuxianensis)、白纹短穗竹(Brachystachyum albostriatum)、灰水竹(Phyllostachysplatyglossa)和苦竹(Pleioblastus amarus)提取物对淡色库蚊幼虫的24h致死中浓度(LC50)分别为30.65 mg/L、53.94 mg/L、41.21 mg/L、54.49 mg/L.巨县苦竹索氏抽提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用明显强于间歇振荡提取物,前者对淡色库蚊幼虫的LC50为30.65 mg/L,95%置信限27.12~34.63 mg/L;后者的LC50为48.34 mg/L,95%置信限为40.37~59.62 mg/L.巨县苦竹乙醚浸提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用效果显著,125mg/L浓度时12h校正死亡率为56.67%,24h后达92.90%;石油醚浸提物及甲醇浸提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用则不明显,24h校正死亡率均不超过40%.研究结果将有助于综合利用竹类资源,开发新型环境友好农药.%The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65 mg/L,53.94 mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of

  8. 热处理对竹基纤维复合材料性能的影响%Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Properties of Bamboo-Based Fiber Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚梅; 于文吉

    2013-01-01

    The Phyllostachys edulis bamboo fibrous veneers were heat-treated at high temperatures,and then made for BFC (bamboo-based fiber composites).The chemical properties of bamboo fibrous veneers were measured,and surface color,dimensional stability,mechanical properties of BFC were studied.The results pointed-out that chemical degradation occurred,the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose decreased significantly,mainly in relation to hemicelluloses contents,pH value decreased after thermal treatment,whereas,alkali buffering capacity increased compared with control samples and acid buffering capacity decreased.Thermal treatment can significantly change the surface color of BFC,and the board surface was darkened.The dimensional stability of BFC was significantly improved by reducing thickness swelling and wideness swelling.The mechanical properties were affected with the reduction in MOR (modulus of rupture)and HS (horizontal shear strength) which decreased with increased steam pressure and treatment duration,but MOE (modulus of elasticity) was affected slightly.%毛竹竹材的纤维化单板经高温处理后,热压制备成竹基纤维复合材料(BFC).分析热处理对纤维化竹单板化学性能的影响及热处理对BFC表面颜色、尺寸稳定性、力学性能的影响.结果表明:纤维化竹单板经热处理后,其综纤维素和d-纤维素的含量相对于未处理材显著降低,其中半纤维素含量降幅最大;热处理后竹材的pH值相对于未处理材显著降低,碱缓冲容量显著增大,而酸缓冲容量降低.由纤维化竹单板经热处理后制备的BFC,表面颜色变深,吸水厚度膨胀率和吸水宽度膨胀率相对于未处理材显著降低,尺寸稳定性得到改善;材料的静曲强度和水平剪切强度相对于未处理材显著降低,且随着蒸汽压力的增大和热处理时间的增长呈逐渐降低的趋势,而弹性模量变化不显著.

  9. 绿肥对集约经营毛竹林土壤微生物特性的影响%Effeets of green manure on soil mierobial properties of Phyllostachys pubescens stands under intensive management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋芳; 姜培坤; 王奇赞; 陆贻通

    2009-01-01

    Intensive management of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) stands is commonly practiced to yield high profits. Long-term intensive management may have adverse effects on soil quality, especially soil biological properties. To evaluate the potential of using green manure to improve soil microbial properties of P. Pubescens stands, a pot trial was conducted over a period of seven weeks. The treatments included the control (no vegetation), white clover, green gram, rye grass, the mixture of green gram and rye grass, and elousine coracana. Concentrations of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in all green manure treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than in the control. There was no significant difference in soil MBC concentrations between the green manure treatments except green gram treatment, which was significantly great (P<0.05). The ability of carbon utilization of soil microbial communities measured by Biolog Eco-microplate characterized as average well color development (AWCD) was improved by green manure treatments. The AWCD measurements of white clover, and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of other 3 manure treatments. Shannon index of the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatment was significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of the other treatments. McIntosh indexes of the white clover, and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of the other treatments. Among the AWCD, Shannon index and Mclntosh index, Mcintosh index was found to be the best indicator of the soil microbial functional diversity in the current study. White clover and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were the most efficient in improving soil microbial properties. We recommend planting white clover under P. Pubescens stands to improve soil microbial properties because of its superior shade tolerance.%毛竹集约经营是目前普遍采用的

  10. Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: zafuqfsun@163.com [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.

  11. Obtenção de amido a partir do colmo de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo chips (Guadua flabellata Fournier was desintegrated in presence of cold water (25°C. The starch was isolated by decantation from the material soluble in water. Regarding color, the bamboo starch is similar to the soluble potato starch but its average dimension is smaller.

  12. Obtenção de amido a partir do colmo de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    OpenAIRE

    Anísio Azzini; Antonio Luiz de Barbos Salgado; João Paulo Feijão Teixeira; Roberto Machado de Moraes

    1981-01-01

    Bamboo chips (Guadua flabellata Fournier) was desintegrated in presence of cold water (25°C). The starch was isolated by decantation from the material soluble in water. Regarding color, the bamboo starch is similar to the soluble potato starch but its average dimension is smaller.

  13. Change of free radicals and chemical structure of Moso bamboo with 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 60Co γ radiation, absolutely dry bamboo powder produced free radicals and its chemical composition and structure changed. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to measure the spectrum of the free radicals and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the γ-ray radiated bamboo powder. The test results reveal that when the spectral splitting factor (g) of the bamboo free radicals is 2.0033, and the intensity of free radicals increase with the absorbed dosage of irradiation according to exponential law. After irradiation of 200 kGy, the O/C atomic number ratio in the bamboo surface increases slightly, C-C and C-H content increases, C-O and C=O content decreases, and -O-C=O content increases to 1.5 times over that of the original, which indicates some oxygen-containing functional groups occur and oxidation state of carbon increases in the bamboo surface. (authors)

  14. Effects of high nutrient supply on the growth of seven bamboo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piouceau, Julien; Bois, Grégory; Panfili, Fréderic; Anastase, Matthieu; Dufossé, Laurent; Arfi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, bamboo has emerged as an interesting plant for the treatment of various polluted waters using plant-based wastewater treatment systems. In these systems, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in wastewater can exceed plant requirements and potentially limit plant growth. The effects of two nutrient rates on the growth of seven bamboo species were assessed in a one-year experiment: Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrsostachys siamensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Gigantochloa wrayi, Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa multiplex and Bambusa vulgaris. Nutrient rates were applied with a 20:20:20 NPK fertilizer as 2.6 and 13.2 t.ha.yr(-1) NPK to three-year-old bamboo planted in 70 L containers. Morphological characters, photosynthetic responses, and NPK content in bamboo tissues were investigated. Under high-nutrient supply rate, the main trend observed was an increase of culm production but the culms' diameters were reduced. For the seven species, the above ground biomass yield tended to increase with high-nutrient rate. Increasing in nutrient rates also improved the photosynthetic activity which is consistent with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus contents measured in plant tissues. All the bamboo species tested appears suitable for wastewater treatment purposes, but the species Bambusa oldhamii and Gigantochloa wrayi showed the higher biomass yield and nutrient removaL PMID:24933901

  15. REDESAIN KURSI BAMBOO BENT LAMINATION DENGAN KONSEP DESIGN GUIDELINES COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK (DGLS-CF MENUJU SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Pranindo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo laminate is a product made from bamboo slats, which are glued parallely to the fibers. The adhesion results can be either board or beam thickness depending on the size and width. Bamboo has a high strength layer against abrasion and bending moment. In the previous study, lamination bamboo chair has the disadvantage on high production costs and a long process. Thus, it needs for redesigning seats from previous research. Design method with the concept of Design Guidelines Collaborative Framework is expected to make a product that is produced sustainably chair and have a relatively affordable cost of production. This chair design is made by bamboo bent lamination and bending process is done with Tohnet method with existing technology, that will generate power for the same structure with wood for the furniture industry and can not be separated from the value of comfort (ergonomic, aesthetic values and also not rule out environmental aspects according to Indonesian National Standard.

  16. Study on change of free radicals of bamboo with 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo samples collected in mountain areas of Fujian province were mechanically pulverized into saw dust. This breaks the covalent bonds of bamboo molecules and free radicals are formed. ESR characterization of the bamboo saw dust samples of 20, 200 and 500 mesh showed that the relative intensity of the 500 mesh saw dust was the highest, and that of the 20 mesh was the lowest(g=2.0033). After 60Co γ-ray irradiation,the intensity of free radicals increased sharply. At>100 kGy, the free radicals tended to be saturated at about 40 times of the free radicals produced mechanically. The intensity of free radicals increased exponentially with the dose below 100 kGy, and decay coefficients of the free radicals in the three samples were different. (authors)

  17. Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless deposition process for electromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qian; Lu, Yinxiang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    2013-09-15

    Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless plating process is reported. The microstructure of the composite was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, which illustrated that the copper coating was composed of spherical particles and clusters. The composition and chemical state of the metal layer were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis spectra; copper and a small amount of nickel were detected. Mechanical properties were measured based on a standard (ISO 13934-1:1999) for the fabrics with and without copper coating. The breaking force for the composite was improved by about 16.8% compared to uncoated bamboo fabric. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of the composite was more than 40 dB at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 1000MHz. The copper coating on bamboo fabric passed the Scotch {sup registered} -tape test. (orig.)

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of the Bamboo Sharks (Chiloscyllium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haslina Masstor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiloscyllium, commonly called bamboo shark, can be found inhabiting the waters of the Indo-West Pacific around East Asian countries such as Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List has categorized them as nearly threatened sharks out of their declining population status due to overexploitation. A molecular study was carried out to portray the systematic relationships within Chiloscyllium species using 12S rRNA and cytochrome b gene sequences. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian were used to reconstruct their phylogeny trees. A total of 381 bp sequences’ lengths were successfully aligned in the 12S rRNA region, with 41 bp sites being parsimony-informative. In the cytochrome b region, a total of 1120 bp sites were aligned, with 352 parsimony-informative characters. All analyses yield phylogeny trees on which C. indicum has close relationships with C. plagiosum. C. punctatum is sister taxon to both C. indicum and C. plagiosum while C. griseum and C. hasseltii formed their own clade as sister taxa. These Chiloscyllium classifications can be supported by some morphological characters (lateral dermal ridges on the body, coloring patterns, and appearance of hypobranchials and basibranchial plate that can clearly be used to differentiate each species.

  19. Removal of elemental mercury by modified bamboo carbon☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengqiang Tan; Guoping Niu; Xiaowen Chen

    2015-01-01

    The mercury removal performance of modified bamboo charcoal (BC) was investigated with a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. A simple impregnation method was used to modify the BC with ZnCl2 and FeCl3 separately. BET and XPS were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The role of Fe3+in the re-moval of elemental mercury by modified sorbents was discussed. The experimental results suggest that the mod-ified BCs have excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature, 140 °C. The BET surface area and average pore size of modified sorbents do not show noticeable priority compared to un-modified BC. XPS spectra indicate that Fe atoms mainly exist in the form of Fe3+for the FeCl3-impregnated BC. Better performance of FeCl3-impregnated BC at different temperatures (20, 140 and 180 °C) suggests the en-hancement of non-chloride functional groups (Fe3+). Inhibition effect of SOx and NO for Hg0 removal by BC sam-ples is present in the study.

  20. Multiple disturbances accelerate clonal growth in a potentially monodominant bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Paul R; Platt, William J

    2008-03-01

    Organisms capable of rapid clonal growth sometimes monopolize newly freed space and resources. We hypothesize that sequential disturbances might change short-term clonal demography of these organisms in ways that promote formation of monotypic stands. We examined this hypothesis by studying the clonal response of Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane, a bamboo) to windstorm and fire. We studied giant cane growing in both a large tornado-blowdown gap and under forest canopy, in burned and unburned plots, using a split-block design. We measured density of giant cane ramets (culms) and calculated finite rates of increase (lamda) for populations of ramets over three years. Ramet density nearly doubled in stands subjected to both windstorm and fire; the high ramet densities that resulted could inhibit growth in other plants. In comparison, ramet density increased more slowly after windstorm alone, decreased after fire alone, and remained in stasis in controls. We predict that small, sparse stands of giant cane could spread and amalgamate to form dense, monotypic stands (called "canebrakes") that might influence fire return intervals and act as an alternative state to bottomland forest. Other clonal species may similarly form monotypic stands following successive disturbances via rapid clonal growth. PMID:18459325

  1. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. 邛崃山系3种主食竹单宁及营养成分含量对大熊猫取食选择性的影响%Effects of tannin and nutrient elements in three species of staple food bamboo on giant panda herbivory tendency.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智勇; 王强; 付强; 韩建伟; 张志毅; 李颖岳

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of tannin and nutrient elements in bamboo species and different parts on giant panda herbivory tendency, after field survey, samples from three species of staple food bamboo Bashania fangiana, Fargesia robusta, and Phyllostachys bissetii for giant panda from Anzihe Nature Reserve in Qionglai Mountain, southwestern China were collected. The contents of tannin, crude protein and some mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, were measured. The correlations between the tendency of herbivory and tannin and other nutrient elements among different species, varied vegetative organs and different parts were analyzed. The conclusions were as follows: 1 ) B. fangiana had the lowest tannin content while F. robusta had the highest, and the tannin content in stem was the lowest when compared with other parts for all of the three. 2) In terms of some nutrient elements, significant differences among these three species were identified, and the B. fangiana had the highest content of crude protein while F. robusta had the lowest; and the correlations between the content of crude protein and Zn and the average height of stumps of culms grazed by panda were negative. 3 ) Giant panda preferred to eat thespecies and the sites of bamboo tannin and crude protein can be the sites of bamboo. which contained lower tannin and considered as important factors for higher crude protein; the content of giant panda to select the species and%为了研究单宁和营养成分含量在大熊猫取食时对不同竹种以及竹种不同部位选择的影响,本文在野外实地调查的基础上,对邛崃山系鞍子河自然保护区的冷箭竹、拐棍竹、白夹竹这3种大熊猫主食竹种的单宁、粗蛋白以及钙、镁、铜、锌等矿质元素含量进行测定对比,综合分析了不同主食竹种、不同营养器官以及不同部位中单宁和营养成分含量与大熊猫取食选择的相关性。结果表明:1)3种竹种相比较,冷箭竹的单宁

  3. Application of Carbon Dioxide Injection Technology in Bamboo Cement Board Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bakri; Sanusi, Djamal; Muin, Musrizal; Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the appropriate bamboo species to be used as raw material for cement board manufacturing and (2) to determine the best phase of C O2 and the most optimum of CO2 injection time to produce the best characteristics of cement board. For the first objective, mixtures of bamboo culm particles, cement, and water on the ratio by weight of 1 : 2.5 : 1.25 were casted in iron plate mold of 25 x 25 x 1 cm3, pressed and then hold for 24 h...

  4. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  5. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline. PMID:27526781

  6. Sensitivity of several selected mechanical properties of moso bamboo to moisture content change under the fibre saturation point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The moisture dependence of different mechanical properties of bamboo has not been fully understood. In this work, the longitudinal tensile modulus, bending modulus, and compressive and shearing strength parallel to the grain were determined for bamboo of ages 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years under different moisture contents (MC to elucidate the sensitivity of different mechanical properties of bamboo to MC change. The results showed that the four mechanical properties of bamboo respond differently to MC changes. Compressive and shearing strength parallel to the grain were most sensitive to MC changes, followed by longitudinal tensile modulus, then bending modulus. This can be partially explained by the different responses of the three main components in the plant cell wall to MC change. For tensile modulus and bending modulus, the effect of bamboo age on the sensitivity to MC change was insignificant, while young bamboo (0.5 years old was more sensitive to MC changes for shear strength and less sensitive for compression strength than older bamboo.

  7. Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelena L de Carvalho

    Full Text Available We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km(2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27-28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km(2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon.

  8. Suction generation in white-spotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    After the divergence of chondrichthyans and teleostomes, the structure of the feeding apparatus also diverged leading to alterations in the suction mechanism. In this study we investigated the mechanism for suction generation during feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and compared it with that in teleosts. The internal movement of cranial elements and pressure in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities that are directly responsible for suction generation was quantified using sonomicrometry and pressure transducers. Backward stepwise multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between expansion and pressure, accounting for 60-96% of the variation in pressure among capture events. The progression of anterior to posterior expansion in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities is accompanied by the sequential onset of subambient pressure in these cavities as prey is drawn into the mouth. Gape opening triggers the onset of subambient pressure in the oropharyngeal cavities. Peak gape area coincides with peak subambient buccal pressure. Increased velocity of hyoid area expansion is primarily responsible for generating peak subambient pressure in the buccal and hyoid regions. Pharyngeal expansion appears to function as a sink to receive water influx from the mouth, much like that of compensatory suction in bidirectional aquatic feeders. Interestingly, C. plagiosum generates large suction pressures while paradoxically compressing the buccal cavity laterally, delaying the time to peak pressure. This represents a fundamental difference from the mechanism used to generate suction in teleost fishes. Interestingly, pressure in the three cavities peaks in the posterior to anterior direction. The complex shape changes that the buccal cavity undergoes indicate that, as in teleosts, unsteady flow predominates during suction feeding. Several kinematic variables function together, with great variation over long gape cycles to

  9. Bioconversion of bamboo to bioethanol using the two-stage organosolv and alkali pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo’s ability to grow on nutrient-poor soils, with little requirement of silvicultural management, easy harvesting characteristics, vegetative propagation, fast growth, and a host of other desirable characteristics, make it a good candidate as an energy crop. Energy crops are cultivated solely for use as sources of energy through their conversion into alcohols. This study set out to determine the potential of moso bamboo to be used in the two-stage organosolv and alkali pretreatment for the production of bioethanol. Moso bamboo contains 63.3% (w/w holocellulose and can serve as a low-cost feedstock for bioethanol production. After organosolv pretreatment (2% w/w H2SO4 in 75% w/w ethanol, 160 °C for 30 min, the bamboo was further delignified through pretreatment of sodium hydroxide (10% and 20% w/w or calcium hydroxide (10% w/w, which resulted in about 96.5% (NaOH and 85.7% (Ca(OH2 lignin removal. The enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified cellulosic bamboo substrate with cellulase (15 FPU/g glucan and β-glucosidase (30 IU/g glucan showed 80.9% to 95.5% saccharification after 48 h incubation at 50 °C and pH 4.8. Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in about 89.1% to 92.0% of the corresponding theoretical ethanol yield after 24 h.

  10. Structural variation of bamboo lignin before and after ethanol organosolv pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  11. Remembering or Misremembering? Historicity and the Case of "So Far from the Bamboo Grove"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ae

    2008-01-01

    A recent controversy in the USA centres on classroom use of Yoko Kawashima Watkins's semi-autobiographical "So Far from the Bamboo Grove" (1986), a novel focused on the flight of Japanese settler families to Japan after the liberation of Korea at the end of World War II. Taught in a literary and historical vacuum under the thematic umbrella of…

  12. Investigating pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of torrefied bamboo, torrefied wood and their blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia; Hu, Wanhe; Wei, Penglian; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo and masson pine was torrefied with 300°C of temperature for 2.0h of residence time using GSL 1600X tube furnace in the argon atmosphere. Torrefied bamboo and masson pine particles were uniform mixed with different weight ratios. Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated through thermogravimetry (TGA). The results showed that pyrolysis and combustion process of all samples included three steps even though their characteristics were different. Torrefied biomass had a higher pyrolysis and combustion temperature, due to moisture and volatile removal and thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin during torrefaction process. Torrefaction also increased high heating value, ash content and C/H and C/O ratio of biomass. The synergy of torrefied bamboo and torrefied mason pine was not found during pyrolysis and combustion process of blends. The results from this research will be very important and helpful to develop and utilize the wastes of masson pine and bamboo for energy products. PMID:26950755

  13. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B.; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003–2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction. PMID:26909094

  14. Measuring leaf necrosis and chlorosis of bamboo induced by typhoon 0613 with RGB image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; Haruhiko Yamamoto; Yasuomi Ibaraki

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of leaf necrosis or chlorosis of bamboo induced by Typhoon 0613 (T0613) were analyzed using RGB image analysis in Yamaguchi city, Japan. Results showed a closely positive relationship between Green/Red (G/R) value for indoor taking images of bamboo individual leaves and chlorophyll meter value (SPAD) with regression coefficient of 0.961. The relation between G/R value of room taking images and Necrotic Area Percentage (NAP) for bamboo individual leaves showed an inverse logistic function relationship, with the correlated coefficient equaling to 0.958. Both leaf chlorosis and necrosis can be quantitatively estimated by RGB image analysis. Moreover, the variance of Green/Luminance (G/L) value for the same leaf was less than that of G/R for images taken in the conditions with large light difference, especially for green leaves. G/L value also exhibited a closer relationship with SPAD value of leaves with chlorosis than that of G/R values at the same condition. The relationship between G/L value for bamboo canopies and the Distance from Coastline (DC) was also closer than that of the G/R value for the images taken at field sites with big light difference.

  15. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Light Weight Rice Husk Concrete with Bamboo Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Beddu, Salmia; Syamsir, Agusril; Sigar Ating, Joshua; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight rice husk concrete (LWRHC) with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced with varied slab thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at 0.65 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter and slab thickness. 5% RH content exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 1.80 times and up to 1.72 times respectively against 10% RH content.

  16. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  17. Sustainable value chains for bamboo working communities: Integrating the tenets of sustainability through the Rhizome Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reubens, R.R.R.; Brezet, J.C.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand globally for products which impact sustainability positively. Bamboo fulfills these criteria, since it is a highly renewable timber replacement material which does not cause deforestation. It simultaneously has the potential to create livelihood opportunities for both the u

  18. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sassu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively.

  19. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method.

  20. Investigations on gradient a.c. conductivity characteristics of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navin Chand; Deepak Jain; Archana Nigrawal

    2006-04-01

    Effect of temperature and frequency variation on a.c. conductivity of bamboo was determined by using a 4274 A Multi-Frequencies LCR meter. Electrical measurements were carried out in the temperature range 24–120°C and in the frequency range 4–100 kHz. It was observed that the a.c. conductivity increased initially and then decreased with increase of temperature and frequencies. The increase of distance from outer surface to the inner surface side increased the a.c. conductivity values and showed the grading in a.c. conductivity behaviour. Two phases of a.c. conductivity behaviour with temperature exist in bamboo. At 10 mm distance a.c. conductivity suddenly increases which is the critical depth from skin for this bamboo. Increase of temperature, at all the frequencies increases the a.c. conductivity initially and then decreases. Downward peaks in a.c. conductivities are observed at all the frequencies due to the presence of moisture in bamboo, which liberated on heating. Sharp peak is observed in case of sample 4, which is inner most strip. Maximum sharp peak is observed at lowest 4 kHz frequency.

  1. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a five-year period (2003-2007 after a mast flowering event (2003. We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the five years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves. Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction.

  2. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development from bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Longfei Zhu; Yan Shi; Qiaolu Zang; Quan Shi; Shinan Liu; Yingwu Xu; Xinchun Lin

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo flowering owns many unique characteristics and remains a mystery. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a PISTILLATA homologue named BoPI from Bambusa oldhamii (bamboo family). Expression analysis showed that BoPI was highly expressed in flower organs and gradually increased during flower development stage, suggesting that BoPI played an important role in flower development. Ectopic expression of BoPI in Arabidopsis caused conversion of sepals to petals. 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal formation in the pi-1 mutant. BoPI could interact with BoAP3 protein in vitro. These results suggested that BoPI regulated flower development of bamboo in a similar way with PI. Besides flower organs, BoPI was also expressed in leaf and branch, which revealed that BoPI may involve in leaf and branch development. Similar to other MIKC-type gene, BoPI contained the Cterminal sequence but its function was controversial. Ectopic expression of the C-terminal deletion construct (BoPI-C) in Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI-C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length construct. The result implied that the C-terminal sequence may not be absolutely required for organ identity function in the context of BoPI.

  3. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  4. 不同竹种竹叶提取物制备及其抗氧化活性比较研究%Preparation and comparative analysis of antioxidant activity of bamboo leaf extracts from different varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 岳永德; 郭雪峰; 汤锋; 王进; 姚曦; 孙嘏

    2012-01-01

    Phyllostachys heterocycla, Pleioblastus amaru, Bambusa tuldoides, Bambusa chungii, Bambusa textilis, Chimonocalamus Hsueh and Indocalamus tessellates were used to extract bamboo-leaf-flavonoids by the heat reflux method and purified by AB-8 macroporous absorption resin. The extractions were separated and structurally identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The bamboo leaf extracts were assayed based on DPPH radical scavenging capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, superoxide anion free radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power with TBHQ (tert-butyl hydroquinone) as the positive control. The results showed that the yield of extracts from Pleioblastus amarus was maximum, up to 3.60%-3.70%; the amount of orientin and isoorientin in Chimonocalamus Hsueh was maximum, up to 2.523 0%-2.532 6%; the amount of vitexin in Pleioblastus amarus was maximum, up to 0.887 0%-0.889 6%; the amount of isovitexin in Bambusa textilis was maximum, up to 2.223 l%-2.226 1%. Chimonocalamus Hsueh revealed the strongest scavenging capacity against DPPH, and the IC50 value was 30.50 mg·L-1; Indocalamus tessellates revealed the strongest scavenging capacity against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion free radical, and the IC50 values were 339.32 mg·L-1 and 324.87 mg·L-1, respectively.%以毛竹、苦竹、香竹、箬竹、粉单竹、青杆竹和青皮竹7个竹种竹叶为材料,采用热回流法提取,大孔树脂法分离纯化,对得到竹叶提取物测定其得率和主要黄酮成分的含量,进而探讨竹叶提取物的抗氧化活性,为竹叶提取物在食品和化妆品领域的应用提供科学依据.结果表明,苦竹叶提取物得率最高,为3.60%~3.70%;香竹叶提取物中所含的荭草苷和异荭草苷量最高,为2.5230%~2.5326%,苦竹叶提取物中所含的牡荆苷量最高,为0.8870%~0.8896%,青杆竹叶提取物中所含的异牡荆苷量最高,为2.2231%~2.2261%;竹叶提取物具有较强的自

  5. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses. PMID:27170010

  6. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses.

  7. Microscopic determination of bamboo fiber in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Javůrková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiber, a suitable additive to meat products with water-holding capacity, reduces curing losses and maintains juiciness of the meat. The risk is the use of excessive amounts of flour or other ingredients of vegetable origin, in which the fiber is contained. In some cases, sensory characteristics of products can be affected. Detection of fiber may be prevention of adulteration in some meat products. It is therefore very important to regularly detect the amount of fiber in meat products and check its contents. Fiber in meat products can be detected by various methods, applied are for example gravimetric, spectroscopic, histochemical, and microscopic methods. For this reason, a model meat product (Vysočina salami was prepared in our experiment with the addition of bamboo fiber of selected concentrations of 0%, 2%, and 3%. Subsequently, a series of microscopic sections was made on different days of curing (day no. 7, 14 of the drying phase and 28, 42 of storage. Individual sections were examined and captured using a polarization microscope, the amounts of fiber in individual sections were analyzed by means of image analysis software and the values obtained were compared with each other. Also the influence of drying on the measured area of fiber in sections was monitored. The results indicate a noticeable reduction in the area of fiber until the seventh day of ripening, which is caused by the rapid loss of water in the product. In contrast, sections of products from the following days of drying contained mildly increased concentrations of fiber, which was caused by gradual drying of the products, while the area of fiber refrained form becoming smaller. Between the individual days of drying, a difference that was statistically significant was demonstrated from the 14th day of (storage or drying. Correlation was observed between the date of (storage or drying and amount of added fiber. Among the tested mean values for the sample with the addition of

  8. Storage Effect of Konjak(Amorphophallus)Polysaccharose and Bamboo Leaves on Green Bamboo Shoots%魔芋多糖和竹叶汁对绿竹笋保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾竞华; 庞杰; 谢建华; 林启训; 邹少强; 李艺雄

    2001-01-01

    以易变质的绿竹笋为试材,通过天然产物魔芋多糖和竹叶中的有效成分对绿竹笋进行涂膜处理,并在3℃低温下贮存。结果表明:经涂膜的绿竹笋,其失重率,老化程度大大低于未经涂膜的。涂膜的绿竹笋在低温下贮存至第20天时,其木质纤维化程度低,有效地阻止绿竹笋的老化变质,延长了贮藏期,且外观品质良好。%Green bamboo shoots, which is to go wrong , was treated with hatural material elephant taro polysaccharose and bamboo leaves and stored under 3℃. Results showed that weight loss rate and aged degree of treated green bamboo shoots were lower than that of untreated green bamboo shoots .When the treated green bamboo shoots were stored under low temperature for 20 days, with low lignification degree, it inhibited effectively aged and deterioration of green bamboo shoots, lengthened the stored period with good appearance quality .

  9. Pretreatment of bamboo by ultra-high pressure explosion with a high-pressure homogenizer for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua; Li, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo shoots, 2- and 5-year-old bamboo were treated by using a homogenizer in a constant suspended state, a process termed as ultra-high pressure explosion (UHPE). The bamboo powder was heated in 2% NaOH solution at 121°C, and then 100MPa UHPE-treated through a homogenizer. The results verified that UHPE changed the suspension solution of powder into a stick fluid. The contents of lignin were decreased significantly. The bamboo shoots and 2-year-old bamboo were completely hydrolyzed to glucose within 48h by enzymes loading of 15 FPU of cellulase and 30IU of β-glucosidase per gram glucan. Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in about 89.7-95.1% of the theoretical ethanol yield after 24h. Therefore, NaOH+UHPE is argued to be a potential alternative technology for pretreatment of bamboo. PMID:27189535

  10. Gender Issues in Household-based Bamboo Industries: A Case Study of Two Villages in Xinping County, Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGShineng; YANGLingyun(ElsieYANG)

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative gender assessment of household-based bamboo industries was conducted in Zhuyuan and Lagadi villages in Laochang Township, Xinping County in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Results showed that both women and men were actively involved in the production and marketing of bamboo products in the two villages. There were gender differences in bamboo-based rural industries that were closely associated with the ethnic habits, traditional norms of the rural society, the differences of educational levels that women and men achieved, and the gender blind-spots in the enforcement of laws and policies. It is evident that women were “equal” partners in the production of bamboo products, but “unequal” when the rights of access to and control over resources and personal independence are concerned. Suggestions are made to achieve a gender-balanced production system of bamboo products in rural areas of bamboo producing counties in Yunnan Province, China.

  11. Functional traits enhance invasiveness of bamboos over co-occurring tree saplings in the semideciduous Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montti, Lía; Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I.; Gatti, M. Genoveva; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Many woody bamboo species are forest understory plants that become invasive after disturbance. They can grow rapidly forming a dense, nearly monospecific understory that inhibits tree regeneration. The principal aim of this study was to understand what functional traits of bamboos allow them to outcompete tree seedlings and saplings and become successful species in the semideciduous Atlantic Forests of northeastern Argentina. We studied leaf and whole-plant functional traits of two bamboo species of the genus Chusquea and five co-occurring saplings of common tree species growing under similar solar radiation and soil nutrient availabilities. Nutrient addition had no effect on bamboo or tree sapling survival and growth after two years. Tree species with high-light requirements had higher growth rates and developed relatively thin leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area and short leaf life-span when growing in gaps, but had lower survival rates in the understory. The opposite pattern was observed in shade-tolerant species that were able to survive in the understory but had lower photosynthetic capacity and growth than light-requiring species in gaps. Bamboos exhibited a high plasticity in functional traits and leaf characteristics that enabled them to grow rapidly in gaps (e.g., higher photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass and clonal reproduction in gaps than in the understory) but at the same time to tolerate closed-canopy conditions (they had thinner leaves and a relatively longer leaf life-span in the understory compared to gaps). Photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass was higher in bamboos than in trees. Bamboo plasticity in key functional traits, such as clonal reproduction at the plant level and leaves with a relatively low C cost and high photosynthesis rates, allows them to colonize disturbed forests with consequences at the community and ecosystem levels. Increasing disturbance in some forests worldwide will likely enhance bamboo

  12. Response of a Wild Edible Plant to Human Disturbance: Harvesting Can Enhance the Subsequent Yield of Bamboo Shoots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Katayama

    Full Text Available Wild edible plants, ecological foodstuffs obtained from forest ecosystems, grow in natural fields, and their productivity depends on their response to harvesting by humans. Addressing exactly how wild edible plants respond to harvesting is critical because this knowledge will provide insights into how to obtain effective and sustainable ecosystem services from these plants. We focused on bamboo shoots of Sasa kurilensis, a popular wild edible plant in Japan. We examined the effects of harvesting on bamboo shoot productivity by conducting an experimental manipulation of bamboo shoot harvesting. Twenty experimental plots were prepared in the Teshio Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University and were assigned into two groups: a harvest treatment, in which newly emerged edible bamboo shoots were harvested (n = 10; and a control treatment, in which bamboo shoots were maintained without harvesting (n = 10. In the first year of harvesting (2013, bamboo shoot productivities were examined twice; i.e., the productivity one day after harvesting and the subsequent post-harvest productivity (2-46 days after harvesting, and we observed no difference in productivity between treatments. This means that there was no difference in original bamboo shoot productivity between treatments, and that harvesting did not influence productivity in the initial year. In contrast, in the following year (2014, the number of bamboo shoots in the harvested plots was 2.4-fold greater than in the control plots. These results indicate that over-compensatory growth occurred in the harvested plots in the year following harvesting. Whereas previous research has emphasized the negative impact of harvesting, this study provides the first experimental evidence that harvesting can enhance the productivity of a wild edible plant. This suggests that exploiting compensatory growth, which really amounts to less of a decline in productivity, may be s a key for the effective use of wild edible

  13. 竹在园林设计中的审美效应%Aesthetic Effect of Bamboos in Landscape Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伏虎

    2012-01-01

    In the perspective of dominant and recessive beauty, the aesthetic effect of bamboos in landscape design has been illustrated from four aspects, which are "bamboo leading to a secluded spot" and "simplicity and magnificence" , "bamboos at windows" and "bamboos shadows on white walls" , bamboos, waters, rocks and plants setting each other off and literati' s feeling about bamboos. On this basis, by combining with different characteristics of Chinese and western landscapes, the paper has proposed the application tendency of bamboos in landscape design, and emphasized integrating the essence of Chinese traditional landscape with western rational theory, so as to create more vivid bamboo landscapes.%以显性美和隐性美为视角,分别从4个方面论述了竹子在园林设计中的审美效应,即“竹里通幽”与“淳朴壮观”之美,“移竹当窗”与“粉墙竹影”之美,竹与水、石和其他植物掩映之美,以及竹子的文人情怀美.在此基础上,结合中西方园林的不同特征,提出了今后竹子在园林设计中的应用走向,强调了将中国传统园林的精华与西方的理性理论相互融合,创造更为动人的竹子造景的发展方向和思路.

  14. 竹子在使用过程中的保护%Protection of Bamboo in Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter Liese

    2003-01-01

    Bamboo culms are an excellent material for countless applications. Their wider use for construction is encouraged by the growing scarcity of timber. Since bamboo has a low natural resistance, protection against biological degradation is of vital importance for long term service.Protective measures without chemicals are preferable , but often limited in their effectiveness.When using preservatives, the restricted permeability of culm tissue, choice of preservative and treatment method and environmental effects as well as economical aspects have to be considered.

  15. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  16. Silica distribution in various bamboos species and its effects on plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, B.; Meunier, J.; Keller, C.; Doelsch, E.; Panfili, F.

    2010-12-01

    Bamboos are distributed throughout the world’s temperate, tropical and subtropical regions. They are widely used in industry, as fresh edible shoots, paper maker, building and even in medicine. Bamboos also play multiple ecologic functions such as soil and water conservation and erosion control. Bamboos have generally high silicon (Si) content. Silicon is known to have beneficial effects on plants and alleviate various stresses. The aim of this study is to quantify the Si uptake and distribution in various bamboos species and to investigate the effects of Si on the plant growth. Two complementary studies were carried out, one under natural conditions and one under controlled conditions. First of all, we performed an inventory of Si tissue content in 16 bamboos species growing in a non-polluted tropical soil at the Reunion Island (France, Indian ocean). We determined Si content in leaf and in stem tissues sampled at several heights for each plant. One of these species Gigantocloa sp « Malay Dwarf » was grown for 3 months in nutrient solution at five Si concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.75, 1.15, 1.5 mM Si). Silica deposition was examined in leaves using a cryo-SEM equipped with EDS. The Si concentration varies significantly between species, depending on rhizome morphology. Bamboos having leptomorph rhizomes show significantly higher leaf and stem Si content than that of species having pachymorph rhizomes. The distribution of Si in the plant has the same trends for all species. Leaves are the most concentrated organs (10.9 %), and within the stem Si concentration significantly increases from the bottom (0.32%) to the top of the plant (2.1%). Plant Si content increases with the Si supply. Leaves of Gigantocloa sp « Malay Dwarf » accumulate 15.2 % of Si under natural conditions and up to 24 % when exposed to the highest Si treatment. Unlike previous studies, our experiment shows that the concentration of Si had no significant effect on nutrient uptake and biomass

  17. Drug: D06907 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s family) Bambusa tuldoides, Phyllostachys nigra, Phyllostachys bambusoides culm; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06907 Bamboo culm (no...nd expectorants D06907 Bambusae caulis; Phyllostachysis caulis; Tikujyo Crude drugs

  18. Remote sensing monitoring of a bamboo forest based on BP neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun SHI; Xiaojun XU; Huaqiang DU; Guomo ZHOU; Wei JIN; Yufeng ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    The collection of information on bamboo forests plays a crucial role in the calculation of carbon content reserves, and the acquisition of high-precision information will be good for reducing estimation errors. High precision is obtained with the adoption of a back propagation (BP) neural network to extract information on bamboo forests from Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM +) remote sensing images with the assistance of neural network modules provided by Matlab. We obtained a production precision of 84.04% and a user precision of 98.75%. We also conducted a comparison of classification differences of three training functions, i.e., the, LevenbergMarquardt BP algorithm function (Trainlm), a gradient decreasing function of adaptive learning rate BP (Traingda), and a gradient lowering momentum BP algorithm function (Traingdm). Our analysis suggests that Traingda had the highest precision while Trainlm function required the shortest training time.

  19. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe2+ and Fe3+in NaOH or NH4OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  20. Comparison between the Direct Dyeing Kinetics of Bamboo and Conventional Viscose Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ji-liang; TANG Ren-cheng; CHEN Wen-jang

    2010-01-01

    Two direct dyes were applied to conventional viscose(CV)and bamboo viscose(BV)fibers,which were prepared from bamboo cellulose pulps,and the dyeing kinetics of two fibers were compared.Three kinetic equations,namely Chrastil,Cegarra-Puente,and Vickerstaff,were used to fit the experimental dyeing rate points,showing that the best result was obtained by the Chrastil equation.BV fibers displayed slightly higher dyeing rates and dye adsorption values at initial stages,but a bit lower dye adsorption values at equilibrium than CV fibers.Furthermore,the dyeing of BV fibers exhibited lower activation energies and higher dyeing rate constants than that of CV fibers,and therefore showed slightly lower dependence on temperature.

  1. [A brief introduction to the disease-syndrome names in bamboo slips of Qin Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, Y L; Ma, Y D

    2016-05-01

    There are plenty of names of disease-syndrome from the four kinds of unearthed Qin bamboo slips, namely Fangmatan, Shuihudi, Zhoujiatai, and Liye. Altogether, these names number to 85. According to statistics, nomenclature of 34 disease-syndromes are derived from the location of the lesion, 8 from symptoms, 1 from etiology, 12 from location of lesion plus symptom, 3 from location plus etiology, and 25 are for special diseases. Through comparison of these names, with those from oracle bones and Han bamboo slips, Prescriptions for Hundred Kinds of Disease, it is summarized that, as time passes, nomenclature simply named by the location of the lesion was gradually reduced, and named by etiology and special diseases gradually increased. To some extent, it reflects the historical process of knowledge of the disease gradually deepened in ancient times. PMID:27485863

  2. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of lique-faction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liq-uefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120 °C, the reaction time of 7 min, the glycerol–methanol–bamboo ratio of 8/0/2 (W/W), and the microwave power of 300 W. Maximum conversion yield was 96.7%. The liquid products were separated into two contents (water soluble part and precipitate part) by addi-tion of a sufficient amount of water. By Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), the water soluble content mainly con-tained glycerol and its derivate and carbohydrate degra-dation products, and the precipitate content was mainly lignin derivatives.

  3. Preparation and adsorption performances of mesopore-enriched bamboo activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin WANG; Congmin LIU; Yaping ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon with high specific surface area and considerable mesopores was prepared from bam-boo scraps by phosphoric acid activation. The effect of activation conditions was studied. Under the conditions of impregnating bamboo with 80% H3PO4 at 80℃ for 9 days and activation at 500℃ for 4 h, the prepared acti-vated carbon had the highest mesopore volume of 0.67 cm3/g, a specific surface area of 1567 m2/g, and the mesopore ratio reached 47.18%. The study on adsorption isotherms of CH4, CO2, N2 and O2on the activated carbon were carried out at 298 K. The considerable difference in the adsorption capacity between CO2 and the other gases was observed, which would be of interest for the adsorp-tive separation/purification of gaseous CO2 from its mix-tures, especially from mixtures with N2 and/or O2.

  4. Biosynthesis of Succulent Bamboo Shoots of Bambusa balcooa into Phytosterols and Its Biotransformation into ADD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kananbala SARANGTHEM; Thongam Nabakumar SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation of the succulent bamboo shoots of Bambusa balcooa Roxb. resulted in an enrichment of phytosterols from 0.12% to 0.62% dry weight as compared to that of the fresh unfermented samples. The bacterial strains responsible for higher accumulation of phytosterols during fermentation of the bamboo shoots have been isolated and further extraction and purification of the crude phytosterols (isolated from the fermented samples) were done by TLC, UV, NMR, IR and Mass spectral analysis. The isolated phytosterols (β-sitos-terols) were then subjected to microbial transformation which yielded a considerable amount of androsta-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the incubation mixture in presence of metabolic inhibitors (α, α'-dipyridyl and sodium arsenate).

  5. Kinetic study of pentosan solubility during heating and reacting processes of steam treatment of green bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiaojuan; Hu, Huichao; Li, Canghai; Cao, Shilin; Huang, Liulian; Chen, Lihui

    2013-02-01

    Green bamboo was hydrolyzed over a range of durations at different temperatures. A simple pseudo-homogeneous irreversible first order kinetic model was developed to describe pentosan solubility during steam treatment of green bamboo. To avoid the influence of soluble pentosan during heating process, kinetic parameters were effectively dissolved based on the data in the reacting process. Moreover, the pentosan solubility during heating process was also well modeled by numerical algorithm method. According to the origin of H factor, a modified parameter called steam treatment factor (f(P)) was proposed in this paper based on the determined kinetic constants. Finally, residual pentosan in whole process could be predicted properly based on the f(P) and the introducing of potential hydrolysis degree (h(d)). After using f(P) to combine reaction temperature and time into a single factor, comparative result showed that steam treatment is more effective for removing pentosan compared with hot water extraction.

  6. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi; Sugiman, Saputra, Yudhi

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  7. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Lou; Shu-bin Wu; Gao-jin Lv

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran), phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrol...

  8. Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 1...

  9. Severe Hypernatremia by Excessive Bamboo Salt Ingestion in Healthy Young Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Hyun Jun; Bae, Hong Jin; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Young Tai

    2013-01-01

    Severe hypernatremia is an important electrolyte disorder that has serious effects. The patient had no medical history. A. 20-year-old ingested bamboo salt for digestion and weight reduction according to the folk remedies posted on an internet website. She presented with vomiting and diarrhea over ten times per day. Her initial serum sodium concentration was 174mEq/L. Her symptoms improved rapidly with hypotonic saline infusion. She recovered completely without any sequelae in three days. Sev...

  10. Binderless Particleboard made from Andong Bamboo and Sengon Wood Using Oxidation treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, particleboard is manufactured using formaldehyde based adhesive as a binder. Formaldehyde emission from particleboard is a main concern in contrast to binderless particleboard (BP) which doesn???t cause such problem. The objective of this research was to find out BP production method using oxidation pretreatment. Materials used in this study were andong bamboo (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae), and sengon wood (Paraserianthes falcataria) particles. The target density of BP was 0.75 ...

  11. Small scale commercial production of tilapia fingerlings in floating bamboo net-hapas

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The inadequate supply of tilapia seed is considered as one of the major present constraints to the development of the culture industry in Nigeria. The floating bamboo net-hapa hatchery/nursery system was observed to be very efficient in the mass production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry and fingerlings at Kainji Lake Research Institute. This system was therefore, recommended for small-scale (artisanal) commercial operators consisting of fishermen families in order to increase their pr...

  12. Flowering, die-back and recovery of a semelparous woody bamboo in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montti, Lía; Campanello, Paula I.; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Chusquea ramosissima is a semelparous woody bamboo growing in the understory of the semideciduous Atlantic Forest that increases in abundance after disturbance and consequently has profound effects on vegetation dynamics. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima may open a window of opportunity leaving space vacant for the recruitment of tree seedlings. We describe the flowering pattern and seedling demography of this species at different spatio-temporal scales between the years 2001 and 2009, and evaluate if tree seedling abundance of canopy species increased after the flowering event. At a landscape scale, flowering sites were interspersed with sites that did not flower. At a local scale, the flowering extended over 5 years, with flowering and non-flowering culms intermingled, also in small patches (i.e., 4 m 2). Seeds germinated soon after flowering and die-back. Four successive seedling cohorts were studied. Mortality rate was high during the first 4 months after seedling emergence but several fast-growing seedlings were able to become established successfully. At the end of the study, 10%-20% of the initial number of bamboo seedlings in each cohort survived. Seedling abundance of tree canopy species was similar in flowering and non-flowering sites. C. ramosissima was able to re-colonize and perpetuate in sites it previously occupied. The coexistence of flowering and non-flowering culms at different spatio-temporal scales and clonal growth by rhizomes, together with the successful bamboo seedlings establishment, enhanced bamboo persistence in gaps and disturbed sites. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima did not facilitate seedling growth of canopy tree species.

  13. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Smith

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running" bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata, wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  14. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent.

  15. Preparation of adhesive for bamboo plywood using concentrated papermaking black liquor directly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive for bamboo plywood prepared directly using lignin existing in the black liquor as a kind of material replacing phenol was proposed on the basis of the same structural properties of lignin and phenol. The results indicate that the reaction time of black liquor methylating is 30 min, when the ratio of alkali to formaldehyde is controlled at approximately 0.20, decomposition rate of formaldehyde is the lowest and the effect of black liquor methylating is the best, the optimal molar ratio of phenol: formaldehyde to NaOH to H2O of preparing phenolic resin is liquor to phenolic resin, all terms of performance of black liquor phenolic resin are excellent and satisfy the requirement. All terms of performance of bamboo plywood prepared using this technique are better than that of excellent bamboo plywood of national criteria. Using this technique, the cost is depressed by 28.69% without altering the traditional adhesive producing technique flow, and without using additional equipment.

  16. Effects of fibre orientation on mechanical properties of hybrid bamboo/glass fibre polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Stanly Jones Retnam; M Sivapragash; P Pradeep

    2014-08-01

    The usage of natural fibre as reinforcement in polymer composites have widely increased because of its enhanced properties. The usage of plant fibre cannot alone satisfy all the needs of the composites. Hence, introduction of hybrid plays a vital role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the FRP composites. Fibre orientation contributes significant role in improving the mechanical properties of the FRP composites. In this proposal, hybrid bamboo/glass fibre woven in different orientations such as 0°/90° and ± 45° was used and its effect on mechanical properties were studied. Composites containing hybrid fibres found to possess better mechanical properties, when compared to pure bamboo. In order to justify this, the following mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural, impact and hardness were investigated. SEM analysis shows the bonding between the matrix and reinforcement. All the above test results indicate that the introduction of natural bamboo fibre in glass reduces the overall cost of the composites with no compromise in strength and also attracted several studies covering green technologies.

  17. A review of the legged mealybugs on bamboo (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) occurring in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Tsai, Ming-Yu; Wu, San-An

    2014-12-23

    Twenty-two species of legged mealybugs occur on bamboo (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in China. These species are reviewed and two of them are described for the first time: Dysmicoccus luoyangensis Li & Wu, sp. nov. and Trionymus indocalamus Li & Wu, sp. nov. Two new combinations are established: Pseudococcus bambusicola Takahashi and Kaicoccus bambusus Wu are transferred to genus Formicococcus Takahashi as F. bambusicola (Takahashi) comb. nov. and F. bambusus (Wu) comb. nov., respectively. Formicococcus bambusicola, Heliococcus bambusae (Takahashi), Neoripersia miscanthicola Takahashi and Trionymus formosanus Takahashi are redescribed and reillustrated based on type specimens. Brief notes are provided for Balanococcus kwoni Pellizari & Danzig, B. zhejiangensis Li & Wu, Dysmicoccus dengwuensis Ferris, D. indocalamus Wu, Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri, Ferrisicoccus angustus Ezzat & McConnell, Heliococcus lingnaniae Wang, H. takae (Kuwana), Heterococcus abludens Borchsenius, Miscanthicoccus miscanthi (Takahashi), Palmicultor lumpurensis (Takahashi), Paraporisaccus guizhouensis Lu & Wu, Paraserrolecanium fargesii Wu, Pseudantonina magnotubulata Borchsenius and Trionymus bambusae (Green). A key to the species of legged mealybugs on bamboo occurring in China is given. A list of bamboo mealybugs worldwide is also provided. 

  18. Bamboo shoot fiber prevents obesity in mice by modulating the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufen; Guo, Juan; Ji, Kailong; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber has been shown to prevent high-fat diet induced obesity through modulating the gut microbiota; however, quality difference in fiber type is largely unknown. We performed a 6 week study on C57BL/6J mice fed a macronutrient matched high-fat diet with different fiber types including cellulose (HFC), bamboo shoot fiber (HFBS) and several other commonly consumed fibers. Our results showed that the HFBS group exhibited the lowest weight gain among all diet groups and had improved lipid profiles and glycemic control compared with the HFC group. As revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, loss of diversity in the gut microbiota induced by the HFC diet was largely prevented by the HFBS diet. Moreover, compared with the HFC diet, the HFBS diet resulted in markedly increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and strong inhibition of Verrucomicrobia, two divisions strongly correlated with body weight. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence of a quality difference among different types of dietary fibers and shows that bamboo shoot fiber is the most effective in suppressing high-fat diet induced obesity. Our findings indicate that bamboo shoot fiber is a potential prebiotic fiber which modulates the gut microbiota and improves host metabolism. PMID:27599699

  19. Modified Weibull Distribution for Analyzing the Tensile Strength of Bamboo Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that the standard Weibull strength distribution is not always accurate for the description of variability in tensile strength and its dependence on the gauge size of brittle fibers. In this work, a modified Weibull model by incorporating the diameter variation of bamboo fiber is proposed to investigate the effect of fiber length and diameter on the tensile strength. Fiber strengths are obtained for lengths ranging from 20 to 60 mm and diameters ranging from 196.6 to 584.3 μm through tensile tests. It is shown that as the within-fiber diameter variation increases, the fracture strength of the bamboo fiber decreases. In addition, the accuracy of using weak-link scaling predictions based on the standard and modified Weibull distribution are assessed, which indicates that the use of the modified distribution provides better correlation with the experimental data than the standard model. The result highlights the accuracy of the modified Weibull model for characterizing the strength and predicting the size dependence of bamboo fiber.

  20. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  1. Bamboo shoot fiber prevents obesity in mice by modulating the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufen; Guo, Juan; Ji, Kailong; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber has been shown to prevent high-fat diet induced obesity through modulating the gut microbiota; however, quality difference in fiber type is largely unknown. We performed a 6 week study on C57BL/6J mice fed a macronutrient matched high-fat diet with different fiber types including cellulose (HFC), bamboo shoot fiber (HFBS) and several other commonly consumed fibers. Our results showed that the HFBS group exhibited the lowest weight gain among all diet groups and had improved lipid profiles and glycemic control compared with the HFC group. As revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, loss of diversity in the gut microbiota induced by the HFC diet was largely prevented by the HFBS diet. Moreover, compared with the HFC diet, the HFBS diet resulted in markedly increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and strong inhibition of Verrucomicrobia, two divisions strongly correlated with body weight. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence of a quality difference among different types of dietary fibers and shows that bamboo shoot fiber is the most effective in suppressing high-fat diet induced obesity. Our findings indicate that bamboo shoot fiber is a potential prebiotic fiber which modulates the gut microbiota and improves host metabolism. PMID:27599699

  2. Standardization of harvesting age of bamboo shoots with respect to nutritional and anti-nutritional components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok K.Pandey; Vijayalakshmi Ojha

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo shoots can be harvested at different ages but the data on the changes in nutritional composition with age are scanty.We standardized harvesting age of bamboo shoots in central India to obtain best quality produce with respect to nutritional composition.The shoots harvested on different days (2-20 days after emergence from ground)were analyzed for their nutritional (dietary fibres,carbohydrates,proteins,total phenols,ascorbic acid,sodium,potassium,phosphorus,calcium,magnesium and phenolic acids) and anti nutritional (cyanogen) constituents.A significant variation (at p ≤ 0.5) was observed in the nutritional composition of shoots of Dendrocalamus asper,D.strictus and Bambusa tulda harvested at different days.An overall decrease was observed in proteins and total phenols while dietary fibres and carbohydrates increased with ages.Significant variation (atp ≤ 0.5) was also observed in phenolic acids while minerals did not vary significantly.Results revealed that the optimum harvesting age for D.asper,D.strictus and B.tulda was on 10-14 days,6-10 days and 10-16 days (after emergence from the ground) respectively.These results can be used to obtain quality bamboo shoots.

  3. Determination of Hemicellulose, Cellulose and Lignin in Moso Bamboo by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Chanjun; Zhou, Binxiong; He, Yong

    2015-11-01

    The contents of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are important for moso bamboo processing in biomass energy industry. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid determination of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was investigated in this study. Initially, the linear relationship between bamboo components and their NIR spectroscopy was established. Subsequently, successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to detect characteristic wavelengths for establishing the convenient models. For hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, 22, 22 and 20 characteristic wavelengths were obtained, respectively. Nonlinear determination models were subsequently built by an artificial neural network (ANN) and a least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) based on characteristic wavelengths. The LS-SVM models for predicting hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin all obtained excellent results with high determination coefficients of 0.921, 0.909 and 0.892 respectively. These results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy combined with SPA-LS-SVM is a useful, nondestructive tool for the determinations of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in moso bamboo.

  4. Hydrological Implication of Bamboo And Mixed Garden In The upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chay Asdak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of important factors affecting runoff and erosion was carried out by collecting runoff and soil loss from four runoff/erosion plots. The runoff/erosion plots were set up in sloping areas of about 40% slope in the upper area of Ciwidey sub-watershed (upper Citarum watershed, West Java. The plots (6 x 10 m were established in the following four sets of conditions: bamboo plantation, mixed garden, small shrub, and agricultural field with different species and stand structures. After 20 rainfall events, a treatment in the form of removing undergrowth and litter were applied to bamboo and mixed garden plots. The result of this before and after treatment are the following: runoff from bamboo plantation was increased from 0.40 to 1.02 litre/m2 and erosion was increased from 1.47 to 11.65 gr/m2. While the runoff and erosion in mixed garden were increased from 0.36 to 1.65 litre/m2 and from 1.36 to 10.88 65 gr/m2, respectively. When this compared to the runoff and soil loss in the agricultural plot, the soil erosion is much higher, 50.5 gr/m2 (about 50 times higher. Stand/canopy structure appeared to be the important factors that determine the magnitude of soil erosion. While the role of these factors were less significant compared to rainfall in determining the magnitude of runoff.

  5. Contributions to the Taxonomy of the Genus Phyllostachys (Gramineae:Bambusoideae)%竹亚科刚竹属植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖广辉

    2013-01-01

      描述了竹亚科Bambusoideae刚竹属Phyllostachys的2新种和5个新变型:瓜水竹Ph. longiciliata、浙江甜竹Ph. zhejiangensis、黄槽黄古竹Ph. angusta f. flavosulcata、绿槽人面竹Ph. aurea f. koi、蝶毛竹 Ph. edulis f. abbreviata、黄条燥壳竹Ph. hirtivagina f. flavovittata和笔笋竹Ph. nidularia f. basipilis;作出3个新组合变型:厚皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. pachyloen、安吉锦毛竹Ph. edulis f. anjiensis和花秆早竹Ph. violascens f. viridisulcata;对金条竹Ph. aureosulcata f. flavostriata、对花竹Ph. bambusoides f. duihuazhu、黄槽斑竹Ph. bambusoides f. mixta和黄皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. holochrysa的模式标本给予了重新指定.%Two species and five forms of Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc. (Bambusoideae), Ph. longiciliata G. H. Lai, Ph. zhejiangensis G. H. Lai, Ph. angusta McClure f. flavosulcata G. H. Lai, Ph. aurea Carr. ex A. et C. Riv. f. koi G. H. Lai, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. abbreviata G. H. Lai, Ph. hirtivagina G. H. Lai f. flavovittata G. H. Lai and Ph. nidularia Munro f. basipilis G. H. Lai, are described as new to science, and the photos of the living plants are provided. Three new combinations including Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. pachyloen (G. Y. Yang et al.) Y. L. Ding, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. anjiensis (P. X. Zhang) G. H. Lai and Ph. violascens (Carr.) A. et C. Riv. f. viridisulcata (P. X. Zhang et W. X. Huang) G. H. Lai are proposed. The type specimens of Ph. aureosulcata McClure f. flavostriata S. J. Zhao, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. duihuazhu C. J. Wu, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. mixta Z. P. Wang et N. X. Ma and Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. holochrysa (Muroi et K. Kasahara) Ohrnberger are newly designated here.

  6. Contributions to the Taxonomy of the Genus Phyllostachys (Gramineae:Bambusoideae)%竹亚科刚竹属植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖广辉

    2013-01-01

    Two species and five forms of Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc. (Bambusoideae), Ph. longiciliata G. H. Lai, Ph. zhejiangensis G. H. Lai, Ph. angusta McClure f. flavosulcata G. H. Lai, Ph. aurea Carr. ex A. et C. Riv. f. koi G. H. Lai, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. abbreviata G. H. Lai, Ph. hirtivagina G. H. Lai f. flavovittata G. H. Lai and Ph. nidularia Munro f. basipilis G. H. Lai, are described as new to science, and the photos of the living plants are provided. Three new combinations including Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. pachyloen (G. Y. Yang et al.) Y. L. Ding, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. anjiensis (P. X. Zhang) G. H. Lai and Ph. violascens (Carr.) A. et C. Riv. f. viridisulcata (P. X. Zhang et W. X. Huang) G. H. Lai are proposed. The type specimens of Ph. aureosulcata McClure f. flavostriata S. J. Zhao, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. duihuazhu C. J. Wu, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. mixta Z. P. Wang et N. X. Ma and Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. holochrysa (Muroi et K. Kasahara) Ohrnberger are newly designated here.%  描述了竹亚科Bambusoideae刚竹属Phyllostachys的2新种和5个新变型:瓜水竹Ph. longiciliata、浙江甜竹Ph. zhejiangensis、黄槽黄古竹Ph. angusta f. flavosulcata、绿槽人面竹Ph. aurea f. koi、蝶毛竹 Ph. edulis f. abbreviata、黄条燥壳竹Ph. hirtivagina f. flavovittata和笔笋竹Ph. nidularia f. basipilis;作出3个新组合变型:厚皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. pachyloen、安吉锦毛竹Ph. edulis f. anjiensis和花秆早竹Ph. violascens f. viridisulcata;对金条竹Ph. aureosulcata f. flavostriata、对花竹Ph. bambusoides f. duihuazhu、黄槽斑竹Ph. bambusoides f. mixta和黄皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. holochrysa的模式标本给予了重新指定.

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  8. Above ground standing biomass and carbon storage in village bamboos in North East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jyoti Nath, Arun; Das, Ashesh Kumar [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam (India); Das, Gitasree [Department of Statistics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India)

    2009-09-15

    Bamboo forms an important component in the traditional landscape of North East India. For biomass estimation of village bamboos of Barak Valley, North East India, allometric relationships were developed by harvest method describing leaf, branch and culm biomass with DBH as an independent variable using a log linear model. The culm density of the stand was 8950 culms ha{sup -1} during 2005 of which 67% of growing stock was represented by Bambusa cacharensis, 17.88% by Bambusa vulgaris and 15.12% by Bambusa balcooa. Above ground stand biomass was 121.51 t ha{sup -1} of which 86% was contributed by culm component followed by branch (10%) and leaf (4%). With respect to species, B. cacharensis made up to 46% of total stand biomass followed by B. vulgaris (28%) and B. balcooa (26%). Carbon storage in the above ground biomass was 61.05 t ha{sup -1}. Allocation of C was more in culm components (53.05 t ha{sup -1}) than in branch (5.81 t ha{sup -1}) and leaf (2.19 t ha{sup -1}). Carbon storage in the litter floor mass was 2.40 t ha{sup -1}, of which leaf litter made up the highest amount (1.37 t ha{sup -1}) followed by sheath (0.86 t ha{sup -1}) and branch (0.17 t ha{sup -1}). Carbon stock in the soil up to 30 cm depth was 57.3 t ha{sup -1}. Gross C stock in the plantation was estimated to be 120.75 t ha{sup -1}. Carbon storage estimated in the bamboo stand of present study offers insights into the opportunity of village bamboos in the rural landscape for carbon storage through carbon sequestration. Management and utilization of village bamboos as a potential source of carbon sink by smallholder farmers are discussed in the context of their livelihood security and the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. (author)

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  10. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the f

  11. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. PMID:26763300

  12. On Hydrological Effects of Soil in Phyllostachys Pubescens Forest in Jinyun Mountain in Chongqing%重庆缙云山楠竹林土壤水文作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明智; 曾波; 许建平; 袁慎鸿

    2012-01-01

    Forest is of economic value and possesses the function of conserving water and soil. Soil layer is the third active layer of hydrological effects. Only the better structure of forest-vegetation type and the better depth of soil layer can maximize the hydro-ecological effect in the soil-forest system. However,water conservation is decided by soil pore and its characteristics. Taking the soil in Phyllostachys pubescens forest in Jinyun Mountain in Chongqing as a study object and taking even green broad-leaved forest which is widely distributed in Jinyun Mountain as a reference. Soil bulk density,soil porosity,and its capacity of water conservation have been measured in Phyllostachys pubescens forest and even green broad-leaved for est. The outcomes show that a) in general,the soil bulk density has the tendency of increase and the porosity has the tendency of decrease along with the increase of soil depth; b)the value of pH has the tendency of increasing in Phyllostachys pubescens forest and has the tendency of decrease in even green broad-leaved forest along with the increase of soil depth; c) the soil quality is looser,soil pore is more,and moisture capacity and permeability are better in Phyllostachys pubescens forest than those in evergreen broad-leaved forest.%森林具有经济价值和涵养水源、保持水土等生态效能.土壤层是森林发挥水源涵养功能的第三活动层,在森林土壤系统中,只有具备良好森林植被结构的林型和深厚优良结构的土壤层,才可能取得最大的水文生态效益,而水分蓄存均取决于土壤孔隙度的大小和性质.以重庆缙云山国家级自然保护区的楠竹林为研究对象,并以广泛分布的常绿阔叶林作为对照.对楠竹林和常绿阔叶林内土壤的含水量、土壤体积质量、孔隙度和持水力及土壤的pH值进行了测定.结果表明:随着土层的增加,土壤体积质量增加,而孔隙度减小;楠竹林和阔叶林土壤为酸性,楠竹林

  13. 丛生竹秆基各笋目的出笋成竹生物学特性研究%Study on Biological Characteristics of Bamboo Shooting from Base of Sympodial Bamboo Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益权; 顾小平; 吴晓丽; 郑仁红; 朱维双

    2011-01-01

    调查了西南地区人工栽培的梁山慈竹、撑绿竹、硬头黄竹着生于秆基两侧的4对大型芽(又叫笋目、芽眼、芽目)的出笋成竹生物学特性,计算各年龄母竹和各笋目位置的出笋率、成竹率、新竹相对生长率.结果表明:随着母竹年龄的增加,出笋成竹能力明显下降,1年生母竹出笋成竹能力最强,2年生母竹迅速下降,3年生母竹基本丧失繁殖能力;各笋目的出笋成竹能力为2目>头目>3目>4目,3目、4目显著低于头目、2目.综合分析母竹年龄和笋目位置表明:1年生母竹的头目、2目萌发力最强,是留笋长竹的最佳笋芽.通过有序样本聚类分析,将3个竹种的出笋期划分为初期、盛期和末期,初期出笋数少但成竹率高,中后期出笋数增加,但成竹率却明显下降;笋目萌发年龄和出笋时间与笋目位置有关,分布在秆基中下部的头目、2目萌发年龄较早,在出笋期的出笋时间也较早,而位于秆基中上部的3目、4目萌发年龄较迟,出笋时间也较晚.根据各笋目的出笋成竹特性,从抚育、间伐和水肥管理等方面提出了调控林分出笋的经营管理对策.%Sympodial bamboo is an important bamboo resource in China. Three sympodial bamboo plantations (Dendrocalamus farinosus, Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii, and Bambusa rigida ) planted in Southern Sichuan province were studied. Four pairs bamboo buds which located at stem basal were named at first bud, second bud, third bud and fourth bud from bottom to top in sequence, bamboo shooting and growth of four pairs bamboo buds were surveyed. The survival rate of bamboo shoots, shooting rate and relative growth rate of mother bamboos with different ages and buds location were calculated respectively. The result showed that the reproductive capacity decreased rapidly with increasing age, one-year-old mother bamboo had the best reproductive capability, but decreased quickly in the second

  14. Fabrication of Robust Superhydrophobic Bamboo Based on ZnO Nanosheet Networks with Improved Water-, UV-, and Fire-Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo with water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties was desirable in modern society. In this paper, the original bamboo was firstly treated with ZnO sol and then hydrothermally the ZnO nanosheet networks grow onto the bamboo surface and subsequently modified with fluoroalkyl silane (FAS-17. The FAS-17 treated bamboo substrate exhibited not only robust superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle of 161° but also stable repellency towards simulated acid rain (pH = 3 with a contact angle of 152°. Except for its robust superhydrophobicity, such a bamboo also presents superior water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties.

  15. Soil Structure Characteristics and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Phyllostachys edulis Forests in Anfu,Jiangxi Province%赣中不同类型毛竹林土壤结构特征及其综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林; 徐海宁; 肖复明; 曾伟; 熊振宇

    2012-01-01

    Five kinds of stand type(Pure Moso bamboo forest,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir,broad-leaved forest,Chinese fir pure forest) had been chosen at Anfu,Jiangxi province.Through the study on soil structural characteristics,such as soil bulk density,soil porosity condition,and content,size,stability of soil aggregate were exposed.Finally,soil structural was comprehensive evaluated by grey correlation degree analysis.The results showed that the order of soil bulk density was mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest〉mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest;soil porosity condition manifested as broadleaf forest is superior to Chinese fir pure forest,Moso bamboo forest is relatively poor.〉0.25 mm soil aggregates content from 94.43% to 97.25%,broadleaf forest were the largest in all soil layers.The order of soil aggregates fractal dimension mean was pure Moso bamboo forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 Chinese fir pure forest 〉 broad-leaved forest.The soil MWD and GMD of different stand types were difference.The soil MWD and GMD mean of mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest and mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir were increased by 3.38%,4.10% and 5.04%,8.11%,respectively.The order of index grey correlation degree of soil structure were broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest by grey correlation degree analysis.The results could provide some scientific basis for forest resources management and vegetation construction in the subtropical region of China.%以赣中毛竹纯林(MC)、竹阔混交林(ZK)、竹杉混交林(ZS)3种不同类型毛竹林地土壤容重、孔

  16. Effect of Bamboo Pulp on the Properties of Regenerated Bamboo Fiber Using Ionic Liquid Solution%浆粕性质对离子液体法再生竹浆纤维性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡涛; 杨瑜榕; 王明葵

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, six kinds of different bamboo pulps were chosen as raw material and the ionic liquid-[EMIM]Ac (l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) was used as solvent. The regenerated bamboo fiber was prepared with dry-jet spinning method. The effect of bamboo pulps on the dissolution, rheological behavior of spinning dope and properties of bamboo fibers were investigated. The results showed that ionic liquid -[EMIM]Ac had very strong solubility to the six kinds of bamboo pulps. Moreover, the cellulose/ [EMIM]Ac spinning solutions from six kinds of bamboo pulps belonged to the typical shear thinning fluids. From the point of view of mechanical properties, the fibers with better mechanical properties could be prepared from the pulp with high DP and high α-cellulose content, but fiber breakages were foubd during the spinning.%以6种不同性质的竹浆粕为原料,选用1-乙基-3-甲基咪唑醋酸盐{[EMIM] Ac]为溶剂,采用干喷湿纺的方式制备了再生竹浆纤维,探讨了竹浆粕性质对再生竹浆纤维制备过程中溶解、流变行为以及纤维性能的影响.结果表明:离子液体对竹浆粕具有非常强的溶解能力;6种竹浆粕/[EMIM] Ac纺丝液都属于切力变稀流体;高聚合度和高α纤维素的竹浆粕制备的纤维的断裂强度和模量较高,但是纺丝过程不连续,发生断头较多.

  17. The Decay Resistance and Hyphae Penetration of Bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii Decayed by White and Brown Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norul Hisham Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The decay resistance and hyphae penetration of bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii decayed by white and brown rot fungi were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The bamboo grown in natural stand from three different age classes of 0.5, 3.5, and 6.5 years was harvested, oven dried, sterilised, and exposed to agar media containing 4% malt extract and 2% agar technical (no. 3 under laboratory condition for 8 weeks. The deterioration was expressed as percentage of weight loss, and the decay resistance classes were measured according to ASTM D 2017-81 (1986. This study found that the percentage weight loss was greatly reduced with the bamboo ageing. Regardless of age, the G. scortechinii was classified as highly resistant to decay by white and brown rot fungi. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observation showed that the fungi hyphae mostly penetrated into the vessel and proceeded to the pit and parenchyma cells.

  18. Cross-Linked ZnO Nanowalls Immobilized onto Bamboo Surface and Their Use as Recyclable Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel recyclable photocatalyst was fabricated by hydrothermal method to immobilize the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls on the bamboo surface. The resultant samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR techniques. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the cross-linked wurtzite ZnO nanowalls and bamboo surface were interconnected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Meanwhile, the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls modified bamboo (CZNB presented a superior photocatalytic ability and could be recycled at least 3 times with a photocatalytic efficiency up to 70%. The current research provides a new opportunity for the development of a portable and recycled biomass-based photocatalysts which can be an efficiently degraded pollutant solution and reused several times.

  19. Research Progress on Bamboo-feeding Leafhoppers%竹子叶蝉类害虫的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳; 李子忠; 陈祥盛

    2011-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) are one of ordinary bamboo-feeding pest insects and many of them are severe pests of bamboo. The species, distribution, occurrence, damage, biology, bionomics, natural enemy, and control of bamboo-feeding leafhoppers home and abroad were summarized.%叶蝉类昆虫隶属于半翅目(Hemiptera)叶蝉科(Cicadellidae),是竹子上常见的昆虫类群之一,不少种类是竹子上的重要剌吸式害虫.对竹子叶蝉的种类及分布、发生及危害、生物学及生态学、天敌、防治等方面的国内外研究进展进行了概述.

  20. Production of Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Fibrillated Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) Material Obtained by a Papermaking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ruibin; YANG Rendang; YANG Fei

    2015-01-01

    A devised beating process was applied, which enabled the formation of slurry consisting of uniformly dispersed fibrillated polylactic acid (PLA) fibers with bamboo fiber, and the polymer material was obtained by a conventional papermaking process. Owing to the fast dewatering time, good repeatability and the facility to manufacture on a large scale, this process was used. It was revealed that the beaten PLA fiber was overall in machinery extrusion by the results of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The improvement in the tensile index, burst index, tear index and other mechanical properties was considered as a key benefit as a result of adding bamboo fiber.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of bamboo-shaped nanosheet KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobin [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Kong, Ling Bing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-04-05

    Graphical abstract: A new type of bamboo-shaped KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} nanosheet was synthesized by using a two-step hydrothermal method. In addition, the photocatalytic degradation performances of the bamboo-shaped KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} nanosheet and a rod-like KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} prepared by using molted salt method were also investigated and compared in terms of degradation of Rhodamine B, and the results indicated that the bamboo-shaped KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} nanosheet had higher photocatalytic activity. Importantly, the crystal structure and morphology diagram of KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} nanosheet and their photocatalytic degradation performances as well as a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation are shown below. - Highlights: • A new type of bamboo-shaped KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} nanosheet was synthesized. • The effect of potassium content on the KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} phase formation has been studied. • The specific surface area, structural and optical characteristics were studied. • The bamboo-shaped nanosheet KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} exhibits higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A new type of bamboo-shaped KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} nanosheet was synthesized by using a two-step hydrothermal method. In particular, an effect of potassium content on the phase formation of KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the second-step hydrothermal process at pH = 5–6 was investigated. Specific surface area, structural properties and optical characteristics of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurement, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–visible diffuse reflectance. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation performances of the bamboo-shaped KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} nanosheet and a rod-like KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8} prepared by using molted salt method were also investigated and compared in terms of degradation of Rhodamine B, and the results indicated that the bamboo-shaped KNb{sub 3}O{sub 8

  2. Dyeing and finishing process of bamboo fabric%竹纤维织物的染整工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱华

    2014-01-01

    The environmental characteristics of bamboo fabric were introduced and properties such as physical property, hygroscopicity, dyeing property, antibacterial property and moth-proofing property were also described. The successful practice experience of our company on dyeing and finishing of bamboo fabric was summarized.%介绍了竹纤维织物的环保特点,阐述了竹纤维的物理性能、吸湿性、染色性及抗菌防蛀性能,总结了我司在竹纤维织物染整加工工艺方面的成功实践经验。

  3. Technical Innovation Research on Breaking-bamboo Machine of Bamboo Molding Machine%竹签成型机中破竹机的技改研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸小丽

    2014-01-01

    本文针对目前国内专业化生产烧烤签、食品签企业存在的生产效率低,产品合格率低,且浪费较多生态资源和人力资源的现状,提出了对专业性生产竹签企业的主要设备破竹机进行自动化改造,以达到获得最大的经济效益。%In accordance with the low efficiency and low product qualification rate of current production of barbecue prod in food prod company , as well as large waste on natural and human resources , this paper puts forward an automated transformation of breaking-bamboo machine, which is the major equipment for producing prod, to maximize economic profit .

  4. Extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens shoot%毛竹笋总黄酮的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 袁艺; 袁彩红; 武静文

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens shoot were extracted by methods of water, ethanol b ackflow and ultrasonic wave extractions. The optimum extraction condition was obtained by single factor analysis and orthogonal test. The results showed that the yield of flavonoids was 0.706% by water extraction under the conditions of 60℃, 1∶ 30 solid-liquid ratio, pH 9.0 and 1.5 h. The order of the factors which affected water extraction was soild-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > extraction time > pH. The yield of flavonoids was 1.063% by the method of ethanol backflow under the conditions of 1∶ 40 solid-liquid ratio, 60℃, 70% ethanol and 2.0 h. The order of the factors which affected the ethanol backflow extraction was soild-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > extraction time > volume fraction of ethanol solution. The yield of flavonoids was 0.797% by methods of ultrasonic wave under the conditions of 1∶ 40 solid-liquid ratio, 50℃, 70% ethanol and 30 min. The order of the factors which affected the ultrasonic wave extraction was soild-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > extraction time > volume fraction of ethanol solution.%以毛竹笋为原料,采用水提取、乙醇热回流提取和超声波提取3种提取方法,通过单因素和正交设计试验确定了毛竹笋总黄酮提取的最佳务件.结果表明,水提取工艺最佳条件为固液比1∶30(g∶mL,下同),温度60℃,提取时间1.5h,pH9;总黄酮得率为0.706%,影响得率的因素为固液比>提取温度>提取时间>溶液pH值.乙醇热回流提取最佳条件为固液比1∶40,温度60℃,乙醇体积分数70%,提取时间2.0 h,总黄酮得率为1.063%;影响得率的因素为固液比>提取温度>提取时间>乙醇体积分数.超声波提取工艺最佳条件为提取时间30min,固液比1∶40,乙醇体积分数70%,提取温度50℃;总黄酮得率为0.797%;影响得率的因素为固液比煨取温度>提取时间>乙醇体积分数.

  5. Life cycle of bamboo frame construction in purple bamboo park%紫竹院公园竹框架房屋生命周期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国; 肖岩

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同结构体系建筑物对环境负荷的影响,以1 m2的相同布置的混凝土结构、钢结构、砌体结构及竹结构建筑为研究对象,采用全生命周期法量化分析了原材料的获取、建筑材料的运输、建筑构件的生产、建筑物的施工等阶段的能耗和主要污染物排放。结果表明:建筑物产生的环境污染主要来自于建材的运输和生产阶段,主要表现为电力和汽油消耗以及排放了大量的温室气体。竹结构房屋是最适合人居的绿色住宅。%To study the influence of different structural systems on environmental resistance, the life cycle of concrete, steel, masonry and bamboo structures with the same arrangement per square meter was evaluated. The main stages, such as the acquisition and transportation of raw materials, the pro-duction of building materials and the construction of buildings, were analysis quantitatively by the method of life cycle. The results show that the main pollution stages of the buildings are the trans-portation and production of building materials. Specifically, the principal impact on the environment is the consumption of power and gasoline, as well as the emissions of large amounts of greenhouse gases. The study shows that bamboo frame house is the most suitable habitat green residential for hu-man beings.

  6. The hemic response of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) with inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Parkinson, Lily A; Grant, Krystan R; Carlson, Eric; Campbell, Terry W

    2016-05-01

    As elasmobranch medicine becomes more commonplace, there continues to be confusion with techniques and evaluation of the shark hemogram and it remains unknown if they are able to mount an inflammatory hemic response. The aims of this study were to compare two total white blood cell (WBC) count techniques, establish a reference interval for captive white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), and determine if elasmobranchs are capable of mounting an inflammatory hemic response. Correlation statistics were performed on hematologic results for healthy female bamboo sharks to assess the use of Natt-Herrick's and phloxine methods. Total WBC counts and differentials were obtained from males with severe traumatic clasper wounds and compared to the healthy females. We elected clasper amputation as the preferred treatment intervention and post-operative hematology was performed one month later. There was poor correlation of leukocyte counts between the two WBC count methods. Hematologic values were established for the females and males pre- and post-operatively. Males with wounds had a marked leukocytosis and heterophilia. Post-operative blood work showed a resolution of total WBC count and a trend toward resolution of the heterophilia. This study provides hematologic values for white-spotted bamboo sharks and confirms that the Natt-Herrick's method is preferred for lymphocytic species. Hematologic differences present in males with clasper wounds suggests that elasmobranchs do mount an inflammatory hemic response. Treatment via clasper amputation proved to be a safe and efficient means for clinical treatment that led to a trend toward resolution of the inflammatory leukogram. Zoo Biol. 35:251-259, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970476

  7. Characterization and pollutant removal efficiency of biochar derived from baggase, bamboo and tyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, S; Mishra, T; Rana, G; Srivastava, R K

    2014-12-01

    Conversion of broad-spectrum organic waste into carbonaceous biochar has gained enormous interest in past few years. The present study aims to characterize feedstock (FS), i.e. bagasse (Bg), bamboo (Bm) and biochar (BC), i.e. baggase biochar (BBg), bamboo biochar (BBm) and tyre biochar (Ty). Significant changes in elemental composition, atomic ratio, proximate analyses, mineral content and heavy metal content were observed which was well supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Impregnation with ferric hydroxide was done, and resultant modified biochars (MBC), i.e. iron-impregnated baggase biochar (FeBBg), iron-impregnated bamboo biochar (FeBBm) and iron-impregnated tyre biochar (FeTy), along feedstock and biochar were used for PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu adsorption. In general, BBg, FeBBg, BBm, FeBBm, Ty and FeTy were found to adsorb PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu better than Bg and Bm, except in few cases. Results from adsorption experiments were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of isotherms and pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models of kinetics. Result of batch study adsorption revealed that maximum adsorption of PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu was done by FeBBg (adsorption mechanism explained by Freundlich model), FeTy (Temkin model), Ty (Langmuir model) and BBm (Langmuir model) respectively. According to R (2) values, pseudo-first-order reaction was well suited to PO4 (3-), Pb, Hg and Cu adsorption. The optimum pH for maximum adsorption was observed to be 7.4 for PO4 (3-), 5 for Cu and 6 for Pb and Hg respectively. PMID:25287188

  8. Testing four candidate barcoding markers in temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ming CAI; Yu-Xiao ZHANG; Li-Na ZHANG; Lian-Ming GAO; De-Zhu LI

    2012-01-01

    Bambusoideae is an important subfamily of the grass family Poaceae that has considerable economic,ecologic and cultural value.In addition,Bambusoideae species are important constituents of the forest vegetation in China.Because of the paucity of flower-bearing specimens and homoplasies of morphological characters,it is difficult to identify species of Bambusoideae using morphology alone,especially in the case of temperate woody bamboos (i.e.Arundinarieae).To this end,DNA barcoding has shown great potential in identifying species.The present study is the first attempt to test the feasibility of four proposed DNA barcoding markers (matK,rbcL,trnH-psbA,and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) in identifying 27 species of the temperate woody bamboos.Three plastid markers showed high levels of universality,whereas the universality of ITS was comparatively low.A single plastid marker provided low levels of discrimination success at both the genus and species levels (< 12%).Among the combinations ofplastid markers,the highest discriminatory power was obtained using the combination of rbcL + matK (14.8%).Using a combination of three markers did not increase species discrimination.The nuclear region ITS alone could identify 66.7% of species,although fewer taxa were included in the ITS analyses than in the plastid analyses.When ITS was integrated with a single or combination of plastid markers,the species discriminatory power was significantly improved.We suggest that a combination ofrbcL + ITS,which exhibited the highest species identification power of all combinations in the present study,could be used as a potential DNA barcode for temperate woody bamboos.

  9. Temperature and vital effect controls on Bamboo coral (Isididae) isotopegeochemistry: A test of the "lines method"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T M; Spero, H J; Guilderson, T P; LaVigne, M; Clague, D; Macalello, S; Jang, N

    2011-03-01

    Deep-sea bamboo corals hold promise as long-term climatic archives, yet little information exists linking bamboo coral geochemistry to measured environmental parameters. This study focuses on a suite of 10 bamboo corals collected from the Pacific and Atlantic basins (250-2136 m water depth) to investigate coral longevity, growth rates, and isotopic signatures. Calcite samples for stable isotopes and radiocarbon were collected from the base the corals, where the entire history of growth is recorded. In three of the coral specimens, samples were also taken from an upper branch for comparison. Radiocarbon and growth band width analyses indicate that the skeletal calcite precipitates from ambient dissolved inorganic carbon and that the corals live for 150-300 years, with extension rates of 9-128 {micro}m/yr. A linear relationship between coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C indicates that the isotopic composition is influenced by vital effects ({delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope of 0.17-0.47). As with scleractinian deep-sea corals, the intercept from a linear regression of {delta}{sup 18}O versus {delta}{sup 13}C is a function of temperature, such that a reliable paleotemperature proxy can be obtained, using the 'lines method.' Although the coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope is maintained throughout the coral base ontogeny, the branches and central cores of the bases exhibit {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C values that are shifted far from equilibrium. We find that a reliable intercept value can be derived from the {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C regression of multiple samples distributed throughout one specimen or from multiple samples within individual growth bands.

  10. Chemical Constituents and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Four Typical Bamboo Species Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd. Munro (PN, P. vivax McClure (PV, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi Makino (CQ, and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1–32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29–No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB contained 2–3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%–34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2–3 fold higher than in No. 1–No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 or β-(1→6glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds.

  11. A refined method for calculating paleotemperatures from linear correlations in bamboo coral carbon and oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Casey; Watkins, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo corals represent an emerging paleoclimate archive with the potential to record variability at intermediate depths throughout much of the global ocean. Realizing this potential has been complicated by biologically mediated vital effects, which are evident in linear correlations of skeletal carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope composition. Previous efforts to develop a bamboo coral δ18O paleothermometer by accounting for such vital effects have not been completely successful as they still rely on empirical calibrations that are offset from the temperature dependence of abiogenic experiments. Here we describe an approach that better corrects for bamboo coral vital effects and allows paleotemperatures to be calculated directly from the abiogenic temperature dependence. The success of the method lies in calculating apparent equilibrium carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation at the temperature, pH, and growth rate of each coral, as well as in the use of model II regressions. Rigorous propagation of uncertainty suggests typical errors of ±2-3°C, but in select cases errors as low as ±0.65°C can be achieved for densely sampled and strongly correlated data sets. This lower limit approaches the value attributed to uncertainty in pH and growth rate estimates alone, as predicted by a series of pseudoproxy experiments. The incorporation of isotopically light metabolic CO2 appears to be negligible in most Pacific corals, but may be significant in Atlantic specimens, potentially requiring an additional correction. The success of the method therefore hinges on how well complex environmental systems and biomineralization strategies are constrained, with the most reliable temperatures occurring when calcifying fluid pH, growth rate, and incorporation of metabolic carbon into skeletal calcite are constrained using multiple geochemical proxies.

  12. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong, Nakarin Saengow, Ekarin Chaiya, Narawut Srisang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  13. Plantation future of bamboo in China%中国竹子的种植前途

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆华; 小林干夫

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edible-shoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.%在过去,中国竹类资源主要被农户作为林副产品自用,很少与市场关联.近年来,由于谷物供应的过剩和农业环境的恶化,大家都在寻找既能够保护环境又能满足市场需求的替代作物.竹子紧密关联着农、林二业,完全有可能用以应对中国农业面临的新挑战.在有记载的534种中国竹子中,153种生产可食竹笋,其中56种为优秀种;139种竹子可用于木材生产,其中58种为优秀种;116种竹子可生产优质竹篾,其中22种为优秀种;88种竹子适用于公园种植,其中34种为优秀种;45种竹子可生产纸浆,其中18种为优秀种.图5附录5参32.

  14. Physical-Mechanical Properties of Sympodial Bamboo and Influence on Architecture Material Manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZheng; GUOWenjing

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of big sympodial bamboo, D.Yunnanicus Hsueh and Whangee (D. Membranaceus Munro) and their physical and mechanical properties have been studied in the paper. The results showed that the whangee has better physical properties than that of the Yunnanicus, such as higher density, lower tangential and longitudinal dry shrinkages. That also showed that Whangee has stronger mechanical properties in MOR and MOE, compressive strength and shear strength parallel to the grain. Compared with some wood species used in architecture, the physical and mechanical properties of the two kinds have reached the requirement of some wood architecture structure materials.

  15. The biomasss distribution of different Phyllostachys edulis forest types in Northwest of Fujian Province%闽西北不同类型毛竹林生物量分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范少辉; 刘广路; 苏文会; 杜满义; 吴继林

    2011-01-01

    The distribution pattern of biomass was studied in pure bamboo stand (I), bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees (II), and bamboo stand mixed with coniferous trees(III) in Yong'an county, Fujian Prov ince. The result showed that the biomass and productivity of bamboo forest was in the order of I > II >III . The biomass of I, II ,and III was 143 418.06, 135 469.53, and 131 782.78 kg·hm-2, respectively. The productivity of Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ was 59 786.55, 54 921.44, and 38 418.68 kghm-2·a-1, respectively. The productivity of pure bam boo stand was higher than that of other bamboo forest types. The biomass distribution was different with different bamboo forests types. The stem mass fraction in pure bamboo forest was higher than the fraction in forest II and III, while the mass fraction of bamboo root and leaf was lower. The more economic benefits come from the higher stem mass fraction in forest I. The characteristics of bamboo number and biomass were different in different bamboo forest types. The DBH of I and II forest was mainly between 10.5 cm and 12.5 cm and biomass ac counted for 54.25% and 53.71% of forest I and Ⅱ. The DBH of Ⅲ was mainly between 9.5 cm and 11.5 cm and biomass accounted for 54.34% in forest HI. The biomass and productivity of bamboo stand mixed with broad-leaves trees was higher, meanwhile the bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees had better physical and chemical properties of soil and better nutrient cycling characteristics. The bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees may be a better cultivation pattern.%以福建省天宝岩自然保护区的毛竹纯林(Ⅰ)、竹阔混交林(Ⅱ)和竹针混交林(Ⅲ)为研究对象,对其生物量分布格局进行研究.结果表明,不同类型毛竹林生物量和生产力不同,林分Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ的生物量分别为143 418.06.135 469.53和131 782.78 kg·hm-2,生产力分别为59 786.55、54 921.44和38 418.68 kg·hm-2·a-1,毛竹林纯林化经营可以提高竹林的生产力.经

  16. Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kenneth Grace

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann. Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009. Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers; and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10 were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure.

  17. Generation of hydrophilic, bamboo-shaped multiwalled carbon nanotubes by solid-state pyrolysis and its electrochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Sangaraju; Gedanken, Aharon

    2006-02-01

    A simple, efficient, and novel method was developed for the direct preparation of hydrophilic, bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate in a Swagelock cell is reported. The obtained product exhibits mostly bamboo-shaped, straight, periodic twisted, multiwalled carbon nanotubes possessing diameters of 50-80 nm and lengths of around 10 microm. The pyrolyzed product was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman, and cyclic voltammetric techniques. HRTEM studies showed that the walls of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes consisted of oblique grapheme planes with respect to the tube axis. The interlayer spacing between two graphitic layers was found to be 0.342 nm. XPS measurements have suggested that as-prepared carbon nanotubes consist the surface functional groups on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes have been evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), IR, and cyclic voltammetric studies showed the presence of oxygen functionalities. Raman studies revealed the presence of disorder in the graphitic carbon and the presence of exposed edge plane defects in the generated carbon nanotubes for influencing the surface behavior and electrochemical properties. The electrochemical behavior of electrodes made of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes served for an oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:16471780

  18. 基于FPGA的3D电箫设计%Design of 3D Vertical Bamboo Flute Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蔚靖; 马牧燕; 栗兴良

    2016-01-01

    As a music instrument, vertical bamboo flute has 2000 years history, because of its unique fascination. The vertical bamboo flute is fa-mous for its long history in the world. According to compare with other electronic musical instruments, there is no breakthrough in the de-velopment. Introduces the design of electric vertical bamboo flute, which is based on the electronic circuit, 3D printing and the core of FPGA. Discusses the method in details, which users can DIY a variety of electric vertical bamboo flute systems, the design of program-ming and circuit ideas.%箫作为延续2000多年的乐器,一直有其独特的魅力,因其历史悠久而闻名于世。但横向比较其他电子乐器,基本没有任何突破性发展。现对如何设计一款基于电子电路为基础的、基于3D打印的箫进行研究,论述一个以FPGA为核心、可以根据使用者进行各种DIY的电箫系统,介绍相关编程、电路等问题的设计思路和具体的实现方案。

  19. [Effect of seasonal high temperature and drought on carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem in subtropical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Hong; Niu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Jin-meng; Liu, Yu-li; Fang, Cheng-yuan

    2016-02-01

    The carbon flux of subtropical bamboo forest ecosystem was continuously measured using eddy covariance technique in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, China. The monthly net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) data from 2011 to 2013 were selected to analyze the impacts of seasonal high temperature and drought on the carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem. The results showed that there were big differences among annual NEP of bamboo forest from 2011 to 2013. Because of the asynchronization of precipitation and heat, the seasonal high temperature and drought in July and August of 2013 caused significant decline in NEP by 59.9% and 80.0% when compared with the same months in 2011. Correlation analysis of the NEP, Re, GEP and environmental factors suggested that the atmosphere temperatures were significantly correlated with Re and GEP in 2011 and 2013 (Psoil moisture, Re and GEP had different responses, that was, GEP was more vulnerable by the decrease of the soil moisture compared with Re. Besides, the raising of saturation vapour pressure promoted the Re modestly but inhibited the GEP, which was supposed to be the main reason for NEP decrease of bamboo forest ecosystem in Anji, from July to August in 2013. PMID:27396103

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLUED LAMINATED PANELS PRODUCED WITH STRIPS OF BAMBOO (Guadua magna) NATIVE FROM THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Divino Eterno; Bastos, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Almeida, Sergio Alberto de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Panels were produced with strips of bamboo (Guadua magna) in layers crossed at angles of 90° and bonded with phenol-formaldehyde or PVA based resin, glued in three and five plies. The panels were tested and the physical and mechanical properties determined. The tests were primarily related to the...

  1. [Effect of seasonal high temperature and drought on carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem in subtropical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Hong; Niu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Jin-meng; Liu, Yu-li; Fang, Cheng-yuan

    2016-02-01

    The carbon flux of subtropical bamboo forest ecosystem was continuously measured using eddy covariance technique in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, China. The monthly net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) data from 2011 to 2013 were selected to analyze the impacts of seasonal high temperature and drought on the carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem. The results showed that there were big differences among annual NEP of bamboo forest from 2011 to 2013. Because of the asynchronization of precipitation and heat, the seasonal high temperature and drought in July and August of 2013 caused significant decline in NEP by 59.9% and 80.0% when compared with the same months in 2011. Correlation analysis of the NEP, Re, GEP and environmental factors suggested that the atmosphere temperatures were significantly correlated with Re and GEP in 2011 and 2013 (P<0.05). However, to air and soil moisture, Re and GEP had different responses, that was, GEP was more vulnerable by the decrease of the soil moisture compared with Re. Besides, the raising of saturation vapour pressure promoted the Re modestly but inhibited the GEP, which was supposed to be the main reason for NEP decrease of bamboo forest ecosystem in Anji, from July to August in 2013.

  2. Distribution of Main Nutrients in Seedlings of Umbrella Bamboo (Fargesia murielae) at Its Native Home in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling WANG; Kun LI; Yinping MENG; Liya ZHAO; Zhaohua LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] seedlings of umbrella The paper was to study the distribution of main nutrients in bamboo (Fargesia murielae) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. [Method] The study was conducted in Liangfengya of Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. In the field investigation, six clumps of umbrella bamboo grown in- dependently were randomly selected and sampled. The total nitrogen, total phospho- rus and total potassium of umbrella bamboo were detected by regular plant analysis method. The age classes of bamboo seedlings were ascertained by age grade backtracking method. [Result] In different organs, N, P, K contents in branches and leaves were significantly higher that than in stems. Along age grades, N and P contents performed "M" shape in branches and leaves, while K content approxi- mately performed as normal distribution. [Conclusion] The nutrients distribution pattern of these seedlings is likely formed by its nutrition mechanism which allocates nutri- ents according to different needs or by external interference of environmental fea- tures. However, the specific causes still need further investigation.

  3. Morphological Responses Explain Tolerance of the Bamboo Yushania microphylla to Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of tolerance of the bamboo Y. microphylla to ungulate herbivory were investigated by measuring above- and belowground morphogenetic traits and biomass allocation patterns of the bamboo Y. microphylla under grazed and ungrazed conditions in a Himalayan mixed conifer forest. Data were collected from 5 populations consisting of 10 ramets each in adjacent grazed and ungrazed plots. Compared with ungrazed ramets, the aboveground morphological modifications of grazed ramets were higher culm density, shorter and thinner culms, shorter internode, and shorter top leaf. The belowground morphological modifications for the grazed ramets were thinner rhizomes, lower rhizome biomass and dry matter, more nodes, and shorter internodes. Despite the lower biomass and dry matter, the root-to-shoot ratio was higher for grazed ramets. Results suggest that Y. microphylla subjected to herbivory shows aboveground overcompensation in terms of densification at the cost of belowground biomass, but at the same time maintains a higher proportion of belowground reserves, as compared to ungrazed conditions. These responses provide adequate evidence to conclude that Y. microphylla tolerates ungulate herbivory through above- and belowground morphological modifications.

  4. Influence of bamboo shoot powder fortification on physico-chemical, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Monisha; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Sit, Nandan; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-10-01

    Bamboo shoot has attracted significant research and a commercial interest due to its many health-promoting bioactive compounds as well as its effectiveness in decreasing blood pressure, cholesterol and increasing appetite. As availability of fresh shoot is limited due to its seasonality there is need of incorporation of nutrients of shoot to any common food product which is easily available throughout year. Shoots of Bambusa balcooa variety were taken and edible parts were separated. Slices of shoot were boiled, dried, powdered, sieved, analysed for nutritional status and used for biscuit making. Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was added in 0 % (control), 5, 10, and 15 % level in dry ingredients by replacing wheat flour and other ingredients were kept constant. Dough prepared are firstly analysed for basic characteristics. Then biscuits were prepared and analyzed for moisture, water activity, protein, fiber, fat, ash, phenolics, antioxidant activity, dimension, hardness, color and sensory acceptability. Variations were observed for fiber, antioxidant activity and phenolics from 1.08 to 1.97 %, 3.50 to 17.85 % and 0.45 to 4.19 mg/100 g respectively. Results showed that up to 10 % fortification level the biscuits were acceptable with improved functional and neutraceutical properties compared to the control.

  5. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  6. Phenol Adsorption on Nitrogen-enriched Activated Carbon Prepared from Bamboo Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-enriched activated carbons prepared from bamboo residues were characterized by means of BET, XPS, and elemental analysis. Then adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, and initial concentration. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 120 min at a phenol concentration of 250 mg/L. When the pH was 4 and 0.1 g of the carbon absorbent and 100 mL of phenol solution at 250 mg/L were used, the phenol adsorption of the ACs with melamine and urea modifications were 219.09 mg/g and 214.45 mg/g, respectively. Both were greater than the capacity of unmodified AC, which was 163.82 mg/g. The Langmuir isotherm adsorption equation well described the experimental adsorption isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was well explained by pseudo-second-order kinetics rather than the pseudo-first-order. In conclusion, the nitrogen-enriched activated carbon proposed as adsorbents of the phenol wastewater were shown to be effective, which also means that bamboo residues have promise as activated carbon precursors for liquid phase adsorbents for environmental protection.

  7. Palladium-free catalytic electroless copper deposition on bamboo fabric: Preparation, morphology and electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yinxiang; Liang, Qian; Xue, Longlong

    2012-03-01

    Bamboo fabric is subjected to solvent treatment with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) before metal deposition. Raman and IR analyses indicate that MPTS is successfully grafted on the fabric. Copper is deposited on the pretreated fabric by a palladium-free catalytic electroless process, and then copper/bamboo fabric (Cu/BF) composite is obtained. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observation reveals that copper is uniformly covered on the fabric. Chemical composition and crystal structure of the composite are detected by EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) measurements, peaks for Cu0 are found in these patterns. The water absorption ratio for the title composite is about 162% by immersion in water, or 8.9% by putting in an environmental condition (humidity of 65 ± 2%). The Cu/BF composite is firm and can pass a Scotch®-tape peel adhesion test. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite (copper on fabric: 39 g/m2) is more than 48 dB at frequency ranging from 0.2 to1000 MHz.

  8. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-05-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45-50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting.

  9. STRENGTH AND SORPTION PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babajide Charles FALEMARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the strength and water sorption properties of plastic composites produced from the sawdust of bamboo and recycled Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE. Three levels of board density (500kg/m3 , 600kg/m3 and 700kg/m3 and three levels of plastic/fibre mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were adopted. The thickness swelling (TS, water absorption (WA, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR were investigated. The sorption properties were measured after 24hour water-soak test exposure. The mean values of the properties ranged from 4.15% to 1.40% for thickness swelling; 31.96% to 4.83% for water absorption; and 2.55Mpa to 6.98Mpa, 5564.11Mpa to 10771.65Mpa and 0.60Mpa to 4.29Mpa for tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture respectively. The result revealed that as the plastic/fibre mixing ratio and board density increased the tensile strength, MOE and MOR increased, while TS and WA decreased. Strength properties of composites boards produced with the higher production variables had higher strength properties and decreased sorption assessment. Bamboo particles are suitable for the manufacturing of Wood Plastic Composites (WPC using LDPE

  10. Improvement in Tensile Strength of Bamboo Knitted Fabric by Sol-Gel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Textiles made of bamboo regenerated fibre are reported to have lower tensile strength than the other cellulosic fibres, due to high porosity of the fibre. This paper was aimed to modify the bamboo knitted fabric by the sol-gel coating to improve the tensile strength with minimum effect on its inherent morphology and ultimate relevant properties such as good absorbency and air permeability. The paddry- bake process was employed for the coating where tetraethyl-orthosilicate and nano-titanium-dioxide were used as the active ingredients. The treated fabrics were tested for the tensile behaviour in terms of breaking strength and elongation and the sol-gel process recipe and parameters were optimised. The absorbency, air-permeability and washing durability of the coating were also tested for the optimised process. Results showed the increase in tensile strength of the fabric by sol-gel coating, whereas absorbency and air-permeability were almost unaffected. The coating results were unaffected even after a washing treatment (equivalent to 5 industrial washings. Additionally, the wrinkle recovery angle of the coated fabric was also tested and found improved.

  11. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  12. Life-history traits in insect inclusions associated with bamboo galls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EI'ICHISHIBATA; MASATOITO

    2005-01-01

    We examined the life-history traits of insect inclusions in bamboo galls induced by the gall maker, Aiolomorphus rhopaloides Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) in a bamboo stand. Eight hymenopteran and one dipteran species were detected using soft X-ray photography of the galls and insect emergence from the galls. Aiolomorphus rhopaloides was the gall maker and Diomorus aiolomorphi Kamijo (Torymidae) was its inquiline.Homoporusjaponicus Ashmead (Pteromalidae) and Eupelmus sp. (Eupelmidae) are likely to be primary parasitoids of the larva ofA. rhopaloides. Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae),Sycophila sp. (Eurytomidae) and Norbanus sp. (Pteromalidae) are thought to be facultative hyperparasitoids. Cecidomyiidae sp. is thought to be the inquiline ofA. rhopaloides galls.Leptacis sp. (Platygastridae) probably parasitizes the larvae of Cecidomyiidae sp. Larvae of A. rhopaloides appeared in galls in July with the percentage of larvae decreasing in September, before overwintering as pupae. The growth ofD. aiolomorphi larvae within galls may be faster than that ofA. rhopaloides. The percentage of parasitoids in galls was low in July, but increased until winter. Aiolomorphus rhopaloides and D. aiolomorphi emerged from mid-April to early May, and from late April to early June, respectively. From overwintering galls, six other hymenopteran species emerged between late May and late June; one dipteran Cecidomyiidae sp. emerged between mid-April and early May.

  13. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45–50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting. PMID:27194218

  14. Induction and inhibition of film yeast from fermented bamboo shoot by seasoning plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Maneesri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of fermented bamboo shoot taken from a village in Amphur Kokpho, Pattani Province, were microbiologically examined. Total viable count was between at 104-105 cfu/ml while pH range was between 3.4-4.4. Isolation and identification of film yeast on surface of fermented liquid revealed Saccharomyces cerevisiae J1, Candida krusei J2 and Candida krusei J3. When film yeast was cultivated in liquid culture with different NaCl concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% (w/v, all species tolerated 2.5% NaCl addition. However, growth decreased depending on NaCl concentration. S. cerevisiae J1 grew faster than C. krusei J2 and C. krusei J3. The cultivation of film yeast in medium with different agar concentrations (0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/v within 24 h showed that 0.3% was the optimal agar concentration. Seasoning plants (garlic, ginger, galangal, lemon grass, lesser galangal, clove, kaffir lime, garcinia and shallot were extracted with water (3% (w/v and tested for growth inhibition. Results showed the clove extract inhibited all yeast strains within 12 h and after that the efficiency of inhibition was decreased. At low concentration of 0.75% (w/v clove extract could inhibit film yeast in fermented bamboo shoot.

  15. 浅谈唐代才女薛涛与竹文化%A Brief Discussion on Tang Dynasty Talented Lady Xue Tao and Bamboo Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景艳

    2013-01-01

    In the history of Chinese culture, the special contribu-tion of bamboo fully expresses the style of bamboo culture, while bamboo carries a totally new spiritual connotation in the history of Chinese psychology. This paper analyzes and researches the Tang female poet Xue Tao and her life of bamboo culture.%  在中国文化史中,竹的特殊贡献尽显了竹文化的风采;竹,在中国思想史上,承载了一种全新的精神意蕴。本文分析研究了唐代女诗人爱竹、咏竹,用她的生命流程诠释竹文化的一生,概述了竹文化内涵和现实意义。

  16. Effects of fertilization on culm form characteristics of Phyllostachys pubescens%施肥对毛竹秆型特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄若楠; 金爱武

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization on the culm form of Phyllostachys pubescens and to find a criterion for evaluating site conditions in Suichang city of Zhejiang province. Through selecting 6 plots which have same stand density and site conditions as the standard plots (each area is 4000 m2), three fertilized P. pubescens plots and three un-fertilized P. pubescens plots, DBH, culm length, node number, the length and node number after pollarded, clear bole height, culm weight and culm type index were measured, then the regression equations were set up and the variance analysis was carried out. The results show that (l)the Peal-reed models fitting effects for DBH, culm length, node number, the length and node number after pollarded, clear bole height, culm weight had the best fitting effects, culm type index No.l and No.2 did not fit well; (2) the effects of fertilization on culm height, node number, length after pollarded, culm type index No.l and No.2 were not indistinctive, but on the culm that node number after pollarded, with 11,12 diameter class were remarkable (P=0.02, P=0.03), and on culm weight was obvious (P<0.05), and on clear bole height was very significant (P<0.01), and fertilization reduced inter-node length but raised culm node number; (3) with the increase of diameter class, the culm form characteristics tended towards stability, this revealed the biological characteristics of P. pubescens, that is, under adequate nutrition conditions, the maternal P. pubescens' nutrition always were preferentially supplied to larger individuals and the nutritional competition existed in smaller individuals obviously.%为了探讨施肥对毛竹无性系秆型特征的影响规律,探寻一种标准来反应一定区域综合水热条件.在浙江省遂昌县选取林分密度及立地条件基本一致的施肥和未施肥标准样地(面积> 4000 m2)各3块,对测量的毛竹胸径和秆长、节数、去梢后长度、去梢后

  17. 毛竹竹青和竹黄半纤维素的提取与结构表征%Isolation and Characterization of Hemicellulose from Moso Bamboo Green and Bamboo Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄曹兴; 何娟; 闵斗勇; 李鑫; 勇强

    2015-01-01

    以毛竹加工剩余物为原料,分离出竹青和竹黄。经粉碎过筛、苯/乙醇脱蜡和次氯酸钠脱木质素3个过程得到相应的综纤维素,然后用1%、5%和10%的KOH依次提取综纤维素得到半纤维素,竹青、竹黄半纤维素的总提取率分别为81.74%和85.36%。对所提取的半纤维素进行成分分析、分子量测定、红外光谱和核磁共振分析,结果表明,竹青、竹黄半纤维素成分主要为木糖,分别占61.02%~73.76%和65.22%~80.00%。竹黄半纤维素的重均分子质量为44870~48560 g/mol,高于竹青半纤维素的重均分子质量(43970~46245 g/mol)。竹青、竹黄碱溶半纤维素都是典型的阿拉伯糖基木聚糖结构,主链为β-D-吡喃木糖形成的木聚糖,在木糖基的C-2位连接着4-O-甲基-α-D-葡萄糖醛酸,C-3位连有α-L-呋喃阿拉伯糖,同时部分木质素通过苯苷键与半纤维素中的糖基相连。%Bamboo green and bamboo yellow separated from Moso bamboo residues were delignified by NaClO2 after grinded, sifted and dewaxed by toluene-ethanol to achieve holocellulose. The resulted holocellulose was constantly extracted with 1%, 5%and 10% KOH to obtain hemicellulose. The yields of hemicellulose acquired from bamboo green and bamboo yellow were calculated as 81. 74% and 85. 36%, respectively. Then, the chemical compositions and structures of these hemicelluloses were characterized by HPAEC, GPC, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 2D HSQC techniques. The results indicated that the proportions of xylose in the bamboo green and bamboo yellow hemicellulose preparations were 61. 02% - 73. 76% and 65. 22% - 80. 00%, respectively. The weight average molecular weight of hemicellulose preparations of bamboo yellow were 44 870-48 560 g/mol, which were higher than that of bamboo green hemicellulose preparations (43 970-46 245 g/mol). It was demonstrated that the back chain of hemicelluloses were composed ofβ-D-xylan. Meanwhile,α-L-arabinofuranose and 4-O

  18. [The Use of FTIR Coupled with Partial Least Square for Quantitative Analysis of the Main Composition of Bamboo/Polypropylene Composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wan-li; He, Yu-chan; Li, Gai-yun; Zhou, Qun

    2016-01-01

    The biomass to plastic ratio in wood plastic composites (WPCs) greatly affects the physical and mechanical properties and price. Fast and accurate evaluation of the biomass to plastic ratio is important for the further development of WPCs. Quantitative analysis of the WPC main composition currently relies primarily on thermo-analytical methods. However, these methods have some inherent disadvantages, including time-consuming, high analytical errors and sophisticated, which severely limits the applications of these techniques. Therefore, in this study, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least square (PLS) has been used for rapid prediction of bamboo and polypropylene (PP) content in bamboo/PP composites. The bamboo powders were used as filler after being dried at 105 degrees C for 24 h. PP was used as matrix materials, and some chemical regents were used as additives. Then 42 WPC samples with different ratios of bamboo and PP were prepared by the methods of extrusion. FTIR spectral data of 42 WPC samples were collected by means of KBr pellets technique. The model for bamboo and PP content prediction was developed by PLS-2 and full cross validation. Results of internal cross validation showed that the first derivative spectra in the range of 1 800-800 cm(-1) corrected by standard normal variate (SNV) yielded the optimal model. For both bamboo and PP calibration, the coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.955. The standard errors of calibration (SEC) were 1.872 for bamboo content and 1.848 for PP content, respectively. For both bamboo and PP validation, the R2 values were 0.950. The standard errors of cross validation (SECV) were 1.927 for bamboo content and 1.950 for PP content, respectively. And the ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) were 4.45 for both biomass and PP examinations. The results of external validation showed that the relative prediction deviations for both biomass and PP contents were lower than ± 6

  19. 现代产品设计中竹材的应用方法初探%The Approaches to Apply Bamboo in Modern Product Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艺舟

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a site survey was conducted to investigate on the bamboo product market, the traditional and modern bamboo processing technology. Some excellent modern bamboo product designs were reorganized and sorted. From the point view of material selection,the relationship between bamboo individual difference and utilization rate in modern product design was analyzed. It was suggested that bamboo should be mixed with other materials to overcome the insufficiencies in structure, function and aesthetics. The approaches to apply various bamboo materials were discussed from the perspectives of point, line, surface and volume. Finally, the process to design modern bamboo products was demonstrated by a set of tables and chairs made of bamboo-board.%通过对竹制品市场状况、传统和现代的竹材加工工艺进行了现场调研,并将收集到的现代优秀竹材产品设计资料进行了分类整理;从材料选择角度分析了现代产品设计中竹材个体差异与使用率的关系,提出竹材需要与其他材料进行合理搭配以解决结构、功能和审美问题,并从点、线、面、体这4大造型元素角度分析、归纳了各类竹材的运用方式;最后通过竹板材餐桌椅的设计实践展示了现代竹材产品的设计过程.

  20. Occurrence situation and control countermeasures of bamboo diseases in Nanjing%南京地区竹类病害发生状况及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 吉静; 叶建仁

    2011-01-01

    To study the occurrence and prevalence of bamboo disease in Nanjing, this research carried out investigations on kinds of disease, damaged status on scattered and mixed bamboo by the way of field route reconnaissance and sample plot investigation from May 2007 to March 2009, as well as analyzed the main factors of the occurrence and prevalence of bamboo diseases. A total of 18 generas including 107 kinds of bamboo species had been investigated. The results showed that there were 15 kinds of bamboc diseases, among them, 13 kinds were fungal diseases, one kind was mite disease and one kind was non-infectious disease. Some bamboo diseases, such as bamboo witches' broom disease (Aciculosporium take), leaf withered type witches broom disease(Phaeosphaeria bambusae), bamboo stalk brown rot( Fusarium spp. ),Bamboo leaf rust(Puccinia spp. , Uredo ignava) and bamboo leaf rust brown spot(Schizotetranychus nanjingensis) were relatively serious. These diseases had great impact on bamboo production. The occurrence epidemic of bamboo diseases were closely related to bamboo species, environmental conditions and operational management. Based on this study, we proposed that the countermeasures, such as pay attention to matching tree species with site, proper management and bamboo diseases research as well as strengthen the plant quarantine, scientifically cultivate bamboo and intensify research efforts, should be exerted to improve the bamboo productivity.%为查清南京地区竹类病害发生流行状况,笔者通过野外路线踏查和标准地调查相结合,于2007年5月至2009年3月对该地区主要散、混生竹种系统开展了病害发生种类和危害状况调查,并对竹类病害发生流行的主导因子进行了分析.共调查竹种18属107种(含种下等级),发现竹类病害15种,其中真菌性病害13种、非侵染性病害1种和螨害1种.发生较严重的病害为竹丛枝病(Aciculosporium take)、竹叶枯型丛枝病(Phaeosphaeria bambusae

  1. 中亚热带东部毛竹叶片光合及呼吸的研究%Studies on photosynthesis and Respiration of Blades of phyllostachys heterocycle cv.Pubescens in Eastern mid-subtropical Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承才; 葛滢; 浙江大学生命科学学院

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between photosythesis and respiration of Phyllostachys heterocycle cv. Pubescens and environmental factors was studied. The results were as follows: The photosynthetic rate(Pn) was most significantly corelated to Light (L) and temperature(T) and the regressive equation could be used as a model to estimate the photosynthetic rate. The daily Pn and respiration rate were significantly corelated to air temperature and they could be estimated by regressive equations. The estimated annual photosynthetic amount and respiration amount were 1.81×104 and 2.00×104 mg CO 2 dm-1.a-1, respectively.%毛竹叶片Pn与光照强度 (L)、气温 (T) 多元相关呈极显著水平,其回归方程可作为光合速率估算的模型;日光合量与平均气温呈极显著线性正相关,呼吸速率与气温呈极显著相关,其回归方程均可作为叶片日光合量、呼吸速率的估算模型。毛竹的年净光合量、年呼吸量估算结果分别为 1.81×104、2.00×104 mgCO 2· dm-2·a-1。

  2. A review of pipe and bamboo artificial refugia as sampling tools in anuran studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial pipe-like refugia have been used for more than 40 years in anuran studies, and have captured 28 species, primarily (82%) hylid treefrogs. Early pipe-like refugia were made using cut pieces of bamboo in the tropical forests of Puerto Rico, but most recent studies have used synthetic pipes and have occurred primarily in the southeastern United States. Characteristics of artificial refugia (e.g., color, length, and diameter), and their placement in the environment have varied greatly among studies, making comparisons difficult. Here, we summarize and evaluate different pipe designs and placement, address potential concerns when using artificial pipe-like refugia, and suggest studies necessary to better interpret the data gained from this technique in anuran studies.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  4. Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Huo, Yunlong; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of different treatments on nutritive value of bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Five treatments were sun-drying (control), ammoniation (5%/dry matter (DM) urea), Ca(OH)2 (4%/DM calcium hydroxide), NaOH (4%/DM sodium hydroxide), and AHP (4%/DM sodium hydroxide plus 1%/DM hydrogen peroxide). The results showed that chemical composition of BSS was greatly changed by chemicals (P chemical treatments significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content except AHP (P chemical treatments (P Chemical treatments greatly improved effective degradability (ED) of DM (P chemical treatments greatly improved nutritive value of BSS with highest value obtained from ammoniation, followed by strong alkalization, alkaline hydrogen peroxide and modest alkalization.

  5. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites.

  6. Error Analysis of Adsorption Isotherm Models for Acid Dyes onto Bamboo Derived Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.S. Chan; W.H. Cheung; S.J. Allen; G. McKay

    2012-01-01

    High surface area activated carbons were produced by thermal activation of waste bamboo scaffolding with phosphoric acid. Single component equilibrium dye adsorption was conducted on the carbons produced and comparedwith a commercially available carbon. Two acid dyes With different molecular sizes, namely Acid Yellow 117 (AY117) and Acid Blue 25 (AB25), were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the produced carbons. Itwas found that the dye with smaller molecular size, AB 25, was readily adsorbed onto the produced carbon, nearly three times, higher than a commercially available carbon, while the larger size dye, A.Y117, showed little adsorption.The experimental data were analyzed using isotherm equations including Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin,Toth, Redlich-Peterson and Sips equations. The equilibrium data were then analyzed using five different non-linear erroranalysis methods.

  7. Impact of Plasma Surface Treatment on Bamboo Charcoal/silver Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, K.; Vijayalakshmi, K. A.; Karthikeyan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) accompanied silver (Ag) nanocomposite is synthesized through sol-gel method. The produced BC/Ag nanocomposite was surface modified by air and oxygen plasma treatments. Silver ions (Ag+) will serve to improve the antibacterial activity as well as the surface area of BC. Plasma treatment has improved the surface functional groups, crystalline intensity and antibacterial activity of the prepared nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that Ag nanoparticles have good agreement with BC and the particle size has a mean diameter of 20-40nm. We observe the carboxyl functional groups in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after the oxygen plasma treatment. Moreover surface area and adsorption were analyzed by using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  8. [On the etiological concept in the literature from unearthed documents of bamboo slips and silk scrolls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Zhang, Ruqing

    2014-03-01

    There is a substantial number of medical literature in the unearthed bamboo slips and silk scroll literature, the vast majority of which came into being earlier than medical books handed down from the ancient time, and are the documents of the origin of Chinese medicine dated back to the earliest time known thus far. In these documents, the contents of not a few of them deals with the etiology of disease which, by textual criticism and analysis, can be classified into seven different aspects, namely, six climatic pathogenic factors, emotional factors, injury caused by falling, traumatic damage; frostbite and burns, insect or animal bites, drug poisoning, evil spirit haunting, and constitutional factors, reflecting the contemporary etiological concept truthfully. PMID:24989802

  9. Multi-response parametric optimization in drilling of bamboo/Kevlar fiber reinforced sandwich composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thingujam Jackson; Samanta, Sutanu

    2016-09-01

    In the present work an attempt was made towards parametric optimization of drilling bamboo/Kevlar K29 fiber reinforced sandwich composite to minimize the delamination occurred during the drilling process and also to maximize the tensile strength of the drilled composite. The spindle speed and the feed rate of the drilling operation are taken as the input parameters. The influence of these parameters on delamination and tensile strength of the drilled composite studied and analysed using Taguchi GRA and ANOVA technique. The results show that both the response parameters i.e. delamination and tensile strength are more influenced by feed rate than spindle speed. The percentage contribution of feed rate and spindle speed on response parameters are 13.88% and 81.74% respectively.

  10. 巴西竹类生物多样性%Diversity of Bamboo in Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thiago Machado GRECO; Moisés Medeiros PINTO; 夏念和

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to update and discuss the list of Bambusoideae species and its natural distribution in Brazil. According to the data collected, there are in total 256 native taxa (including 2 subspecies and 3 varieties) of Bambusoideae in Brazil, belonging to 34 genera and 2 tribes in this country. Among them, 164 taxa of 17 genera are woody bamboo, and the rest are herbaceous bamboo. The North region is most rich in herbaceous bamboo with 61 species of the tribe Olyreae, while the woody bamboo are mostly found in the Southeast region with 96 species of the tribe Bambuseae.Merostachys(43 species) andChusquea(45 species) are the most common genera with most potential utilization for the Guadua (18 species). The endemism at generic and species level is 32.4% and 68.8%, respectively. The endemic genera in Brazil areDiandrolyra,Eremitis,Parianella,Reitziaand Sucreafor tribe Olyreae, andAlvimia,Apoclada,Athroostachys,Cambajuva,FilgueirasiaandGlaziophytonfor tribe Bambuseae.%巴西是全球生物多样性最丰富的地区,其竹类多样性也极为丰富。结合现存资料及野外调查,对巴西全境的竹类分布格局进行了讨论。巴西全国有原生竹亚科植物256种(含2亚种及3变种),北部地区草本竹类(莪莉竹族)最丰富,有61种,而东南部地区木本竹类(箣竹族)最丰富,有96种。偏穗竹属(Merostachys)(43种)和丘斯夸竹属(Chusquea)(45种)是最常见的属,并是最具潜在经济利用的竹类。属种的特有性分别高达32.4%和68.8%。特有属有11个,分别为莪莉竹族的双药莪利草竹属(Diandrolyra)、独焰草竹属(Eremitis)、小百瑞草竹属(Parianella)、赖茨草竹属(Reitzia)、苏克蕾草竹属(Sucrea)和箣竹族的南美梨藤竹属(Alvimia)、离枝竹属(Apoclada)、密穗竹属(Athroostachys)、卡姆巴珠瓦竹属(Cambajuva)、菲尔盖拉斯竹属(Filgueirasia)、无枝竹属(Glaziophyton)。

  11. Radiocarbon-Based Ages and Growth Rates of Bamboo Corals from the Gulf of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Flood-Page, S; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L; Fallon, S J; McCulloch, M

    2004-12-12

    Deep-sea coral communities have long been recognized by fisherman as areas that support large populations of commercial fish. As a consequence, many deep-sea coral communities are threatened by bottom trawling. Successful management and conservation of this widespread deep-sea habitat requires knowledge of the age and growth rates of deep-sea corals. These organisms also contain important archives of intermediate and deep-water variability, and are thus of interest in the context of decadal to century-scale climate dynamics. Here, we present {Delta}{sup 14}C data that suggest that bamboo corals from the Gulf of Alaska are long-lived (75-126 years) and that they acquire skeletal carbon from two distinct sources. Independent verification of our growth rate estimates and coral ages is obtained by counting seasonal Sr/Ca cycles and probable lunar cycle growth bands.

  12. Physicochemical Characterization of various Vietnamese Biomass Residue-derived Biochars (wood, bamboo and risk husk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien

    2016-04-01

    This study compares the physico-chemical characteristics of various biocchars produced from biomass residues in Vietnam such as fired wood, rice husk, and bamboo. Wood biochar (WBC), rice husk biochar (RHBC), and bamboo biochar (BBC) were produced under limited oxygen conditions using equipment available locally in Vietnam, known as a Top-Lift Updraft Drum (TLUD). The three biochars are alkaline with pH around 10, but were found to have quite significantly different physico-chemical characteristics. Surface areas (measured by BET) were found to be very significantly higher for WBC and BBC with 479.34 m2/g and 434.53 m2/g, respectively, compared to RHBC (3.29 m2/g). The SEM images correspond with the BET surface area, showing a smooth surface for RHBC, a hollow surface for BBC, and a rough surface for WBC. Total carbon (TC) of WBC and BBC are above 80%, while RHBC has only 47.95% TC. Despite having different TC, the content of hydrogen among the biochars is similar, ranging from 2.07% to 2.34%, and the ratio of H/C also follows the same trend. Thus, although the biochars are produced by the same method, the various feedstocks lead to different physico-chemical properties. Ongoing work is linking these physico-chemical properties to fertiliser efficiencies in terms of nitrate and ammonia adsorption and retention capacities, in order to design optimal biochar properties for use in fertilisation. Key words: physico-chemical characteristic, biochar, surface area, SEM, total carbon, feedstock

  13. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity. PMID:26880690

  14. Experimental and Theoritical Analysis of Thermal Properties in Zephyr Bamboo Tali (Gigantochloa apus Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mudiastuti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Bamboo panel are usable to support the Programming of Design and Planning in the Structure of the Agricultural Building Construction. The Specific heat of Bamboo’s fiber, sheet and panel using the method of mixtures varied from 1.585-2.789 J/gr oC, with a mean value of 2.227 J/gr oC in the temperature difference range of 9 ± 0.1oC . It was found it will increase linearly with an increase in the sample temperature. Thermal conductivity values of Bamboo’s fiber based on the transient line heat source technique varied from 0.1035 x 10-3-0.1322 x10-3 J/ cm2 sec oC in the sample temperature 22 to 30 oC on thermal diffusivity of bamboo fiber in 22-30 oC was found to be 0.0823 x 10-3J/cm secoC. The sorption Isotherm and the water activity in the bamboo’s panel is depend on the chemical composition, glue laminated, additive and the porosity. There are related with the absorbing of the water into the bounded water and the diffusivity of the water in and out the panel. The moisture equilibrium range are 7.89 to 19.22 percent in the control of the circumstances and 11 to 75 % of the environment.relative humidity.

  15. 设施内外人面竹夏季光合作用日变化及影响因子研究%Diurnal variation of photosynthesis of Phyllostachys aurea grown inside and outside greenhouse and its influential factors in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严彦; 秦金舟; 苏文会; 苏浩然

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we explored the diumal variation of photosynthesis of Phyllostachys aurea grown inside greenhouse,and clarified the difference of light intensity,temperature,humidity,CO2 concentration and other factors both inside and outside greenhouse,in order to provide reasonable cultivation methods and theoretical basis for facility cultivation of Phyllostachys aurea.The study was carried out in July,and the curve of the photosynthesis rate of Phyllostachys aurea was shown as a two-peak pattern on the conditions of both cooling measures and no cooling measures inside greenhouse,however,the characteristics of the curve of the photosynthesis rate of Phyllostachys aurea was not obvious in the open air.Average daily Pn inside greenhouse with cooling measure>Pn inside greenhouse without cooling measure>Pn in the open-air.Average daily,HR inside greenhouse>HR in the open-air,PAR inside greenhouse<PAR in the open-air,CO2 concentration inside greenhouse<CO2 concentration in the open-air.Therefore,the cooling and moistening measures should be taken to improve photosynthetic efficiency of Phyllostachys aurea inside the greenhouse.Besides,high-temperature and high light intensity are the main reasons for its phenomenon of “midday nap” in summer.%2012年7月对设施及露地栽培的人面竹(Phyllostachys aurea Cart.exA.et C.Riv)光合作用及其影响因子进行了研究.分析设施栽培条件下人面竹净光合速率日变化规律,以及设施内外光照强度、温度、湿度、CO2浓度等因子的差异性,试图为设施栽培人面竹提供合理的栽培模式及理论依据.结果表明,设施内有降温措施和无降温措施条件下,人面竹净光合速率日变化曲线均呈双峰型,但露天条件下人面竹净光合速率日变化曲线双峰型特点不明显,日均Pn设施内有降温>Pn设施无降温>Pn露天;HR设施内>HR露天、PAR设施内<PAR露天、CO2浓度设施内<CO2浓度露天,夏季高温高光强

  16. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of sorption of 2.4-dichlorophenol onto 2 mixtures: bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (BC and hydroxyapatite plus bamboo biochar plus calcium sulphate (HBC, in a fluidized bed circulation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamin Ahmed Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorption studies were carried out to investigate removal of 2.4-dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP from aqueous solution in a fluidized bed by two types of adsorbent mixtures: BC (Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate, and HBC (Hydroxyapatite plus Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate; both manufactured in ball shape. The main material bamboo char was characterized by FTIR, DTA and SEM. The adsorption experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed circulation column. Adsorption, isotherms and kinetic studies were established under 180 min operating process time, at different initial 2.4-DCP solution concentrations ranging from 5–10 mg/L, and at different flow rates ranging from 0.25–0.75 L/min. The data obtained fitted well for both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; indicating favorable condition of monolayer adsorption. The kinetics of both adsorbents complies with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. BC was proven a new effective composite and low cost adsorbent which can be applied in the field of wastewater treatment, and it can also play an important role in industry water treatment.

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. PMID:26212939

  18. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiulong; Hse, Chung-Yun; De Hoop, Cornelis F; Hu, Tingxing; Qi, Jinqiu; Shupe, Todd F

    2016-10-20

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction could eliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7min, and the cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by subsequent chemical treatments with lower chemical charging and quickly. The results of wet chemistry analyses, SEM images, and FTIR and X-ray spectra indicated the combination of microwave liquefaction and chemical treatment was significantly efficient in removing non-cellulosic compounds. Ultrasonication was used to separate the nanofibrils from the purified residues to extract nanofibers. The TEM images confirmed the presence of elementary fibrils, nano-sized fibril bundles, and aggregated fibril bundles. As evidenced by the TGA analysis, cellulose nanofibers isolated by this novel technique had high thermal stability indicating that the isolated nanofibers could possibly be applied as reinforcing elements in biomaterials.

  19. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  20. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic) Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Nurul Fazita; Krishnan Jayaraman; Debes Bhattacharyya; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Mohamad Haafiz, M. K.; Abdul Khalil H.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic) acid (BF-PLA) composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength), thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial...

  1. Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Activated Carbon Prepared from Locally Available Waste of Bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica)

    OpenAIRE

    Dula, Tamirat; Siraj, Khalid; Kitte, Shimeles Addisu

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) waste by KOH activation heating in an electrical furnace at 1073 K for 3 hrs. Batch adsorption experiments were also carried out as a function of pH, contact time, initial concentration of the adsorbate, adsorbent dosage, and temperature of the solution. Kinetic studies of the data showed that the adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order k...

  2. Theoretical and experimental analysis of structural joints of glued laminated pressed bamboo guadua for a housing project

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Patricia; Olarte, Ana Milena; Takeuchi, Caori

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of connections between elements of glued laminated pressed bamboo guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth) for a housing project is presented in this article. The analysis was carried out in four stages: design, load test, numerical simulation and finite element modeling. Design connection was developed using the allowable stresses method. In load test, displacements were measured in order to identify the behavior of connections for different load increments. Numerical simulation was p...

  3. 竹醋液抑菌活性及其稳定性研究%Study on antimicrobial activities and stability of bamboo vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬国胜; 李敏; 应国清

    2011-01-01

    本实验主要对竹醋液的抑菌作用进行研究,结果表明:竹醋液具有较强的抑菌活性,其对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、绿脓杆菌的最小抑菌质量浓度为7.813μg/mL,对酿酒酵母、白色念珠菌和黑曲霉的最小抑菌质量浓度为62.5 μg/mL.同时,以除酿酒酵母的上述菌种为指示菌,研究竹醋液抑菌成分的稳定性,结果表明:竹醋液在酸性条件下具有较好的抑菌活性,经碱处理后抑菌活性显著降低.温度对其抑菌稳定性并无影响,紫外照射后使其抑菌活性有微弱下降.%Antimicrobial activities of bamboo vinegar were tested in this study. The results showed that bamboo vinegar has strong antibacterial activities. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bamboo vinegar to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 7. 813 μg/mL, while to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Canidia albicans and Aspergillus niger were 62. 5 μg/mL. Bamboo vinegar was also investigated concerning its stability under the influence of different factors such as acid, alkali, temperature and ultraviolet.The results showed that the bamboo vinegar was very stable to temperature. After treatment with alkaline the bamboo vinegar has almost no antibacterial activity. The UV radiation showed little effect on the antimicrobial activity of bamboo vinegar.

  4. Effects of four types of dilute acid washing on moso bamboo pyrolysis using Py-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Li; Ding, Kuan; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2015-06-01

    The influences of four types of dilute acid washing (H2SO4, HCl, HF, HNO3) on moso bamboo pyrolysis were investigated via pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effects of acid washings on the inorganics contents and the chemical structure were also analyzed. The results indicated that all the acid washings could effectively remove a large portion of inorganics and disrupt the chemical structure to a certain extent. HCl-washing behaved the best in removing inorganics and had the most marked disruption effect on bamboo structure. Acid washings promoted the bamboo pyrolysis and increased the contents of both phenols and sugars. HCl-washing had the most significant promotion effect on the levoglucosan formation with the absolute peak area increasing from 8.12×10(8) to 1.92×10(9). The absolute peak areas of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran decreased more or less after acid washings. All the acid washings except H2SO4-washing could significantly increase the absolute peak area of methoxyeugenol. PMID:25755014

  5. Piloting the promotion of bamboo skirt barriers to prevent Nipah virus transmission through date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking raw date palm sap contaminated with infected fruit bat saliva or urine is an important mode of Nipah virus transmission to humans in Bangladesh. Bamboo skirts are an effective way to interrupt bat access to the sap. We conducted a study from November 2008 to March 2009 to explore the effectiveness of higher- and lower-intensity interventions by promoting bamboo skirt preparation and use among sap harvesters (gachhis). We spent 280 person-hours in two villages for the higher-intensity intervention and half that amount of time in two other villages for the lower-intensity intervention. To evaluate the interventions we followed up all gachhis once a month for three months. A high percentage of gachhis (83% in higher-, 65% in lower-intensity interventions) prepared and used a skirt of bamboo or other materials - jute stalk, dhoincha (Sesbania aculeata), or polythene - at least once after intervention. In general, 15% of gachhis consistently used skirts throughout the sap collection season. The intensive nature of this intervention is very expensive for a large-scale programme. Future efforts should focus on developing a low-cost behaviour change intervention and evaluate if it reduces the human exposure to potentially contaminated fresh date palm sap.

  6. Multi-locus plastid phylogenetic biogeography supports the Asian hypothesis of the temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Ma, Peng-Fei; Haevermans, Thomas; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Na; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the biogeography of the temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) using a densely-sampled phylogenetic tree of Bambusoideae based on six plastid DNA loci, which corroborates the previously discovered 12 lineages (I-XII) and places Kuruna as sister to the Chimonocalamus clade. Biogeographic analyses revealed that the Arundinarieae diversified from an estimated 12 to 14Mya, and this was followed by rapid radiation within the lineages, particularly lineages IV, V and VI, starting from c. 7-8Mya. It is suggested that the late Miocene intensification of East Asian monsoon may have contributed to this burst of diversification. The possibilities of the extant Sri Lankan and African temperate bamboo lineages representing 'basal elements' could be excluded, indicating that there is no evidence to support the Indian or African route for migration of temperate bamboo ancestors to Asia. Radiations from eastern Asia to Africa, Sri Lanka, and to North America all are likely to have occurred during the Pliocene, to form the disjunct distribution of Arundinarieae we observe today. The two African lineages are inferred as being derived independently from Asian ancestors, either by overland migrations or long-distance dispersals. Beringian migration may explain the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunction. PMID:26723898

  7. 安吉竹编手工业考察记%Report of Bamboo Weaving Handicraft Industry in Anji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力丽; 陈恺恺

    2012-01-01

    通过对安吉县岭西村竹编艺人的追踪调研,了解其生活现状,总结竹编加工制作的工艺与要领,并对竹编器具的文化属性进行一定的分析,进而初步探寻其保存、发展的模式,这对于实现人、社会与物的和谐共生具有一定的启示意义.%A tracking survey on bamboo weaving handicraftsmen in Lingxi Village, Anji County was made to study their living situations, and to gather the techniques and skills applied in bamboo weaving. Moreover, various cultural attributes of bamboo utensils were analyzed so as to explore their conservation and development mode, which might provide some important inspirations for achieving a harmonious coexistence of human beings, the society and material world.

  8. Microwave-assisted conversion of biomass derived hemicelluloses into xylo-oligosaccharides by novel sulfonated bamboo-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemicelluloses are the major constituent of biomass and their hydrolysis products xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are of great importance to the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, catalytic conversion of bamboo hemicelluloses into XOS was developed using novel solid acid catalysts of sulfonated bamboo-based carbon material (BCS). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy characterization of BCS confirmed the successful introduction of acid groups (including –SO3H, –COOH and phenolic –OH) onto its surface. The effects of reaction temperature, residence time and solid acid-to-water ratio on the performance of catalytic conversion were investigated. The maximum XOS yield of 54.7 wt% based on xylan content was obtained at 150 °C for 45 min with a solid acid to water mass ratio of 1:200. The use of water solvent with BCS provides a green and efficient process for hemicellulose conversion. - Highlights: • Sulfonated bamboo-based carbon (BCS) with active groups was synthesized. • Microwave irradiation was adopted to increase the reaction efficiency. • XOS with higher DP was preferentially obtained under mild conditions. • Xylose and XOS with lower DP were preferentially obtained under severe conditions. • Limited byproducts were detected in the hydrolysis reaction

  9. Adsorptive Removal of Formaldehyde by Chemically Bamboo Activated Carbon with addition of Ag nanoparticle: Equilibrium and Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pita Rengga Wara Dyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon was prepared from dried waste bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper using chemical activation with KOH. The carbon was prepared with the activating agent in a mass ratio of KOH and dried bamboo (3:1 at 800oC. Using impregnation technique, the bamboo-based activated carbon has developed with modified Ag nanoparticle (Ag-AC to capture formaldehyde. The Ag-AC has characteristics of moderate surface area of 685 m2/g and average pore size of 2.7 nm. The adsorption equilibriums and kinetics of formaldehyde on Ag-AC measured. The influences of initial formaldehyde on adsorption performance have measured in a batch system. The equilibrium data were evaluated by isotherm models of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin. The Langmuir model well describes the adsorptive removal of formaldehyde on Ag-AC in this study. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations were applied to test the experimental data. The pseudo-second-order exhibited the best fit for kinetic study.

  10. 基于竹展开技术的毛竹竹板材碳转移分析%Carbon Transfer During Manufacturing of Moso Bamboo Plank Using the Bamboo Unfolding and Flattening Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇峰; 顾蕾; 刘红征; 周国模; 李翠琴; 施拥军; 韩笑

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bamboo plank using unfolding and flattening technology is a thirteen-step process including softening,seamless veneer flattening,molding and drying,etc.This paper investigated bamboo unfolding planks processd from 209 various bamboo stems and their carbon transfer ratio,and analyzed the carbon transfer characteristics of five specifications without green bark and two specifications with green bark.There were four important results.First,the average carbon transfer rate for bamboo plank with green bark was 73.49% and for the one without green bark was 61.24%,and the total carbon transfer rate for 840 mm length bamboo plank without green bark was significantly higher than the pieces of 1 300 mm length(P < 0.05).Second,the aggregate carbon transfer rate of different bamboo diameters varied from 52.37% to 74.44%,with an average of 62.57%,the fitting equation was:y =2.886 5x + 29.641,R2 =0.376 4.Third,the carbon transfer ratio of unfolded planks out of whole stem with different diameters ranged from 22.25% to 67.84%,the fitting equation was:y =8.646 2x-60.375,R2 =0.645 5,which indicated that the carbon transfer rate and diameter were positively linearly related.Fourth,the estimated relationship between carbon storage of moso bamboo unfolding planks and diameter was projected as:y =0.0001x4 1377,R2 =0.694 3.%全程跟踪209株不同胸径分布的毛竹利用竹展开技术生产去青(5种规格)和带青(2种规格)2类竹板材的过程,探讨竹展开板材生产过程的碳转移特征.结果表明:1)2种不同规格带青竹板材的总计碳转移率平均为73.49%;5种不同规格去青竹板材的总计碳转移率平均为61.24%,其中长度840 mm比1 300 mm段竹材总计碳转移率高,且二者有显著性差异(P<0.05);2)不同胸径毛竹展开板材(去青和带青)的综合碳转移率为52.37% ~ 74.44%,平均为62.57%,其拟合方程为y=2.866 5x+ 29.641,R2 =0.3764;3)不同胸径毛竹展开板材的

  11. 竹醋液的抗炎活性研究%Study on antiinflammatory activities of bamboo vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青; 吴宏君; 金再宿; 郭辉

    2012-01-01

    研究竹醋液以及在不同的条件下减压蒸馏得到的各馏分的抗炎活性.采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法检测竹醋液和各馏分的抗炎活性,并根据馏分沸点的不同确定其中主要有效组分.竹醋原液和提取出来的各馏分均显示了不同程度的抗炎活性(P<0.01).其中竹醋原液的抗炎效果最好(60.42%),低沸点的醇、酮、酯、吡啶和直链酸类次之(49.24%),酚类再次之(32.73%),苯甲酸类及其衍生物和醛类抗炎效果较弱.竹醋液具有抗炎活性,为其抗炎应用领域奠定实验基础,对竹醋功用开发具有积极意义,其抗炎机理需进一步研究.%The bamboo vinegar fluid and the anti-inflammatory activity of its main components were studied, at different vacuum distillation conditions for separating the mixture. We test the antiinflammatory activity of main components and determine their effectiveness through establishing a reasonable mice antiinflammatory pharmacology experiment model, adopting mouse xyleneinduced auricular swelling of the shell. The original bamboo vinegar and the extracted main components are in different degree of inhibit xylene-induced ear edema in mice induced by the swelling of the pinna (P<0. 01), which all have certain antiinflammatory activities. The antiinflammatory effect of original bamboo vinegar is the best (60. 42%), the alcohol, ketones, esters, pyridine and aliphatic acids with low boiling point are the second (49. 24%), and the phenols are the third (32. 73%) , the antiinflammatory effect of benzoic acids and their derivatives and aldehyde is little. The bamboo vinegar fluid has the sterilization and antiinflammatory effect, which promoted its application areas. The further development of bamboo vinegar and its function are significantly important. Further researches on the antiinflammatory mechanism are expected.

  12. 促进竹房屋系统及近期发展%Promotion of bamboo Housing system & Recent Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shri K.Shyamasundar; Jagadish Vengala

    2006-01-01

    竹房屋系统的建造与实用建筑的方法有很大的区别.(1)原竹的利用和构架椽子作为主要的承载元素;(2)劈蔑竹和竹片胶合作为剪切壁,它能起到透风的作用,并能为其结构提供整体的稳定性;(3)根据危害和公共条件的程度作适当的竹子防腐处理;(4)在屋顶结构上,用于承载的接合点与软钢螺丝相结用于竹子的三角架;(5)竹席皱纹片用于顶部的包层.根据房屋的设计、内部的修饰和当地的条件,建造房屋时可采用低成本,在印度,每张板的价格为300~500卢比/m2.为了改进技术,印度胶合板工业研究与培训所近几年修建了几个样板建筑.活动房的具体建筑、创新理念以及观点在本文进行了阐述.%The Bamboo Housing system differs significantly from other established bamboo construction practices in many ways viz. - (a) Use of round bamboo columns and trussed rafters as main load bearing element, (b)Use of split bamboo grids/chicken mesh and plastered with cement mortar to act as shear walls for transmitting wind loads and to provide overall stability to the structure, (c) Application of appropriate preservative treatment of bamboo depending on the degree of hazard and service conditions, (d) Use of BMB gussets in combination with mild steel bolts for load bearing joints in roofing structure, and (e) Use of BMCS as roof claddings. The technology evolved 'can be effectively adopted for construction of low-cost (single storied) houses with cost ranging from Rs.300 to 500 per square feet depend upon the design of the house and nature of interior finish, and also upon the local conditions. To promote this technology, IPIRTI had put several demonstrate structures throughout India during the last few years. The details of the above structures and an innovative idea of pre-fab housing and its conceptual are discussed in brief.

  13. Communication From the Unique Perspective of Bamboo Floating Miao%从传播学视角看贵州苗族独竹漂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗刚

    2012-01-01

    The drift of Guizhou Province, Guizhou Miao Miac Bamboo alone people in long-term production practice and social practice, created a water feature with a fitness program sports skills, set sports, entertainment, and watch the people in one of . For Miac drift alone has long-term vitality of bamboo, with the help of various mass media to promote, introduce unique cultural value of drift characteristics of bamboo, bamboo float fully demonstrate their own unique charm. Bamboo should drift alone dovetails with the red revolutionary tradition, unique bamboo drift show long history and rich cultural connotations, and enhance the general public on the unique cultural identity of bamboo floating and self-confidence. From original water sports challenges unique nature of projects and inspire the fighting spirit and courage to get the transmission power, building bamboo drift alone the basic theory of cultural transmission in order to guide the independence theory of bamboo floating communication practice. Use of educational channels to amass this unique bamboo floating tangible and intangible "cultural treasures", soluble in improving the education system to go. Bamboo floating on the independence to conduct their own culture of innovation to meet the requirements of different audiences. Making a positive factor for the new sports culture. Good planning the operation to separate bamboo drift, so that the audience through the full participation and inclusion, independence, full understanding of the meaning and characteristics of bamboo float.%贵州省苗族独竹漂是贵州苗族人民在长期的生产实践和社会实践中,创造出来的一项具有健身特点的水上体育技能项目,集体育性、娱乐性、群众性和观赏性于一体。要使贵州苗族独竹漂具有长久生命力,要借助各种大众传播媒介来宣传、介绍独竹漂的文化价值特性,充分彰显独竹漂自身魅力。要把独竹漂与红色革命传统相契合,展现

  14. FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control. Fresh and barkless large (betung bamboo chips of 2 year's old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO; P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC; P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV; and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO.After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for

  15. Screening for the Interaction Proteins of SOC1 from Phyllostachys violascens Using Yeast Two-Hybrid System%利用酵母双杂交系统筛选雷竹 SOC1相互作用蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘现飞; 施泉; 林新春; 徐英武; 曹友志

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to study the target proteins of suppressor of overexpression of constans1(SOC1)in flowering way of Phyllostachys violaceus and to explore the action mechanism of SOC1. The pGBKT7-PvSOC1 vector was constructed as the bait protein,then the cDNA library of P. violascens flowering was established using SMART technology,and the interaction proteins with SOC1 were screened by yeast two-hybrid system as well as analyzed and identified. The results showed that the cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid was constructed successfully,the conversion rate of the library was about 3.0×106 converters per μg pGADT7-Rec,and the capacity of the library was up to 7.5×106 cfu/mL and the insert fragments were distributed from 0.25 kb to 2 kb. The protein interacted with the bait protein PvSOC1 was screened through the yeast two-hybrid technology. The screened target protein was identified as a protein kinase containing plentiful leucine which amino acid sequence was very conservative in different species,and had the highest affinity with rice.%在雷竹(Phyllostachys violascens)中找到 SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1(SOC1)在开花途径中的作用靶标,进一步探索 SOC1的作用机制。构建 pGBKT7-PvSOC1诱饵表达载体,通过 SMART 技术构建开花时期的雷竹 cDNA文库,酵母双杂交筛选与 SOC1互作的蛋白,并对其进行分析鉴定。结果显示,成功构建了可用于酵母双杂交的 cDNA 文库,文库的转化率为每微克 pGADT7-Rec 3.0×106转化子,文库滴度为7.5×106 cfu/mL,插入片段主要在250-2000 bp 之间。通过酵母双杂交实验得到与诱饵蛋白 PvSOC1相互作用的蛋白,筛选到的靶标蛋白经鉴定是一个富含亮氨酸的蛋白激酶,特征氨基酸序列在不同物种中非常保守,与水稻中的同源蛋白亲缘性最高。

  16. Organic acid exudates from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens with aluminum stress%超高效液相色谱测定铝胁迫下水培毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖坤; 蔡莎艺; 喻卫武; 冷华南; 桂仁意

    2011-01-01

    To develop a simple method to determine the organic acids exuded from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, root exudates were obtained using a water culture method with treatments of 0, 100, 500, 1 000, and 2000 μmol ·L-1 AlCl3 as the culture solution and analyzed through ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) with ultraviolet(UV) detection. The exudate was concentrated in a rotary evaporator, and separation was performed on an ACQUITY (R)UPLC high-strength silica (HSS) T3 C18 column with 3% CH3OH-KH2PO4 (0.01 mol·L-1)(Ph 2.6)(V/V) as the mobile phase of an ACQUITY (R) UPLC system. Analysis included the effect on separation of 4 organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid) using UV detection wavelength, chromatographic column, and the Ph of the mobile phase. Results showed favorable recovery(95%-105%), satisfactory precision (RSD < 2%), and a good linear relationship (0.022-1.100 μg for the 4 organic acids). According to the retention time and the spectrum of the analytes, the organic acids exuded were an oxalic acid and malic acid. The Al3+ ions interacted with organic acid exudates with the strongest interaction when the concentration of AlCl3 was 500 μmol·L-1.%以毛竹Phyllostachys pubescens种子作为实验材料,建立毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸的提取和测定方法,并测定铝胁迫下毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸.以毛竹水培法收集根系分泌物,分别以0,100,500,1 000,2 000 μmol·L-1等5种不同浓度氯化铝溶液作为培养液进行培养,旋转蒸发浓缩、定容;使用ACQUITYTM Ultra Performance LC超高效液相色谱系统,以体积分数为3%的甲醇-磷酸二氢钾(0.01 mol· L-1)(pH 2.6)溶液作流动相,经HSS T3 C18柱分离,考察检测波长、色谱柱、流动相的pH值及分离温度等因素对4种有机酸分离效果的影响.结果表明:样品制备简便,分离效果好,方法的线性范围及精密度、准确度和回收率都能满足毛竹根系分泌物中痕

  17. Photosynthetic Physiological Responses to Allelochemicals of Phyllostachys edulis in Seedlings of Camelia oleifera Abel%油茶幼苗对毛竹化感物质的光合生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 白尚斌; 周国模; 王懿祥; 王楠; 梁倩倩; 沈蕊

    2013-01-01

    为探讨毛竹( Phyllostachys edulis)化感物质如何影响油茶幼苗的光合生理,采用水浸提的方法,用毛竹茎叶、枯落物和根际土壤3种不同的浸提液处理油茶幼苗,以蒸馏水处理作为对照,测定不同质量浓度梯度浸提液处理下油茶幼苗的光合生理特性参数和叶绿素质量分数。结果表明:高质量浓度的毛竹浸提液显著抑制油茶幼苗叶绿素质量分数,低质量浓度则促进,其中0.02 g· mL-1的枯落物浸提液与对照相比增量为7.68%,促进作用达到了极显著水平。毛竹化感物质对油茶净光合速率、气孔导度的影响大体上表现为高质量浓度抑制、低质量浓度促进的效应。油茶幼苗光合生理参数对毛竹化感物质的响应不尽相同,高质量浓度的3种浸提液显著降低了油茶的最大净光合速率,与对照相比分别降低了27.42%、26.97%和21.25%,且抑制作用随着化感物质质量浓度的降低而逐渐减弱,直至转化为促进作用。毛竹化感物质提高了油茶的暗呼吸速率和光补偿点,而对表观量子效率无明显作用。%The experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of allelochemicals of Phyllostachys edulis on photosyn-thetic physiological of Camelia oleifera Abel..With three types of aqueous extracts (stem and leaf, litter, soil), three concentration gradients (0.10, 0.05 and 0.02 g· mL-1 ) were used as different treatments, and the distilled water as the control.The chlorophyll mass fraction showed significant inhibitory effect under higher mass concentration of aqueous ex-tracts, and stimulatory effect under lower content.0.02 g· mL-1 litter extracts showed significant stimulatory effect on chlorophyll mass fraction and the stimulation rate reached 7.68%.Net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were also inhibited at higher content and enhanced at lower content.Allelochemicals of P.edulis had

  18. [Movement-adsorption and its mechanism of Cd in soil under combining effects of electrokinetics and a new type of bamboo charcoal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hui; Luo, Qi-Shi

    2007-08-01

    The characteristics of migration and its influencing factor of cadmium in sandy loam soil by uniform electrokinetics as well as the adsorption property by a new material-bamboo charcoal were investigated through bench-scale experiments, and the feasibility of using electrokinetic technique combined with the newly developed bamboo charcoal for remediation of cadmium contaminated soils was analyzed as well. The results show that the bamboo charcoal is good adsorption material which has comparably strong adsorption effect on Cd, bearing potential in future use, which could be simulated by both Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.96). The migration rates of cadmium in sandy loam were high up to 0. 6786 - 0.6875cm/h under an electric gradient of 1.0V/cm, depending upon the concentration of cadmium and the distribution of electric field density. Electrokinetics effectively transported the heavy metal in the soil. In the new electrokinetic tech combining the bamboo charcoal with the same electric gradient above under the polarity reversal period of 48 hours, the cadmium in the soil could be wiped off with high efficiency (removal efficiency 79.6% in 12 days) and the pH together with water content could be well retained. The electric current in the process changed periodically according to the reversal. As a new technique, the electrokinetic movement-bamboo charcoal adsorption holds high potential in future use. PMID:17926419

  19. 南竹北调及北方竹造景的研究%Study on Planting Southern Bamboo Species in Northern China and Their Landscaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芸

    2011-01-01

    根据竹子的生态、文化及园林价值,在研究南北方地区不同竹种特性的基础上,借鉴江南园林的竹造景优势,提出了南竹北调的建议;分析了适宜北方园林的竹造景设计,为丰富北方地区的竹景观贡献微薄之力。%Based on the ecological, culture and gardening value of bamboo, the paper studied the characteristics of different bamboo species in southern and northern China and proposed to plant southern bamboo species in northern China to learn the landscaping advantage of gardens at the south of the Yangtze River. The paper analyzed the bamboo landscaping designs that are suitable for gardens in the north, which would make contribution to enrich bamboo landscaping in northern China.

  20. Local Bamboo and Earth Construction Potential for Provision of Affordable Structures in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OJI ACHUKA NWOKE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria and other developing countries where reinforced concrete in construction is widely used, the high and steadily increasing cost of steel has made construction very expensive. This, coupled with the political will, usually christened “Nigerian Factor” has made any conceived affordable mass housing program by successive governments a mirage. This development has triggered off the search for alternative and suitable replacement for steel reinforcement in concrete works. This search for a cheaper alternative has led to the exploration of abundant, naturally occurring materials such as bamboo, coconut fibres, sisal and oil palm fibres  which can be obtained locally at low cost and low levels of energy using local manpower and technology. The use of these locally available materials as substitute for the conventional materials in reinforced concrete elements can cut construction costs by as much as between 30% and 80%. Interest in these local materials is heightened by the facts that not only are they considered cheap; they are also “eco-friendly”. Also, the rising level of pollution in the construction industry has called for the adoption of “Eco-structures”, which are constructions that are in harmony with the surroundings and do not violate the environment neither through the chosen building materials nor through the construction methods. Several studies  have shown that contemporary  earth construction has the potentials to address the urban housing crisis in the developing countries. On the other hand there is a wrong perception among the users and the professionals that, ‘earth houses are only used by the poor people’. This paper investigates the information available on bamboo and earth material and their possible use as a low cost sustainable building material in Nigeria  in the light of problem of affordable structure. The findings of  this paper shows that more research has to be done to come up with reasonable

  1. Kinetic Model of Hemicellulose Dissolution during Water Prehydrolysis of Phyllostachys Heterocyclava%楠竹水预水解半纤维素溶出动力学的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽红; 马乐凡; 刘定军; 刘继权; 曾凯; 梁宇婷

    2012-01-01

    以楠竹为原料,在液比1∶10、温度140~170℃、保温时间0~300 min范围内进行了水预水解半纤维素溶出动力学的研究,经数据拟合得到水解反应动力学参数.研究表明,楠竹在140~170℃内,半纤维素水解存在明显的快反应和慢反应,其反应的活化能分别为83.29 kJ/mol和138.79 kJ/mol;温度对水预水解影响很大,在水预水解过程中必须严格控制反应温度,以达到在短时间内去除半纤维素、减少纤维素降解的目的.%Kinetic model of hemicellulose dissolution during water prehydrolysis of phyllostachys heterocyclava under the conditions of temperature 140 ~ 170℃, reaction time of the temperature 0 ~ 300 min and ratio of liquid to solid 10:1 was studied. All experimental data were fitted to get the kinetic parameters. The results showed that the hydrolysis reaction of hemicellulose was clearly divided into fast and slow stages from 140℃ to 170℃ , the activation energys were 83.29 kJ/mol and 138.79 kJ/mol respectively. The reaction temperature had significant influence on the water prehydrolysis process, which must be strictly controlled to achieve the purpose of removing hemicellulose in a short time and reducing the degradation of cellulose.

  2. Simulation of Species Diversity in Phyllostachys edulis Forest Responses to the Habitat Destruction due to Intensive Management%毛竹林物种多样性对集约经营的响应模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清培; 时培建; 王兵; 赵广东; 郭起荣; 杨光耀

    2011-01-01

    From a landscape perspective and based on the theory of island biogeography and its species -area relationship: S = cAz, mathematic ecological models were established to analyze the changes of species diversity in Phyllostachys edulis forests or woody forests responses to the habitat destruction due to intensive management. Here the activity range of species apart from the borders of forests is also considered as a part of the area in the species - area formula. The followings were found: ( 1 ) intensive management had an influence on species diversity in the Ph. edulis forest ( i. e. the larger the area of forest was, the larger the species loss was;the smaller the area of forest was, the smaller the species loss was during intensive management); (2) the expansion to woody forest of the Ph. edulis forest fulfilled the Logistic equation, and the loss of species diversity could reach its limit as time went on.%根据岛屿生物地理学理论及其物种-面积关系:S=cAz,构建数学生态模型,研究集约经营对毛竹林物种多样性的影响.得出两点:(1)竹林生物多样性对集约经营的响应具有一定的面积效应,即原粗放经营竹林的面积越大,物种减少幅度就越大,原竹林越小,物种减少幅度就越小;(2)毛竹林诱导扩张过程符合Logistic方程,随着时间的延长,竹林内物种多样性会达到极限.

  3. Processing method of bamboo tube meat zongzi with tea fragrance%茶香竹筒肉粽的加工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李森; 王平; 杨锋; 杭敏

    2015-01-01

    The tea extracts was added into traditional rice- meat zongzi. The traditional Chinese rice- meat was filled in bamboo tube and packed by bamboo leaves and shaped by boiling. This zongzi with a well-arranged and specific flavor of bamboo aroma, tea aroma, zongzi flavor and meat flavor was obtained. A new kind of rice- meat zongzi was created.%在传统肉粽糯米中添加茶叶提取物,采用竹筒填充、粽叶包扎煮制成型,成品集竹香、茶香、粽香、肉香为一体的层次分明的特殊风味,开发了一种全新的粽子产品。

  4. 移植母竹造林技术及造林成效分析%Mother Bamboo Transplantation Planting Technology and Planting Effect Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍丙芳

    2012-01-01

    Through basic work praetice for many years, mother bamboo transplantation planting and teeding management technology were summarized, compared with afforestation by seedling, effect of mother bamboo transplantation planting in forestry produetion in mountain area was analyzed including higher survival rate, lower total cost. Therefore, mothor bamboo trarsplantation planting was suitable for popularization and application for large scale in mountain area.%通过多年的基层工作实践,总结了母竹移植造林及抚育管理技术,通过与实生苗造林相比,母竹移植造林在山区林业生产中具有造林成活率高、造林总成本低的特点,因此移植母竹造林适宜在山区大面积推广应用。

  5. Acoustical properties of particleboards made from Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper as building construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Karlinasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic panels are used to overcome noise problems; the purpose of this study was to determine the acoustical properties of particleboard made from Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper. The acoustic parameters measured were the transmission loss (TL value and sound absorption coefficient. Particleboards of two different densities (0.5 g/cm3 and 0.8 g/cm3 that were made with three particle sizes (fine, medium, and wool or excelsior were used in this study. The sound TL value was measured in a reverberation room, while the sound absorption coefficient was determined using the impedance tube method. A single-number rating of sound transmission class (STC was determined based on TL measurements. The results showed that sound TL and STC values of medium-density particleboard (0.8 g/cm3 were better than low-density (0.5 g/cm3 board. However, low-density particleboard performed well as sound absorber panels. Generally, the boards absorbed sound at low ( 1000 Hz and reflected sound at middle frequencies. The sound absorption coefficient was better with the fine- and medium-sized particles than with the wool size; meanwhile, boards made from wool- or excelsior-sized particles possessed higher TL and STC values.

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Yu, Xinzhi; Song, Chao; Pang, Xiaoli; Huang, Jing; Li, Yanjun

    2016-10-01

    Biochar produced by biomass pyrolysis has the advantage of carbon sequestration. However, some of the carbon atoms in biochar are not very stable. In this study, the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar was investigated using the atomic ratios of H/C and O/C, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) oxidation spectrophotometric method. The results show that the carbon yield and ratios of H/C and O/C decreased from 71.72%, 0.71, and 0.32 to 38.48%, 0.22, and 0.06, respectively, as the temperature was increased from 300°C to 700°C. Moreover, the main oxygen-containing functional groups gradually decreased, while the degree of aromatization increased accordingly. The biochar showed a better stability at a higher pyrolysis temperature. The proportion of carbon loss, i.e., the amount of oxidized carbon with respect to the total carbon of the biochar, decreased from 16.52% to 6.69% with increasing temperature. PMID:27481469

  7. Hypolipidemic effect of bamboo shoot oil (P. pubescens) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Xia, Daozhong; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Yiyuan

    2010-08-01

    Atherosclerosis and its related complications are the leading causes of death in the West and in many developed countries. This study aims to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of bamboo shoot oil (BSO) in Sprague-Dawley rats. A group of rats had induced hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and fatty liver by being fed with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet for 4 wk. The control group was administered 10 mL distilled water per kg body weight, while the other groups were, respectively, administered 250 mg beta-sitosterol, 250 mg BSO, 500 mg BSO, and 1000 mg BSO per kg body weight by oral gavage. The results demonstrated that BSO could significantly decrease the levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, phytosterol, lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and atherogenic index in serum, and increase the levels of cholesterol in feces. It could also significantly decrease the level of relative liver weight and liver lipids. The pronounced hypolipidemic effects of BSO might be attributed to its ability to inhibit cholesterol absorption and increase cholesterol excretion. These results suggest that consuming BSO may provide benefits in managing hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, BSO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  8. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Yu, Xinzhi; Song, Chao; Pang, Xiaoli; Huang, Jing; Li, Yanjun

    2016-10-01

    Biochar produced by biomass pyrolysis has the advantage of carbon sequestration. However, some of the carbon atoms in biochar are not very stable. In this study, the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the chemical oxidation stability of bamboo biochar was investigated using the atomic ratios of H/C and O/C, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) oxidation spectrophotometric method. The results show that the carbon yield and ratios of H/C and O/C decreased from 71.72%, 0.71, and 0.32 to 38.48%, 0.22, and 0.06, respectively, as the temperature was increased from 300°C to 700°C. Moreover, the main oxygen-containing functional groups gradually decreased, while the degree of aromatization increased accordingly. The biochar showed a better stability at a higher pyrolysis temperature. The proportion of carbon loss, i.e., the amount of oxidized carbon with respect to the total carbon of the biochar, decreased from 16.52% to 6.69% with increasing temperature.

  9. Effects of bamboo salt and its component, hydrogen sulfide, on enhancing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Nam, Sun-Young; Ryu, Ka-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-08-01

    Korean bamboo salt (BS) is known to have therapeutic effects in the treatment of diseases, including viral disease, dental plaque, diabetes, circulatory organ disorders, cancer and inflammatory disorders. However, the effect of BS on immune functions remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to determine the immune‑enhancing effect of BS and its component, hydrogen sulfide, using RAW264.7 macrophages and a forced swimming test (FST) animal model. BS and sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH), a hydrogen sulfide donor, significantly increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α through the activation of nuclear factor‑κB in the RAW 264.7 cells. In an in vivo experiment, BS and NaSH were administered orally once a day for 28 days. After the 28 days, the immobility times in the FST were significantly decreased in the BS and NaSH‑fed groups, compared with the control group. In addition, BS and NaSH induced significant increases in the levels of interferon‑γ, interleukin‑2 and TNF‑α, compared with the control group. Taken together, these results indicated that BS and NaSH may improve immune function.

  10. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Barlow

    Full Text Available Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001 community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  11. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for bamboo industry wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wu, Donglei

    2013-12-01

    Bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW) poses severe environmental problems because of its high organic matter content. In this study, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was applied for BIWW treatment. During the start-up stage, the system presented an effective degradation with a final COD removal of 91%. Compared to the intermittent mode, a higher membrane rejection (45% COD, 60% NH3-N) was obtained when the system was operated continuously. N2 flushing was applied for membrane cleaning, and the cleaning efficiency was significantly influenced by the hydraulic retention time (HRT). While operated under HRT ≥ 5 d, membrane fouling could be effectively controlled. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis indicated the membrane top area suffered the most serious fouling. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed most organic matter in BIWW was eliminated by AnMBR. However, benzene and fluoro derivatives were detected in the permeate as the by-products. PMID:24121371

  12. Isolation and ectopic expression of a bamboo MADS-box gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bo; CHEN Yongyan; YAN Yuanxin; LI Dezhu

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA named DlMADS18 was isolated from the young spikelets of the sweet bamboo, Dendrocalamus latiflorus by RACE. DNA sequence analysis showed that DlMADS18 was composed of full ORF and 3'UTR, but without 5′UTR. The cDNA contained 1039 nucleotides and encoded a putative protein of 249 amino acid residues. The gene displayed the structure of a typical plant MADS box gene, which consisted of an MADS domain, K domain, a short I region, and the C-terminal region. Phylogenetic analysis of plant MADS box genes based on amino acid sequences revealed that DlMADS18 was grouped into the AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6)-like subfamily. It was most likely homologous to the OsMADS6 of rice (Oryza sativa), with 88% sequence identity for the entire amino acid sequences. The DlMADS18 also showed relatively high amino acid sequence identity (59%) to AGL6 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To study the functions of DlMADS18, DlMADS18 cDNA clone driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis plants. Transgenic plants of DlMADS18 exhibited the phenotypes of curled leaves, dwarfism, and early flowering with clustered terminal flowers. These results indicated that DlMADS18 may probably be involved in controlling the flowering time of D. Latiflorus.

  13. ONE MODULO N GRACEFULNESS OF REGULAR BAMBOO TREE AND COCONUT TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ramachandran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A function f is called a graceful labelling of a graph G with q edges if f is an injectionfrom the vertices of G to the set {0, 1, 2, . . . , q} such that, when each edge xy is assigned thelabel |f(x − f(y| , the resulting edge labels are distinct. A graph G is said to be one moduloN graceful (where N is a positive integer if there is a function φ from the vertex set of G to{0, 1,N, (N + 1, 2N, (2N + 1, . . . ,N(q − 1,N(q − 1 + 1} in such a way that (i φ is 1 − 1 (iiφ induces a bijection φ_ from the edge set of G to {1,N + 1, 2N + 1, . . . ,N(q − 1 + 1} whereφ_(uv=|φ(u − φ(v| . In this paper we prove that the every regular bamboo tree and coconut tree are one modulo N graceful for all positive integers N .

  14. Electrical conductivity of oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets obtained from bamboo: effect of the oxygen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K.; Prías Barragán, J. J.; Sangiao, S.; De Teresa, J. M.; Lajaunie, L.; Arenal, R.; Ariza Calderón, H.; Prieto, P.

    2016-09-01

    The large-scale production of graphene and reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) requires low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis methods. We employed a new, simple, cost-effective pyrolytic method to synthetize oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets (OGNP) using bamboo pyroligneous acid (BPA) as a source. Thorough analyses via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides a complete structural and chemical description at the local scale of these samples. In particular, we found that at the highest carbonization temperature the OGNP-BPA are mainly in a sp2 bonding configuration (sp2 fraction of 87%). To determine the electrical properties of single nanoplatelets, these were contacted by Pt nanowires deposited through focused-ion-beam-induced deposition techniques. Increased conductivity by two orders of magnitude is observed as oxygen content decreases from 17% to 5%, reaching a value of 2.3 × 103 S m-1 at the lowest oxygen content. Temperature-dependent conductivity reveals a semiconductor transport behavior, described by the Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. From the localization length, we estimate a band-gap value of 0.22(2) eV for an oxygen content of 5%. This investigation demonstrates the great potential of the OGNP-BPA for technological applications, given that their structural and electrical behavior is similar to the highly reduced rGO sheets obtained by more sophisticated conventional synthesis methods.

  15. Effects of nano bamboo charcoal on PAHs-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bojia; Tao, Xueqin; Huang, Ting; Lu, Guining; Zhou, Zhili; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Nano bamboo charcoal (NBC) has been commonly used in the production of textiles, plastics, paint, etc. However, little is known regarding their effects towards the microorganisms. The effects of NBC on phenanthrene degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B were investigated in the present study. Results showed that the addition of NBC could improve the phenanthrene removal by Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, with removal efficiencies increased by 10.29-18.56% in comparison to the control at 24h, and phenanthrene was almost completely removed at 48h. With the presence of low dose of NBC (20 and 50mgL(-1)), strain GY2B displayed a better growth at 6h, suggesting that NBC was beneficial to the growth of GY2B and thus resulting in the quick removal of phenanthrene from water. However, the growth of strain GY2B in high dose of NBC (200mgL(-1)) was inhibited at 6h, and the inhibition could be attenuated and eliminated after 12h. NBC-effected phenanthrene solubility experiment suggested that NBC makes a negligible contribution to the solubilization of phenanthrene in water. Results of electronic microscopy analysis (SEM and TEM) indicated NBC may interact with the cell membrane, causing the enhanced membrane permeability and then NBC adsorbed on the membrane would enter into the cells. The findings of this work would provide important information for the future usage and long-term environmental risk assessment of NBC. PMID:26655231

  16. Enhanced adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate by bamboo-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Nie, Yao; Du, Ziwen; Huang, Qian; Meng, Pingping; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-23

    A bamboo-derived granular activated carbon with large pores was successfully prepared by KOH activation, and used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from aqueous solution. The granular activated carbon prepared at the KOH/C mass ratio of 4 and activation temperature of 900°C had fast and high adsorption for PFOS and PFOA. Their adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 24h, which was attributed to their fast diffusion in the micron-sized pores of activated carbon. This granular activated carbon exhibited the maximum adsorbed amount of 2.32mmol/g for PFOS and 1.15mmol/g for PFOA at pH 5.0, much higher than other granular and powdered activated carbons reported. The activated carbon prepared under the severe activation condition contained many enlarged pores, favorable for the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. In addition, the spent activated carbon was hardly regenerated in NaOH/NaCl solution, while the regeneration efficiency was significantly enhanced in hot water and methanol/ethanol solution, indicating that hydrophobic interaction was mainly responsible for the adsorption. The regeneration percent was up to 98% using 50% ethanol solution at 45°C. PMID:24721493

  17. Effects of bamboo salt and its component, hydrogen sulfide, on enhancing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Nam, Sun-Young; Ryu, Ka-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-08-01

    Korean bamboo salt (BS) is known to have therapeutic effects in the treatment of diseases, including viral disease, dental plaque, diabetes, circulatory organ disorders, cancer and inflammatory disorders. However, the effect of BS on immune functions remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to determine the immune‑enhancing effect of BS and its component, hydrogen sulfide, using RAW264.7 macrophages and a forced swimming test (FST) animal model. BS and sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH), a hydrogen sulfide donor, significantly increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α through the activation of nuclear factor‑κB in the RAW 264.7 cells. In an in vivo experiment, BS and NaSH were administered orally once a day for 28 days. After the 28 days, the immobility times in the FST were significantly decreased in the BS and NaSH‑fed groups, compared with the control group. In addition, BS and NaSH induced significant increases in the levels of interferon‑γ, interleukin‑2 and TNF‑α, compared with the control group. Taken together, these results indicated that BS and NaSH may improve immune function. PMID:27315400

  18. Development of Methodology to Assess the Failure Behaviour of Bamboo Single Fibre by Acoustic Emission Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Saiful; Gulshan, Fahmida; Ahsan, Qumrul; Wevers, Martine; Pfeiffer, Helge; van Vuure, Aart-Willem; Osorio, Lina; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) was used as a tool for detecting, evaluating and for better understanding of the damage mechanism and failure behavior in composites during mechanical loading. Methodology was developed for tensile test of natural fibres (bamboo single fibre). A series of experiments were performed and load drops (one or two) were observed in the load versus time graphs. From the observed AE parameters such as amplitude, energy, duration etc. significant information corresponding to the load drops were found. These AE signals from the load drop occurred from such failure as debonding between two elementary fibre or from join of elementary fibre at edge. The various sources of load at first load drop was not consistent for the different samples (for a particular sample the value is 8 N, stress: 517.51 MPa). Final breaking of fibre corresponded to saturated level AE amplitude of preamplifier (99.9 dB) for all samples. Therefore, it was not possible to determine the exact AE energy value for final breaking. Same methodology was used for tensile test of three single fibres, which gave clear indication of load drop before the final breaking of first and second fibre.

  19. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles. PMID:27113084

  20. Correlations and adsorption mechanisms of aromatic compounds on a high heat temperature treated bamboo biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Yang, Jingjing; Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Wenhao; Lin, Daohui

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrobenzenes, phenols, and anilines, on a bamboo biochar produced at 700 °C (Ba700) was investigated with the mechanism discussion by isotherm fitting using the Polanyi-theory based Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model. Correlations of adsorption capacity (Q(0)) of organic compounds with their molecular sizes and melting points, as well as correlations of adsorption affinity (E) with their solvatochromic parameters (i.e., π* and αm), on the biochar, were developed and indicating that adsorption is captured by the pore filling mechanism and derived from the hydrophobic effects of organic compounds and the forming of π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions of organic molecules with surface sites of the biochar. The effects of organic molecular sizes and melting points on adsorption capacity are ascribed to the molecular sieving effect and the packing efficiency of the organic molecules in the biochar pores, respectively. These correlations can be used to quantitatively estimate the adsorption of organic compounds on biochars from their commonly physicochemical properties including solvatochromic parameters, melting points and molecular cross-sectional area. The prediction using these correlations is important for assessing the unknown adsorption behaviors of new organic compounds and also helpful to guide the surface modification of biochars and make targeted selection in the environmental applications of biochars as adsorbents.

  1. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  2. High-Density Polyethylene and Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber Composites: Nonisothermal Crystallization Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat-treated bamboo fibers (BFs on nonisothermal crystallization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under nitrogen. The Avrami-Jeziorny model was used to fit the measured crystallization data of the HDPE/BF composites and to obtain the model parameters for the crystallization process. The heat flow curves of neat HDPE and HDPE/heat-treated BF composites showed similar trends. Their crystallization mostly occurred within a temperature range between 379 K and 399 K, where HDPE turned from the liquid phase into the crystalline phase. Values of the Avrami exponent (n were in the range of 2.8~3.38. Lamellae of neat HDPE and their composites grew in a three-dimensional manner, which increased with increased heat-treatment temperature and could be attributed to the improved ability of heterogeneous nucleation and crystallization completeness. The values of the modified kinetic rate constant (KJ first increased and then decreased with increased cooling rate because the supercooling was improved by the increased number of nucleating sites. Heat-treated BF and/or a coupling agent could act as a nucleator for the crystallization of HDPE.

  3. Effect of aging process on adsorption of diethyl phthalate in soils amended with bamboo biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bolan, Nanthi S; He, Lizhi; Lin, Xiaoming; Che, Lei; Tang, Caixian; Wang, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is a carbonaceous sorbent and can be used as a potential material to reduce the bioavailability of organic pollutants in contaminated soils. In the present study, the adsorption and desorption of diethyl phthalate (DEP) onto soils amended with bamboo biochar was investigated with a special focus on the effect of biochar application rates and aging conditions on the adsorption capacity of the soils. Biochar amendment significantly enhanced the soil adsorption of DEP that increased with increasing application rates of biochar. However, the adsorption capacity decreased by two aging processes (alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist). In the soil with low organic carbon (OC) content, the addition of 0.5% biochar (without aging) increased the adsorption by nearly 98 times compared to the control, and exhibited the highest adsorption capacity among all the treatments. In the soil with high OC content, the adsorption capacity in the treatment of 0.5% biochar without aging was 3.5 and 3 times greater than those of the treatments of biochar aged by alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist, respectively. Moreover, constantly moist resulted in a greater adsorption capacity than alternating wet and dry treatments regardless of biochar addition. This study revealed that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of DEP, however, the enhancement of the adsorption capacity was dependent on the soil organic carbon levels, and aging processes of biochar.

  4. Electrical conductivity of oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets obtained from bamboo: effect of the oxygen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K; Barragán, J J Prías; Sangiao, S; De Teresa, J M; Lajaunie, L; Arenal, R; Calderón, H Ariza; Prieto, P

    2016-09-01

    The large-scale production of graphene and reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) requires low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis methods. We employed a new, simple, cost-effective pyrolytic method to synthetize oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets (OGNP) using bamboo pyroligneous acid (BPA) as a source. Thorough analyses via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides a complete structural and chemical description at the local scale of these samples. In particular, we found that at the highest carbonization temperature the OGNP-BPA are mainly in a sp(2) bonding configuration (sp(2) fraction of 87%). To determine the electrical properties of single nanoplatelets, these were contacted by Pt nanowires deposited through focused-ion-beam-induced deposition techniques. Increased conductivity by two orders of magnitude is observed as oxygen content decreases from 17% to 5%, reaching a value of 2.3 × 10(3) S m(-1) at the lowest oxygen content. Temperature-dependent conductivity reveals a semiconductor transport behavior, described by the Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. From the localization length, we estimate a band-gap value of 0.22(2) eV for an oxygen content of 5%. This investigation demonstrates the great potential of the OGNP-BPA for technological applications, given that their structural and electrical behavior is similar to the highly reduced rGO sheets obtained by more sophisticated conventional synthesis methods.

  5. Effect of Operating Conditions on Catalytic Gasification of Bamboo in a Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasit Wongsiriamnuay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic gasification of bamboo in a laboratory-scale, fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of reactor temperature (400, 500, and 600°C, gasifying medium (air and air/steam, and catalyst to biomass ratio (0 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1.5 : 1 on product gas composition, H2/CO ratio, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, and tar conversion. From the results obtained, it was shown that at 400°C with air/steam gasification, maximum hydrogen content of 16.5% v/v, carbon conversion efficiency of 98.5%, and tar conversion of 80% were obtained. The presence of catalyst was found to promote the tar reforming reaction and resulted in improvement of heating value, carbon conversion efficiency, and gas yield due to increases in H2, CO, and CH4. The presence of steam and dolomite had an effect on the increasing of tar conversion.

  6. [Energy flux and energy balance closure of intensively managed lei bamboo forest ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-fei; Jiang, Hong; Zhou, Guo-mo; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-04-01

    By using open-path eddy covariance system and meteorological instruments, an observation was conducted on the sensitive heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature, ground temperature, and precipitation in a intensively managed Lei bamboo forest ecosystem in 2011, with the diurnal and monthly variations of energy flux as well as the distribution pattern of each energy component analyzed, and the Bowen ratio and energy balance closure calculated. The yearly net radiation of the forest ecosystem was 2928. 92 MJ m-2, and the latent heat flux, sensitive heat flux, and soil heat flux were 1384.90, 927.54, and -28.27 MJ m-2, respectively. Both the daily and the monthly variations of the energy components showed a single peak curve. The sensible and latent heat fluxes were 31.7% and 47.3% of the net radiation, respectively, indicating that latent heat flux was the main form of energy loss. The Bowen ratio followed the "U"-shaped pattern, and fluctuated from 0. 285 to 2. 062, suggesting that soil was a heat source. The yearly energy balance closure of the forest ecosystem was 0. 782, and the monthly average was 0.808.

  7. Electrical conductivity of oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets obtained from bamboo: effect of the oxygen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K.; Prías Barragán, J. J.; Sangiao, S.; De Teresa, J. M.; Lajaunie, L.; Arenal, R.; Ariza Calderón, H.; Prieto, P.

    2016-09-01

    The large-scale production of graphene and reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) requires low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis methods. We employed a new, simple, cost-effective pyrolytic method to synthetize oxidized-graphenic nanoplatelets (OGNP) using bamboo pyroligneous acid (BPA) as a source. Thorough analyses via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides a complete structural and chemical description at the local scale of these samples. In particular, we found that at the highest carbonization temperature the OGNP-BPA are mainly in a sp2 bonding configuration (sp2 fraction of 87%). To determine the electrical properties of single nanoplatelets, these were contacted by Pt nanowires deposited through focused-ion-beam-induced deposition techniques. Increased conductivity by two orders of magnitude is observed as oxygen content decreases from 17% to 5%, reaching a value of 2.3 × 103 S m‑1 at the lowest oxygen content. Temperature-dependent conductivity reveals a semiconductor transport behavior, described by the Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. From the localization length, we estimate a band-gap value of 0.22(2) eV for an oxygen content of 5%. This investigation demonstrates the great potential of the OGNP-BPA for technological applications, given that their structural and electrical behavior is similar to the highly reduced rGO sheets obtained by more sophisticated conventional synthesis methods.

  8. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for bamboo industry wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wu, Donglei

    2013-12-01

    Bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW) poses severe environmental problems because of its high organic matter content. In this study, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was applied for BIWW treatment. During the start-up stage, the system presented an effective degradation with a final COD removal of 91%. Compared to the intermittent mode, a higher membrane rejection (45% COD, 60% NH3-N) was obtained when the system was operated continuously. N2 flushing was applied for membrane cleaning, and the cleaning efficiency was significantly influenced by the hydraulic retention time (HRT). While operated under HRT ≥ 5 d, membrane fouling could be effectively controlled. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis indicated the membrane top area suffered the most serious fouling. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed most organic matter in BIWW was eliminated by AnMBR. However, benzene and fluoro derivatives were detected in the permeate as the by-products.

  9. Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Huo, Yunlong; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of different treatments on nutritive value of bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Five treatments were sun-drying (control), ammoniation (5%/dry matter (DM) urea), Ca(OH)2 (4%/DM calcium hydroxide), NaOH (4%/DM sodium hydroxide), and AHP (4%/DM sodium hydroxide plus 1%/DM hydrogen peroxide). The results showed that chemical composition of BSS was greatly changed by chemicals (P AHP (P AHP. Ammoniation had higher (P = 0.03) ammonia-N concentration than the other four treatments. There were significant differences among all treatments on total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.03), propionate (P = 0.01), butyrate concentration (P < 0.01) and C2 /C3 ratio (P = 0.02). Chemical treatments greatly improved effective degradability (ED) of DM (P < 0.01) and ED of NDF (P = 0.06) and ADF (P = 0.07) numerically. Ammoniation got a higher ED of crude protein than control. In conclusion, all chemical treatments greatly improved nutritive value of BSS with highest value obtained from ammoniation, followed by strong alkalization, alkaline hydrogen peroxide and modest alkalization. PMID:26953064

  10. Characterization and behavior of composite hydrogel prepared from bamboo shoot cellulose and β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Luo, Wenchao; Huang, Huihua

    2016-08-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose was derived from bamboo shoot cellulose via chemical modification and was prepared into composite hydrogels by cross-linkage with β-cyclodextrin using epichlorohydrin as crossing agent. The structure of the prepared hydrogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared composite hydrogel was sensitive to surrounding changes in pH value, temperature and ionic strength. Under the surroundings of low temperatures and high pH values, the prepared hydrogel had significant high swelling ratios (23338±988% at 15°C and 6937±112% at pH 8.0, respectively). In the solution of 0.1mol/L NaCl, the hydrogel showed the maximum water retention rate (48.73%). Sodium salicylate was used as the model drug to study the behaviors of hydrogel adsorption and release in simulated intestinal (at pH 7.4) and gastric liquid (at pH 1.8) surroundings. The prepared composite hydrogel exhibited higher drug release ratio in simulated intestinal liquid (63.09% after 380min) than in gastric liquid (22.09% after 400min). These pH responses of the prepared composite hydrogel showed its potential applications, especially as the drug carrier to attain control release of drugs under different surrounding conditions or organs in human body. PMID:27174909

  11. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles.

  12. Floral biology and breeding behavior in the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadgauda, R S; John, C K; Mascarenhas, A F

    1993-12-01

    Floral biology and breeding behavior were studied in the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. The inflorescence in this species is a large branching panicle. Fertile florets are intermixed with smaller sterile ones. There are six stamens. The ovary is stipitate and turbinate. The style is long and the stigma is bifid and plumose. Dendrocalamus strictus is typically dichogamous and protogynous. The gynoecium matures 3-4 days before the androecium, effectively preventing self pollination. Flower bloom, which took place over a period of 2 to 3 h, was dependent on air temperature and only occurred between 0600 and 1300 h. Dendrocalamus strictus is anemophilous. Flowers in the male phase were visited by insects. These insects completely neglected the flowers at the female phase. The insects fed on the pollen and were not pollen vectors. When wind was excluded by enclosing the inflorescences in bags there was no seed set, indicating that cross pollination by wind is necessary for fertilization and that parthenocarpy and apomixis are not occurring in this species. Pollen fertility was about 98% as indicated by staining fresh pollen at the time of anther dehiscence and pollen release with Alexander's stain (Alexander 1969). When placed on a modified Brewbaker-Kwak medium containing 1% glucose, the pollen grains germinated well, and the pollen tubes grew to 15-20 times the diameter of mature pollen grains. Although profound protogyny has its disadvantages in times of sporadic flowering, it can be useful in breeding programs because it eliminates the need for emasculation. PMID:14969995

  13. FAST PYROLYSIS OF ENZYMATIC/MILD ACIDOLYSIS LIGNIN FROM MOSO BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrolysis temperature had a distinct impact on yields of pyrolysis products. As pyrolysis temperature increased, the yield of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran rapidly decreased; however, yields of phenols increased smoothly. It can be obtained that, at the low temperatures (250-400oC, pyrolysis products were mainly 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, and the highest yield was 66.26% at 320oC; at the high temperatures (400-800oC, pyrolysis products were mainly phenols, and yields hit their highest level of 56.43% at 600 oC. A minor amount of acetic acid only emerged at 800°C. Knowledge of pyrolysis products releasing from EMAL and the pyrolysis mechanism could be basic and essential to the understanding of thermochemical conversion of EMAL to chemicals or high-grade energy.

  14. FRW阻燃刨切薄竹的阻燃特性%Fire Retardancy of Sliced Bamboo Veneer Treated by Fire-Retardant FRW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 杜春贵; 李延军; 王清文

    2011-01-01

    采用FRW阻燃剂对刨切薄竹进行阻燃处理,用锥形量热仪(CONE)测定不同载药率下处理材与未处理材的阻燃性能.结果表明:在25 kW·m-2的热辐射功率下,刨切薄竹经FRW阻燃处理后,热释放速率、总热释放量和总烟释放量随着载药率的增大而减小,处理材在燃烧过程中不会出现较高火焰的燃烧过程;处理材与未处理材相比,点燃时间延长,残余物质量增加;FRW阻燃处理刨切薄竹的阻燃和抑烟效果明显.%The sliced bamboo veneer was treated by fire retardant FRW, and the fire retardancy of the treated and untreated sliced bamboo veneer was tested by cone calorimeter under different retentions. The results showed that; at the heat radiation of 25 kW·m-2, heat release rate(HRR) , total heat release(THR)and total smoke release (TSR) of treated sliced bamboo veneer decreased with the increasing of FRW retention, and it doesn' t produce more high flame in burning process, time to ignite(TTI) of treated sliced bamboo veneer was longer, and its residue mass was increased compared with the untreated sliced bamboo veneer; the obvious fire retardation and smoke inhibition effects of the sliced bamboo veneer treated by fire retardant FRW was observed.

  15. ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH ON LOW CARBON FACTORS OF BAMBOO FURNITURE%竹家具低碳因素分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昆; 杨洪君

    2015-01-01

    随着世界范围内的木材资源总量减少及国际社会对低碳环保材料的更加重视,家具制造业也越来越多地将目光转向符合低碳环保理念的竹材料。本文用基于生命周期评价的方法构建了竹集成材茶几的碳足迹研究模型,并以企业生产的竹集成材茶几为例展开数据清单收集和碳足迹计算,明确竹集成材茶几从原料到成品各阶段的碳排放,直观展示竹集成材家具低碳环保优势所在,也为日后竹集成材家具的进一步低碳减排生产提供数据参考。%As the world-wide wood resources dwindling and the international community paying more attention to low carbon materials, furniture manufacturing has increasingly turned to low carbon environmental bamboo material. Carbon footprint research model is constructed of bamboo timber coffee table based on life cycle assessment method and the production of bamboo timber coffee table as an example to expand the list of data colection and calculation of carbon footprint, clear timber bamboo coffee table from raw materials to finished products each carbon emissions stages, intuitive display Glued Laminated Bamboo Furniture low carbon environmental advantages, but also provide data for future reference and further carbon emissions production of bamboo timber furniture.

  16. 上阔下竹混交林对竹林土壤养分的影响%Effects of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest on soil nutrient content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宽; 王福升; 徐爱珍; 汪玉凤

    2015-01-01

    By taking the different proportions moso bamboo and broad-leaved mixed forests[Ⅰ(28.3%),Ⅱ(22.5%),Ⅲ(20.1%)]and moso bamboo pure forest[Ⅳ(0)]in north of Fujian as test materials,the soil nutritional of the forests in different depths were analyzed.The results showed that the soil pH of type Ⅳ was the lowest,the surface soil organic matter and available N,P,and B content of typeⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were significantly higher than those in type Ⅳ(P Ⅲ >Ⅱ >Ⅳ,which showed that the upper broad-leaves forests had some improvements on the soil nutritional of the lower moso bamboo for-est.%以闽北地区不同比例的上阔下竹混交林Ⅰ(28.3%)、Ⅱ(22.5%)、Ⅲ(20.1%)和毛竹纯林Ⅳ(0)为研究对象,对竹林土壤养分进行分析。结果表明:相同坡位之间,类型Ⅳ土壤 pH 最低;类型Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ竹林表层土壤有机质、水解氮、有效磷和有效硼含量均明显高于类型Ⅳ(P <0.05);土壤有效态养分含量之间也存在极显著相关性,各类型毛竹林土壤综合肥力顺序为Ⅰ>Ⅲ>Ⅱ>Ⅳ,表明上位阔叶林对毛竹林土壤肥力具有一定的改善作用。

  17. Comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com ripas de bambu cravejadas de pinos Structural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with pinned bamboo-splints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Braga Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma das deficiências do bambu reforçando vigas de concreto armado está relacionada com deslocamentos relativos entre os dois materiais. A investigação aqui reportada teve como objetivo avaliar experimentalmente a possibilidade de se melhorar o trabalho conjunto bambu-concreto, através do cravejamento de pinos nas ripas de bambu usadas como reforço. Para tanto, oito vigas de concreto foram ensaiadas, das quais seis foram reforçadas com ripas de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro cravejadas de pinos e duas armadas com ripas de bambu sem a presença dos pinos, como referência. Usaram-se dois tipos de pino: de aço ou de bambu, em número de dois, três ou quatro pinos entre nós. Curvas força-deslocamento e força-deformação dos materiais são apresentadas e discutidas, em que os resultados mostraram que a cravação dos pinos produziu um aumento de rigidez das vigas; contudo, o furo feito para colocação do pino reduziu localmente a seção transversal da ripa de bambu e, consequentemente, a resistência última das vigas. Finalmente, resultados similares foram obtidos em vigas reforçadas com pino de aço ou de bambu.One drawback of bamboo as concrete reinforcement beams is the relative displacement between the two materials. The research reported in this paper aimed to experimentally investigate the improvement of bamboo-concrete-bond by means of nailing. Eight concrete beams were tested, six of them reinforced with Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro nailed bamboo-splints and two reference beams, reinforced with bamboo-splints without pins. Steel pins or bamboo pins were used. Two, three and four pins were nailed between bamboo nodes. Load-displacement and load-strain curves are presented and discussed. The results showed that the pins improved the beam stiffness; nevertheless, they reduced locally the transversal section of the bamboo splint and, consequently, the ultimate load. Finally, similar results were showed by beams reinforced

  18. Weibull statistical analysis of tensile strength of vascular bundle in inner layer of moso bamboo culm in molecular parasitology and vector biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cui; Wanxi, Peng; Zhengjun, Sun; Lili, Shang; Guoning, Chen

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo is a radial gradient variation composite material against parasitology and vector biology, but the vascular bundles in inner layer are evenly distributed. The objective is to determine the regular size pattern and Weibull statistical analysis of the vascular bundle tensile strength in inner layer of Moso bamboo. The size and shape of vascular bundles in inner layer are similar, with an average area about 0.1550 mm2. A statistical evaluation of the tensile strength of vascular bundle was conducted by means of Weibull statistics, the results show that the Weibull modulus m is 6.1121 and the accurate reliability assessment of vascular bundle is determined.

  19. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; Qiu, Lihua; Pang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the an...

  20. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

  1. Effect of Ratio of Face to Core Particles on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Particleboard Manufactured from Ethiopian Highland Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYOUM; Kelemwork; PARIDAH; Md.Tahi; WONG; Ee; Ding; RAHIM; Sudin

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of ratio of face to core particles on mechanical and physical properties of oriented strand board produced from Ethiopian highland bamboo.Three-layered oriented particleboards were manufactured with 4 proportions of face to core particles at 750 kg/m~3 target density.Ten percent urea formaldehyde resin was used as a binder.Strength and dimensional stability performances of all boards were assessed based on ISO standards.The results showed that modulus of rupture...

  2. The Bamboo-Eating Giant Panda Harbors a Carnivore-Like Gut Microbiota, with Excessive Seasonal Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Menghui; Fei, Lisong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Huang, He; Bridgewater, Laura C.; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhihe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears. It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes. To find out whether this endangered mammalian species, like other herbivores, has successfully developed a gut microbiota adapted to its fiber-rich diet, we conducted a 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling of the giant panda fecal microbiota. Forty-five ca...

  3. Study on Timber Beams Strengthened with Bamboo Strips%粘贴竹片加固木梁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许清风; 陈建飞; 李向民

    2012-01-01

    木结构使用功能变更或使用荷载增加均可能导致木梁受弯承载力不足,需采用措施进行加固。共进行了6根木梁采用竹片加固的对比试验研究,其中3根为对比试件,3根为粘贴竹片加固木梁试件。研究结果表明:粘贴竹片加固木梁受弯承载力可提高48.0%~83.1%,平均提高69.5%;同时破坏位移亦有所增加。加固木梁跨中截面仍基本符合平截面假定;在相同荷载作用下,加固木梁受拉边缘拉应变和受压边缘压应变明显小于对比试件;不同位置竹片随荷载增加时的应变变化基本一致,且应变值相近。粘贴竹片加固木梁是一种低碳高效的加固技术。%Many timber beams may require strengthening due to either the changing of usage or an increase of loading.This paper reported an experiment in which six timber beams were tested,including three reference unstrengthened timber beams and three timber beams strengthened with bamboo strips.The test results showed that the ultimate flexural strength of timber beams increases by 48.0%-83.1% after strengthened by a few externally bonded small bamboo strips.The stiffness of the strengthened beams also increases significantly.The strain distributions along the height of the strengthened beams at middle-span are nearly linear during the whole loading process,that is,a plan section remained almost plan.The strains in the bamboo strips at different position across the width on the tensile face of the beams are very close.This study showed that strengthening timber beams with bamboo strips is a very promising low-carbon and effective technique.

  4. Transfer printing of regenerated bamboo fabrics%再生竹织物的转移印花

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永庆

    2013-01-01

    介绍了用活性染料湿法在再生竹织物上进行转移印花的原理及活性染料湿法转移印花纸的选择和印制方法,并简述了活性染料湿法转移印花的工艺和设备。%The principle, paper and printing methods of transfer printing on regenerated bamboo fabrics with reactive dyes via wet process were introduced. The transfer printing technique and equipment with reactive dyes via wet process were also briefly discussed.

  5. 竹材料在产品包装低碳设计中的应用分析%Application Analysis of Bamboo Material in Product Packaging Design of Low-carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东

    2012-01-01

    对竹材料在日常生活中的应用进行了梳理,分析了低碳经济时代竹材料的发展趋势。在此基础上,针对人们对产品包装设计的新要求,提出可以用竹材人造板材料、竹纤维复合材料、竹炭和原竹材料等为产品包装低碳设计的新材料,有效降低碳排放量,实现生态环境和产品包装设计发展的双赢。%It combed the application of bamboo material in the daily life, analyzed the development trend of bamboo material in low carbon economy. On this base, with the new demands of the product packaging design with people, it advanced new materials of low carbon bamboo in product packaging design, including bamboo man-made board material, bamboo fiber composite material, bamboo charcoal and bamboo materials, which can effectively reduce the carbon emissions and realize the win-win in the ecological environment and the development of product packaging design.

  6. Water Purification Research on Surface Water Runoff of Bamboo Riparian Buffers%竹林河岸缓冲带对地表径流的水质净化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周义彪; 温德华; 李江; 黄红兰

    2014-01-01

    对赣江上游退耕还林河岸缓冲带(宽度12 m)、退耕还林河岸缓冲带(宽度24 m)和农田河岸缓冲带等3种用地类型河段的水质监测结果显示,消减地表水TN、TP能力大小依次均为退耕还林河岸缓冲带(24 m)>农田河岸缓冲带>退耕还林河岸缓冲带(宽度12 m),表明宽度窄的农田竹林缓冲带具复合结构的功能型实用性,可加强研究与实践推广应用。%Water quality monitoring results on three kinds of land use types of grain bamboo riparian buffers (width 12 m), grain bamboo riparian buffers (width 24 m),farmland bamboo riparian buffers in the upriver of the Ganjiang River showed that the reduction of surface water TN, TP concentration were also followed grain bamboo riparian buffers (width 24 m)>farmland bamboo riparian buffers>grain bamboo riparian buffers (width 12 m). This suggests that farmland bamboo riparian owns functional and practical features on its composite structure, so we should strengthen such research and its practice application.

  7. 现代竹质工程材料的基本性能及其在建筑结构中的应用前景%BASIC PROPERTIES AND PROSPECTS OF MODERN BAMBOO ENGINEERING MATERIALS APPLIED IN BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洋; 张齐生; 蒋身学; 吕清芳; 吕志涛

    2011-01-01

    通过对比分析竹帘胶合板、竹材层积材、竹材重组材等现代竹质工程材料的工艺及基本性能,指出每种材料在建筑结构构件中的应用选择,结合现代竹结构安居示范房的设计与建造实例,分析竹结构的应用前景与优势.竹结构在设计与建造方面都具有非常好的灵活性,具有出色的抗震性能,其最大优势在于绿色、低碳、节能、减排,竹质工程材料能够达到现代结构工程的要求,使得竹结构的大规模推广应用成为可能.%The technologies and basic characteristics of some modern engineering bamboo materials, such as bamboo veneer, bamboo laminated wood and bamboo scrimber, etc., are analyzed and compared with each other to describe their different applications in architectural structural elements. The application outlook and advantages of bamboo structure are discussed according to the design and construction practices of modern bamboo structure demonstration building. Bamboo structure has favorable flexibility and outstanding seismic performance on both design and construction aspects. Its best advantages are green, energy saving and emission reduction. Modem engineering bamboo materials can satisfy the requirements of modern structural engineering,enabling promotion and application of bamboo structure on a large scale.

  8. Decomposition of Different Litter Fractions in a Subtropical Bamboo Ecosystem as Affected by Experimental Nitrogen Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-Hua; HU Hong-Ling; HU Ting-Xing; ZHANG Jian; LIU Li; LI Ren-Hong; DAI Hong-Zhong; LUO Shou-Hua

    2011-01-01

    As an important component of the global carbon (C) budget,litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems is greatly affected by the increasing nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally.We hypothesized that different litter fractions derived from a single tree species may respond to N deposition differently depending on the quality of the litter substrate.To test the hypothesis,a two-year field experiment was conducted using the litterbag method in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in the rainy region of Southwest China.Four N treatment levels were applied:control (no N added),low-N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1),medium-N (150 kg N ha-1 year-1),and high-N (300 kg N ha-1 year-1).We observed different patterns of mass loss for the three P.amarus litter fractions (leaves,sheaths,and twigs) of varying substrate quality in the control plots.There were two decomposition stages with different decay rates (fast rate in early stages and slow rate in the later stages) for leaves and sheaths,while we did not observe a slower phase for the decay of twigs during the 2-year study period.The annual decomposition rate (k) of twigs was significantly lower than that of leaves or sheaths.Addition of N slowed the decomposition of leaves and twigs in the later stages of decomposition by inhibiting the decay of lignin and cellulose,while addition of N did not affect the mass loss of sheaths during the study period.In the decomposition of all three litter fractions,experimental N deposition reduced the net N accumulation in the early stages and also decreased the net N release in the later stages.The results of this study suggest that litter substrate quality may be an important factor affecting litter decomposition in a bamboo ecosystem affected by N deposition.

  9. The Visual Poetry of Chinese Bamboo: Some Notes on Traditional Chinese Xieyi Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maningning C. Miclat

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese painting (Huo Hua which dates back to the Han Dynasty (25 A.D.-135 A.D. has two traditions: the Xieyi and the Gong Pi. Xieyi means "writing the meaning down" and its practitioners are literati artists who execute expressionistic and gestural strokes. Gong Pi painting is known for its application of colors and fine strokes. It is a naturalistic rendition of the subject that imitates the superficial likeness of the world. While Xieyi painting aims to capture the Qi or the vital spirit in the practice of painting and calligraphy,1 the naturalistic rendition of Gong Pi painting exhibits the dexterity of the artist. However, capturing the Qi is a more sophisticated preoccupation as far as the Chinese scholars of the classical times are concerned.Xieyi painting is associated with literati paintings or the Wen Ren Hua practiced by scholars. It includes mainly landscapes, flora and fauna, human figures, and the Si Jun Zi Hua2 or the Four Noblemen Painting. In the Si Jun Zi Hua painting of the Bamboo, the different brushstrokes of Chinese calligraphy are applied.3 Unlike Gong Pi painting, which takes many days or weeks to finish,4 the Xieyi painting is finished in one sitting. A Xieyi painting is composed by the artist on the spot. The blank paper signifies Yin and the brush strokes signify Yang. To balance a composition is to achieve harmony and wholeness. A good composition is achieved when the spirit or the essence of the subject is captured with the masterful brush strokes and a good sense of balance in the composition.In this paper, I will examine the history of Chinese literati painting, its materials, its tradition and milieu, the symbolism of its themes, and its practice in post-Cultural Revolution China.

  10. Morphology and mechanics of the teeth and jaws of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jason B; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2007-08-01

    The teeth of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) are used to clutch soft-bodied prey and crush hard prey; however, the dual function is not evident from tooth morphology alone. Teeth exhibit characteristics that are in agreement with a clutching-type tooth morphology that is well suited for grasping and holding soft-bodied prey, but not for crushing hard prey. The dual role of this single tooth morphology is facilitated by features of the dental ligament and jaw joint. Tooth attachment is flexible and elastic, allowing movement in both sagittal and frontal planes. During prey capture spike-like tooth cusps pierce the flesh of soft prey, thereby preventing escape. When processing prey harder than the teeth can pierce the teeth passively depress, rotating inward towards the oral cavity such that the broader labial faces of the teeth are nearly parallel to the surface of the jaws and form a crushing surface. Movement into the depressed position increases the tooth surface area contacting prey and decreases the total stress applied to the tooth, thereby decreasing the risk of structural failure. This action is aided by a jaw joint that is ventrally offset from the occlusal planes of the jaws. The offset joint position allows many teeth to contact prey simultaneously and orients force vectors at contact points between the jaws and prey in a manner that shears or rolls prey between the jaws during a bite, thus, aiding in processing while reducing forward slip of hard prey from the mouth. Together the teeth, dental ligament, and jaws form an integrated system that may be beneficial to the feeding ecology of C. plagiosum, allowing for a diet that includes prey of varying hardness and elusiveness.

  11. Fluid dynamics of feeding behaviour in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Wilga, Cheryl D; Lauder, George V; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    Although the motor control of feeding is presumed to be generally conserved, some fishes are capable of modulating the feeding behaviour in response to prey type and or prey size. This led to the 'feeding modulation hypothesis', which states that rapid suction strikes are pre-programmed stereotyped events that proceed to completion once initiated regardless of sensory input. If this hypothesis holds true, successful strikes should be indistinguishable from unsuccessful strikes owing to a lack of feedback control in specialized suction feeding fishes. The hydrodynamics of suction feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) was studied in three behaviours: successful strikes, intraoral transports of prey and unsuccessful strikes. The area of the fluid velocity region around the head of feeding sharks was quantified using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The maximal size of the fluid velocity region is 56% larger in successful strikes than unsuccessful strikes (10.79 cm2 vs 6.90 cm2), but they do not differ in duration, indicating that strikes are modulated based on some aspect of the prey or simply as a result of decreased effort on the part of the predator. The hydrodynamic profiles of successful and unsuccessful strikes differ after 21 ms, a period probably too short to provide time to react through feedback control. The predator-to-prey distance is larger in missed strikes compared with successful strikes, indicating that insufficient suction is generated to compensate for the increased distance. An accuracy index distinguishes unsuccessful strikes (-0.26) from successful strikes (0.45 to 0.61). Successful strikes occur primarily between the horizontal axis of the mouth and the dorsal boundary of the ingested parcel of water, and missed prey are closer to the boundary or beyond. Suction transports are shorter in duration than suction strikes but have similar maximal fluid velocity areas to move the prey through the

  12. Factors contributing to deep supercooling capability and cold survival in dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis leaf blades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya eIshikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wintering Sasa senanensis, dwarf bamboo, has been known to employ deep supercooling as the mechanism of cold hardiness in its most of the tissues from leaves to rhizomes. The unique cold hardiness mechanism of this plant was further characterized using current year leaf blades. Cold hardiness levels increased from August (LT20: –11 °C to December (LT20: –20 °C, which coincided with the initiation temperature of low temperature exotherms (LTE detected in differential thermal analyses. When leaf blades were stored at –5 °C for 1-14 days, there was no nucleation of the supercooled tissue units compartmentalized by the longitudinal and transverse veins either in summer or winter. However, only summer leaves suffered significant injury after prolonged supercooling of the tissue units. This may be a novel type of low temperature-induced injury in supercooled state at subfreezing temperatures. When winter leaf blades were maintained at the threshold temperature (-20 °C, a longer storage period (1-7 days increased lethal freezing of the supercooled tissue units. Within a wintering shoot, the second or third leaf blade from the top was most cold hardy and leaf blades at lower positions tended to suffer more injury due to lethal freezing of the supercooled units, which was not correlated with the leaf water content. LTE were shifted to higher temperatures (2-5 °C after a lethal freeze-thaw cycle. The results demonstrate that the tissue unit compartmentalized with longitudinal and transverse veins serves as the unit of supercooling and temperature- and time-dependent freezing of the units is lethal both in laboratory freeze tests and in the field. To establish such supercooling in the unit, structural ice barriers such as development of sclerenchyma and biochemical mechanisms to increase the stability of supercooling are considered important. We discussed these mechanisms in regard to ecological and physiological significance in winter survival.

  13. Stand Structure Change of Phyllostachys pubescens Forest Expansion in Tianmushan National Nature Reserve%天目山国家级自然保护区毛竹扩散过程的林分结构变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白尚斌; 周国模; 王懿祥; 余树全; 李艳华; 方飞燕

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the expansion process of Phyllostachys pubescens population under natural conditions, through setting belt transects in Tianmushan National Nature Reserve, the culm density, DBH, height and age of P. Pubescens were investigated and studied. The results showed that as the expansion distance increased, the culm density decreased, from the highest density of 5 600 individuals/hm to the lowest density of 200 individuals/hm . Within the pure stand, the age of P. Pubescens individuals varied from 1 to 11 years, while the P. Pubescens at the edge and far from the pure forest were mostly 1 to 3 years old. It was found that the P. Pubescens expanded to the surrounding stand had better growth performance that those in pure stand. The results of this study implies that the P. Pubescens population in Tianmushan National Nature Research are ongoing the course of expanding to the surrounding stand, the stands dominated by P. Pubescens are gradually forming.%为了弄清毛竹在自然条件下的扩散过程,通过样带法在天目山国家级自然保护区对毛竹扩散过程的立竹度、胸径、竹高及年龄结构进行了调查研究.结果表明,毛竹在扩散过程中其立竹度无论在垂直方向还是在水平方向上都随着扩散距离增加逐渐减少,立竹度由最大5 600株·hm-2减少到200株·hm-2;在毛竹纯林中由各种年龄的竹子组成(1~11年),年龄结构呈现不均匀性;随着距周边林分越近,主要由年龄较小的竹子组成,一般为1~3年;扩散到周边林分地带的毛竹胸径、株高均比纯林里的生长好.因此,在自然条件下毛竹林正向周边林分扩散,逐渐形成以毛竹为优势种的林分.研究结果为合理科学地经营自然保护区毛竹提供理论依据.

  14. 不同施肥方法对毛竹林冠下多花黄精生长的影响%Effects of different fertilization methods on growth of Polygonatum cyrtonema under Phyllostachys edulis forest' s canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少玲

    2016-01-01

    Polygonatum cyrtonema was cultivated under the canopy of Phyllostachys edulis forests in 2013~2015, the contrast test was carried on growth effect of P. cyrtonema under the canopy of Ph. edulis forests by 3 different fertilization methods of which using potassium chloride compound fertilizer with role-fertilization, and ring-groove fertilization and radial-groove fertilization, and no fertilizer was made as control. Results showed that P. cyrtonema with radial-groove fertilization has the highest growth indicators, the average survival rate, average ground diameter, average height, average root weight were 94.9%, 0.62 cm, 65.1 cm, 1 389.62 kg/hm2, respectively; The indicators were higher than of ring-groove fertilization 4.5%, 12.7%, 9.2%, 16.3%, higher than of role-fertilization 9.5%, 26.5%, 26.5%, 26.9%, 22.5%, respectively, higher than no fertilization (control) 24.5%, 67.6%, 58.8%, 82.9%, respectively.%试验于2013~2015年期间在毛竹林冠下种植多花黄精,连续2年选用氯化钾复合肥采用穴施、环状沟施、放射状沟施3种不同施肥方法和不施肥(对照)进行毛竹林冠下多花黄精生长效果对比试验,结果表明:放射状沟施的多花黄精的各项生长量指标最高,平均保存率、平均地径、平均高度、平均根茎重量分别达94.9%、0.62 cm、65.1 cm、1389.62 kg/hm2;各项指标分别比环状沟施高出4.5%、12.7%、9.2%、16.3%,比穴施高出9.5%、26.5%、26.9%、22.5%,比不施肥(对照)高出24.5%、67.6%、58.8%、82.9%。

  15. Reproductive Behavior and Basic Biology of the Oriental Bamboo-Inhabiting Anoplomus rufipes and a Comparison with Frugivorous Dacinae Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive behaviors and mating systems of the fruit-infesting species of the Dacinae tribes Ceratitidini and Dacini are increasingly well understood, while in the non-frugivorous tribe Gastrozonini, data are lacking. In the present study, the reproductive behavior of Anoplomus rufipes from North Thailand was studied in the field, other behaviors also in the laboratory. A. rufipes mated on young bamboo plants growing in areas destroyed by fire. Exudates of extrafloral nectaries produced by the young bamboo plants provided food for the females. Factors affecting the choice of the mating site were favorable microclimatic conditions and food. Courtship behavior was performed on the upper sides of bamboo leaves and included pheromone calling (abdominal elevation, anal pouch eversion, abdominal pleural distention), anal dabbing, looping flights and a specific lofting/body swaying behavior. The males searched individually for females or formed leks containing up to four males. The reproductive behaviors and lek formation of A. rufipes are compared to other Dacinae (Ceratitis, Bactrocera), and their functions are discussed. Hitherto unknown data on the general biology of A. rufipes are also included. A. rufipes larvae infested living bamboo shoots of Cephalostachyum pergracile, and the observed behaviors of the adults included locomotion, grooming, feeding, oral droplet deposition, bubbling and agonistic behavior. PMID:26512699

  16. 竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究%Studies of Cultivation Technique on Bamboo Powder Ganoderma Lucidum Planted by Imitating Wild Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德峰; 涂建生; 叶财旺; 邱思锋; 蒙绍权; 韩娜

    2016-01-01

    采用竹制品下脚料诸如竹粉等作为培养基主要原料,替代木材进行仿野生栽培灵芝,结果表明,仿野生栽培的竹粉灵芝所含的有效成分与纯天然野生灵芝相似,竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究为灵芝人工栽培节约了大量的林木资源,对于保护自然资源,开发野生灵芝产业有着广阔的前景和意义。%Abstrct:The cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was an fungus planting technology imitating wild condition, which are drawn from bamboo products waste as culture medium to replace wood for producing Ganoderma lucidum. The result showed that effective components of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was very similar to that of pure natural wild Ganoderma lucidum, which also save a lot of forest resources in Ganoderma lucidum cultivation. There was the wide prospects and important significance in cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum, which also opened up a new way in development of wild Ganoderma lucidum industry.

  17. 浙江省竹产业发展现状与对策分析%Present Situation and Strategies of Bamboo Industry Development in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴承; 朱永法

    2012-01-01

      分析了浙江竹产业的发展历程、现状以及其发展优势,剖析当今竹产业主要存在竹林结构不合理、竹资源的科技推广存在断层现象、企业规模小、竹资源市场有待开发和拓宽方面的问题,并分析了这些问题的原因,最后针对所存在的这些问题提出了相应的对策建议。%  Analyzed the shell,situation and advantage of bamboo industry development in zhejiang.Then on the basis of the current situa-tion,several questions being raised,such as the structure of bamboo forest is not reasonable,the science technology promotion of bamboo resources exist fault phenomenon,the scale of forestry enterprise is small,the market of bamboo resources should be developed and broad-en and so on.After that the reasons of these problem have been analyzed.Finally,it according to the forward questions and reasons put for-ward some corresponding countermeasures.

  18. Composition of Bamboo Walls and Compressed Earth Block Walls in a Simple House that Produces Energy Efficient to Heat and Embodied Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentius Totok NOERWASITO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Building materials have a major effect on the depletion of natural resources and energy in the world. Local raw materials are some of the best building materials, which can be found in every location; for example, compressed earth block and bamboo. This study adds to previous studies on compressed earth blocks without using combustion in the same location. The study focused on how to obtain a rural housing design by using compressed earth block walls and bamboo walls, which are adaptive to local materials and climate. Moreover, the ratio of the use of the compressed earth block walls with the walls is also examined to produce optimum embodied energy and heat energy buildings. The method used in this study was to analyze the characteristics of the compressed earth block and bamboo materials used as wall construction. While embodied energy and heat energy were calculated by using simulation model building, the heat energy calculation was found using the Archipak program. The results of the study shows that the optimum wall materials for the embodied energy and heat energy was compressed earth block with an area of 11 m2 and bamboo walls with an area of 19 m2.

  19. STUDY ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BAMBOO REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS%竹筋混凝土梁构件力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关嘉慧; 管民生; 黄健勇; 吴炎海

    2012-01-01

    基于钢筋混凝土结构理论,对竹筋混凝土梁的力学性能进行研究,提出了竹筋混凝土梁的计算方法。对竹筋混凝土梁的配筋、受弯和受剪承载力进行了计算,验算了挠度,并与钢筋混凝土梁进行了对比,为竹筋混凝土构件应用于结构次要部位的可行性提供参考。%Based on the theory of reinforced concrete structures, the mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced concrete beams is studied. The design methods for bamboo reinforced concrete beams are put forward. The reinforcement, moment capacity and shear capacity of bamboo reinforced beams are calculated, and also its deflections. The results are compared with reinforced concrete beams which provide a reference for the feasibility of the use of bamboo reinforced members as a secondary part of concrete structures.

  20. The Use of Biofiltration Technology and 3-dimensional Cubical Bamboo Shelter for Nursery Phase Productivity Improvement of Giant Freshwater Prawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Suantika

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to know the effect of nitrifying bacteria and Chlorellasp. addition and different number of 3-dimensional cubical bamboo shelter in enhancing growth performance of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man during nursery phase in indoor system. During28 days of culture, treatment II (4 shelters addition~40% culture volume occupation resulted in better prawn growth and culture performance compared to control (no shelter addition (p<0,05. At the end of experiment, treatment II shown the highest biomass, SGR, mean body weight and length of the prawn with (1.96+0.05 g.cage-1, 8.24%BW.day-1, (2.18 +0,89 g and (6.50 +0.91 cm, respectively. However, the results were not significantly different compared to treatment I (2 shelters addition~20%culture volume occupation. Survival rate the two treatments (treatment I="90"%, and treatment II="92"% was significantly higher compared to control (78%. During the experiments, increase of ammonium concentration and nitrate can be controlled and maintained by addition of nitrifying bacteria and microalgae which can keep the microbial loop between ammonium reduction by bacteria and nitrate uptake by microalgae in balance. Addition of nitrifying bacteria and microalgae and also availability of 40% bamboo shelter occupation in the culture can enhance prawn culture productivity.

  1. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  2. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  3. Germination Ecology of Arundinaria alpina (K. Schum. and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich. Munro Seeds: Indigenous Bamboo Species in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinsae Bahru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Highland bamboo (Arundinaria alpina and lowland bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica are indigenous to Ethiopia and endemic to Africa. Seeds of A. alpina were collected from Dawa Wereda (District, while O. abyssinica seeds were collected from Pawe and Sherkole Weredas. In this study, seed presowing treatments, effects of dry heat, moist heat, and light/dark treatments on the germination of seeds were tested. The averages were of 59,416 and 8,393 seeds contained within 1 kg of A. alpina and O. abyssinica seeds within 86 and 91% pure seeds, respectively. From 1 kg of pure seeds 37,301 and 7,168 seedlings are raised in the laboratory in their respective orders. The result revealed that control seeds of A. alpina and O. abyssinica showed the best germination of 73 and 98%. Germination of both dry and moist heat treatments of O. abyssinica seeds was significantly improved at 60 and 80°C. Unlike A. alpina seeds, seeds of O. abyssinica had better germination for light treatment compared to dark. For effective large scale plantation and raising of A. alpina and O. abyssinica seedlings from its seeds for laboratory, control seeds supply to necessary light source (for O. abyssinica seeds is recommended.

  4. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N•ha‑1•yr‑1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.

  5. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, G. A.; Cruz, R. A.; Chávez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves.

  6. Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium Hybrid Composites Reinforced with Silicon Carbide and Bamboo Leaf Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Alaneme

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability of developing low cost – high performance Al matrix hybrid composites with the use of bamboo leaf ash (an agro waste ash and silicon carbide as complementing reinforcements was investigated. Silicon carbide (SiCparticulates added with 0, 2, 3, and 4 wt% bamboo leaf ash (BLA were utilized to prepare 10 wt% of the reinforcing phase with Al-Mg-Si alloy as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Microstructural characterization, mechanical properties evaluation and corrosion behaviour were used to assess the performance of the composites. The results show that the hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation of the hybrid composites decrease with increase in BLA content. The fracture toughness of the hybrid composites were however superior to that of the single reinforced Al - 10 wt% SiC composite. Only the 2 wt % BLA containing hybrid composite had specific strength value comparable to that of the single reinforced composite. In 5wt% NaCl solution, it was observed that the 2 and 3 wt % BLA containing hybrid composites had higher corrosion resistance in comparison to the single reinforced Al - 10 wt% SiC composite but the reverse trend was observed in 0.3M H2SO4 solution where the single reinforced had superior corrosion resistance.

  7. Anti-fatigue activity of a triterpenoid-rich extract from Chinese bamboo shavings (Caulis bamfusae in taeniam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yao, Xiaobao; Bao, Bili; Zhang, Ying

    2006-10-01

    The anti-fatigue activity of a pentacyclic triterpenoid extract from bamboo shavings (EBS) from the bark of bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides Munro), was evaluated in BALB/c mice. EBS, isolated by the supercritical CO(2) fluid extraction (SFE) technique, was given to mice at concentrations of 0.04 (low-dose group), 0.08 (middle-dose group) and 0.25 g/kg body weight (high-dose group). The anti-fatigue activity of EBS was estimated by the change in body weight, weight-loaded swimming test and climbing test, and corresponding parameters including serum urea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid were measured. The results showed that an appropriate level of EBS could prolong the weight-loaded swimming and climbing time, and had an active effect on the serum urea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid level in BALB/c mice, which significantly embodied the anti-fatigue activity of EBS. Overall, it is predicted that EBS, being a composition mainly containing a group of pentacyclic triterpenoids, and its main triterpenoid components have great potential for application in relevant fields for its anti-fatigue activity. PMID:16886233

  8. A novel application of modified bamboo charcoal to treat oil-containing wastewater and its modified mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cui; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Shucong; Feng, Yi; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Three conventional coalescence filters including walnut shells (WS), polystyrene resin particles (PR), and quartz sand (QS) were compared with bamboo charcoal (BC) to treat oily wastewater in a coalescence system process. The results showed the order of oil removal efficiency was QS>BC>WS>PR. To improve the oil removal efficiency of BC further, six types of modified BC were prepared. The results showed that the modified BC using silane coupling agent (SCA) significantly increased oil removal efficiency, but the other types (including the use of NaOH, HNO3, H2O2, FeCl3 and ultrasound) of modified BC exhibited nearly the same level of efficiency as that of pure BC. Infra-red, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle for modified BC were measured to reveal the modified mechanism. It was found that the higher oil removal efficiency of the SCA-modified BC occurred due to the changed crystal structure of the BC and the increase in its surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in higher oil removal efficiency. Therefore, modified bamboo charcoal is an attractive filter candidate for oil removal in a coalescence system process. PMID:25521135

  9. Specific in situ visualization of the pathogenic endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take, the cause of witches' broom in bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches' broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host. PMID:19465522

  10. 楠竹加筋复合锚杆内部界面黏结滑移模型%Bond-slip model for bamboo-steel cable composite anchor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎元; 王晓东; 王旭东; 吕擎峰; 张艳军

    2011-01-01

    楠竹加筋复合锚杆己经应用于中国西北丝绸之路上留存的古代土遗址保护加固工程中.该锚杆截面积大,可以获得足够大的锚固力.针对现场拉拔试验中钢绞线从内黏结剂中拔出的破坏形式,设计了专门的试件及夹具,试验研究了钢绞线与内黏结剂间的力学行为.试验结果表明,钢绞线与内黏结剂的黏结滑移分为指数上升阶段、软化下降阶段和残余应力阶段3个阶段,可以用简化模型和精确模型描述.试验还表明,钢绞线与内黏结剂接触界面上应力分布不均匀,靠近加载端的应力较大,且有应力峰,应力峰随荷载的逐渐增大向远离加载端的方向移动;钢绞线与内黏结剂间平均剪切应力随锚杆的长度增大呈指数衰减.通过理论分析,给出了界面黏结滑移微分方程及相关曲线,结果表明,钢绞线轴力及界面相对滑移沿钢绞线均呈不均匀分布,且随着距加载端的距离增加其值急剧下降,该规律可以指导锚杆设计及工程应用.%t The bamboo-steel cable composite anchor (BSCC anchor) is a new anchor with phyllostachys heterocyclavar as pipe material, and was applied to reinforce earthen ruins bequeathed on the ancient silk road in Northwest China which can get high anchorage strength due to its big cross-section.Field test illustrated that the failure of BSCC anchor was characterized by pulling-out of steel strand from inner binder.In order to understand the working mechanism between inner binder and steel strand laboratory tests were conducted on four species of specimens, to investigate the bond-slip property between them.The test resuks indicate that there are three stages for the bond-slip process between inner binder and steel strand which are exponential-enhancing stage,softening-declining stage and residual stress stage.Moreover, the length of softening-declining stage is short, and the bond-slip process can be described by a simplified model and an

  11. 大气O3浓度升高对毛竹光合生理的影响%Impacts of elevated atmospheric ozone concentration on the photosynthetic physiology of Phyllostachys edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎春; 李应; 陈双林; 庄明浩; 郭子武; 杨清平

    2013-01-01

    In this study, open-top chambers (OTCs) were employed to approach the impacts of elevated atmospheric ozone ( O3) concentration on the photosynthesis of Phyllostachys edulis. Five treatments were installed, i. e. , CF (background atmosphere after filtrated by activated car-bon, 22-25 nL·L-1) , NF (directly introduce the background atmosphere to the gas chamber, 40-45 nL·L-1) , T, (92-106 nL·L-1 of O3, averagely 100 nL·L-1) , T2( 142-160 nL·L-1 of O3, averagely 150 nL·L-1). Under different O3 concentrations, the diurnal variations of P. edulis leaf Pn and Tr represented one-peak curves. With the increasing concentration of O3, the diurnal variations of the leaf Gs, Ci, and Ls trended to be simplified, while that of WUE be-came stable gradually. Under higher concentrations (≥100 nL·L-1)O3, the diurnal means of Pn, Ls, and WUE and the contents Chl, Chl-a, Chl-b, and Car decreased significantly, those of Gs and Tr had a significant increase, while the diurnal mean of Ci and the composition of photo-synthetic pigment changed less. In treatments T1 and T2, the Pn, Tr, and Gs were significantly correlated with the environmental factors FpdL, Tair, Ca and RH, and the Pn and Tr were signifi-cantly correlated with the PPED while the Gs was less correlated with the PPED. All the results indicated that 100 and 150 nL·L-1 of O3 could induce the leaf stomatal or non-stomatal limita-tion of P. edulis, respectively, and the stoma became insensitive to the environment, which im-pacted the leaf' s normal feedback mechanisms, increased leaf evapotranspiration, and inhibited the degradation or synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, exerting serious negative effects on the photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation of P. edulis.%以毛竹(phyllostachys edulis)为试材,运用开顶式气室(OTCs)模拟了4个大气O3浓度情景,分别为CF(背景大气经活性炭过滤后的处理,22~25 nL·L-1)、NF(直接将背景大气输入气室内,40~45 nL·L-1)、T1(O3

  12. 脱水竹笋加工新工艺研究%Study on new processing technology for dried bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐; 王洪新

    2011-01-01

    通过对脱水竹笋加工的研究,确定笋干新工艺如下:将清洗切分好的竹笋于0.15%柠檬酸(W/V)中热烫护色,然后于5%氯化钠(W/V)+10%葡萄糖(W/V)渗透处理60min,最终选择在50℃下热风干燥。通过验证实验可知,采用上述工艺干燥竹笋14h左右,可得到贮藏期较长、护色效果良好的笋干。与一般加工方式相比,采用此法加工笋干可得到更加安全卫生、营养美味的产品。%The new processing technology of dried bamboo shoots was established as follows:after color protection blanching by 0.15% citric acid(W/V),the clean bamboo shoots was done osmotic treatment in 5% sodium chloride(W/V)+10% glucose(W/V)for 60min,and at last,the bamboo shoots was drying by hot air at 50℃.It was showed that,after 14h treatment by above processing technology,the dried bamboo shoots could get a longer storage period and a good color protection.Compared with the general processing methods,the new technology could product more safe and nutritious and delicious dried bamboo shoots.

  13. 氧气含量对竹材炭化特性的影响%Impact of Oxygen Content on Carbonization Characteristics of Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志威; 潘一凡; 王美玲; 周飞

    2012-01-01

    竹材炭化过程中,炭化温度和炭化时间是两个十分重要的工艺参数,同时炉内的氧气含量对竹材炭化也会产生较大影响。通过传感器实时测定并控制炉内氧分压,研究炉内氧含量对竹材炭化的影响。结果表明,随着炉内氧分压增加,得炭率下降。用电子显微镜和能谱仪分析观察竹炭的微观结构和残留物成份,揭示竹炭蜂窝状的微观结构;随着炉内氧分压增加,竹炭孔径变大,表明炭化过程中氧含量影响竹材炭化过程中细胞的收缩。%Carbonization temperature and time are two essential parameters during bamboo carbonization, and the oxygen content in the furnace also has a greater impact on bamboo carbonization. In this paper, the oxygen partial pressure was controlled and tested by measurement sensors in real time. And the impact of furnace oxygen content on bamboo charcoal was studied. Results show that char yield was decreased with the increasing of the oxygen partial pressure in furnace. The microstructure and composition of the bam- boo charcoal were analyzed and observed by field-emission scanning electronic microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy, which revealed the microscopic structure of bamboo charcoal honeycomb. The average diameter of holes inside of bamboo charcoal becomes larger with the increasing of oxygen partial pressure in furnace, showing that the cell contraction are influenced by the oxygen partial pressure.

  14. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m2/g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m2/g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m2/ g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m2/ g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  15. Effects of phosphorus application on photosynthetic carbon and nitrogen metabolism, water use efficiency and growth of dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa) subjected to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenggang; Wang, Yanjie; Pan, Kaiwen; Jin, Yanqiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), one of the staple foods for the endangered giant pandas, is highly susceptible to water deficit due to its shallow roots. In the face of climate change, maintenance and improvement in its productivity is very necessary for the management of the giant pandas' habitats. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant responses to water deficit are poorly known. To investigate the effects of P application on photosynthetic C and N metabolism, water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of dwarf bamboo under water deficit, a completely randomized design with two factors of two watering (well-watered and water-stressed) and two P regimes (with and without P fertilization) was arranged. P application hardly changed growth, net CO2 assimilation rate (P(n)) and WUE in well-watered plants but significantly increased relative growth rate (RGR) and P(n) in water-stressed plants. The effect of P application on RGR under water stress was mostly associated with physiological adjustments rather than with differences in biomass allocation. P application maintained the balance of C metabolism in well-watered plants, but altered the proportion of nitrogenous compounds in N metabolism. By contrast, P application remarkably increased sucrose-metabolizing enzymes activities with an obvious decrease in sucrose content in water-stressed plants, suggesting an accelerated sucrose metabolism. Activation of nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes in water-stressed plants was attenuated after P application, thus slowing nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation. P application hardly enlarged the phenotypic plasticity of dwarf bamboo in response to water in the short term. Generally, these examined traits of dwarf bamboo displayed weak or negligible responses to water-P interaction. In conclusion, P application could accelerate P(n) and sucrose metabolism and slow N metabolism in water-stressed dwarf bamboo, and as a result improved RGR and alleviated damage from soil

  16. A Research on Processing Technology of a Refreshing Bamboo Juice Beverage%竹沥清凉饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋苏娟; 陈佩; 李运通; 唐群凤

    2014-01-01

    A bamboo juice beverage was made using fresh Sinocalamus affinis bamboo juice as the main raw material,and licorice,xylitol and citric acid as the auxiliary ones. A research was carried out on the production technology of the bever-age through sensory evaluation and orthogonal and single-factor experiments to determine the optimum ratio of these mate-rials. The results showed that the optimal technological process for extracting Sinocalamus affinis included soaking for 60min at normal temperature,bamboo-water ratio 1∶20 and extraction for 60min in 90℃bath. The optimum formula of the functional bamboo juice beverage was as follows:fresh bamboo juice 70%,licorice extract 10%,citric acid 0.08%and xylitol 0.80%.%以慈竹中提取的鲜竹沥为主要原料,甘草、木糖醇、柠檬酸为辅料。通过感官评定、单因素实验及正交试验,研究竹沥清凉饮料的生产工艺,确定最佳原辅料配比。结果表明,浸提慈竹的最佳工艺参数为常温浸泡60min、料液比1∶20、90℃恒温水浴、提取60min。竹沥功能性清凉饮料的最佳配方为鲜竹沥70%、甘草液10%、柠檬酸0.08%、木糖醇0.80%。

  17. 竹纤维/聚乳酸复合材料界面调控%Interface control of bamboo fibers/polylactic acid composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新功; 郑霞; 吴义强

    2012-01-01

    The interface of the bamboo fibers/polylactic acid was controlled by alkali(NaOH) treatment,isocyanate(MDI) treatment and NaOH+MDI treatment,respectively.The results show that the NaOH treatment could further refine bamboo fibers and increase specific surface area,realizing the physical control of bamboo fibers/polylactic acid composites interface;MDI treatment could realize the chemical control of bamboo fibers/polylactic acid composites interface.All of the three kinds of the interface control methods could improve the mechanical properties of bamboo fibers/polylactic acid composites,among which NaOH+MDI treatment has the best positive effects on the interface properties of the composites,the tensile strength and impact strength of the bamboofibers/polylactic acid composites with interface control are increased 36.9% and 36.5%,respectively.%分别采用碱(NaOH)处理、异氰酸酯(MDI)处理以及NaOH+MDI处理的界面调控方法对竹纤维/聚乳酸复合材料界面进行调控。结果表明,NaOH处理可以进一步细化竹纤维,增加比表面积,实现对竹纤维/聚乳酸复合材料界面的物理调控;MDI处理能够实现对复合材料界面的化学调控;三种界面调控方法均可以改善竹纤维/聚乳酸复合材料的力学性能,而NaOH+MDI界面调控效果最佳,调控处理后复合材料拉伸强度和冲击强度分别增加了36.9%和36.5%。

  18. Isolation and characterization of two Meira geulakonigii strains with different colonymorphologies from Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹上两株不同菌落形态的格氏梅拉菌Meira geulakonigii菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金群英; 彭华正; 李海波; 李楠; 华锡奇

    2010-01-01

    The genus Meira originally discovered from cadavers of the citrus rust mite contains anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the Exobasidiomycetidae of the Ustilaginomycetes.Although their endophytic nature in plants is later verified,the host range,regional distribution and growth characteristics of Meira species in plants are still poorly understood.In this study,two new strains(PM1 and PM2)of Meira geulakonigii,the type species of Meira,were isolated from bamboo for the first time.They were physiologically and morphologically characterized and compared with two M.geulakonigii isolates PFS004 and AS004 which were reported previously.Strains PM1 and PM2 exhibited different hypha formation ability.They were closer to AS004 molecular-phylogenetically but closer to PFS004 physiologically.These two isolates axe possibly valuable for further studies on hypha formation and functions of Meira species in bamboo.%格氏梅拉菌 Meira geulakonigii最早是在柑桔锈螨病的枯枝中发现的,它是一种担子菌类酵母样无性态真菌,归属于黑粉菌纲外担子菌亚纲.目前仅了解这种真菌在植物中的生长状态,关于它的宿主范围、区域分布和生长特性依然知之甚少.首次从竹子中分离了两株新的Meira geulakonigii菌株(PM1和PM2),并且更深一步地描述了他们的生理特性,尤其着重表述了菌丝体的独特生长现象.与先前报导的两株M.geulakonigii菌株PFS004和AS004相比较,PM1和PM2在分子系统上与AS004更相近,而生理现象与PFS004更相似.这两株菌株的成功分离可能有助于毛竹中Meira真菌菌丝体形成和功能的进一步研究.

  19. 竹类旅游资源的分类与评价体系构建%The Establishment of the Classification and Evaluation System of Bamboo Tourism Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡碧凡

    2011-01-01

    在评述竹类资源、旅游资源分类和评价的相关研究基础上,对竹类旅游资源进行了界定和特征分析,将竹类旅游资源划分为3个主类、7个亚类和53个基本类型,构建了竹类旅游资源分类体系.通过层次分析法,构建了竹类自然和人文景观资源评价体系和等级评价标准.采用国家相关标准对竹林生态环境资源进行评价,确立了相应的等级评价标准.研究将为科学分类和评价竹类旅游资源,设计竹类旅游产品、确定资源开发强度与规模提供依据.%Based on the review of bamboo resources, the classification and evaluation of tourism resources, the bamboo tourism resources were defined and their characteristics were analyzed. A classification system of bamboo tourism resources was established, which includes three main categories, 7 sub-categories and S3 basic types. Using AHP method, an evaluation system and the standard of natural and cultural bamboo tourism resources was established. Furthermore, related national standards were adopted to establish corresponding evaluation standard for bamboo ecological resource. Finally, the quality of bamboo tourism resources was divided into five levels in reference to related national standards. This research may provide a certain basis for the design of bamboo tourism product and the determination of the intensity and scale of bamboo resources development.

  20. Spinning of Cotton Hemp Bamboo Fiber Blended Yarn%棉汊麻竹浆纤维混纺纱的纺制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙治海

    2011-01-01

    To spinning cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn,hemp fiber were reconditioned and pretreated. Processing of raw material blending was selected to improve spinnability. Raw material feed ratio was controlled rationally, waste percentages in comb process, opening and picking process were controlled well to ensure yam blending ratio. Drawing processing was adjusted rationally to improve draw sliver evenness. In spinning less nipper gauge was used, new top pin was adopted to reduced float area and increase yarn quality. In winding process, winding tension and electronic yarn clearer parameter were selected rationally to ensure winding shape,finally cotton/hemp/bamboo 50/25/25 29. 2 tex blended yarn was spun successfully. It is pointed out quality demand of cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn can be ensured only to adjust technology measures in each process according to hemp property.%为纺制棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱,对汉麻纤维进行养生及预分梳处理;选用原料混和工艺改善可纺性;合理控制原料投料比例并控制开清棉与梳棉落棉率,保证成纱混纺比;并条工序合理调整工艺,提高熟条条干;细纱工序使用小钳口隔距,使用新型上销,缩短浮游区,以提高成纱质量;络筒工序选择适当的电清参数和络纱张力,以保证成形良好,结果顺利纺制出棉/汉麻/竹浆50/25/25 29.2 tex混纺纱.指出:只有针对汉麻纤维特点调整各工序纺纱技术措施,方能纺制出符合质量要求的棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱.