WorldWideScience

Sample records for bamboo phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

  1. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    CERN Document Server

    Crow, E

    2000-01-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of...

  2. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-D-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  3. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akinobu; Zhu, Qinchang; Tan, Hui; Horiba, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Mori, Yasuhiro; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Iwamoto, Akira; Kawahara, Hiroharu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-06-18

    Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  4. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  5. Development of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Phyllostachys edulis (Poaceae, an Important Bamboo Species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Xin Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Phyllostachys edulis (Poaceae, an ecologically and economically important bamboo species in China, to evaluate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of P. edulis and other Phyllostachys species. Methods and Results: Twenty microsatellite markers were developed and their polymorphisms were tested on 71 samples from three geographically disparate populations. Each locus exhibited between two and 10 alleles with an average of five alleles. Excluding monomorphic loci, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from zero to one and from 0.041 to 0.676, respectively. Conclusions: These 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for studies on the molecular ecology, population genetics, and conservation of P. edulis.

  6. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huayu; Li, Lichao; Lou, Yongfeng; Zhao, Hansheng; Gao, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to play a major role in maintaining water and hydraulic conductivity balance in the plant system. Numerous studies have showed AQPs execute multi-function throughout plant growth and development, including water transport, nitrogen, carbon, and micronutrient acquisition etc. However, little information on AQPs is known in bamboo. In this study, we present the first genome-wide identification and characterization of AQP genes in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) using bioinformatics. In total, 26 AQP genes were identified by homologous analysis, which were divided into four groups (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, and SIPs) based on the phylogenetic analysis. All the genes were located on 26 different scaffolds respectively on basis of the gene mapped to bamboo genome. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Ph. edulis was more close to Oryza sativa than Zea mays in the genetic relationship. Besides, qRT-PCR was used to analyze gene expression profiles, which revealed that AQP genes were expressed constitutively in all the detected tissues, and were all responsive to the environmental cues such as drought, water, and NaCl stresses. This data suggested that AQPs may play fundamental roles in maintaining normal growth and development of bamboo, which would contribute to better understanding for the complex regulation mechanism involved in the fast-growing process of bamboo. Furthermore, the result could provide valuable information for further research on bamboo functional genomics.

  7. Surface runoff and nitrogen (N) loss in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest under different fertilization regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qichun; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Wang, Jinwen; Song, Qiujin; Xue, Qiaoyun; Yu, Yan; Lin, Xianyong; Hussain, Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural fields have been extensively studied. In contrast, surface runoff and N losses have rarely been considered for bamboo forests that are widespread in regions such as southern China. The thriving of bamboo industries has led to increasing fertilizer use in bamboo forests. In this study, we evaluated surface runoff and N losses in runoff following different fertilization treatments under field conditions in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest in the catchment of Lake Taihu in Jiangsu, China. Under three different fertilization regimes, i.e., control, site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), and farmer's fertilization practice (FFP), the water runoff rate amounted to 356, 361, and 342 m(3) ha(-1) and accounted for 1.91, 1.98, and 1.85% of the water input, respectively, from June 2009 to May 2010. The total N losses via surface runoff ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 kg ha(-1). Compared with FFP, the SSNM treatment reduced total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) losses by 31 and 34%, respectively. The results also showed that variations in N losses depended mainly on runoff fluxes, not N concentrations. Runoff samples collected from all treatments throughout the year showed TN concentrations greater than 0.35 mg L(-1), with the mean TN concentration in the runoff from the FFP treatment reaching 8.97 mg L(-1). The loss of NO3(-)-N was greater than the loss of NH4(+)-N. The total loss of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) reached 23-41% of the corresponding DN. Therefore, DON is likely the main N species in runoff from bamboo forests and should be emphasized in the assessment and management of N losses in bamboo forest.

  8. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-09-15

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth.

  9. Effect of lead (Pb) on antioxidation system and accumulation ability of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zhong; Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The antioxidation system and accumulation ability of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), which is a valuable remediation material with large biomass and rapid growth rate were studied in hydroponics and pot experiments. In hydroponics experiment, TBARS concentrations and SOD activities decreased with increase of Pb treatments. The activities of POD boost up with elevated Pb treatments, and reached peak level with application of 400μM Pb. Proline concentrations reduced with application of 20μM Pb and then enhanced consistently with application of 100 and 400μM Pb. The biomass of Moso bamboo improved with increase of Pb treatments upto 400mgkg(-1), and then decreased with application of each additional increment of Pb in pot experiment. Application of 800mgkg(-1) Pb showed significant increase of photosynthetic pigments, however, non significant variation was observed for other treatments. The Pb concentration in roots, stems and leaves attained 523mgkg(-1), 303mgkg(-1) and 222mgkg(-1) respectively with application of 1600mgkg(-1) Pb compared with control. Analysis of TEM-EDX revealed that Pb in cell was mostly concentrated in cytoplasm then in cell wall and followed by vacuole. It is concluded that Moso bamboo may be potential remediation species for phytoremediation in low Pb contaminated soils.

  10. Lead accumulation and tolerance of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings: applications of phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Song; Islam, Ejazul; Chen, Jun-ren; Wu, Jia-sen; Ye, Zheng-qian; Peng, Dan-li; Yan, Wen-bo; Lu, Kou-ping

    2015-02-01

    A hydroponics experiment was aimed at identifying the lead (Pb) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings grown under different Pb treatments. Experimental results indicated that at the highest Pb concentration (400 μmol/L), the growth of bamboo seedlings was inhibited and Pb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached the maximum of 148.8, 482.2, and 4282.8 mg/kg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the excessive Pb caused decreased stomatal opening, formation of abundant inclusions in roots, and just a few inclusions in stems. The ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy revealed that the addition of excessive Pb caused abnormally shaped chloroplasts, disappearance of endoplasmic reticulum, shrinkage of nucleus and nucleolus, and loss of thylakoid membranes. Although ultrastructural analysis revealed some internal damage, even the plants exposed to 400 µmol/L Pb survived and no visual Pb toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis were observed in these plants. Even at the highest Pb treatment, no significant difference was observed for the dry weight of stem compared with controls. It is suggested that use of Moso bamboo as an experimental material provides a new perspective for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil owing to its high metal tolerance and greater biomass.

  11. Alkali extraction and physicochemical characterization of hemicelluloses from young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Luo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two hemicellulose fractions were obtained by extraction of one-month- old young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel. The fractionation procedure employed 2% NaOH as extractant, followed by filtration, acidification, precipitation, and washing with 70% ethanol solution. The total yield was 26.2%, based on the pentosan content in bamboo. The physicochemical properties were determined and sugar composition analysis showed that the hemicelluloses consisted mainly of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and a small amount of uronic acid. Furthermore, based on FT-IR and NMR spectra analyses, the structure of hemicelluloses was determined to be mainly arabinoxylans linked via (1→4-β-glycosidic bonds with branches of arabinose and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid. The molecular weights were 6387 Da and 4076 Da, corresponding to the hemicelluloses HA and HB. Finally, the thermal stability was elucidated using the TG-DTG method. The obtained results can provide important information for understanding young bamboo and the hemicelluloses in it.

  12. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi, E-mail: mitsutoshi.ume@gmail.com; Takenaka, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth. - Highlights: • The bamboo efficiently utilizes boron by the retranslocation and local accumulation. • Zinc found in nodes at high concentrations may support

  13. Isolation of culturable endophytic bacteria from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and 16S rDNA diversity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed culturable endophytic bacteria from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis using traditional bacterial isolation and culture methods and then studied the colony characteristics and diversity with a 16S rDNA sequence analysis. We isolated 82 endophytic bacteria strains belonging to 47 species in 26 genera from the root, rhizome, stem and leaves of Moso bamboo species from populations on Wuyi Mountain, and in the Jiangle and Changting regions. There were significant differences in the composition of the culturable endophytic bacteria isolated from the different areas and from different tissues. The dominant bacteria strains from the Wuyi Mountain samples were Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Enterobacter, while the dominant bacteria from the Jiangle samples were Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Curtobacterium, and the dominant bacteria in the Changting samples were Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Our results demonstrate the abundant diversity of endophytic bacteria in Moso bamboo.

  14. Mathematical expression for the relationship between internode number and internode length for bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Inoue; Kentaro Kuraoka; Fumiaki Kitahara

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between internode number and internode length for one of the largest bamboo,Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz.For 50 sample culms with various sizes felled in a pure stand of P.pubescens,the intemode number was assigned from base to tip and the length for each intemode was directly measured.The result indicated that the intemode length should be cumulated from base to tip,and then the cumulated intemode length should be relativized by the total culm length.It was inappropriate to relativize the internode length by the maximum intenode length.In addition,the relationship between the relative internode number (the internode number relativized by the total number of internodes) and the relative cumulated internode length should be described not by a power function but by a sigmoid function such as the third-order function.The determined function enabled us to estimate the actual internode length,with the root mean squared error being 4 cm.In conclusion,the mathematical expression presented here,i.e.,the relativization of the cumulated internode length by the total culm length and the application of the sigmoid function,will be uscful in describing the relationship between internode number and internode length for P.pubescens.

  15. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangbin Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011 in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P0.05. Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and

  16. Partially hydrolyzed bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) as a porous Bioadsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OuYang, Xiao-kun; Jin, Ru-Na; Yang, Le-Ping; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Yang, Li-Ye; Wang, Yang-Guang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2014-06-25

    A novel porous succinylated bioadsorbent was prepared by the partial enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) and its subsequent modification with succinic anhydride. Pb(II) removal from solutions that also contained sodium chloride and an amino acid was investigated using the bioadsorbent. Enzymatic hydrolysis increased the number of accessible hydroxyl groups and surface area of the raw bamboo, and created many pores within the material. The porous succinylated bioadsorbent exhibited high efficiency for Pb(II) binding. The sodium chloride content significantly decreased the Pb(II) adsorption capacity, whereas a minor effect was observed in the presence of arginine. The experimental data could be accurately described by a pseudo-second-order kinetics model, and the adsorption proceeded via an ion exchange mechanism. Even in a solution containing sodium chloride and arginine, the maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) by the porous succinylated bioadsorbent was 99.5 mg/g at 303 K.

  17. Microbial Development in Soils Under Intensively Managed Bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-Fang; JIANG Pei-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Phyllostachys praecox C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao, a favored bamboo shoot species, has been widely planted in recent years. Four stands with different historical management practices were selected for this study to understand the evolution of soil microbial ecology by determining the effects of a new mulching and heavy fertilization practice on soil quality using microbiological parameters. Compared with the traditional practice (index 1), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbial respiration carbon (MRC) with the new management practice significantly decreased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05,respectively) with 1-2 years of mulching (index 2) and then for continued mulching significantly increased (P < 0.05). The ratios of MBC/TOC (total organic carbon) and MRC/TOC also significantly diminished (P < 0.05) with mulching. The average well color development (AWCD) and Shannon index decreased with mulching time, and the significant decrease(P < 0.05) in Shannon index occurred from index 2 to index 3. The results from a principal components analysis (PCA)showed that the scores of the first principal component for indexes 1 and 2 were significantly larger (P < 0.05) than soils mulched 3-4 years or 5-6 years. Also, the second principal component scores for index 1 were larger than those for index 2, suggesting that the ability of soil microorganisms to utilize soil carbon was decreasing with longer use of the new management practice and causing a deterioration of soil biological properties.

  18. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO3)2 (200 μM), ZnSO4·7H2O (100 μM), CuSO4·5H2O (25 μM), and CdCl2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R (2) values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  19. Characterization of the floral transcriptome of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis at different flowering developmental stages by transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an arborescent and perennial plant, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J. Houzeau, synonym Phyllostachys heterocycla Carrière is characterized by its infrequent sexual reproduction with flowering intervals ranging from several to more than a hundred years. However, little bamboo genomic research has been conducted on this due to a variety of reasons. Here, for the first time, we investigated the transcriptome of developing flowers in Moso bamboo by using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing and mapping short reads to the Moso bamboo genome and reference genes. We performed RNA-seq analysis on four important stages of flower development, and obtained extensive gene and transcript abundance data for the floral transcriptome of this key bamboo species. RESULTS: We constructed a cDNA library using equal amounts of RNA from Moso bamboo leaf samples from non-flowering plants (CK and mixed flower samples (F of four flower development stages. We generated more than 67 million reads from each of the CK and F samples. About 70% of the reads could be uniquely mapped to the Moso bamboo genome and the reference genes. Genes detected at each stage were categorized to putative functional categories based on their expression patterns. The analysis of RNA-seq data of bamboo flowering tissues at different developmental stages reveals key gene expression properties during the flower development of bamboo. CONCLUSION: We showed that a combination of transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis was a powerful approach to identifying candidate genes related to floral transition and flower development in bamboo species. The results give a better insight into the mechanisms of Moso bamboo flowering and ageing. This transcriptomic data also provides an important gene resource for improving breeding for Moso bamboo.

  20. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-26

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species.

  1. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on epidermal melanocytes in ultraviolet B-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June; Chae, Se Lim; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    We induced the activation of melanocytes in the epidermis of C57BL/6 mice by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and observed the effect of bamboo (phyllostachys nigra var. henenis strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the formation, and decrease of UVB-induced epidermal melanocytes. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated by UVB 80 mJ/cm{sup 2} (0.5 mW/sec) daily for 7 days, and BLE was intraperitoneally or topically applied pre- or post-irradiation. For the estimation of change of epidermal melanocytes, light microscopic observation with DihydrOxyPhenylAlanine (DOPA) stain was performed. Split epidermal sheets prepared from the ear of untreated mice exhibited 11-16 melanocytes/mm{sup 2}, and one week after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of strongly DOPA-positive melanocytes with stout dendrites. But intraperitoneal or topical treatment with BLE before each irradiation interrupted UVB-induced pigmentation and resulted in a marked reduction in the number of epidermal melanocytes as compared to radiation control skin. The number and size of DOPA-positive epidermal melanocytes were also significantly decreased in intraperitoneally injected or topically applicated group after irradiation with BLE at 3rd and 6th weeks after irradiation. The results of present study indicate that BLE is likely to be useful as inhibitor of UVB-induced pigmentation and depigmenting agent.

  2. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Li, Song; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Peng, Danli; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Moso bamboo is recognized as phytoremediation plant due to production of huge biomass and high tolerance in stressed environment. Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to investigate mechanism of copper tolerance and to evaluate copper accumulation capacity of Moso bamboo. In hydroponics experiment there was non significant variation in MDA contents of leaves compared with control. SOD and POD initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 5 μM Cu and then decreased consistently with application of 25 and 100 μM Cu. Application of each additional increment of copper have constantly enhanced proline contents while maximum increase of proline was observed with application of 100 μM copper. In pot experiment chlorophyll and biomass initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with application of each additional increment of Cu. Normal growth of Moso bamboo was observed with application of 100 mg kg-1 copper. However, additional application of 300 or 600 mg kg-1 copper had significantly inhibited growth of Moso bamboo. The concentration of Cu in Moso bamboo has attained the levels of 340, 60, 23 mg kg-1 in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The vacuoles were the main organs which accumulated copper and reduced toxicity of copper as studied by TEM-DEX technology.

  3. Interactions between shoot age structure, nutrient availability and integration in the giant bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Werger, M.J.A.; Kroon, de H.; During, H.J.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2000-01-01

    The age structure of adult shoots, the nutrient availability of the habitat, and their interaction, are important factors influencing the productivity of bamboo groves. In a field fertilization experiment over two years we examined the impact of physiological integration on the emergence, growth, an

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Family and the Expression Patterns of DREB Genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huili; Lv, Hao; Li, Long; Liu, Jun; Mu, Shaohua; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor family, one of the largest families unique to plants, performs a significant role in terms of regulation of growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a fast-growing non-timber forest species with the highest ecological, economic and social values of all bamboos in Asia. The draft genome of moso bamboo and the available genomes of other plants provide great opportunities to research global information on the AP2/ERF family in moso bamboo. In total, 116 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in moso bamboo. The phylogeny analyses indicated that the 116 AP2/ERF genes could be divided into three subfamilies: AP2, RAV and ERF; and the ERF subfamily genes were divided into 11 groups. The gene structures, exons/introns and conserved motifs of the PeAP2/ERF genes were analyzed. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns and divergence showed the PeAP2/ERF genes underwent a large-scale event around 15 million years ago (MYA) and the division time of AP2/ERF family genes between rice and moso bamboo was 15-23 MYA. We surveyed the putative promoter regions of the PeDREBs and showed that largely stress-related cis-elements existed in these genes. Further analysis of expression patterns of PeDREBs revealed that the most were strongly induced by drought, low-temperature and/or high salinity stresses in roots and, in contrast, most PeDREB genes had negative functions in leaves under the same respective stresses. In this study there were two main interesting points: there were fewer members of the PeDREB subfamily in moso bamboo than in other plants and there were differences in DREB gene expression profiles between leaves and roots triggered in response to abiotic stress. The information produced from this study may be valuable in overcoming challenges in cultivating moso bamboo.

  5. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress, response of antioxidants and detection of intracellular cadmium in organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Chen, Junren; Islam, Ejazul; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Yan, Wenbo; Peng, Danli; Liu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz.) is recognized as a potential phytoremediation plant due to its huge biomass and high tolerance to environmental stresses. The objectives of this study were to investigate mechanism related to cadmium (Cd) tolerance and to evaluate Cd accumulation capacity of moso bamboo. The results of the pot experiment showed that Cd accumulation by bamboo increased with increasing the Cd levels in soil and the values in stem ranged from 28.51 to 132.13 mg kg(-1). Meanwhile chlorophyll in leaves and total biomass showed a decreasing trend. The bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for roots and stem in all the treatments were more than 1.0 and the translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.70 to 1.06. In hydroponics experiment, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased in Cd treated plants as compared with control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced at initial stage and then decreased consistently with the increase of Cd addition. The proline concentrations were also increased due to the presence of Cd, particularly at 25 μM Cd treatment. According to TEM-EDX analysis, the cytoplasm was the main site for accumulation of Cd in moso bamboo. On the basis of overall results, it is suggested that moso bamboo could be successfully used for the remediation of low Cd (no more than 5 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soils.

  6. A novel xylogenic suspension culture model for exploring lignification in Phyllostachys bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogita Shinjiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some prominent cultured plant cell lines, such as the BY-2 cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. ‘Bright Yellow 2’ and the T87 cell line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh., ecotype Columbia are used as model plant cells. These suspension cell culture systems are highly applicable for investigating various aspects of plant cell biology. However, no such prominent cultured cell lines exist in bamboo species. Results We standardized a novel xylogenic suspension culture model in order to unveil the process of lignification in living bamboo cells. Initial signs of lignin deposition were able to be observed by a positive phloroglucinol-HCl reaction at day 3 to 5 under lignification conditions (LG, i.e., modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (m1/2MS containing 10 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA and 3% sucrose. Two types of xylogenic differentiation, both fiber-like elements (FLEs with cell wall thickening and tracheary elements (TEs with formation of perforations in the cell wall, were observed under these conditions. The suspension cells rapidly formed secondary cell wall components that were highly lignified, making up approximately 25% of the cells on a dry weight basis within 2 weeks. Detailed features involved in cell growth, differentiation and death during lignification were characterized by laser scanning microscopic imaging. Changes in transcript levels of xylogenesis-related genes were assessed by RT-PCR, which showed that the transcription of key genes like PAL1, C4H, CCoAOMT, and CCR was induced at day 4 under LG conditions. Furthermore, interunit linkage of lignins was compared between mature bamboo culms and xylogenic suspension cells by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC NMR spectroscopy. The presence of the most common interunit linkages, including β-aryl ether (β-O-4, phenylcoumaran (β-5 and resinol (β-β structures was identified in the bamboo cultured cell lignin (BCCL

  7. Effect of three cooking methods on nutrient components and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shootPhyllostachys praecox C.D.Chu et C.S.Chao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-jie ZHANG; Rong JI; Ya-qin HU; Jian-chu CHEN; Xing-qian YE

    2011-01-01

    Three cooking methods,namely boiling,steaming,and stir-frying for 5 to 10 min,were used to evaluate the effect on nutrient components,free amino acids,L-ascorbic acid,total phenolic contents,and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).Results showed that boiling and stir-frying had a great effect on the nutrient components and they decreased the contents of protein,soluble sugar,and ash,and caused a great loss in the total free amino acids (decreased by 38.35% and 34.86%,respectively).Significant differences (P<0.05) in free amino acids were observed in the samples cooked by different methods.Stir-fried bamboo shoots had a high fat content which increased by 528.57% because of the addition of edible oil.After boiling,the L-ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents were significantly reduced,while steaming increased total phenolic content by 3.98% and stir-frying well-preserved L-ascorbic acid (78.87% of its previous content).Results of the antioxidative property study showed that stir-frying could increase antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots.It is concluded that stir-frying is more suitable for bamboo shoots because it could obtain the maximum retention of antioxidant capacities.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Family and the Expression Patterns of DREB Genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Liu, Jun; Mu, Shaohua; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor family, one of the largest families unique to plants, performs a significant role in terms of regulation of growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a fast-growing non-timber forest species with the highest ecological, economic and social values of all bamboos in Asia. The draft genome of moso bamboo and the available genomes of other plants provide great opportunities to research global information on the AP2/ERF family in moso bamboo. In total, 116 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in moso bamboo. The phylogeny analyses indicated that the 116 AP2/ERF genes could be divided into three subfamilies: AP2, RAV and ERF; and the ERF subfamily genes were divided into 11 groups. The gene structures, exons/introns and conserved motifs of the PeAP2/ERF genes were analyzed. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns and divergence showed the PeAP2/ERF genes underwent a large-scale event around 15 million years ago (MYA) and the division time of AP2/ERF family genes between rice and moso bamboo was 15–23 MYA. We surveyed the putative promoter regions of the PeDREBs and showed that largely stress-related cis-elements existed in these genes. Further analysis of expression patterns of PeDREBs revealed that the most were strongly induced by drought, low-temperature and/or high salinity stresses in roots and, in contrast, most PeDREB genes had negative functions in leaves under the same respective stresses. In this study there were two main interesting points: there were fewer members of the PeDREB subfamily in moso bamboo than in other plants and there were differences in DREB gene expression profiles between leaves and roots triggered in response to abiotic stress. The information produced from this study may be valuable in overcoming challenges in cultivating moso bamboo. PMID:25985202

  9. Leaf N and P concentrations, and nutrient resorption efficiencies for 5 Phyllostachys bamboo species%刚竹属5种竹类植物叶片N、P含量及内吸收率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞炎

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how bamboos adapt to nutrient-poor environments, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and nutrient resorption efficiency of leaves during senescence for 5 Phyllostachys bamboo species ( Phyllostachys nigra, Ph. heterocycla cv. viridisulcata, Ph. nigra var. henonis, Ph. praecox, Ph. glauca) were studied. The results showed as follows: (1) Mature leaves of 5Phyllostachys bamboo species had the relatively high N concentration [( 18.46 ± 0.40 ) - ( 25.84 ± 0.86 )mg · g-1 )]; p concentration of mature leaves ranged from 1.08 ±0.02 to 1.26 ±0.02 mg · g-1, respectively; N and P concentrations deereased with leaf senescence. (2) Resorption efficiency of N or P was above 50%. (3) There was significant correlation between nitrogen resorption efficiency and N concentrations in the mature leaves of 5 Phyllostachys bamboo spceies, no significant relationship was found between phosphorus resorption efficiency and P concentrations in the mature leaves of 5 Phyllostachys bamboo species.%对刚竹属的5种竹类植物(紫竹、绿槽毛竹、毛金竹、早竹和淡竹)成熟叶和衰老叶的N、P含量及内吸收率进行了研究.结果表明,刚竹属的5种竹类植物成熟叶具有较高的N含量[(18.46±0.40)-(25.84±0.86) mg·g-1)],成熟叶的P含量在(1.08±0.02)-(1.26±0.02) mg·g-1之间;从成熟叶到衰老叶,N、P含量呈现下降的趋势;5种竹类植物叶片N、P的内吸收率均在50%以上; N的内吸收率与成熟叶片的N浓度呈显著正相关,P不存在这种关系.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of TIFY family genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and expression profiling analysis under dehydration and cold stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Si-Han; Guo, Han-Du; Zhong, Xiao-Juan; He, Jiao; Li, Xi; Jiang, Ming-Yan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Ma, Ming-Dong; Chen, Qi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The proteins containing the TIFY domain belong to a plant-specific family of putative transcription factors and could be divided into four subfamilies: ZML, TIFY, PPD and JAZ. They not only function as key regulators of jasmonate hormonal response, but are also involved in responding to abiotic stress. In this study, we identified 24 TIFY genes (PeTIFYs) in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) of Poaceae by analyzing the whole genome sequence. One PeTIFY belongs to TIFY subfamily, 18 and five belong to JAZ and ZML subfamilies, respectively. Two equivocal gene models were re-predicted and a putative retrotransposition event was found in a ZML protein. The distribution and conservation of domain or motif, and gene structure were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis with TIFY proteins of Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa indicated that JAZ subfamily could be further divided to four groups. Evolutionary analysis revealed intragenomic duplication and orthologous relationship between P. edulis, O. sativa, and B. distachyon. Calculation of the non-synonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates and their ratios indicated that the duplication of PeTIFY may have occurred around 16.7 million years ago (MYA), the divergence time of TIFY family among the P. edulis-O. sativa, P. edulis-B. distachyon, and O. sativa-B. distachyon was approximately 39 MYA, 39 MYA, and 45 MYA, respectively. They appear to have undergone extensive purifying selection during evolution. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that more than 50% of PeTIFY genes could be up-regulated by cold and dehydration stresses, and some PeTIFYs also share homology to know TIFYs involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results made insights into TIFY family of Moso bamboo, an economically important non-timber forest resource, and provided candidates for further identification of genes involved in regulating responses to abiotic stress.

  11. Main regulatory pathways, key genes and microRNAs involved in flower formation and development of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Zhanchao; Hou, Dan; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Moso bamboo is characterized by infrequent sexual reproduction and erratic flowering habit; however, the molecular biology of flower formation and development is not well studied in this species. We studied the molecular regulation mechanisms of moso bamboo development and flowering by selecting three key regulatory pathways: plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum at different stages of flowering in moso bamboo. We selected PheDof1, PheMADS14 and six microRNAs involved in the three pathways through KEGG pathway and cluster analysis. Subcellular localization, transcriptional activation, Western blotting, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR were used to further investigate the expression patterns and regulatory roles of pivotal genes at different flower development stages. Differential expression patterns showed that PheDof1, PheMADS14 and six miRNAs may play vital regulatory roles in flower development and floral transition in moso bamboo. Our research paves way for further studies on metabolic regulatory networks and provides insight into the molecular regulation mechanisms of moso bamboo flowering and senescence.

  12. Dynamic allocation and transfer of non-structural carbohydrates, a possible mechanism for the explosive growth of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Zhou, Guomo; Gu, Honghao; Li, Quan; Zhang, Chao

    2016-05-01

    Moso bamboo can rapidly complete its growth in both height and diameter within only 35–40 days after shoot emergence. However, the underlying mechanism for this “explosive growth” remains poorly understood. We investigated the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in shoots and attached mature bamboos over a 20-month period. The results showed that Moso bamboos rapidly completed their height and diameter growth within 38 days. At the same time, attached mature bamboos transferred almost all the NSCs of their leaves, branches, and especially trunks and rhizomes to the “explosively growing” shoots via underground rhizomes for the structural growth and metabolism of shoots. Approximately 4 months after shoot emergence, this transfer stopped when the leaves of the young bamboos could independently provide enough photoassimilates to meet the carbon demands of the young bamboos. During this period, the NSC content of the leaves, branches, trunks and rhizomes of mature bamboos declined by 1.5, 23, 28 and 5 fold, respectively. The trunk contributed the most NSCs to the shoots. Our findings provide new insight and a possible rational mechanism explaining the “explosive growth” of Moso bamboo and shed new light on understanding the role of NSCs in the rapid growth of Moso bamboo.

  13. Characteristics of Soil Ammonia Volatilization in Fertilized Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) Forests%肥培毛竹林土壤氨挥发特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建诚; 苏文会; 范少辉; 蔡春菊; 朱晓武; 刘广路

    2016-01-01

    生产成本。综合考虑毛竹根系分布及氮素损失、利用情况,施肥深度应为15~20 cm土层。%Objective]Nitrogen ( N) is the greatest demand element for Moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys edulis) growth. Improper fertilization could result in the decrease of nitrogen use efficiency ( NUE ) and the increase of nitrogen loss. Ammonia ( NH3 ) volatilization is one of the main pathways of nitrogen loss from soil. Improper depth of fertilizer application in the soil could accelerate the loss of NH3 volatilization. However,very little information is available regarding NH3 volatilization and its influence factors in Moso bamboo forests. Thus, in this study the NH3 volatilization characteristics at different fertilization depths in a Moso bamboo forest were investigated by field experiment to provide the scientific guidance for the reasonable fertilization depth in terms of reducing the ammonia volatilization. [Method]In this paper,seven fertilization depths of 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30 cm and a control treatment without fertilizer were set in Huangshan,Anhui Province of China. The NH3 volatilized from each plot was absorbed by 2% H3 BO3 with the venting method. One-way ANOVA was conducted to test the significance of the indexes,and the least significant difference ( LSD) was applied for multiple comparisons. [Result]The NH4 + content after fertilization increased first and then declined with the extension of time,and finally stabilized. The NH3 volatilization showed obvious regularity changes with time,and it was closely related to fertilization depth. NH3 volatilization was detected on the second day after fertilization. The NH3 volatilization rates of all fertilization treatments increased first and then decreased,showed a single peak curve. NH3 volatilization rates at fertilization depths of 0,5 and 10 cm peaked on the third day,while rates of NH3 volatilization at fertilization depths of 15,20,25 and 30 cm reached a maximum in 6 days after fertilization

  14. Preliminary Study of NPQ and ETR Characteristics of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) during Seedling Stage%毛竹苗期NPQ和ETR特征初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑波; 高志民

    2011-01-01

    以毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis)实生苗为材料,利用叶绿素荧光技术,研究了毛竹叶片叶绿素荧光参数非光化学猝灭(NPQ)、表观光合电子传递速率(ETR)的变化规律.结果表明,充分暗适应之后,随着光合有效辐射(PAR)逐渐增强(0~1800 μ mol·m-2s-1),NPQ也随之增加,ETR则呈现先上升,后下降的趋势;在低强度光照下(200 μ mol·m-2s-1),NPQ则呈现先上升,在20~80s内迅速达到最大值,之后逐渐下降,至380s时趋于平稳,ETR则先上升,在20s时稍下降,40s后又逐渐上升,至380s时趋于平稳.

  15. 上阔下竹复合经营模式对毛竹生长的影响%Effects of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest on bamboo growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟勇; 艾文胜; 杨明; 胡伟; 李美群; 涂佳

    2016-01-01

    为给科学、合理、可持续经营毛竹林提供参考数据,以上阔下竹复合经营模式和毛竹纯林经营模式的竹林为研究对象,对两种经营模式下毛竹的竿形生长和地上各部分生物量等指标进行了测定,研究了上位阔叶林对下位毛竹林生长的影响情况。结果表明:同在上坡位的毛竹,上阔下竹复合经营模式的毛竹其胸径、竿高、壁厚、竹竿质量、竹叶质量等指标均显著大于或高于毛竹纯林经营模式的,毛竹的相对竿径随竿高而变化的趋势也较纯林模式的平缓,而毛竹的相对壁厚随相对竿高的变化趋势较纯林模式的陡峭。两种经营模式的毛竹其胸径、竿高、壁厚、竹竿质量、竹叶质量等指标在中坡位和下坡位的竹林间均无显著差异。%To provide some reference data for scientifically, reasonably and sustainably managing bamboo forest, using compound management mode of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest and pure P. edulis forest as study objects, some indexes of culm growth and aboveground biomass in P. edulis were determined under the two kinds of management modes, and the influences of upper broad-leaved forest on growth of bamboo forest were studied. The results indicated that, the indexes of in P. edulis at uphill position under the compound management mode of broad-leaved and P. edulis mixed forest were significantly better than those under the management mode of pure P. edulis forest, include diameter at breast height, culm height, culm-wall thickness, culm mass and leaf mass. The variation trend of relative culm diameter with culm height in P. edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest was smoother than that in pure P. edulis forest. The variation trend of relative culm-wall thickness with relative culm height in P. edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest was steeper than that in pure P. edulis forest. The diameter at breast height, culm height, culm-wall thickness

  16. 经营强度对蜀南竹海楠竹保护的影响%The Influences of Management strength on the Phyllostachys pubescens Population in the Shunan Bamboo Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐森强; 张翠微; 何桂蓉; 何亚平; 王启荣

    2012-01-01

    竹林区竹类种质保育需要建立避免人为干扰的竹类自然生态系统,但现有的竹林粗放遍及各处的经营策略则直接威胁到竹类种质栖息地的保护。通过对蜀南竹海人工经营和未经营下楠竹林群落环境与种群结构的对比分析,认为保护区内楠竹林经营强度改变了植物群落结构,导致植物物种多样性的丧失,地表灌木、草本和凋落物的盖度降低,生物量减少;考虑天然楠竹林结构演替,楠竹的人工经营(纯林经营)是维持楠竹林生产力和楠竹林的必然途径。基于现代林业理论,提出了县域楠竹林适度经营与保护的空间分工性、集约化策略,以期获得保护区长期的生态经济社会效益与生态安全屏障的优化格局。%The bamboo germplasm conservation in bamboo forest regions requires to establish the natural ecosystem with an shortage of artificial disturbance,but the current management strategies that are widely adopted in the bamboo distribution habitats have directly stressed the habitat conservation of bamboo germplasm.Based on an analysis of the community environment and population structure features of moso bamboo forests which were managed and not managed in the Shunan Bamboo Sea,it was found that the different intensive management degree in the conservation region changed the plant community structure,and led to the loss of plant species diversity,and reduced the surface shrubs,herb and litter coverage,and biomass.Considering the natural bamboo forest structure,artificial management was the necessary way of maintaining the high productivity and moso bamboo forest.According to modern forest theory,this paper proposed the strategy of spatial separation and directional cultivation for moderate utility and conservation of bamboo forest in order to gain the long-term ecological,economic and social benefits and the optimization pattern of ecological safety barrier in the conservation zone.

  17. Evaluation of aqueous ammonia pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of different fractions of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong; Zhang, Maomao; Xin, Donglin; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2014-12-01

    The production of fermentable sugars from different fractions of bamboo shoots and mature bamboos (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) by cellulase and/or xylanase was investigated. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment exhibited high but different delignification capacities for different bamboo fractions. Supplementation of cellulases with xylanase synergistically improved the glucose and xylose yields of mature bamboo fractions. High hydrolyzability was observed in the hydrolysis of both non-pretreated and pretreated bamboo shoot fractions, suggesting pretreatment was not necessary for the hydrolysis of bamboo shoots. High hydrolyzability together with the advantages of low lignin content, fast growth, and widely distribution demonstrated that bamboo shoots were excellent lignocellulosic materials for the production of bioethanol and other biochemicals.

  18. Study on Bamboo Treatment Technology with CuAz Preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to research the effect of preservative penetrability, CuAz (copper azole) was used for the preservative, and pieces of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were used for the experimental materials in this study. The vacuum pressure process was used to treat bamboo pieces. The results showed as follows: 1) Main treatment factors were preservative concentration and applied pressure; 2) In the same technology, both the retention and the weight proportion gain of the samples without node were less tha...

  19. Survey Study of Moso Bamboo Management Techniques Dissemination in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By PRA survey to 1 245 farmer households of 10 key Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production counties, the source and demand of the management techniques in Zhejiang were studied. The conducted principal factor analysis revealed that experience and traditional knowledge are currently major technical sources of farmer households' Moso bamboo forest management techniques and that the demonstrative household is a highly expected technical source, in which the prime factor is interpersonal dissemination ...

  20. Visualization of Cellulose Microfibrils of Phyllostachys pubescens Fibers with Atomic Force Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscope(AFM) was used to investigate the arrangement of cellulose microfibrils (CMF) in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) fibers. Two methods of sample preparation were used here for different purposes. The first method was chemical maceration with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid, through which the obtained fibers were suitable for observing the orientation of CMF in the primary wal1. The other method was to prepare tangential microtomed sections with a thickness o...

  1. Chemical constituents of the extraction of bamboo leaves from Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl. ) Munro var. henonis (Mitf.) Stepf. ex Rendle%毛金竹叶提取物化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙武兴; 李铣; 李宁; 孟大利

    2008-01-01

    目的 分离、鉴定毛金竹(Phyllostachys nigra(Lodd.exLindl.)Munro var.henonis(Mitf.)Stepf ex Rendle)竹叶提取物的化学成分.方法 采用反复硅胶柱色谱、Sephdex LH-20柱色谱、开放ODS柱色谱、制备薄层色谱等方法进行分离纯化,并通过理化性质和光谱数据鉴定其化学结构.结果 从其乙酸乙酯萃取层和正丁醇萃取层分离得到12个化合物,分别鉴定为β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,1)、苜蓿素(tricin,2)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,3)、丁二酸(butanedioic acid,4)、胸腺嘧啶(5-methyluracil,5)、苜蓿素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、牡荆苷(vitexin,7)、苜蓿素-7-O-新橙皮糖苷(tricin-7-O-neohesperidoside,8)、荭草苷(orientin,9)、异荭草苷(isoorientin,10)、尿嘧啶(uracil,11)、胸腺嘧啶脱氧核苷(thymidine,12).结论 化合物4~6、8、11、12为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  2. Structure and Property of Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition, fiber characteristics, crystalline structure, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the five species of bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis cv.Pachyloe, Bambusa tootisk, Arundinaia amabilis, B.vulgaris cv. Vittata, and Dendrocalamus affinis) were studied with IR, X-ray, DSC and chemical analyses. The results indicated that the benzene-ethanol extractive content of bamboo was higher than that of wood, the content of lignin and the content of pentosan were 19.1% - 25.3% and 14.9% - ...

  3. Evaluation on Phyllostachys Pubescens Forest Ecosystem Services Value in Suichang County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyun Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the ecological benefits of Moso bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens, based on the method of “The assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China”, assessing Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value in Suichang County. Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value are divided into six groups: water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation in this study. Chinese Fir Plantation as the control was to compare. The results showed that: (1 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County was 1260.40 million yuan/a, services values of water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation were respectively 741.00 million yuan/a, 81.00 million yuan/a, 331.00 million yuan/a, 21.6 million yuan/a, 32.2 million yuan/a ,53.6 million yuan/a. (2 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County has increased 302.80 million yuan/a, the growth was about 31.62%. (3 In the six groups, all of Moso bamboo ecosystem services value more than the same area of Chinese Fir forest plantation. These provide a reference basis for the similar region to evaluate Moso bamboo ecosystem services value, demonstrating the important contribution of Moso bamboo to the forest ecosystem of Suichang County's sustainable development.

  4. The delignification effects of white-rot fungal pretreatment on thermal characteristics of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2012-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubesescens) is a major bamboo species which is widely used for temporary scaffolding in China. Its fast growing and low ash content make moso bamboo a potential renewable energy resource. In present work, thermal behaviors of moso bamboo and its lignocellulosic fractions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, to understand whether the delignification effect of white-rot fungi can promote the thermal decomposition of bamboo especially the lignin component, the changes in lignocellulose components as well as thermal behaviors of bamboo and acid detergent lignin were investigated. The results showed that the white-rot fungal pretreatment is advantageous to thermal decomposition of lignin in bamboo. The weight losses of ADL samples became greater and the thermal processes were accelerated after biopretreatment. The total pyrolysis weight loss increased from 57.14% to 65.07% for Echinodontium taxodii 2538 treated bamboo ADL sample.

  5. BambooGDB: a bamboo genome database with functional annotation and an analysis platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hansheng; Peng, Zhenhua; Fei, Benhua; Li, Lubin; Hu, Tao; Gao, Zhimin; Jiang, Zehui

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo, as one of the most important non-timber forest products and fastest-growing plants in the world, represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests. Recent success on the first high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) provides new insights on bamboo genetics and evolution. To further extend our understanding on bamboo genome and facilitate future studies on the basis of previous achievements, here we have developed BambooGDB, a bamboo genome database with functional annotation and analysis platform. The de novo sequencing data, together with the full-length complementary DNA and RNA-seq data of moso bamboo composed the main contents of this database. Based on these sequence data, a comprehensively functional annotation for bamboo genome was made. Besides, an analytical platform composed of comparative genomic analysis, protein-protein interactions network, pathway analysis and visualization of genomic data was also constructed. As discovery tools to understand and identify biological mechanisms of bamboo, the platform can be used as a systematic framework for helping and designing experiments for further validation. Moreover, diverse and powerful search tools and a convenient browser were incorporated to facilitate the navigation of these data. As far as we know, this is the first genome database for bamboo. Through integrating high-throughput sequencing data, a full functional annotation and several analysis modules, BambooGDB aims to provide worldwide researchers with a central genomic resource and an extensible analysis platform for bamboo genome. BambooGDB is freely available at http://www.bamboogdb.org/. Database URL: http://www.bamboogdb.org.

  6. Effect of Different Managements on Carbon Storage and Carbon Allocation in Moso Bamboo Forest (Phyllostachys pubescen)%不同经营措施对毛竹林碳储量及碳分配影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓鹿; 范少辉; 漆良华; 刘广路; 官凤英; 杜满义; 沈楚新

    2012-01-01

    Carbon storage in forest ecosystems is a basic parameter to predict the carbon exchange between forest ecosystems and atmosphere, and it plays a critical role in mitigating global climate change. The fast -growing and expanding growing area of Moso bamboo indicate that its carbon storage is increasing. Application of management in Moso bamboo forest is one of the most important measures to improve yield, thus, in this research, pure Moso bamboo forest with no management was selected as the control ( Ⅰ ) and managements of reclamation ( Ⅱ ) , herbicide application ( Ⅲ ) and grass-chopping (Ⅳ) forests were selected as research stand. The carbon stock and allocation were analyzed and the results showed; (1 ) Compared with control stand, managements of reclamation, herbicide application and grass-chopping increased vegetational carbon stock; total vegetational carbon stock were 30.98,33.04,33. 19,31.21 t/hm2, respectively, and above- ground carbon storage was the main part, which explained by 23. 68,25. 01, 26. 34 and 25. 21 t/hm2. (2) Herbicide application increased both ecosystem carbon storage and soil carbon storage, however, management of reclamation and grass-chopping decreased both ecosystem carbon storage and soil carbon storage. Ecosystem carbon storage of each stand was 13. 15, 98. 13, 131.90 and 112.59 t/hm2, and soil carbon stock was the main part with an amount of 86. 17, 65. 09, 98. 71, 80. 39 t/hm2. (3)The annual carbon sequestration of each stand was 9. 33, 11.29, 9.94, 9.95 t C(hm2 o a), equaling to 34.21, 41.38, 36.47, 36.48 t CO2/ ( hm2 · a) . Application of management in Moso bamboo forest could increase vegetation carbon sequestration.%以无经营毛竹纯林为对照(Ⅰ),以垦复(Ⅱ)、施用除草剂(Ⅲ)、劈草毛竹纯林(Ⅳ)为研究对象,研究不同经营措施对毛竹林碳储量及碳分配影响,结果表明:(1)与对照相比,垦复、施用除草剂、劈草均增加了植被层碳储量;各林

  7. Lead accumulation and tolerance of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings:applications of phytoremediation%植物修复的应用:毛竹苗对铅的积累与耐性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan LIU; Song LI; Ejazul ISLAM; Jun-ren CHEN; Jia-sen WU; Zheng-qian YE; Dan-li PENG; Wen-bo YAN; Kou-ping LU

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment was aimed at identifying the lead (Pb) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyl ostachys pubescens) seedlings grown under different Pb treatments. Experimental results indicated that at the highest Pb concentration (400 μmol/L), the growth of bamboo seedlings was inhibited and Pb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached the maximum of 148.8, 482.2, and 4282.8 mg/kg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the excessive Pb caused decreased stomatal opening, formation of abundant inclusions in roots, and just a few inclusions in stems. The ultrastructural analysis using transmission elec-tron microscopy revealed that the addition of excessive Pb caused abnormal y shaped chloroplasts, disappearance of endoplasmic reticulum, shrinkage of nucleus and nucleolus, and loss of thylakoid membranes. Although ultrastructural analysis revealed some internal damage, even the plants exposed to 400 µmol/L Pb survived and no visual Pb toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis were observed in these plants. Even at the highest Pb treatment, no sig-nificant difference was observed for the dry weight of stem compared with controls. It is suggested that use of Moso bamboo as an experimental material provides a new perspective for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil owing to its high metal tolerance and greater biomass.%目的:探索毛竹在修复铅污染土壤的植物修复潜力。  创新点:使用了毛竹作为一种全新的植物修复材料进行研究。得到了毛竹幼苗在铅胁迫下的生长与生理反应情况,不同植物组织对铅的吸收与积累情况,铅胁迫下毛竹幼苗表层与细胞超微结构的特征。  方法:根系形态分析(图3)、植物重金属含量分析(表1)、扫描电镜分析(图4)和透射电镜分析(图5)。  结论:各组织部位铅浓度的值揭示了,毛竹是一个很好的固定铅污染土

  8. Insights into the Bamboo Genome: Syntenic Relationships to Rice and Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jie Gui; Nai-Xun Ma; Tian-Zhen Zhang; Long-Jiang Fan; Yan Zhou; Yu Wang; Sheng Wang; Sheng-Yue Wang; Yan Hu; Shi-Ping Bo; Huan Chen; Chang-Ping Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family and plays a significant role in the forest industry.We produced 1.2 Mb of tetraploid moso bamboo(Phyllostachys pubescens E.Mazel ex H.de Leh.)sequences from 13 bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC)clones,and these are the largest genomic sequences available so far from the subfamily Bambusoideae.The content of repetitive elements(36.2%)in bamboo is similar to that in rice.Both rice and sorghum exhibit high genomic synteny with bamboo,which suggests that rice and sorghum may be useful as models for decoding Bambusoideae genomes.

  9. Physiological changes of leaves in response to cold in Phyllostachys propinqua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiao-ling; Yang Qing; Guo Shou-hua; Liu Yan-fang; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    There are no previous records about planting bamboo in Changli, Hebei Province, north China. Since they were introduced in 2004, the propinquity bamboo (Phyllostachys propinqua McClure) has demonstrated good adaptability to the cold climate in Changli. The overwintering status of the bamboo and some of its physiological changes after the winter have been studied to ascertain the adaptability of the bamboo to the cold weather in Changli and to establish a firm basis for growing the plants in larger areas in northern China. The bamboo lived through the winter without any protection. The leaves of windward bamboos growing at various intervals have been studied for their viability and health after the winter. The changes in some physiological indices of the leaves were measured in the following spring. Results showed that the bamboo is partly green even at a temperature as low as -22.3℃ in Changli. During the winter, some leaves died and some partly died. Leaves are light in color and turn gradually to a dark green when the temperature increases in the following spring. As new leaves develop, the contents of chlorophyll and water and the ratio of free and bound water in the old leaves increase as does transpiration. At the same time the contents of free amino acid, proline, soluble sugar, malondialdehede (MDA), permeability of the membrane, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities decrease. The direction of these physiological indices changes when the new leaves begin to sprout. The old leaves reduce their rate of photosynthesis, their blade functions decline gradually and the leaves fall off towards the middle of June. The cold wind affects the survival of bamboo leaves in winter, but has little effect on new leaves growing at the start of the following year. The results indicate that the propinquity bamboo can survive the winter in Changli quite well.

  10. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research.

  11. Hygrothermal effect of bamboo by dynamic mechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Mingjie; ZHANG Qisheng

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic properties of bamboo,Phyllostachys pubescens,with moisture content (MC) ranging from -130 to 130℃,were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).The results showed that the hygrothermal effect on dynamic mechanical properties was negative.The storage modulus decreases with increasing temperature and MC,and glass transition temperature decreases with increasing MC.The glass transition temperature and tan delta of bamboo were 30.5℃,0.02 and 10.61℃,0.04,when MC was 10% and 34%,respectively.

  12. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  13. Proposal for qualitative and quantitative descriptors to characterise bamboo germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Leal Generoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bamboo is a genetic resource with evident potential for use from construction until the recovery of degraded areas. Although, characterization and evaluation studies involving bamboo species are scarce and it is difficult to define a list of specific descriptors to better meet the different genres and or bamboo species. Thus, the objective of this work were propose and test the effectiveness of qualitative and quantitative descriptors for phenotypic characterization and the study of genetic diversity among six species of bamboo introduced in Brazil. Fifteen qualitative and nine quantitative descriptors were proposed and tested in clones with one year of planting. Individuals belonging to six species of bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa vulgaris var. vittata, Drepanostachyum falcatum, Dendrocalamus latiforus, Phyllostachys aurea var. albovariegada and Phyllostachys edulis were characterized on the basis of vegetative descriptors, pseudopetiole, sheath, ligule, gems and culm. The genetic divergence between the clones was estimated by the methods of grouping of Tocher and UPGMA with use of average Euclidean distance and the principal component in two-dimensional plane. Qualitative and quantitative descriptors proposed were efficient to differentiate the six species studied and quantify genetic diversity. The quantitative descriptor of sheath length was the largest contributor to differentiate the species studied.

  14. Comparison of bamboo green, timber and yellow in sulfite, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua; Cai, Zhiyong; Pan, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    The response and behavior of bamboo green, timber, and yellow of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) to three pretreatments, sulfite (SPORL), dilute acid (DA), and alkali (NaOH), were investigated and compared with varied chemical loadings at 180°C for 30 min with a 6.25:1 (v/w) liquor-to-bamboo ratio. All the pretreatments improved the enzymatic digestibility of bamboo substrates. Under the investigated conditions, the DA pretreatment achieved better enzymatic digestibility, but had lower sugar recovery yield, and formed more fermentation inhibitors. The results suggested that the SPORL pretreatment be able to generate more readily digestible bamboo substrate with higher sugar yield and fewer fermentation inhibitors than the corresponding DA pretreatment if hemicelluloses are sufficiently removed by adding more acid to bring down the pretreatment pH. Bamboo timber had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility and therefore was a better feedstock for bioconversion than bamboo green and yellow.

  15. The structure and mechanics of Moso bamboo material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P G; Gibson, L J

    2014-10-06

    Although bamboo has been used structurally for millennia, there is currently increasing interest in the development of renewable and sustainable structural bamboo products (SBPs). These SBPs are analogous to wood products such as plywood, oriented strand board and glue-laminated wood. In this study, the properties of natural Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) are investigated to further enable the processing and design of SBPs. The radial and longitudinal density gradients in bamboo give rise to variations in the mechanical properties. Here, we measure the flexural properties of Moso bamboo in the axial direction, along with the compressive strengths in the axial and transverse directions. Based on the microstructural variations (observed with scanning electron microscopy) and extrapolated solid cell wall properties of bamboo, we develop models, which describe the experimental results well. Compared to common North American construction woods loaded along the axial direction, Moso bamboo is approximately as stiff and substantially stronger, in both flexure and compression but denser. This work contributes to critical knowledge surrounding the microstructure and mechanical properties of bamboo, which are vital to the engineering and design of sustainable SBPs.

  16. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  17. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Phyllostachys bambusoides and Arundinaria racemosa, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Upadhyaya; A.Arunachalam; K.Arunachalam; A.K.Das

    2012-01-01

    We investigated decomposition and nutrient release patterns of leaf and sheath litter of two important highland bamboo species (viz.Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb.(Zucc.) and Arundinaria racemosa Munro) by using a litter bag technique.Our objective was to improve understanding of the addition of organic matter and nutrients to soil from the litter of two abundant highland bamboo species,species that support the local population of the region in many ways.N concentration and N/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) in leaf litter of P.bambusoides.Significantly,larger values of lignin concentration,C/N ratio,and lignin/N ratio were found in the sheath litter ofA racemosa.Weight loss of both leaf and sheath litter was strongly positively correlated with N and N/P ratio,and significantly negatively correlated (p<0.01) with C/N ratio.Liginn/N had a negative correlation with decay rate.In both species,only lignin concentration of the litter showed strong positive correlation with N release.Litter decomposition and N release patterns were similar for the two bamboo species,whereas,P release rate from leaf litter was higher in P.bambusoides and differed significantly between sheath and leaf litter for both species.The complex pattern of nutrient release through mineralization and immobilization during litter decomposition ensures nutrient availability in both managed and natural bamboo stands subjected to anthropogenic disturbances.

  18. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China.

  19. Fast Discrimination of Bamboo Species Using VIS/NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Dong, W. Y.; Kouba, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    The potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to discriminate different bamboo species was investigated. Vis/NIR spectra were collected on three bamboo species, Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis, and Phyllostachys glauca, in the wavelength range of 350-2500 nm. The range of 425-2400 nm was chosen for the spectra modeling. Multiplicative signal correction, standard normal variate with detrending, and 1st and 2nd derivatives were used to preprocess the raw spectral data, and the results were compared. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) methods were applied for building discriminant models. The recognition ratio of 30 samples in the validation set was 100% by both SIMCA and PLSDA models. These results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy may provide a fast and nondestructive technique to discriminate different bamboo species in the field.

  20. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM.

  1. Identification and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Bamboo Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Uehara Tohru; Li Jianzhang; Furuno Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of solvent extracts from two main bamboo species, moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and madake bamboo (P. Bambusoides) in Japan, was first evaluated by scavenging free radical of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the inhibition activity for peroxidation of linoleic acid, and the reduction power. The methanol-extracts of moso bamboo culms and madake bamboo leaves presented stronger antioxidant activity compared with DPPH scavenging activity. Methanol-extract of moso bamboo culms was further fractionated by different solvents and n-butanol soluble fraction exhibited the most significant activity in the DPPH scavenging assay. The fractionation of n-butanol soluble extract was isolated by silica gel column with gradient mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol. The isolated fractions were directed by the antioxidant activity measured by scavenging the stable DPPH free radical. It was observed that most of the eluted fractions showed the antioxidative activity. Fractions acquired from elution with the mixture solvent of chloroform and methanol (10:1-5:1) showed stronger antioxidant activity than the other fractions.

  2. The Influence of Repeated Thermal Shock on the Mechanical Properties of Mongolia Scotch Pine and Moso Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharp temperature changes in nature (e.g., forest fires, ice, and snow can cause mechanical damage to trees and bamboo. The mechanical properties of Mongolia Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica and Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis were investigated by a three-point bending test with a repeated thermal shock process (i.e., sudden changes of temperature. The experimental results indicated that the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and deformation work per volume decreased almost linearly with the increased repetition of thermal shock treatment for both Mongolia Scotch pine and Moso bamboo. The damage caused by repeated thermal shock was stronger for Mongolia Scotch pine, as compared to Moso bamboo, under the same thermal shock treatment. Thus, the experimental results provided basic data for engineering applications of Mongolia Scotch pine and Moso bamboo after natural disturbances.

  3. Preliminary study of application effect of bamboo vinegar on vegetable growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jun; Yu Zhi-ming; Wu Wen-qiang; Wu Qing-li

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescense) vinegar, with different diluents, on the growth of lettuce, cole and cucumber based on field tests. The results show that moso bamboo vinegar with 500-800 times dilution had good effect on the growth of tested vegetables. The harvest of vegetables increased from 18.8%-20.2% compared with a control. The height and the weight of the average single vegetable tested also increased. The main components of moso bamboo vinegar were analyzed by GC-MS and the positive effect on the growth was, in the first instance, attributed to a synergistic effect of trace amounts of the main components of bamboo vinegar.

  4. Genome size and sequence composition of moso bamboo: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the world's most important bamboo species. It has the largest area of all planted bamboo―over two-thirds of the total bamboo forest area―and the highest economic value in China. Moso bamboo is a tetraploid (4x=48) and a special member of the grasses family. Although several genomes have been sequenced or are being sequenced in the grasses family, we know little about the genome of the bambusoids (bamboos). In this study, the moso bamboo genome size was estimated to be about 2034 Mb by flow cytometry (FCM), using maize (cv. B73) and rice (cv. Nipponbare) as internal references. The rice genome has been sequenced and the maize genome is being sequenced. We found that the size of the moso bamboo genome was similar to that of maize but significantly larger than that of rice. To determine whether the bamboo genome had a high proportion of repeat elements, similar to that of the maize genome, approximately 1000 genome survey sequences (GSS) were generated. Sequence analysis showed that the proportion of repeat elements was 23.3% for the bamboo genome, which is significantly lower than that of the maize genome (65.7%). The bamboo repeat elements were mainly Gypsy/DIRS1 and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons (14.7%), with a few DNA transposons. However, more genomic sequences are needed to confirm the above results due to several factors, such as the limitation of our GSS data. This study is the first to investigate sequence composition of the bamboo genome. Our results are valuable for future genome research of moso and other bamboos.

  5. Protocol for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in Moso Bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Ling; Yue, Jin-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Li; Gu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo [Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel ex J. Houz.) Ohwi] is one of the most important forest crops in China and the rest of Asia. Although many sympodial bamboo tissue culture protocols have been established, there is no protocol available for plantlet regeneration as indicated by callus induction for monopodial bamboos, such as Moso bamboo. In the present report, embryogenic callus induction, embryoid development, and germination were established for Moso bamboo from zygotic seed embryos. Callus was initiated from zygotic embryos after 10-20 d culture on MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L zeatin (ZT). About 50% of the explants produced calli, and nearly 15% of the calli were found to be embryogenic in nature. These embryogenic calli can be subcultured for proliferation in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D. These calli were found to have maintained their capacity for regeneration even after one year of subculture. The viable somatic embryoids regenerated in medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Nearly 5% of the calli were found capable of regenerating into plantlets directly in MS medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Root growth was more pronounced when the plantlets were transferred to medium containing 2.0 mg/L NAA. After 30 days of subculture, the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse.

  6. Protocol for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in Moso Bamboo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo [Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel ex J. Houz. Ohwi] is one of the most important forest crops in China and the rest of Asia. Although many sympodial bamboo tissue culture protocols have been established, there is no protocol available for plantlet regeneration as indicated by callus induction for monopodial bamboos, such as Moso bamboo. In the present report, embryogenic callus induction, embryoid development, and germination were established for Moso bamboo from zygotic seed embryos. Callus was initiated from zygotic embryos after 10-20 d culture on MS media supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/L zeatin (ZT. About 50% of the explants produced calli, and nearly 15% of the calli were found to be embryogenic in nature. These embryogenic calli can be subcultured for proliferation in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D. These calli were found to have maintained their capacity for regeneration even after one year of subculture. The viable somatic embryoids regenerated in medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Nearly 5% of the calli were found capable of regenerating into plantlets directly in MS medium containing 5.0-7.0 mg/L ZT. Root growth was more pronounced when the plantlets were transferred to medium containing 2.0 mg/L NAA. After 30 days of subculture, the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse.

  7. Comparison of Variations in the Chemical Constituents of the Rhizome and Culm of Phyllostachys pubescens at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was conducted on Phyllostachys pubescens by analyzing the chemical constituents of its rhizome and culm at different ages. Our results indicated that the ash contents of the rhizome and culm of P. pubescens at different ages showed the largest coefficient of variation (CV, followed by alcohol benzene extractives. The CVs of acid-insoluble lignin, holocellulose, HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose, and pentosan were relatively small. Analysis of t-tests indicated that significant differences were found in the contents of extractives, acid-insoluble lignin, holocellulose, and ash of rhizome and culm (p < 0.05. The differences in contents of HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose and pentosan were not significant. Analysis of multiplicity showed that the contents of HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose, pentosan, and ash were not significantly different in bamboos at the ages examined. Likewise, the contents of lignin, alcohol benzene extractives, and holocellulose exhibited no significant difference between one-year-old and three-year-old bamboos. However, the differences in these parameters between five-year-old bamboos and one- and three-year-old bamboos were all statistically significant. Our results suggest that three-year-old P. pubescens is suitable for use as a raw material for papermaking. In addition, our findings provide a theoretical basis for effective utilization of P. pubescens and enhancement of its value.

  8. SALIENT FEATURES OF BAMBOO FIBRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrata; Das

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fibre produced from bamboo.Starchy pulp is produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and multi- phase bleaching.Further chemical processes produce bamboo fibre.

  9. SALIENT FEATURES OF BAMBOO FIBRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrata Das

    2007-01-01

    @@ Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fibre produced from bamboo. Starchy pulp is produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and multiphase bleaching. Further chemical processes produce bamboo fibre.

  10. 水竹和慈竹开花代谢关键因子主成分分析%Principal Component Analysis on the Key Metabolism Factors for Bloom of Phyllostachys heteroclada and Neosinocalamus affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 郭起荣; 周祖基

    2009-01-01

    @@ 开花是植物从营养生长向生殖生长的转换,是植物生存、繁衍和进化的途径.大多数植物开花需要经过某些特定条件的诱导,比如低温春化和光周期诱导(张云等,2003).竹类植物是典型的多年生一次开花植物,目前还没有迹象表明竹子的开花与日照长度和低温诱导有关.%The key metabolism factors for bloom of Phyllostachys heteroclada olive and Neosinocalamus affirm Keng were analyzed by using the principal component analysis method. The results showed that GA3, GA3 /ABA and starch were the most important factors related to bloom of the two bamboo species, followed by soluble sugar, activities of starch enzyme and glutaminase. GA3, starch and soluble sugar with a certain content, and GA/ABA were positively correlated to the bamboo blossom. However, ZT, ZT/ABA and starch enzyme activity had a clear link to bamboo flowering reversion of Phyllostachys heteroclada. In order to know bamboo flowering more clearly, a preliminary simulating model of bamboo flowering was constructed. The model shows that the bamboo flowering procedure is lengthy and complicated. Any influence and break in the procedure would probably accelerate or terminate growth and florescence course, which could be the reason why bamboo florescence is so variable.

  11. [Transferability of remote sensing-based models for estimating moso bamboo forest aboveground biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao-Lin; Du, Hua-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Gui, Zu-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Taking the moso bamboo production areas Lin'an, Anji, and Longquan in Zhejiang Province of East China as study areas, and based on the integration of field survey data and Landsat 5 Thematic Mappr images, five models for estimating the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) forest biomass were constructed by using linear, nonlinear, stepwise regression, multiple regression, and Erf-BP neural network, and the models were evaluated. The models with higher precision were then transferred to the study areas for examining the model's transferability. The results indicated that for the three moso bamboo production areas, Erf-BP neural network model presented the highest precision, followed by stepwise regression and nonlinear models. The Erf-BP neural network model had the best transferability. Model type and independent variables had relatively high effects on the transferability of statistical-based models.

  12. Change of Endogenous Hormones, Amino-acid and Nutrition in Flowering Stage of Phyllostachys praecox f. prevernalis%雷竹开花期内源激素、氨基酸和营养成分含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何奇江; 汪奎宏; 华锡奇; 童晓青

    2005-01-01

    The test site was located in Jincheng Town, Lin'an City, Zhejiang Province. The leaves, culms and rhizomes of two-year-old and three-year-old flowering individuals or non-flowering individuals were taken from the same bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox f. prevernalis ) forest. The culms and rhizomes of one-year-old flowering or non-flowering were also taken from the same bamboo forest. Based on analysis of the content of endogenous hormones, amino-acid and nutrition in flowering stage of bamboo, the results showed that abscisic acid(ABA) had main effect on accelerating its flowering and the increase of cytokinin(CTK) was also one reason for bringing flower, but indole-3-acetic acid(IAA) antagonized on its flowering. Total aminoacid in the non-flowering bamboo was 23.01 % higher than that in flowering bamboo. Aspartic acid (ASP) could delay flowering. Protein, especially protein in leaves had main effect on senescence procedure. Increase of phosphorus content in flowering bamboo could accelerate metabolizing, and therefore promote senescence of bamboo.

  13. Stamp Collecting Bamboo Bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Bamboo is used for construction materials. papermaking, household implements, crafts and as ornamental plants. Records about the use of bamboo can be found in inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells dating

  14. In vitro anti-inflammatory and wound-healing potential of a Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract--identification of isoorientin as an active compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Jonas; Daubitz, Tony; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-12-01

    Extracts prepared from the leaves of Phyllostachys edulis (bamboo) have received attention in pharmacological research due to their potent antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of a bamboo leaf extract on tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced overproduction of interleukin 8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin 6 in immortalized human keratinocytes were investigated for the first time. In addition, wound-healing effects were evaluated in 3T3-swiss albino mouse fibroblasts. Bamboo leaf extract and isoorientin inhibited the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced release of interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, isoorientin dose-dependently reduced levels of interleukin 6 in tumor necrosis factor alpha-α-treated immortalized human keratinocytes cells. Wound healing was evaluated using a modification of the classical scratch assay. For evaluation of the wound gap, a new computerized method based on time-lapse microscopy was developed. It was shown that bamboo leaf extract (10 µg/mL) improved wound closure by 28 % (12 h) and 54 % (24 h), respectively. In concentrations of 50 µg/mL and above, bamboo leaf extract inhibited cell migration without affecting cell viability. Isoorientin (10 µM) improved wound closure by 29 % (12 h) and 56 % (24 h), respectively. Comparable to bamboo leaf extract, higher concentrations of isoorientin prevented cell migration. It is suggested that bamboo leaf extract as well as isoorientin have a dual activity - in higher doses, they show anti-inflammatory effects, and in lower concentrations, they exert anti-angiogenic activities.

  15. Feasibility of Coloring Bamboo with the Application of Natural and Extracted Fungal Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath M. Vega Gutierrez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pigments, specifically those generated from spalting fungi, are being developed for broader use in the wood and textile industry, and due to their coloration properties, may also be useful as aesthetic bamboo dyes. This paper evaluates the potential use of fungal pigments in bamboo (Phyllostachys spp., and compares the difference between natural spalting and the direct application of extracted fungal pigments of three known spalting fungi: Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, and Chlorociboria aeruginosa. Bamboo was significantly spalted by S. cuboideum under live inoculation, while the other two fungi did not colonize. For the direct application of fungal pigments, bamboo did not develop internal pigmentation with any pigment, but did develop visible surface color for S. cuboideium and C. aeruginosa. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of hyphae in bamboo vessels and parenchyma. An HPLC analysis for simple sugars showed the presence of glucose but no sucrose. Results indicate that the extracted pigments of the aforementioned fungi are ideal for the surface treatment of bamboo, while only direct inoculation of S. cuboideum is appropriate for internal coloration.

  16. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  17. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Horn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae. Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae, a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women.

  18. Plant biomechanical strategies in response to frequent disturbance: uprooting of Phyllostachys nidularia (Poaceae) growing on landslide-prone slopes in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Alexia; Lucas, Adrien; Jouneau, Luc

    2007-07-01

    Bamboo is considered useful for controlling landslides, but we observed numerous shallow-slope failures in forests of big node bamboo (Phyllostachys nidularia) in Sichuan, China. Therefore, we inventoried landslide occurrence and vegetation type along one valley. To quantify bamboo root anchorage, we performed uprooting tests and measured plant morphological characteristics. Landslide occurrence was greatest at sites with bamboo and young trees. Culm failure was common because of the high length to diameter ratio (242 ± 6). Uprooting tests showed that the maximal force to cause failure was small (1615 ± 195 N). Uprooting force was strongly and positively regressed with a combination of the predictors lateral root number and volume (R(2) = 0.92), and root systems were highly superficial (depth = 0.15 ± 0.12 m), contributing little to slope stability. In P. nidularia, which grows on landslide-prone slopes, surprisingly few resources have been allocated to anchorage. We suggest that this strategy puts this pioneer at an advantage on steep slopes, where it contributes little to slope stability and colonizes frequently formed gaps through vegetative regeneration. Fewer disturbances would result in subsequent secondary succession and dying back of this shade intolerant species.

  19. Application of bamboo for flexural and shear reinforcement in concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nathan Alan

    As the developing world is industrializing and people migrate to cities, the need for infrastructure is growing quickly and concrete has become one of the most widely used construction materials. One poor construction practice observed widely across the developing world is the minimal use of reinforcement for concrete structures due to the high cost of steel. As a low-cost, high-performance material with good mechanical properties, bamboo has been investigated as an alternative to steel for reinforcing concrete. The goal of this research is to add to the knowledge base of bamboo reinforced concrete (BRC) by investigating a unique stirrup design and testing the lap-splicing of flexural bamboo reinforcement in concrete beams. Component tests on the mechanical properties of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) were performed, including tensile tests and pull-out tests. The results of the component tests were used to design and construct 13 BRC beams which were tested under monotonic gravity loading in 3 and 4-point bending tests. Three types of beams were designed and tested, including shear controlled, flexure controlled, and lap-spliced flexure controlled beams. The test results indicated that bamboo stirrups increased unreinforced concrete beam shear capacities by up to 259%. The flexural bamboo increased beam capacities by up to 242% with an optimal reinforcement ratio of up to 3.9%, assuming sufficient shear capacity. Limitations of the bamboo reinforcement included water absorption as well as poor bonding capability to the concrete. The test results show that bamboo is a viable alternative to steel as tensile reinforcement for concrete as it increases the ultimate capacity of the concrete, allows for high deflections and cracks, and provides warning of impending structural failure.

  20. Asymmetric flexural behavior from bamboo's functionally graded hierarchical structure: underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K; Samaei, Arash T; Gheshlaghi, Behnam; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yang

    2015-04-01

    As one of the most renewable resources on Earth, bamboo has recently attracted increasing interest for its promising applications in sustainable structural purposes. Its superior mechanical properties arising from the unique functionally-graded (FG) hierarchical structure also make bamboo an excellent candidate for bio-mimicking purposes in advanced material design. However, despite its well-documented, impressive mechanical characteristics, the intriguing asymmetry in flexural behavior of bamboo, alongside its underlying mechanisms, has not yet been fully understood. Here, we used multi-scale mechanical characterizations assisted with advanced environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to investigate the asymmetric flexural responses of natural bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) strips under different loading configurations, during "elastic bending" and "fracture failure" stages, with their respective deformation mechanisms at microstructural level. Results showed that the gradient distribution of the vascular bundles along the thickness direction is mainly responsible for the exhibited asymmetry, whereas the hierarchical fiber/parenchyma cellular structure plays a critical role in alternating the dominant factors for determining the distinctly different failure mechanisms. A numerical model has been likewise adopted to validate the effective flexural moduli of bamboo strips as a function of their FG parameters, while additional experiments on uniaxial loading of bamboo specimens were performed to assess the tension-compression asymmetry, for further understanding of the microstructure evolution of bamboo's outer and innermost layers under different bending states. This work could provide insights to help the processing of novel bamboo-based composites and enable the bio-inspired design of advanced structural materials with desired flexural behavior.

  1. [Species-abundance distribution patterns along succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-min; Fan, Cheng-fang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing-pei; Fang, Kai; Fan, Fang-li; Yang, Guang-yao

    2015-12-01

    To detect the ecological process of the succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain, five niche models, i.e., broken stick model (BSM), niche preemption model (NPM), dominance preemption model (DPM), random assortment model (RAM) and overlap- ping niche model (ONM) were employed to describe the species-abundance distribution patterns (SDPs) of 15 samples. χ² test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to test the fitting effects of the five models. The results showed that the optimal SDP models for P. glauca forest, bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broadleaved forest were DPM (χ² = 35.86, AIC = -69.77), NPM (χ² = 1.60, AIC = -94.68) and NPM (χ² = 0.35, AIC = -364.61), respectively. BSM also well fitted the SDP of bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broad-leaved forest, while it was unsuitable to describe the SDP of P. glauca forest. The fittings of RAM and ONM in the three forest types were all rejected by the χ² test and AIC. With the development of community succession from P. glauca forest to broadleaved forest, the species richness and evenness increased, and the optimal SDP model changed from DPM to NPM. It was inferred that the change of ecological process from habitat filtration to interspecific competition was the main driving force of the forest succession. The results also indicated that the application of multiple SDP models and test methods would be beneficial to select the best model and deeply understand the ecological process of community succession.

  2. Micromorphological study on leaf epidermis of Phyllostachys edulis‘Pachyloen’and Phyllostachys edulis%厚壁毛竹与毛竹叶表皮微形态特征比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾飞; 杨光耀; 于芬

    2015-01-01

    利用扫描电镜技术,对厚壁毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis‘Pachyloen’)与毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis)营养叶的表皮微形态进行对比研究,结果表明两竹种叶表皮微形结构组成基本相似,均以下表皮结构较为丰富,分布有乳突,微毛,刺毛,硅细胞,气孔器等结构.两竹种叶表皮主要区别在于厚壁毛竹的气孔轴向长度大于毛竹,而气孔密度要低于毛竹,但差异不显著.而两竹种叶的乳突密度相差不大,在不同年龄的竹叶间也无明显变化规律.同一竹种不同竹龄间竹叶表皮气孔密度和气孔轴向长度却有着显著的差异.1年生厚壁毛竹的气孔密度显著高于2年生竹和5年生竹,气孔轴向长度呈现出“V”字形变化规律.毛竹的气孔密度也出现类似的变化规律,但5年生竹叶的气孔密度最大,气孔轴向长度则表现出随秆龄增大而逐渐增长的趋势,这与竹材物质形成积累规律相一致.通过对比研究厚壁毛竹和毛竹叶表皮形态结构特征,两竹种叶表皮微形态特征相似与两竹种系统分类上的地位相近是一致的,同时对厚壁毛竹厚壁性状形成的结构基础进行探讨,为进一步揭示厚壁形成的机理提供了理论依据.%Micromorphological characteristics of leaf epidermis of Phyllostachys edulis‘Pachyloen’and Phyllostachys edulis were observed by scanning electron microscope.The results indicated that the micromorphological characteris-tics of leaf epidermis of two bamboo species were similar with relatively simple adaxial epidermis only composed of long cell,short cell and bulliform cell.While the abaxial epidermises were complicated,which had papilla,microhair, prickle,silica and stomata.There were three papilla forms:round,granular and rod papillae.Round papilla was the largest distributing in longitudinal rows.The granular papillae were the smallest widely distributing in the abaxial ep-idermises.And the rod

  3. Effects of Acid Dye on the Performance of Bamboo-based Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of acid dye on color change, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, shear strength (parallel loading, thickness swelling rate, and water absorption rate of bamboo-based fiber composites from Phyllostachys pubescens. Bamboo fiber veneers were treated with acid black via three procedures: dyed in water at 20 °C, dyed in water at 90 °C, and dyed in ethanol at 75 °C. The samples dyed in ethanol at 75 °C and those dyed in water at 90 °C had a higher exhaustion rate than those dyed in water at 20 °C. The color change of bamboo fiber veneers exhibited similar variation trends by the three methods. The dyeing procedure slightly reduced the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity of bamboo-based fiber composites. Compared with the samples dyed in water, the samples dyed in ethanol had reduced shear strength (parallel loading and modulus of elasticity. The thickness swelling rate and water absorption rate of bamboo-based fiber composite samples were reduced by the dye treatment.

  4. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  5. 施用营养液对毛竹叶片气孔超微结构的影响%APPLIED NUTRIENT SOLUTION EFFECT ON ULTRASTRUCTURE OF STOMA OF LEAVES OF PHYLLOSTACHYS HETEROCYCLA CV. PUBESCENS AFTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤华明; 刘银春; 刘金福

    2001-01-01

    Under scanning electron microscope, the cell of leaves of five samples of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens in different ayes was observed, into the base of whose culms nutrient solution was injeited one year be-fore. It was found that the stomatal density, size and degree of opening had increased greatly as compared with CK.It was useful for transpiration, raising the suction and assimilation of CO2, enhancing the photosynthesis and respir-ation, increasing the metabolism and accumulating organic matter. It helped to improve yield of bamboo.

  6. Flocculation characteristics of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla: An efficient and eco-friendly flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Hangcheng; Yao, Juming

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a synthesis process and flocculation characteristics of an eco-friendly flocculant based on bamboo pulp cellulose (BPC) from Phyllostachys heterocycla. Ployacrylamide (PAM) was grafted onto the BPC by free-radical graft copolymerization in homogeneous aqueous solution. The optimal synthesis conditions of the bamboo pulp cellulose-graft-ployacrylamide flocculant (BPC-g-PAM) and its performance on wastewater treatments were investigated. A UV-based method was used to rapidly determine the degree of substitution (DS) of BPC. The results showed that, under the optimal synthesis conditions, the obtained BPC-g-PAM held a grafting ratio of 43.8% and DS of 1.31. Turbidity removal of the product reached 98.0% accompanying with the significant flocculation and sedimentation in target suspensions. The flocculation mechanism was explored by means of zeta potential method. For negatively charged contaminants, like kaolin clay particles, the BPC-g-PAM could remove the contaminants efficiently via bridging and charge neutralization in acidic or neutral environment.

  7. [Effects of intensive management on abundance and composition of soil N2-fixing bacteria in Phyllostachys heterocycla stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-hua; Chen, Jun-hui; Xu, Qiu-fang; Shen, Qiu-lan; Li, Yong-chun; Mao, Xin-wei; Cheng, Min

    2015-10-01

    Denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were employed to determine the effects of intensive management on soil N2-fixing bacteria in a moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) plantation. Soil samples were collected from the moso bamboo stands receiving 0 (CK), 10, 15, 20, and 25 years of intensive management. It was found that intensive management caused a strong decrease in soil pH but a general increase in soil available nutrients. The structure of the N2-fixing bacterial communities in the soils having received 10 and 25 years of intensive management were quite similar to that from the CK; however, those from 15 and 20 years of intensification differed from the CK. With increasing time of intensive management, the abundance and diversity of the nifH gene at first decreased and then increased, with the minimum values being observed after 15 years of intensive management, indicating the eventual resiliency of N2-fixing bacteria to disturbance induced by intensive management. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil available potassium, available nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and ammonium nitrogen were more closely related to the changes of N2-fixing bacterial community structure compared with the other soil indices measured. In conclusion, the soil N2-fixing bacterial community was negatively affected by intensive management in the short term, but could recover in the long term.

  8. Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen-ji; LIN Peng; HE Jian-yuan; YANG Zhi-wei; LIN Yi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon's biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon's erosion of soil particles.A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts ofmoso bamboos, and the underaboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%,3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26× 1010 kg of silicon in the organic pool made up by the moso bamboo forests in the subtropical area of China.

  9. Seasonal variations in whole-ecosystem BVOC emissions from a subtropical bamboo plantation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Yu, Shuquan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emissions and environmental conditions were measured over a six month period in a Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys violascens) forest in a subtropical region in China. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions were measured using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system on an above-canopy tower. From July to November of 2012, isoprene contributed 99.1% of terpenoid emissions. α-pinene, constituting 0.8% of total observed terpenoid emissions, was the only monoterpene for which a significant flux was detected. Emissions of the sesquiterpenes longifolene and α-cedrene were observed at very low rates. Isoprene and α-pinene emissions exhibited strong diurnal variations, with lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around noon. BVOC peak emissions typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak and coincided with the daily temperature peak. This behavior can be described reasonably well by the MEGANv2.1 biogenic emission model. During the campaign (i.e., from 7 July, 2012 to 19 Jan., 2013), the mean (and maximum) emission fluxes (mg m-2 h-1) were 0.95 (10.32) for isoprene, 0.010 (0.176) for α pinene, 0.001 (0.063) for longifolene, and 2.6 × 10-4 (0.009) for α-cedrene, respectively. During the winter season, when the ground was covered by organic mulch to increase soil temperature and to increase the yield of bamboo shoot, there was no evident impact on BVOC emissions. The observed seasonal variation followed the general behavior predicted by the MEGANv2.1 model, with lower emissions associated with cooler conditions, but the magnitude of the emission decrease was greater than expected indicating driving variables are missing from the model. Emission factors, representing the emission expected for a Leaf Area Index of 5 at a temperature of 30 °C and PAR of 1500 μmol m-2 s-1, during the peak growing season for this site were 0.008 mg m-2 h-1 for α-pinene and 3.3 mg m-2 h-1 for isoprene. The isoprene emission

  10. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guoqi [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wang, Lihai, E-mail: xu12nefu@sina.cn [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Junliang [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wu, Jinzhuo [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  11. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stock in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Xia, Mingpeng; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Guan, Fengying; Fan, Shaohui

    2017-02-14

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0-60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution. Different spatial patterns of SOC stock suggested the use of different fertilization treatments in Moso bamboo forests across the study area. SOC pool within 0-60 cm was 6.46 and 6.22 Tg for OK and IDW; results which were lower than that of conventional approach (CA, 7.41 Tg). CA is not recommended unless coordinates of the sampling locations are missing and the spatial patterns of SOC stock are not required. OK is recommended for the uneven distribution of sampling locations. Our results can improve methodology selection for investigating spatial distribution of SOC stock in Moso bamboo forests.

  12. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stock in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Xia, Mingpeng; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Guan, Fengying; Fan, Shaohui

    2017-02-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0–60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution. Different spatial patterns of SOC stock suggested the use of different fertilization treatments in Moso bamboo forests across the study area. SOC pool within 0–60 cm was 6.46 and 6.22 Tg for OK and IDW; results which were lower than that of conventional approach (CA, 7.41 Tg). CA is not recommended unless coordinates of the sampling locations are missing and the spatial patterns of SOC stock are not required. OK is recommended for the uneven distribution of sampling locations. Our results can improve methodology selection for investigating spatial distribution of SOC stock in Moso bamboo forests.

  13. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stock in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Xia, Mingpeng; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Guan, Fengying; Fan, Shaohui

    2017-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) is an important timber substitute in China. Site specific stand management requires an accurate estimate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock for maintaining stand productivity and understanding global carbon cycling. This study compared ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) approaches to study the spatial distribution of SOC stock within 0–60 cm using 111 soil samples in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. Similar spatial patterns but different spatial distribution ranges of SOC stock from OK and IDW highlighted the necessity to apply different approaches to obtain accurate and consistent results of SOC stock distribution. Different spatial patterns of SOC stock suggested the use of different fertilization treatments in Moso bamboo forests across the study area. SOC pool within 0–60 cm was 6.46 and 6.22 Tg for OK and IDW; results which were lower than that of conventional approach (CA, 7.41 Tg). CA is not recommended unless coordinates of the sampling locations are missing and the spatial patterns of SOC stock are not required. OK is recommended for the uneven distribution of sampling locations. Our results can improve methodology selection for investigating spatial distribution of SOC stock in Moso bamboo forests. PMID:28195207

  14. Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J Ballhorn; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny Patrika; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. The interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on Madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. Bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. In this study, we found variation...

  15. Preliminary Determination on Chemical Components of Leaves from Phyllostachys vivax McClure cv. aureocaulis%黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶化学成分的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衡锋

    2011-01-01

    [目的]测定黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶的化学成分.[方法]以当年生和3年生黄秆乌哺鸡竹成竹为试材,从竹子的顶梢、中部和基部采集样品,对其水提取物.采用硝酸铝-亚硝酸钠比色法测定总黄酮含量,福尔马林还原比色法测定总酚含量,凯氏定氮法和分光光度法测定蛋白质和总糖含量.[结果]黄秆鸟哺鸡竹新叶中总黄酮含量较高,老叶中总酚含量较高,黄酮含量平均为1.65%,总酚含量平均为2.35%;竹叶的蛋白质含量平均为21.37%;竹叶的总糖含量平均为36.99%,多糖含量平均为25.01%.[结论]黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶中的水提取物含量平均为24.64%,水溶性糖含量平均为11.98%,除含糖类外,还含有黄酮、酚类和蒽醌等化合物,因此黄秆乌哺鸡竹叶具有很好的抗癌保健作用.可开发为一种代茶饮料.%[Objective ] The study aimed to determin the chemical components of leaves from Phyllostachys vivax McClure cv. aureocaulis.[ Method] With that year and 3-year old Phyllostachys vivax as the tested material,the samples were collected from the top, middle and basal of the bamboo shoots and were extracted by hot water extraction. The total flavone content and the total phenol content in the water extract of Aureocaulis were determined by using Al ( NO3 ) 3-NaNO2 and Forint-reagent-reversion colorimetry resp. , its the protein content and total sugar content were measured by using Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods resp. [ Result ] The total flavone content in new leaves of Phyllostachys vivax was higher and the total phenol content in the old leaves of Phyllostachys vivaxs was higher. Generally, the total flavone content in Phyllostachys vivax leaf averaged by 1.65 % and its total phenol content averaged by 2.35%. The protein content in Phyllostachys vivax leaf averaged by 21.37% and its total sugar content averaged by 36.99%. [ Conclusion]Phyllostachys vivax leaves had mean water extract content of 24.64% and had

  16. Anji,Home of Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ANJI County in northwestern Zhejiang Province is synonymous with bamboo, with its 60,000 hectares of bamboo groves. Anji has been designated a pilot county for ecological construction. Within its boundaries are moun-

  17. Phyllostachys edulis compounds inhibit palmitic acid-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K Higa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phyllostachys edulis Carriere (Poaceae is a bamboo species that is part of the traditional Chinese medicine pharmacopoeia. Compounds and extracts from this species have shown potential applications towards several diseases. One of many complications found in obesity and diabetes is the link between elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs and chronic inflammation. This study aims to present a possible application of P. edulis extract in relieving inflammation caused by FFAs. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1 are transcription factors activated in response to inflammatory stimuli, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1. This study examines the effect of P. edulis extract on cellular production of MCP-1 and on the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in response to treatment with palmitic acid (PA, a FFA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MCP-1 protein was measured by cytometric bead assay. NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear localization was detected by colorimetric DNA-binding ELISA. Relative MCP-1 mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Murine cells were treated with PA to induce inflammation. PA increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1. Adding bamboo extract (BEX inhibited the effects of PA, reduced MCP-1 production, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 subunits. Compounds isolated from BEX inhibited MCP-1 secretion with different potencies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PA induced MCP-1 production in murine adipose, muscle, and liver cells. BEX ameliorated PA-induced production of MCP-1 by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Two O-methylated flavones were isolated from BEX with functional effects on MCP-1 production. These results may represent a possible

  18. Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny Patrika; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. The interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on Madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. Bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. In this study, we found variation in cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and nutritive characteristics among five sympatric bamboo species in the Ranomafana area, southeastern Madagascar. The HCNp ranged from 209±72 μmol cyanide*g-1 dwt in Cathariostachys madagascariensis to no cyanide in Bambusa madagascariensis. Among three sympatric bamboo lemur species, the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) has the narrowest food range as it almost exclusively feeds on the highly cyanogenic C. madagascariensis. Our data suggest that high HCNp is the derived state in bamboos. The ancestral state of lemurs is most likely "generalist" while the ancestral state of bamboo lemurs was determined as equivocal. Nevertheless, as recent bamboo lemurs comprise several "facultative specialists" and only one "obligate specialist" adaptive radiation due to increased flexibility is likely. We propose that escaping a strict food plant specialization enabled facultative specialist bamboo lemurs to inhabit diverse geographical areas.

  19. Bamboo and the Chinese Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2003-01-01

    THE bamboo plant, fargesia spathacea, is the staple food of the giant panda and a cultural icon in Chinese history. In sharp contrast to other plants, the bamboo only blossoms every 60 to 80 years, and perishes soon after. It takes one to three decades for its seeds to grow. In the past 3 million years bamboos have undergone more than 50,000 extensive blooms. Pandas survived by migrating,but this is no longer an option owing to the sharp decrease of bamboo forests. The last two bloomings of bamboo caused 250 giant pandas to starve to death.

  20. Four flavonoid compounds from Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract retard the digestion of starch and its working mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Peng; He, Hao; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2014-08-06

    Bamboo leaf extract as a food additive has been used for preventing the oxidation of food. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract on starch digestion. Orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin were determined as its α-amylase inhibitory constituents. An inhibitory kinetics experiment demonstrated that they competitively inhibit α-amylase with Ki values of respectively 152.6, 11.5, 569.6, and 75.8 μg/mL. Molecular docking showed the four flavones can interact with the active site of α-amylase, and their inhibitory activity was greatly influenced by the glucoside linking position and 3'-hydroxyl. Moreover, the results of starch-iodine complex spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that P. edulis flavonoids retard the digestion of starch not only through interaction with digestive enzymes, but also through interaction with starch. Thus, P. edulis leaf extract can be potentially used as a starch-based food additive for adjusting postprandial hyperglycemia.

  1. Plan de empresa Bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Hernández, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Este plan de empresa tiene como objetivo principal describir, cuantificar y analizar la viabilidad de la idea de negocio “Bamboo” en el mercado. Bamboo por su parte, se dedicará a producir y comercializar alimentos a base de insumos naturales. Dichos productos serán entregados en un establecimiento comercial que se ubicará en el barrio de Ciudad Salitre en Bogotá y el cual será un espacio acogedor y relajado, en el que los clientes se sientan a gusto tanto a nivel físico como espiritual y a...

  2. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  3. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qunCao; Yong-deYue; Zhen-huaPeng; Ri-maoHua; FengTang

    2004-01-01

    The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65mg/L,53.94mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of bamboo.

  4. Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

    2013-02-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-TiO2 Loaded Bamboo-based Activated Carbon Fibers by H2O Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Dongna Li; Xiaojun Ma; Xinyan Liu; Lili Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the support for loading TiO2, bamboo-based activated carbon fibers (BACFs) were obtained from Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel after liquefaction using phenol, melt-spinning, curing carbonization, and H2O activation. TiO2/BACFs were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. Anatase TiO2 film with high photocatalytic activity was formed on the surface of BACFs, and the average crystallite size of the TiO2 film was 17 to 30 nm. The characteristic absorbance pe...

  6. Effervescent Granules Prepared Using Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Moso Bamboo Leaves: Hypoglycemic Activity in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhou Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens leaves are used as folk medicines in central-western China to treat diabetes. To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the effervescent granules prepared using E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo leaves (EBEG in HepG2 cells, EBEG were prepared with 5% of each of polysaccharides and chlorogenic acids from moso bamboo and E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves, respectively. HepG2 cells cultured in a high-glucose medium were classified into different groups. The results displayed EBEG-treated cells showed better glucose utilization than the negative controls; thus, the hypoglycemic effect of EBEG was much greater than that of granules prepared using either component alone, thereby indicating that this effect was due to a synergistic action of the components. Further, glucose consumption levels in the cells treated with EBEG (156.35% at 200 μg/mL and the positive controls (metformin, 162.29%; insulin, 161.52% were similar. Thus, EBEG exhibited good potential for use as a natural antidiabetic agent. The hypoglycemic effect of EBEG could be due to the synergistic action of polysaccharides from the moso bamboo leaves and chlorogenic acids from E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves via the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphate displacement enzyme.

  7. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  8. The effect of bamboo extract on hepatic biotransforming enzymes – Findings from an obese–diabetic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Cheryl L.K.; Collier, Abby C.; Berry, Marla J.; Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Bamboo leaves are used as a component in traditional Chinese medicine for the anti-inflammatory function. Our previous studies have demonstrated that an ethanol/water extract from Phyllostachys edulis ameliorated obesity-associated chronic systemic inflammation in mice, and therefore relieving the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this project was to further investigate the effects of this bamboo extract on hepatic biotransformation enzymes in both lean and obese mice, as an initial step in the toxicological evaluation of using this traditional medicine in obese/diabetic population. Materials and methods Male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to 4 groups and fed standard (10% kcal from fat) diet with or without bamboo extract supplementation at a dose of 10 gram per kilogram diet (n = 10 and n = 9, respectively), or high fat (45% kcal from fat) diet with or without bamboo extract (n = 8 and N = 7, respectively). The dietary treatment lasted for 6 months. Subsequently, the activities and expression of the major Phase I and II hepatic biotransformation enzymes were assessed in subcellular fractions from murine livers. Results Three groups of mice, lean bamboo extract-supplemented, obese/diabetic, and bamboo extract-supplemented obese/diabetic, showed greater activities of cytochromes P450 1a2 and 3a11 compared to control but no changes in the expression level of these proteins. For Phase II enzymes, bamboo extract supplementation in lean mice caused decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity (−12%) and greater uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activity (+46%), but had no effect on sulfotransferase activity. Conversely, the obese/diabetic condition itself increased glutathione-S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activities, but decreased total sulfotransferase activity and sulfotransferase 2a1 expression. Conclusions Bamboo extract and obesity/diabetes show significant independent effects on hepatic bio

  9. Spatial variability of the topsoil organic carbon in the Moso bamboo forests of southern China in association with soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Houxi; Zhuang, Shunyao; Qian, Haiyan; Wang, Feng; Ji, Haibao

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) must be enhanced to improve sampling design and to develop soil management strategies in terrestrial ecosystems. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz.) forests have a high SOC storage potential; however, they also vary significantly spatially. This study investigated the spatial variability of SOC (0-20 cm) in association with other soil properties and with spatial variables in the Moso bamboo forests of Jian'ou City, which is a typical bamboo hometown in China. 209 soil samples were collected from Moso bamboo stands and then analyzed for SOC, bulk density (BD), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and gravel content (GC) based on spatial distribution. The spatial variability of SOC was then examined using geostatistics. A Kriging map was produced through ordinary interpolation and required sample numbers were calculated by classical and Kriging methods. An aggregated boosted tree (ABT) analysis was also conducted. A semivariogram analysis indicated that ln(SOC) was best fitted with an exponential model and that it exhibited moderate spatial dependence, with a nugget/sill ratio of 0.462. SOC was significantly and linearly correlated with BD (r = -0.373**), pH (r = -0.429**), GC (r = -0.163*), CEC (r = 0.263**), and elevation (r = 0.192**). Moreover, the Kriging method requires fewer samples than the classical method given an expected standard error level as per a variance analysis. ABT analysis indicated that the physicochemical variables of soil affected SOC variation more significantly than spatial variables did, thus suggesting that the SOC in Moso bamboo forests can be strongly influenced by management practices. Thus, this study provides valuable information in relation to sampling strategy and insight into the potential of adjustments in agronomic measure, such as in fertilization for Moso bamboo production.

  10. Engineered bamboo for structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhavna; Gatóo, Ana; Bock, Maximilian; Ramage, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the published version. It was first published at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061815001117# Bamboo is a rapidly renewable material that has many applications in construction. Engineered bamboo products result from processing the raw bamboo culm into a laminated composite, similar to glue-laminated timber products. These products allow the material to be used in standardised sections and have less inherent variability than the natural material. The present w...

  11. Benefits from additives and xylanase during enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kena; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-09-01

    Effects of additives (BSA, PEG 6000, and Tween 80) on enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo fractions (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, bamboo node, and bamboo branches) by cellulases and/or xylanase were evaluated. The addition of additives was comparable to the increase of cellulase loadings in the conversion of cellulose and xylan in bamboo fractions. Supplementation of xylanase (1 mg/g DM) with cellulases (10 FPU/g DM) in the hydrolysis of bamboo fractions was more efficient than addition of additives in the production of glucose and xylose. Moreover, addition of additives could further increase the glucose release from different bamboo fractions by cellulases and xylanase. Bamboo green exhibited the lowest hydrolyzability. Almost all of the polysaccharides in pretreated bamboo shoot fractions were hydrolyzed by cellulases with the addition of additives or xylanase. Additives and xylanase showed great potential for reducing cellulase requirement in the hydrolysis of bamboo.

  12. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint approach to discriminate Phyllostachys pubescens from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of different variants of Phyllostachys pubescens was developed for the source discrimination and quality control of Phyllostachys pubescens medicines produced in Zhejiang Province, China. Materials and Methods: Samples of Phyllostachys pubescens collected from nine cultivars in Zhejiang Province were used to establish the fingerprint. Taking the chromatographic peak (isoorientin as the reference peak, the chromatographic column was Sunfire C 18 ODS (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 ΅m at a column temperature of 25°C. The mobile phase was acetonitrile 0.8% acetic acid water solution (in a gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The detection wavelength was 330 nm. Results: 20 common peaks were established in the chromatographic fingerprints of Phyllostachys pubescens. And then by comparing the UV and standard substance with those of the authentic standards and literature, eight main peaks in the fingerprints were identified. Data of nine cultivars were evaluated statistically using similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA in order to establish a similarity standard of fingerprint for quality control of Phyllostachys pubescens, then to classify the samples. The similarity indexes were all above 0.95 between reference chromatogram and each sample′s chromatogram. Conclusion: in this study, the methods established are reliable, and could be used to evaluate the quality and to identify the species of Phyllostachys pubescens in the future.

  13. In vitro morphogenic response of leaf sheath of Phyllostachys bambusoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurika H. Komatsu; Katherine Derlene Batagin-Piotto; Gilvano Ebling Brondani; Ant(o)nio Natal Goncalves; Marcilio de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Nodal segments from secondary branches of saplings of Phyllostachys bambusoides were inoculated in MS medium to assess the in vitro morphogenic response of leaf sheath through the induction to callogenesis by Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) at different concentrations of carbohydrate under the same conditions with presence or absence of luminosity. In our experiment, secondary explants were kept in MS medium containing 8.0 mg·L-1 of Picloram for the callus formation. Calluses were transferred in MS medium supplemented with sucrose, fructose and glucose (control, 2%, 4% and 6%). Results show that Picloram induced the callogenesis in leaf sheath. The secondary embryogenesis was formed in yellow-globular callus. The sucrose as carbohydrate source in the absence of light was more efficient to induce rhizogenesis. Glucose was more efficiency in the presence of light. Callogenic induction and further embryogenesis evidenced the competence and determination of leaf sheath cells.

  14. Current Status and Prospects of New Architecture Materials from Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of the technologies has been discussed in the paper that bamboo is used for middling and top-grade building construction, architecture decorating, and other major applications. The content includes the current application of bamboo materials in construction field; the bamboo bearing material technological process such as the laminated bamboo board, bamboo mat plywood processes; bamboo ceiling and wall material technologies such as the bamboo particleboard, cement-bonded bamboo particlebo...

  15. Pollen morphology and double fertilization of Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹花粉的形态及双受精过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 孙立方; 冉洪; 冯云; 张韫; 郭起荣

    2016-01-01

    由于实验的材料、条件和技术的限制,关于竹类花粉形态、花粉管生长过程的研究十分少见。毛竹( Phyllostachys edulis)属于禾本科( Poaceae/Gramineae)竹亚科( Bambusoideae)植物,在我国广泛分布,具有重要的经济、生态和文化价值。由于其独特的生殖生物学特性,即开花周期长、结籽率低,所以对其开花材料的获取十分困难。该研究在其独特的开花特性基础上,结合野外实地观察,利用显微镜、环境扫描电镜、荧光显微镜等,对毛竹的花粉形态、结构以及花粉管的萌发与生长动态进行了首次报道。结果表明:(1)毛竹花粉近球形,平均直径为61.00μm,属于大型孢子。(2)毛竹成熟花粉落到雌蕊柱头上后,经过花粉与柱头的成功识别,开始萌发,并形成花粉管;随着花粉管的逐渐伸长生长,依次经过柱头和花柱,到达子房;约120 min后到达珠孔处,进入胚珠和胚囊,完成双受精作用。通过对毛竹花粉形态结构和花粉管生长至受精过程的动态观察,为毛竹花粉可授性、花粉生理、生化研究提供了实验技术准备。该研究结果完善和丰富了毛竹乃至整个禾本科植物在生殖生物学方面的研究内容。%Due to the limitations of experimental materials, conditions and techniques, the research on bamboo pollen morphology and the process of pollen tube growth are very rare. Phyllostachys edulis ( moso bamboo) ( Bambusoideae, Poaceae) is the most important bamboo species, which has large cultivation area and is widely cultivated in China. It has important economic value for its versatile culms and delicious shoots. Besides, moso bamboo also has important ecologi-cal and cultural values. It it well known that moso bamboo has a prolonged vegetative phase lasting decades or even lon-ger. The flowering cycle is very long and has low seed setting rate, which leads to the hardness of researching on

  16. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-Yao; Yang, Qing-Pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha‑1 yr‑1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha‑1 yr‑1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation.

  17. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-yao; Yang, Qing-pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha−1 yr−1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha−1 yr−1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation. PMID:28067336

  18. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  19. Effect of Management Practices on Seasonal Dynamics of Organic Carbon in Soils Under Bamboo Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guo-Mo; XU Jian-Ming; JIANG Pei-Kun

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples for conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM) practices were taken over a year at2-month intervals to determine the effect of management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) and to quantify seasonal dynamics in SOC for bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex H. de Lehaie) stands. The results with IM compared to CM showed large decreases in total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and the MBC/TOC ratio in the soils. With all IM plots in the 0-20 cm depth across sampling periods,average decreases compared with CM were: TOC, 12.1%; MBC, 26.1%; WSOC, 29.3%; the MBC/TOC ratio, 16.1%;and the WSOC/TOC ratio, 20.0%. Due to seasonal changes of climate, seasonal variations were observed in MBC and WSOC. Soil MBC in the 0-20 cm depth in September compared to May were 122.9% greater for CM and 57.6% greater for IM. However, due primarily to soil temperature, soil MBC was higher during the July to November period, whereas because of soil moisture, WSOC was lower in July and January. This study revealed that intensive management in bamboo plantations depleted the soil C pool; therefore, soil quality with IM should be improved through application of organic manures.

  20. 集约经营雷竹林分结构特征%Structure characteristics of intensive managed Phyllostachys praecon stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宋高; 陈明亮; 江雄波; 胡云; 张卓文

    2012-01-01

    以湖北省崇阳县雷竹林为研究对象,对集约经营雷竹林分结构及各器官生物量分配特征进行了调查与分析,结果表明:集约经营雷竹笋用林立竹在林地上分布均匀,调查的雷竹林分平均胸径为2.55cm,通过胸径计算得到的适宜经营密度约为15000株/hm2(1000株/667m2);林分中立竹处于年青状态,1年生、2年生、3年生及4年生、5年生立竹数依次为3000、4660、3880、460、20株/hm2,所占的百分率依次为24.59%、38.20%、31.80%、3.77%及1.60%;钩梢有利于雷竹林分抗雪压,虽然钩梢后立竹留盘数减少,冠幅减小,但平均每枝叶面积指数增大;生产中每年通过在林地上均匀保留健壮的笋体而形成新立竹,因而林木株数按径阶的分布不符合正态分布规律,出现向右偏态;农事活动使枝下高也发生变异;雷竹林各器官生物量大小依次为杆>竹蔸>竹鞭>叶>枝,钩梢使各器官生物量大小发生变化.%Research had been carried out into the structure and the biomass for different organs of Phyllostachys praecon stands located at Chongyang County, Hubei Province,which were intensive managed, the results showed that bamboo stems were uniform distributed in ground, the average DBH of plots studied was 2. 55 cm,the management density calculated according to the average DBH was 15 000 stems per hm2(1000 stems per 667 m2);all stands studied were very young and in good health, stems density for 1,2,3,4 and 5 a were 3 000 stems per hm2,4 660 stems per hm2,3 880 stems per hm2 ,460 stems per hm2and 20 stems per hm2 with 24. 59%,38. 20%,31. 80%,3. 77% and 1. 60%,respectively; for anti-snow pressure,although tip hooking made the stem shorted,branch round decreased and crown width dwindled,leaf area index increased. When harvesting bamboo shoots, big and strong shoots were kept uniform in a stand ground which would grow as new stems,so the distribution of DBH was not a normal one, but a

  1. Acetylation of Chinese bamboo flour and thermoplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-fang; CHEN Qin-hui; LIN Jin-huo; ZHUO Dong-xian; WU Xiu-ling

    2008-01-01

    Chinese bamboo flour was chemically modified by acetylation with acetic anhydride by using trichloroacetic acid as an activation agent and the optimized condition for acetylation of bamboo flour was determined as the trichloroacetic acid amount 6.0 g per 1.5-g bamboo flour, ultrasosonication duration 40 min and the reaction time 1 h at 65℃. The composition, microstructure and thermal behavior of acetylated bamboo flour were preliminarily characterized by FT-IR, DSC and SEM etc. The acetylated bamboo flour can be molded into sheets at 130℃ and 10 MPa, indicating the modified bamboo flour possesses thermalplastic performance.

  2. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  3. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB, were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31, 2 : 1 (BS21, 1 : 1 (BS11, 1 : 2 (BS12, and 1 : 3 (BS13. Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21.

  4. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038

  5. Towards a new tectonics in bamboo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif; Kim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reflective description of the unique development of three constructions in bamboo - in India, Italy and South Korea......Reflective description of the unique development of three constructions in bamboo - in India, Italy and South Korea...

  6. Bamboo construction generated by cocoon contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif; Kim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reflective description of the ecological aspects of the bamboo building 'Cocoon I' in South India.......Reflective description of the ecological aspects of the bamboo building 'Cocoon I' in South India....

  7. Standard for Bamboo and its International Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhaohui; JIANGZehui; SUNQixiang

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on the present status of standards for bamboo is made. The main group has 15 standards related to bamboo-based panel, bamboo-based panel for form and container with bamboo-based panel. The main technological parameters and making of main types of bamboo-based panels in standards have been analyzed for readers to understand the related standards more easily. Analysis of influence of new national standards of indoor decorating and refurbishing materials on standards for bamboo-based panels in China has been done. The paper compares Chinese standard on methods of tests for bamboo with the respective Indian standard. It is tested that speed' s influence on result of bamboo properties by the experimental data. It is possible to reunite some standards on bamboo in China and India into the uniform international standards on the basis of absorption of the reasonable parts. All the standards for bamboo will be changed with the development of bamboo products and technological process. The paper analyzes the insufficient aspects of the standards and proposes the trend toward international standards. A good standard not only promotes bamboo to well recycling utilization but also mitigates the press of protection of natural forest to realize sustainable development forest.

  8. Comparing composition of Phyllostachys edulis ' Pachyloen' in native and introduced habitats%原产地与引种地厚壁毛竹竹材成分质量分数比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方楷; 杨清培; 郭起荣; 施建敏; 李建; 杨光耀

    2012-01-01

    Nine chemical components and twelve mineral elements in bamboo wood of Phyllostachys edulis ' Pachyloen' from native and introduced habitats were studied. The diversity of bamboo wood among native and introduced habitats were revealed by two-tail variance analysis, meanwhile, bamboo age was referred to as an accessory factor in taking the significance test. Results from the native and introduced habitats showed signifi cant differences for mineral elements (P N > P > S = Mg > Fe > Ca > Mn > Al > Zn > Cu > B in the native habitat, but S > Mg > Ca > Fe in the native habitat. The main chemical components in bamboo wood from introduced habitat were consistent to native habitat values, which affirm that the genetic stability of Phyllostachys edulis 'Pachyloen'. [Ch, 2 tab. 17 ref.]%对原产地和引种地厚壁毛竹Phyllostachys edulis‘Pachyloen’竹材的9种化学成分和12种营养元素进行了测定与分析.结果表明:原产地竹材的冷水抽出物、热水抽出物、10.0 g·kg-1氢氧化钠抽出物、苯醇抽出物、木质素、纤维素、戊聚糖、灰分、二氧化硅质量分数分别为0.055 3,0.064 6,0.298 2,0.027 7,0.290 0,0.395 6,0.260 3,0.015 7,0.001 5 g·g-1.引种地竹材中热水抽出物、木质素、纤维素、戊聚糖、灰分、二氧化硅质量分数略高于原产地.原产地竹材营养元素按质量分数高低排列为钾(6.41 g·kg-1)>氮(3.03 g·kg-1)>磷(0.43 g·kg-1)>锰、硫(0.39 g·kg-1)>铁(161.52 mg·kg-1)>钙(132.99 mg· kg--1)>锰(82.43 mg· kg-1)>铝(17.31 mg·kg 1)>锌(10.47 mg· kg-1)>铜(5.58 mg·kg-1)>硼(0.52 mg· kg-1),但引种地竹材硫(0.34 g·kg-1)>锰(0.25 g·kg-1)>钙(186.23g·kg-1)>铁(112.23 g·kg-1).引种地与原产地间的竹材营养元素存在显著性差异(P<0.05),但化学成分差异未达到检验显著性水平.

  9. 毛竹疏残林人工改造技术试验初报%Artificial Reform Technologies of Phyllostachys pubescens Open-residual Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈东阳

    2012-01-01

    采取对照、劈山清杂、全垦、施复合肥料、施饼肥5种技术措施,对毛竹疏残林进行人工改造。经过对毛竹林分出笋、成竹、胸径3个指标连续4 a的观测调查,结果表明不同人工改造措施总体上促进了毛竹林的生长;随着人工改造措施实施时间(次数)的延长,各年度间毛竹林分出笋、成竹、胸径3个指标均有极显著、显著性差异;各人工改造技术处理间出笋数差异极显著、胸径差异显著,而成竹数差异不显著。q检验结果表明,不同的人工改造措施对毛竹林生长的正效作用排列依次为施复合肥料〉施饼肥〉全垦〉劈山清杂〉对照。%5 technology measures of control, hilltops cleaning, reclamation, using compound fertilizer, using cake-fertilizer were made to take artificial reform of Phyllostachys pubescens open-residual stands. After the observation and investigation on 3 indicators of shoots, bamboos, diameter at breast height of Ph. pubescens stands for 4 years, the results indicated that different artificial reform measures generally promoted the growth of Ph. pubescens forests; 3 indicators of shoots, bamboos, diameter at breast height of Ph. pubescens stands during the 4 years have very significantly or general remarkable differences with the artificial modification measures time ( frequency ) being extended; There were extremely significant differences for the number of shoots, and significant differences for the DBH between the processing of artificial reform technologies, and there was no significant difference between the number of bamboo. Q test results showed that the positive effect in the order of different artificial reform measures on the growth of Ph. pubescens forests was that applying compound N fertilizer 〉 applying cake- fertilizer 〉 reclamation〉 hilltops clearing 〉 control.

  10. Forest Types of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens and Its Influence Factors in Chishui River Basin, Guizhou Province%赤水河流域毛竹林类型及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜; 张佐玉; 崔迎春; 姜霞; 王莉莉; 郑道权; 黄世平

    2012-01-01

    Based on sampling plot records of the Forest Resources Inventory of Guizhou Province in 2006, the forests of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens were divided into 3 classes and 5 sub-classes according to shoot diameter at breath height (DBH) and density in Chishui River Basin, Guizhou Province, China. The coverage of moso bamboo forests with big diameter (DBH≥10 cm) and high density (density ≥3500 clumps/hm2 ) was less than 1% , the remaining 99% belonged to middle or low yield forests. Altitude, mother rock, aspect, location, slope, soil depth, bare rock ratio and wood volume locally exerted remarkable influence on shoot DBH of moso bamboo forests. This provided theoretical basis and technical approach for the transformation of low-yield forest and cultivation of high-yield bamboo forests.%采用2006年贵州省森林资源二类调查毛竹小班资料,将赤水河流域毛竹林按平均胸径和密度指标划分为3等级、5亚等级,其中高径级-高密度的丰产林类型面积不足1%、其余为中低产林分.海拔高度、岩组、坡向、坡位、坡度、土层厚度、岩石裸露率和杂木蓄积量对毛竹林平均胸径的影响具有区段性与显著性,为赤水河流域毛竹丰产林建设与低产林改造提供了理论依据与技术途径.

  11. Synthesis of 1-O-methylchlorogenic acid: reassignment of structure for MCGA3 isolated from bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first synthesis of 1-O-methylchlorogenic acid is described. The short and efficient synthesis of this compound provides laboratory-scale quantities of the material to investigate its biological properties. The synthesis involved C-1 alkylation of the known (-)-4,5-cyclohexylidenequinic acid lact...

  12. 毛竹辐射诱变实生苗期选择研究%St udy on Seedling Selection of Phyllostachys edulis Treated with Irradiation Mut ation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡新玲; 刘俊龙; 苗婷婷; 吴中能; 于一苏; 高健

    2015-01-01

    Absrt act:The main growth characters of Phyllostachys edulis seedlings whose seeds were irradiated by 5 different doses of 60 Coγrays were investigated and explored by using principal component analysis method, for the sake of finding new excellent gene re-sources and widening the hereditary basis of Phyllostachys edulis.The results indicated that near 90%information of seven growth characters ( average single-plant ground diameter, average single-plant seedling height, maximum ground diameter, maximum seedling height, number of tillers, canopy diameter, and root breadth) could be condensed into three principle components.The first principle component mainly consisted of plant height and ground diameter factors.Five superior seedlings were finally screened out by calculating and comparing the values of key principal components of various varieties, and the results were similar to the prac-tical phenotype of bamboo seedlings in the nursery.%为从辐射处理的毛竹实生苗中发掘优异基因资源,拓宽毛竹遗传基础,以不辐照的种子为对照,对经5个不同辐射剂量处理过毛竹种子繁育出的实生苗主要生长性状指标(单株平均地径和单株平均苗高、最大地径、最大苗高、分蘖数、冠幅和根幅)进行主成分分析。结果表明,主成分分析可将7个性状综合为3个主成分,其累计贡献率近90%,第1主成分是以株高和地径因子为主导。通过计算各品种的主成分值进行比较,最终选出了5株综合生长性状优良的实生毛竹苗单株,其结果与圃地竹苗生长表型相近。

  13. Rapid soil organic carbon re-accumulation after bamboo invasion on recovering landslide scars in a subtropical forest ecosystem of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Jien, Shih-Hao; Lin, Zan Liang; Chen, Ting-Chien; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Li-Chin; Mentler, Axel; Hein, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon-induced landslides occasionally strip parts of the landscape off its vegetative cover and soil layer and export large amounts of biomass and soil organic carbon (OC). The resulting landslide scars remain low in OC and vulnerable for re-activation for several years until closed vegetation is re-established. In the subtropical mountains of Taiwan and in other parts of the world, bamboo species may invade at a certain point in the succession of recovering landslide scars. Bamboo has a high potential for carbon sequestration because of its fast growth and dense rooting system. However, it is still largely unknown how these properties translate into soil OC re-accumulation rates after landslide disturbance. In this study, we investigated a chronosequence with 5 different sites on former landslide scars in the Alishan area in Central Taiwan, ranging in age from 6 to 53 years post disturbance. The younger landslide scars were colonized by Miscanthus giganteus, while after approx. 15 to 20 years of succession, bamboo (Phyllostachys) species were dominating. Biomass and soil OC stocks were measured on the recovering landslide scars and compared to an old-growth Cryptomeria japonica forest stand in the same area. Humic acids were extracted from the newly formed soils of the recovering landslide scars and analyzed for molecular characteristics. Biomass carbon accumulated rapidly in bamboo stands but was significantly lower compared to the old-growth coniferous forest. However, soil OC stocks on the recovering landslide scars approached the levels of the old-growth forest after only few decades of succession. Similarly, humic acid characteristics (obtained from fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy) rapidly changed in the early phase of succession but seemed to stabilize during the later phase of landslide recovery. Our results demonstrate the high potential of bamboo for below-ground OC sequestration and storage, and show that the fresh OC inputs are rapidly converted to

  14. 原竹预制构件房屋设计与制造技术%Design and manufacture technology of prefabricated bamboo house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高黎; 王正; 王戈; 程海涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and manufacture technology of prefabricated modular bamboo house, which can meet the modern residential requirements. Firstly,Moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens) was conditioned to approximate constant mass in atmospheric conditions,then main physical-mechanical properties were tested and design stresses were calculated. After that,modular construction components including trusses and walls were assembled by using special connections and joints to combine and reinforce bamboo together. The truss was tested safe enough under specified load; lateral bearing capacity of the wall was 0. 78 t and could be used as load-bearing wall in two-storey building. Based on the experiments,a modular bamboo house was built up with the designed components. The results show that it is technically feasible to use bamboo as main materials in modern prefabricated house.%以原竹为主要原料设计与制造符合现代居住要求的预制构件房屋,内容包括毛竹的处理与设计强度计算,建筑构件的连接、模块化设计与性能测试,以及预制构件房屋的建造等。结果表明:屋架在实际使用载荷下具有足够的安全性能;墙体的抗侧承载力为0.78t,可用作1—2层住宅承重墙体。通过建设示范房屋证明利用原竹进行现代房屋的设计建造是完全可行的。

  15. Effect of typical boron compounds on the thermal degradation and combustion properties of Phyllostachys pubescens%典型硼化合物对毛竹热降解与燃烧性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守禄; 吴义强; 卿彦; 姚春花

    2014-01-01

    利用热重和锥形量热仪研究硼酸、硼砂两种典型硼化合物对毛竹热降解和燃烧性能的影响。结果表明:硼酸、硼砂能降低竹材的最大热解速率,缩短高温热解区间,促进残炭生成。与未处理材相比,硼酸、硼砂明显减少竹材燃烧过程中的热量释放,热释放速率降至未处理材的50%左右,总热释放量的降幅分别达50.6%、44.1%。硼酸、硼砂也能抑制竹材燃烧时的烟释放,总烟释放量分别下降95.3%、91.6%。硼酸、硼砂处理竹材能发挥高效的阻燃抑烟功效。%The combustion and thermal degradation of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys Pubes-cens) treated by boric acid and borax respectively,were characterized by thermogravimetry and the cone calorimeter. Results showed that,these two typical compounds had positive effects on decreasing the maximum pyrolysis rate,narrowing high-temperature decomposition,and pro-moting the yield of residual char when moso bamboo subjected to thermal decomposition. The treated bamboo exhibited less heat and smoke release compared to the control. Total heat re-lease for borax and boric treated bamboo decreased by 50.6%and 44.1%,respectively. While, the total smoke release decreased by 95.3%and 91.6%,respectively. Applications of boric ac-id and borax have significant influence on protecting bamboo substrate from thermal degrada-tion and combustion.

  16. 庐山香果树毛竹混交林空间格局研究%Spatial distribution pattern in Emmenopterys henryi and Phyllostachys edulis mixed forest in Lushan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭焱松; 张晓波; 桂忠明; 杜娟; 周赛霞

    2013-01-01

    Phyllostachys edulis at all scales.Population patterns and spatial association depended on spatial scales,individual sizes and so did their inter-specific.Necessary management should be taken to the forest communities where Emmenopterys henry grew.Harvesting bamboos in-cluding rhizome and some other larger trees would provide a good environment for Emmenopterys henryi and restore its nature and reasonable population configuration.Otherwise,Emmenopterys henryi as a rare and endangered species would be in danger of extinction in Lushan Mountain.

  17. Evaluating the Environmental Health Effect of Bamboo-Derived Volatile Organic Compounds through Analysis the Metabolic Indices of the Disorder Animal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ming; HU Zheng Qing; STRONG P James; SMIT Anne-Marie; XU Jian Wei; FAN Jun; WANG Hai Long

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the bamboo VOCs (volatile organic compounds) effect on animal physiological indices, which associated with human health. Methods GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile organic compounds from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocyla cv. pubescens). The effect of VOCs on environmental health was evaluated by analyzing the metabolic indices of the type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results Spectra of VOC generated by GC/MS were blasted against an in-house MS library confirming the identification of 33 major components that were manually validated. The relative constituent compounds as a percentage of total VOCs determined were alcohols (34.63%), followed by ether (22.02%), aldehyde (15.84%), ketone (11.47%), ester (4.98%), terpenoid (4.38%), and acids (3.83%). Further experimentation established that the metabolic incidence of the disease can be improved if treated with vanillin, leaf alcohol,β-ionone and methyl salicylate. The effects of these VOCs on type 2 diabetes were evident in the blood lipid and blood glucose levels. Conclusion Our model suggests that VOCs can potentially control the metabolic indices in type 2 diabetes mice. This experiment data also provides the scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of ornamental bamboos and some reference for other similar study of environmental plants.

  18. A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-02-01

    Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 µg/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-α-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis.

  19. Bamboo : Analyzing the potential of bamboo feedstock for the biobased economy

    OpenAIRE

    Poppens, R.P.; Van Dam; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos are a large group of rapidly growing woody grasses, that can be sustainably managed in short-cycled harvesting schemes in many parts of the world. Bamboo stands can be managed by individual producers and its production does not require large investments. This makes bamboo an ideal crop for rural development, especially in developing countries. Bamboo plants are among the most versatile and widely utilized plants, with applications varying from edible shoots to soil protection and cons...

  20. Bamboo : Analyzing the potential of bamboo feedstock for the biobased economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos are a large group of rapidly growing woody grasses, that can be sustainably managed in short-cycled harvesting schemes in many parts of the world. Bamboo stands can be managed by individual producers and its production does not require large investments. This makes bamboo an ideal crop for r

  1. Utilization of Bamboo as Lightweight Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon SRIVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich panels consisting of bamboo faces and oil palm trunk core were manufactured using melamine urea formaldehyde with the resin content of 250 g/m2 (solid basis. The parameters examined were node and density of bamboo faces. Physical (board density, thickness swelling and water absorption and mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture properties of the sandwich board obtained were investigated and compared with other bamboo products and commercial wood based products. Result showed that this panel had better dimensional stability than those of other bamboo products but lower bending strength. Node of bamboo had no significant effect on any board properties examined. Most of board properties were influenced by bamboo face density. Comparing the properties to commercial wood based products, this panel could be used as wall/floor applications.

  2. Variability of macroscopic dimensions of Moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Le; Peng, Wanxi; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Lu, Huangfei; Chen, Guoning

    2015-03-01

    In order to the macroscopic geometry distributions of vascular bundles in Moso bamboo tubes. The circumference of bamboo tubes was measured, used a simple quadratic diameter formula to analyze the differences between the tubes in bamboo culm, and the arrangement of vascular bundles was investigated by cross sectional images of bamboo tubes. The results shown that the vascular bundles were differently distributed in a bamboo tube. In the outer layer, the vascular bundles had a variety of shapes, and were aligned parallel to each other. In the inner layers, the vascular bundles weren't aligned but uniform in shape. It was concluded that the vascular bundle sections arranged in parallel should be separated from the non-parallel sections for the maximum bamboo utilization.

  3. Combustion characteristics of bamboo-biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijia; Fei, Benhua; Jiang, Zehui; Liu, Xing'e

    2014-09-01

    Combustion characteristics of biomass are very important to directly utilize as an energy resource. Bamboo was carbonized using a XD-1200N muffle furnace in the nitrogen environment and its combustion characteristics were investigated. Results showed that bamboo-biochars had better combustion characteristics compared to bamboo materials, such as a lower content of moisture and volatiles, a higher energy density, HHV and EHC, a lower H/C and O/C ratios and a shorter TTI. Characteristic peak of bamboo-biochars shifted to higher temperature in thermal decomposition process, indicating a more steady-state burning and a higher combustion efficiency. Bamboo-biochars had a low content of S and N, which was helpful to decrease pollutant emissions. A higher content of K and Na was observed in the ash of bamboo-biochars, resulting in slagging, fouling, corrosion and agglomeration. The data from this research will be very helpful to efficiently design and operate its combustion systems.

  4. Research on Variation of Bamboo Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo as an important biological resource has become an alternative to wood gradually,but the variation in mechanical properties leads to difficulty in its use to some extent.So deep understanding of the nature in bamboo is needed to satisfy the utilization effectively.As we have known,the density is one of mechanical properties of bamboo.Therefore,this paper studied the variation in bamboo density with the weighing method.The results showed that the density decreases gradually from the outer to the inn...

  5. Methane production from steam-exploded bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Take, Harumi; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2004-01-01

    To convert unutilized plant biomass into a useful energy source, methane production from bamboo was investigated using a steam explosion pretreatment. Methane could not be produced from raw bamboo but methane production was enhanced by steam explosion. The maximum amount of methane produced, i.e., about 215 ml, was obtained from 1 g of exploded bamboo at a steam pressure of 3.53 MPa and a steaming time of 5 min. A negative correlation between the amount of methane produced and the amount of Klason lignin was observed in the methane fermentation of steam-exploded bamboo.

  6. 雷竹花粉萌发率及贮藏方法研究%Pollen germination and storage of Phyllostachys violascens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 徐一帆; 林新春; 方伟

    2012-01-01

    Pollen germination and storage of Phyllostachys violascens were studied for bamboo crossbreeding. The results were summarized as follows: the pollen germination rate measured by in vitro pollen germination was lower than the pollen viability rate detected by triphenyltetrazolium chloride triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique; the pollen germination ability could be improved by supplementing with 50 mg·L-1 boric acid in the medium; the pollen germination rate of the anthers completely outcrop but not dehiscent was higher than those of ether development stages; as for the pollen collection time, 15:30 was better than 9:30; pollen viability of Ph. violascens would be lost quickly during storage, and certain humidity and low temperature at 4℃ could be beneficial to keep the pollen viability.%为更好地开展竹类植物的杂交育种工作,对雷竹花粉的萌发率及贮藏方法进行了研究.结果表明,利用离体花粉萌发法测定的雷竹花粉萌发率远低于氯化三苯四氮唑(TTC)染色法测定的花粉生活力;添加50 mg·L-1硼酸有利于雷竹花粉萌发;不同发育阶段的花粉萌发率有明显差异,以花药完全露出未开裂的花粉萌发率为最高;花粉采集时间以15:30优于9:30;雷竹花粉不耐贮藏,4℃湿藏有利于保持花粉生活力.

  7. Elevated tropospheric ozone affects the concentration and allocation of mineral nutrients of two bamboo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Minghao; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yingchun; Chen, Shuanglin

    2017-01-15

    The increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) affects plant physiology and ecosystem processes, and consequently the cycle of nutrients. While mineral nutrients are critical for plant growth, the effect of elevated tropospheric O3 concentration on the uptake and allocation of mineral nutrients by plants is not well understood. Using open top chambers (OTCs), we investigated the effect of elevated O3 on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in mature bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis and Oligostachyum lubricum. Our results showed that elevated O3 decreased the leaf biomass of P. edulis and O. lubricum by 35.1% and 26.7%, respectively, but had no significant effect on the biomass of branches, stem or root. For P. edulis, elevated O3 increased the nutrient (Ca, Mg and Fe) concentration and allocation in leaf but reduced the concentration in other organs. In contrast, elevated O3 increased the nutrient concentration and allocation in the branch of O. lubricum but decreased that of other organs. We also found that that P. edulis and O. lubricum responded differently to elevated O3 in terms of nutrient (Ca, Mg and Fe) uptake and allocation. This information is critical for nutrient management and adaptation strategies for sustainable growth of P. edulis and O. lubricum under global climate change.

  8. Structural elucidation of inhomogeneous lignins from bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Long; Xue, Bai-Liang; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the inhomogeneous molecular structure of lignin from bamboo is a prerequisite for promoting the "biorefinery" technologies of the bamboo feedstock. A mild and successive method for fractionating native lignin from bamboo species was proposed in the present study. The molecular structure and structural inhomogeneity of the isolated lignin polymers were comprehensively investigated by elemental analysis, carbohydrate analysis, state-of-the-art NMR and analytical pyrolysis techniques (quantitative (13)C NMR, (13)C-DEPT 135 NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, (31)P NMR, and pyrolysis-GC-MS). The results showed that the proposed method is effective for extracting lignin from bamboo. NMR results showed that syringyl (S) was the predominant unit in bamboo lignin over guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. In addition, the lignin was associated with p-coumarates and ferulates via ester and ether bonds, respectively. Moreover, various substructures, such as β-O-4, β-β, β-5, β-1, and α,β-diaryl ether linkages, were identified and quantified by NMR techniques. Based on the results obtained, a proposed schematic diagram of structural heterogeneity of the lignin polymers extracted from the bamboo is presented. In short, well-defined inhomogeneous structures of native lignin from bamboo will facilitate further applications of bamboo in current biorefineries.

  9. Soft Bamboo: Calling for an Industrial Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ On August 29-31, the First YunZhu Cup China Bamboo Fiber Industrial Development Summit, organized by the China Knitting Industrial Association, the China Textile Engineer Institute and the China Textile Resources PuDong Ltd, China Chemical Fiber Economic Information Network, was held in Shanghai, aiming to promote the communication and development of Chinese bamboo fiber industry.

  10. Bamboo-based Panels for Structural Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXuhe; WANGZheng

    2005-01-01

    With technical assistance from INBAR and the Research Institute of Wood Industry of the Chinese Academy of Forestry, the construction of the Pingbian Primary School was completed in 2004,where bamboo plywood panels and laminated beams were used for the roof trusses, sheathing boards and wall panels. This is the first time that bamboo-based panels are used for structural applications.

  11. Modeling Bamboo as a Functionally Graded Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emílio Carlos Nelli; Walters, Matthew C.; Paulino, Glaucio H.

    2008-02-01

    Natural fibers are promising for engineering applications due to their low cost. They are abundantly available in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and they can be employed as construction materials. Among natural fibers, bamboo has been widely used for housing construction around the world. Bamboo is an optimized composite material which exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures, such as bamboo, are composite materials that have complicated shapes and material distribution inside their domain, and thus the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method and multiscale methods such as homogenization, can help to further understanding of the mechanical behavior of these materials. The objective of this work is to explore techniques such as the finite element method and homogenization to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. The finite element formulation uses graded finite elements to capture the varying material distribution through the bamboo wall. To observe bamboo behavior under applied loads, simulations are conducted considering a spatially-varying Young's modulus, an averaged Young's modulus, and orthotropic constitutive properties obtained from homogenization theory. The homogenization procedure uses effective, axisymmetric properties estimated from the spatially-varying bamboo composite. Three-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tension, torsion, and bending load cases.

  12. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  13. 竹腔注射吡虫啉在雷竹体内的分布动态研究%Distribution of Imidacloprid in Phyllostachys praecox after Cavity Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓芳; 刘颖坤; 蔡莎艺; 桂仁意

    2011-01-01

    建立超高效液相色谱(UPLC)测定吡虫啉含量的分析方法,并测定经竹腔注射后其在雷竹体中的分布.结果表明,竹腔注药后,吡虫啉在雷竹体内向上具体有较好的传导、分布性能,但向下不传导;竹腔注药后第8 d竹叶中吡虫啉含量达到最大值;吡虫啉在竹子体内残留期较长,注药后65 d,竹叶中吡虫啉含量为0.237μg·g-1,注药后89 d时,竹叶中依然可检测到吡虫啉存在,但含量小于0.05 μg·g-1.吡虫啉在竹子体内不向下传导特性证明该农药竹腔注射不会对竹笋的品质产生影响.%Distribution of imidacloprid in Phyllostachys praecox after cavity injection was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) . The results showed that imidacloprid could be transported upward rapidly, but not downward. The concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves reached the highest level on the 8thd after injection. Imidacloprid remained in bamboo for a long period. The concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves were 0.178 on the 60th d, and were bellow 0. 05 mg · kg"' on the 80lh d after injection. It is concluded that the application of imidacloprid by culm lumen injection to control pests will not contaminate bamboo shoots.

  14. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  15. Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Truss Bridge for Rural Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    D. Nuralinah; S. M. Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is one of a potential renewable construction material in the village. Bamboo is known to have a high mechanical strength in direction of the fibers. The weakness of bamboo in lateral direction of the fiber could be solved by constructing a composite structure with the concrete. The appropriate construction with hold the loads in axial direction is a truss structure. In a bamboo concrete truss structure, the bars are composed from the concrete column with a bamboo reinforcem...

  16. Bamboo constructions workshop run by Simon Velez [participation, research] Boisbuchet, France; 10-19 Jun 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.

    2000-01-01

    The Bamboo House project run by Simon Velez (Columbia) in Boisbuchet, France: designing the bamboo structure, constructing bamboo columns, completing connections between bamboo and plinth, constructing roof, erecting roof.

  17. Fried Bamboo Shoots with Salted Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of canned bamboo shoots; 75 grams of salted potherb mustard leaves; 5 grams of cooking wine, 1 gram of salt and 500 grams of vegetable oil (15 grams will be consumed). MSG to taste. Directions: 1. Chop the bamboo shoots into rectangles 4 centimeters by 1.65 centimeters. Marinate the bamboo shoots in salt and cooking wine. Clean the salted potherb mustard leaves (or any other kind of vegetable leaves) with hot water and chop into 3.5-centimeter segments.

  18. Bamboo shoots: a novel source of nutrition and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Poonam; Bal, Lalit Mohan; Satya, Santosh; Sudhakar, P; Naik, S N

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource. Various edible species and exotic food products (fermented shoots, pickle, etc.) and recipes of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo cookies) are consumed worldwide. Change in nutritional composition of different species of bamboo shoots with processing has also been reviewed. Bamboo shoots possess high protein, moderate fiber, and less fat content. They are also endowed for having essential amino acids, selenium, a potent antioxidant, and potassium, a healthy heart mineral. Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw shoots, and its side effect on human health calls for the demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient reserve. Lastly, the paper also reviews the utilization of medicinal properties acquired by bamboo shoot. Using the traditional knowledge, pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts for diabetes and cholesterol control, etc. are now gaining importance. Further investigation is required by the researchers to make novel nutraceutical products and benefit the society.

  19. Observation on anther development of Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹的花药发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建梅; 孙立方; 冯云; 廉超; 冉洪; 张莹; 郭起荣

    2016-01-01

    Because of the long flowering stage, studies about the reproductive biology of bamboos were rarely fewer. In this research, the anther development of Phyllostachys edulis was studied by paraffin section, and the process of anther development of P. edulis was also analysed, including the development process of the anther, anther wall and microspore. The results showed that the anther wall of P. edulis contains four layer of cells, which were epidermal cells, endothecium cells, middle layer cells and tapetum cells. There was only a layer of cells with flat shape in endothecium cells and mid-dle layer cells. At the end of the anther development when microspore goes to pull over, endothecium cells would de-grade gradually and the middle layer cells would break up and disappeared. The development of anther wall was monocot-yledonous type, and the tapetum belonged to secretory type with a layer of cells growing in radial direction, the final de-velopment of tapetum disappeared by themselves. The type of cytokinesis of microsporocyte meioticdivision was succes-sive, and the generated microspore from which then fomated mature pollen by one mitosis process. Mature pollen grains were mostly two-celled, rarely three-celled. In addition, we found that there was a corresponding relationship between the development of anther and continuous morphology change of the inflorescence. Based on the results of continuous ob-servation on the inflorescence and paraffin section assays, we also found that unceasing development and division of an-ther occurred with the continuous development of inflorescence, and anther wall layers of cells were gradually formed. Then microspore became mature gradually and the layers of the anther degraded and disappeared during the process, and then mature pollen spilled out from the dehiscenced anther. Our research would enrich the studies on the reproductive bi-ology of bamboos and also was of great significance to the study on the germplasm of moso

  20. Preliminary Accounting on Economic Value of Bamboo Resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The current area of bamboo resource in China is 7.21 million ha, 4.21 million ha of which is the pure bamboo forest The stock value of the bamboo resource is 30.312 billion Renminbi (RMB) yuan, the present value of actual output from bamboo wood and shoot is 149.062 billion RMB yuan. The bamboo forest land is valuated as much as 8.133 billion RMB yuan. It is raised to improve the production and management conditions of the 2nd and 3rd type bamboo forests to raise production capacity of wood and shoot an...

  1. 浙江省毛竹竹板材碳转移分析%Analysis of Carbon Transfer in Moso Bamboo Plank in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾蕾; 沈振明; 周宇峰; 施拥军; 李翠琴; Annette Partida; 徐小军

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates bamboo planks processed from 170 various bamboo stems and their carbon transfer ratio. Analysis of carbon transfer ratio of bamboo stems with 5 different specifications and different bamboo diameters. Relationship between bamboo plank carbon sequestration and diameter at breast height were established. Results indicate the following; 1 ) Carbon transfer ratio of different bamboo diameters differed significantly ( P < 0. 01 ) . Carbon transfer ratio of bamboo stems with 5 different specifications ranged from 35. 0% to 39. 7% ,with an average of 37. 0% . 2) Total carbon transfer ratio of different bamboo diameters rangeed from 10% to 35%. As the diameter increased, the utilization ratio of the whole moso bamboo also increased linearly. 3 ) Using the above established relationship and the probability distribution model of moso bamboo.%木质林产品作为森林生态系统碳循环的一个重要组成部分,是森林生态系统三大碳库之一,对森林生态系统和大气之间的碳平衡起着重要作用,在减缓碳排放上具有巨大贡献(Apps et al.,1999;Dias et al.,2005;白彦锋等,2009):一方面,林产品有一定使用寿命,延缓了碳排放;另一方面,在木质林产品代替其他材料的过程中,在一定程度上也减少了温室气体的排放(Ericsson,2003;Werner et al.,2006).木质林产品碳储量计量研究对全面了解全球、区域和国家水平上森林碳汇贡献具有重要的意义.毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis)林是我国重要的森林类型,近年来,由于毛竹具有生长快、收获周期短及固碳能力强的特点,对区域及全球碳平衡的贡献得到高度关注(李正才等,2003a;2003b;周国模等,2004;周国模,2006;肖复明等,2009;Du et al.,2010);同时,毛竹竹材具有高韧性、可塑性强和高硬度的优点,在现代工艺技术的处理下,其耐用性已经得到极大提高并可与木材相媲美( Lobovikov et al.,2007).目前,大约有1 500种产品采用毛

  2. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  3. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  4. 渝北立地因子对篌竹地上生物量的影响%Effects of site factors on the aboveground biomass of Phyllostachys nidularia Munro in North of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄甫昭; 范怡; 王福升; 丁雨龙

    2012-01-01

    按照典型抽样法,在重庆梁平篌竹产区设置28个样地,调查立竹度、胸径、竹高及主要立地因子;在标准地调查的基础上,应用多种数学模型对篌竹地上生物量进行相关性分析,建立了篌竹地上生物量回归模型,利用生物量模型计算各样地地上生物量,并分析各立地因子对篌竹地上生物量的影响.结果表明:坡向、坡度、土壤厚度及腐殖质层厚度对篌竹地上生物量具有显著或极显著影响;海拔、坡位对篌竹地上生物量有一定影响,但都未达到显著水平.篌竹更适合在背风向阳、土壤肥厚、低海拔斜坡上生长.%Using a method of the typical sampling, 28 plots of Phyllostachys nidularia Munro in north of Chongqing were surveyed. The items surveyed included bamboo number of per plot, DBH and height per bamboo, and main site factors. Based on the surveys of the standard bamboo, the correlation models of the aboveground biomass of Ph. nidularia were carried out by using many different mathematical models and corresponding correlation models were set up. The aboveground biomass of per plot was calculated by the optimum model. ANOVA of aboveground biomass of Ph.nidularia and site factors showed that aspect, slope degree, soil thickness and humus thickness had the significant effects on the aboveground biomass of Ph.nidularia. The elevation, slope position had influence on aboveground biomass of Ph.nidularia, but did not reach significant level. The forestation site of P. nidularia should be selected at the sunny slope and the slowly varied slope with lower elevation, and the soil thickness should kept above 40 cm.

  5. Cloning and expression analysis of PeSCL6 gene in Phyllostachys edulis Carr.%毛竹PeSCL6基因的克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东亮; 彭镇华; 高志民

    2014-01-01

    SCL6基因是植物保持茎端分生组织未分生状态所必需的关键基因之一。采用RT-PCR和RACE方法从毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis Carr.)中获得一个SCL6同源基因,命名为PeSCL6。该基因全长1894 bp,其中5′端非编码区60 bp,3′端非编码区211 bp,编码区1623 bp,共编码540个氨基酸。序列分析表明:PeSCL6基因编码的蛋白含有LHRI、VHIID、LHRII、PFYRE和SAW 5个保守区,属于GRAS家族蛋白;该蛋白与水稻、玉米、高粱等单子叶植物的SCL6有较高的一致性(70%以上)。实时定量PCR结果表明:PeSCL6基因为组成型表达,且在叶片中的表达丰度最高;而在即将开花之前和处于盛花期的竹株叶片中PeSCL6表达丰度明显降低,分别为幼龄竹株叶片的1%和14%。 PeSCL6基因表达的变化,意味着它可能参与毛竹由营养生长向生殖生长的转换调控。%SCL6 is one of the key genes for plant to maintain the shoot apical meristem tissue in indeterminate state. A homologue gene of SCL6 was cloned from moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys edulis Carr.) using RT-PCR and RACE methods, and named as PeSCL6. The full length of PeSCL6 was 1 894 bp including 60 bp 5′ untranslated region ( UTR) , 211 bp 3′UTR and an open reading frame of 1 623 bp, which encoded 489 amino acids. Blastp analysis indi-cated that PeSCL6 had high identities with SCL6 from monocotyledon plants ( all up to more than 70%) such as Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Sorghum bicolor. Real time PCR analysis showed that PeSCL6 expressed constitutively with the highest level in leaves of young seedlings. However, the PeSCL6 expressed much lower in the leaves at adult bamboo at just before and full blooming stages, which were only 1% and 14% of that in young seedling leaves, respectively. The changes of expression level in leaves indicated that PeSCL6 gene might be involved in the switch regulation of moso bam-boo from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  6. Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

    2012-08-01

    Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition.

  7. Preparation of Bamboo Chars and Bamboo Activated Carbons to Remove Color and COD from Ink Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Motohide; Amano, Yoshimasa; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Machida, Motoi

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo chars and bamboo activated carbons prepared by steam activation were applied for ink wastewater treatment. Bamboo char at 800 °C was the best for the removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from ink wastewater compared to bamboo chars at 300 to 700 °C due to higher surface area and mesopore volume. Bamboo activated carbon at 600 °C (S600) was the best compared to bamboo activated carbon at 800 °C (S800), although S800 had larger surface area (1108 m(2)/g) than S600 (734 m(2)/g). S600 had higher mesopore volume (0.20 cm(3)/g) than S800 (0.16 cm(3)/g) and therefore achieved higher color and COD removal. All bamboo activated carbons showed higher color and COD removal efficiency than commercial activated carbon. In addition, S600 had the superior adsorption capacity for methylene blue (0.89 mmol/g). Therefore, bamboo is a suitable material to prepare adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants.

  8. Bamboo: An Underutilized Resource with Extensive Application Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo is classified into Subtribe Bambusoideae of the Poaceae family which is comprised of over 1600 species of bamboo. Most species originated in Asia and Central and South America, although there are several species native to the United States. Often overlooked in the United States, bamboo is g...

  9. Bamboo: Strategies for Teaching about Aspects of Asian Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolik, Brother Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Ten classroom activities introduce elementary and junior high school students to Asian culture by investigating the uses of bamboo. Students are directed to read about bamboo, investigate bamboo's roles (food, building material, clothing, tools), and construct artifacts such as a fishing pole and a flute. (Author/DB)

  10. CO2 Emission Increases with Damage Severity in Moso Bamboo Forests Following a Winter Storm in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Xu, Hangmei; Ding, Jiuming; Chen, Han Y. H.; Wang, Jiashe; Xu, Zikun; Ruan, Honghua; Chen, Yuwei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the prevalence of disturbances in forests, the effects of disturbances on soil carbon processes are not fully understood. We examined the influences of a winter storm on soil respiration and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) of a Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycle) plantation in the Wuyi Mountains in Southern China from May 2008 to May 2009. We sampled stands that were damaged at heavy, moderate, and light levels, which yielded aboveground biomass inputs to the soil at 22.12 ± 0.73 (mean ± 1 s.e.m.), 10.40 ± 1.09, and 5.95 ± 0.73 Mg per hectare, respectively. We found that soil respiration rate and annual cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly higher in heavily damaged sites than moderately and lightly damaged sites. Soil temperature was the most important environmental factor affecting soil respiration rate across all studied stands. However, soil respiration sensitivity to temperature (Q10) decreased in heavily damaged sites. Microbial biomass carbon and its proportion to total SOC increased with damage intensity. Soil respiration rate was positively correlated to microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture. Our results indicated that the increase of soil respiration following canopy disturbance from winter storm resulted from increased microbial biomass carbon, soil moisture, and temperature.

  11. Variation in tensile properties and relationship between tensile properties and air-dried density for moso bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Benhua FEI; Haiqing REN; Zehui JIANG; Xinge LIU

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the variation in tensile properties and the relationship between the tensile properties and the air-dried density for the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by sampling at different heights and radial positions. Results showed that the variation of the longitudinal tensile properties in the radial direction was greater than that in the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal tensile modules of elasticity (MOE) ranged from 8.49 to 32.49 GPa. MOE for the outermost layer was 3-4 times as high as that for the innermost layer. The longitudinal tensile strength (MOR) ranged from 115.94 to 328.15 MPa. MOR for the outermost layer is 2-3 times as high as that for the innermost layer. Linear and curvilinear regressions were done from tested data of MOE, MOR and air-dried density in this paper. The linear equation worked a little better than the curvilinear one to predict the longitudinal MOR and MOE from air-dried density.

  12. [Adaptive adjustment of rhizome and root system on morphology, biomass and nutrient in Phyllostachys rivalis under long-term waterlogged condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-fang; Chen, Shuang-lin; Li Ying-chun; Guo, Zi-wu; Li, Ying-chun; Yang, Qing-ping

    2015-12-01

    The research was to approach the growth strategy of rhizome and roots based on the morphology, biomass and nutrient in Phyllostachys rivalis under long-term waterlogged conditions, and provided a theoretical basis for its application for vegetation restoration in wetland and water-level fluctuation belts. The morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical indexes of annual bamboo rhizome and roots were investigated with an experiment using individually potted P. rivalis which was treated by artificial water-logging for 3, 6, and 12 months. Accordingly the morphological characteristics, biomass allocation, nutrient absorption and balance in rhizome and roots of P. rivalis were analyzed. The results showed that there was no obvious impact of long-term water-logging on the length and diameter of rhizomes, diameter of roots in P. rivalis. The morphological characteristics of rhizome had been less affected generally under water-logging for 3 months. And less rhizomes were submerged, while the growth of roots was inhibited to some extent. Furthermore, with waterlogging time extended, submerged roots and rhizomes grew abundantly, and the roots and rhizomes in soil were promoted. Moreover for ratios of rhizome biomass in soil and water, there were no obvious variations, the same for the root biomass in soil to total biomass. The ratio of root biomass in water to total biomass and the ratio of root biomass in water to root biomass in soil both increased significantly. The results indicated that P. rivalis could adapt to waterlogged conditions gradually through growth regulation and reasonable biomass distribution. However, the activity of rhizome roots in soil decreased and the nutrient absorption was inhibited by long-term water-logging, although it had no effect on stoichiometric ratios of root nutrient in soil. The activity of rhizome root in water increased and the stoichiometric ratios adjusted adaptively to waterlogged conditions, the ratio of N

  13. Identification of genes involved in color variation of bamboo culms by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiangwan; Gui, Renyi; Yang, Haiyun; Fu, Ying; Wei, Fang; Zhou, Mingbing

    2015-12-01

    Phyllostachys vivax cv. aureocaulis is a widely planted ornamental bamboo with evergreen leaves. This plant's culm exhibits a golden-yellow background color marked randomly with narrow and broad green stripes but is occasionally light green with yellow stripes. In this study, we attempt to identify the molecular mechanism underlying the color variation in striped culms. We found that neither stroma nor grana lamellas were observed in plastids in yellow tissue cells, while complete chloroplasts were observed in green tissue. In addition, chlorophyll a and b were mainly distributed in ground tissue under the epiderm and in the cells surrounding the bundle sheath in the green portion of internodes. The amount of chlorophyll contained in cross-sections of the green portion of culms is significantly higher than in the yellow portion. However, carotenoid was nearly undetectable in both samples. In addition, we found that the expression levels of 7 ESTs, including PvESTs-F641 (JZ893845), PvESTs-F681 (JZ893885) and PvESTs-F798 (JZ894002), were significantly higher in green samples than that in yellow samples, while PvESTs-R200 (JZ894906), PvESTs-R541 (JZ895247), PvESTs-R333 (JZ895039) and PvESTs-R266 (JZ894972) were found at a higher level in yellow samples. These ESTs are thought to play a role in this color variation in plants. Our current results indicate that insufficient photosynthetic membrane proteins and lipids in yellow tissue could lead to chloroplast dysfunction and could result in the yellow appearance on certain P. vivax cv. aureocaulis culms.

  14. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  15. Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

  16. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  17. Research on Biomassof Bamboo Forestin Changning County%长宁县竹林生物量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹明勇; 张峰; 刘立斌

    2016-01-01

    以四川长宁县为研究对象,选取毛竹、硬头黄竹和苦竹为长宁县代表竹种,采用随机抽样方法布点,对毛竹、硬头黄竹和苦竹分年龄、径阶进行了生物量调查,分析了竹林各器官生物量在年龄上的分布并通过建立年龄、直径与生物量的关系模型以及模型的精度检验选取毛竹、硬头黄竹和苦竹的最优生物量模型。结果表明:竹各器官地上部分生物量大小排序为:竿>枝>叶,毛竹生物量在年龄上的分布为:3年龄>2年龄>1年龄;硬头黄竹各器官地上部分生物量大小排序为:竿>枝>叶,硬头黄竹生物量在年龄上的分布为:3年龄>2年龄>1年龄;苦竹各器官地上部分生物量大小排序为:竿>枝>叶,苦竹生物量在年龄上的分布为:3年龄>2年龄>1年龄。毛竹生物量模型:W =0.581×(A × D × D)0.617,硬头黄竹生物量模型:W =-5.548+2.032× D +0.544× A ,苦竹生物量模型:W =-1.845 +0.723× D +0.478× A 。%With Changning County ,Sichuan as the research object ,weselected Phyllostachysedulis ,Bambusa rigida and Pleioblastus amarusas representative bamboo species in Changning County .Using random sampling method to in‐vestigate the biomass of Phyllostachysedulis ,Bambusa rigida and Pleioblastus amarusin respects of age and diameter classes .We analyzedthe agedistribution oforganbiomassin bamboo forest .Through establishingthe relational modelof age ,diameterand biomassandcarrying outaccuracy test of the ,model ,we selectedthe optimal biomass models ofthe threespecies .The conclusions are as follows :The abovegroundbiomass rank of the organswas :rod > branch > leaf , and the age distribution of Phyllostachys edulis biomass was :triennial > biennial > annual .The abovegroundbiomass rank of the organs of the Bambusa rigidawas :rod > branch > leaf ,and the age distribution of Bambusa rigidabiomass

  18. Liquefaction of bamboo,preparation of liquefied bamboo adhesives,and properties of the adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Shenyuan; Ma Lingfei; Li Wenzhu; Cheng Shuna

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the liquefaction of bamboo in phenol,which involved the effects of weight ratios of phenol to bamboo,amount of catalyst,temperature,etc.The study showed that liquefaction could be accomplished with a phenol to bamboo weight ratio of 2-1:1,a 5% catalyst of HCI or BF3,and a temperature of 1150C.Liquefied bamboo formaldehyde (BLF) resin adhesive for exterior use could be obtained with a phenol to formaldehyde molar ratio of 1:1.6-2.0.The curing behavior of BLF resin adhesive,studied by TG-DSC and IR analyses,showed that BLF resin adhesives had a lower curing temperature than PF adhesives but had the same characteristic trough in IR spectra as PF adhesives.

  19. 太湖地区竹林生态系统土壤硝态氮的分布特征——以浙江省安吉县为例%Soil Nitrate Distribution of Bamboo Forest Ecosystems in the Taihu Lake Region:A Case Study of Anji County in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳刚; 张彪; 董敦义; 王斌; 张灿强

    2011-01-01

    To examine the role of the bamboo forest in non-point source pollution control in the Taihu lake region,the soil profile nitrate concentration of 5 Phyllostachys pubescens plots and 5 Phyllostachys iridescins plots along the Xitiaoxi River from the upstream to the downstream were measured through July to August in 2009.The relationship between vegetation type and topographic factors and nitrate was analyzed.Results show that 1) soil nitrate concentration decreased with increasing soil depth.2) In Phyllostachys pubescens plots,the nitrate concentration at a 0-30 cm depth was higher than Phyllostachys iridescins plots;however,the soil nitrate at a 30-50 cm soil depth was higher on Phyllostachys iridescins plots than Phyllostachys pubescens plots.There was no significant differences between these two vegetation plots.3) Plots having understory vegetation types of grass and shrub had a higher nitrate concentration than understory vegetation type of grass.The differences were marked at a 30-50 cm soil depth.4) The soil nitrate concentration at a 0-10 cm soil depth in plots whose vegetation height was higher than 5 m was significantly higher than plots whose vegetation height was lower than 5 m.5) The nitrate concentration of bamboo forest soil decreased first and then increased with increasing elevation.The nitrate concentration at a 0-10cm soil depth above 200 m altitude was higher than those below 200 m altitude.The nitrate concentration at a 10-30 cm soil depth had a similar content between different elevations;however,the nitrate concentration at a 30-50 cm soil depth was higher at lower altitudes and lower at higher altitudes.6) The soil nitrate concentration at a 0-30 cm depth was higher for steep slopes and lower for gentle slopes.The soil nitrate concentration at a 30-50 cm depth for gentle slopes was higher than steep slopes.In summary,the soil nitrate of different soil depths was found to be closely related to vegetation type and topographic

  20. Bioinformatics analysis of cellulose synthase (CesA) of Bambusa oldhamii and Phyllostachy edulis%绿竹与毛竹纤维素合成酶(CesA)的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小波; 胡尚连; 曹颖; 卢学琴; 任鹏; 段宁

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose is the principal ingredient of cell wall in bamboo. Small microfibrils were crystallized by 36 tails of β-1,4glucoside chains that were catalyzed by cellulose synthases. Phylogeny, physical properties, transmembrane domains and secondary structures were studied by bioinformatics tools basing on complete protein sequences of bamboo from GeneBank. The results showed that the CesAs from Bambusa oldhamii and Phyllostachy edulis were highly homologous sequence with those from oryza sativa. 5,6 or 8 transmembrane domains were in their proteins with pi from 6.16 to 8.62. Alpha helix, beta turn, extended strand and random coil were existed in secondary structures without 310helix, Pi helix, beta bridge, bend region,eot.%纤维素是竹细胞壁的主要组成成份,其存在形式--小微纤丝是由纤维素合成酶(CesA)催化作用得到的36根β-1,4糖苷链结晶而成.以GeneBank数据库中已登陆的完整竹类蛋白序列为分析对象,对其进行系统进化、物理性质、跨膜结构和二级结构的生物信息学分析.结果表明:(1)绿竹和毛竹CesA与水稻CesA具有较高同源性;(2)绿竹和毛竹CesA等电点为6.16-8.62;(3)绿竹和毛竹CesA具有5个,6个或者8个跨膜结构;(4)绿竹和毛竹CesA主要存在α螺旋、β转角(最少)、延伸链和无规卷曲(最多),不含如310螺旋、Pi螺旋、β桥、弯曲区域等结构.

  1. Immune effects of extractives on bamboo biomass self-plasticization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wanxi; Xue, Qiu; Ohkoshi, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo is a fast-growing renewable bioresource. However, bamboo resources are wasted, and bamboo products release toxic gases. Bamboo biomass was therefore extracted and self-plasticized, and the immune effects of bamboo extractives were determined and investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the following. (1) The 1H-NMR signals at ~5.5, 4-8, 7.4-10.2, and 12.22-12.37 ppm were attributed to the chemical shifts of active protons on carbons adjacent to R-OH, RAr-OH, oximes, and -COOH, respectively. This showed that there were highly reactive hydrogen atoms in bamboo benzene/ethanol extractives. The 13C-NMR spectrum gave further confirmation. (2) The extents of the effects of key process parameters were different: temperature > hot pressure > time. The optimal self-plasticizing conditions were temperature 170°C, hot pressure 9 MPa, time 40 min, and extraction of bamboo. (3) SEM, FT-IR, and XRD showed that contact and linkages among bamboo cells were significantly decreased by extractives, so the internal bond strengths of the self-plasticized samples were all higher after bamboo extraction. It was also found that the extractives created a significant barrier to bamboo self-plasticization as a result of their structure and chemical linkage reactions.

  2. Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat SUTNAUN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.

  3. A STUDY ON THE SIMULATION OF ECONOMICAL THRESHOLD OF ENERGY FLOW IN PHYLLOSTACHYS PUBESCENS ECOSYSTEM%毛竹林生态系统能流经济阈值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东进; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 蓝斌

    2001-01-01

    Using the data obtained from sample plots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the dynamic model of energy flow ofPhyllostachys pubescens ecosystem was built in this paper. Based on the model, the analysis of energy flow was combined or-ganically with the methods of economical threshold, the concept of economical threshold of energy flow of Phyllostachys pu-bescen ecosystem (EET) was put forward, and the effect of compensation and super compensation were discussed further-more. The results showed that the economical threshold of energy flow of Phyllostachys pubescens ecosystem were: EETleaf =0.3133@ x3, EETbranch = 0.2440@x1 (where x1 and x3 represent energy of leave and branches respectively) ;the effect ofcompensation and super compensation existed in Phyllostachys pubescens, and the compensation point and super compensati-on point of Phyllostachys pubescens were 31.33 %, 13.61% ( expressed in defoliation rate) and 24.40%, 11.94% ( ex-pressed in branch-cut rate)respectively. Therefor, this paper will not only enrich the study of energy ecology in the Phyl-lostachys pubescens ecosystem, but also provide a scientific basis for the management of Phyllostachys pubescens.

  4. Hangzhou People and Bamboo Shoots Dish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINDA; LEE

    1995-01-01

    SOON we’ll celebrate the new year. According to Hangzhou tradition, every family will cook a hot dish for this feast which will include shredded winter bamboo shoots, hotbed chives, shredded meat and smoked bean curd. In addition, some families will also cook a dish of "braised

  5. Fabrication of unsmooth bamboo-like nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of post drawing on morphology of bubbfil-spun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers was firstly investigated. Bamboo-like nanofibers were observed after drawing. The increase of surface area of the unsmooth fibers has many potential applications in various fields.

  6. Medium Density Particleboard Reinforced with Bamboo Laminas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cortez Barbosa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of bamboo laminas of the species Dendrocalamus giganteus to three-layer medium density particleboard (MDP. These laminas were glued onto both the top and the bottom of each panel. With the manufactured panels laminated with bamboo, mechanical tests based on the Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR 14810 were carried out to determine the modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and the tensile strength parallel-to-surface. These mechanical tests were realized in particleboards of eucalyptus and in reinforced particleboard, both produced in the laboratory. The modulus of rupture and tensile strength parallel-to-surface of the laminated MDP had values close to those that have been reported. The reinforcements increased the values of these studied properties. Nevertheless, this fact indicated the possibility to produce a stronger MDP using bamboo lamina as surface layers. These results show the possibility of using coated-bamboo MDP for utilization in large spans, for example, in flooring for mezzanines with finish on both sides, and for robust furniture as bookshelves, beds, tables, etc.

  7. Dynamics and impact factor analysis of fly species diversity in Phyllostachys violascens stands%早竹林内蝇类多样性动态及其影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小飞; 李华荣; 田青英; 朱卫兵; 袁登荣; 刘国华; 王福升; 黄伟量; 时培建

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] Phyllostachys violascens is an important bamboo species that can produce abundant edible bamboo shoots. However, some fly species parasitize bamboo shoots, leading to degraded shoot quality and yield decrease. The objectives of this study were to study the population dynamics and species diversity of flies in P. violascens stands. It can provide necessary biological knowledge for scientifically controlling these flies. Thus, this study is valuable for improving the shoot quality and output of artificially cultivated P. violascens. [Methods] The diversity of flies in P. violascens stands was investigated using yellow sticky traps. The effects of environmental factors on the Shannon-Wiener index of the fly community were analyzed using the multiple linear regression. In addition, the method of variation partitioning was employed to analyze the β diversity caused by environmental and spatial variables. [Results] Ten species of flies from 8 families were identified in P. violascens stands in the Dajingshan forest farm, among which Chyliza bambusae, Pegomyia kiangsuensis, Anthomyia illocata, Hydrotaea dentipes and Episyrphus balteata were the dominant species. The number of adult bamboos and that of young bamboo shoots within a radius of 1.5 m around yellow sticky traps had a significant influence on the species diversity of flies; diversity declined with increasing number of adult bamboos. Total variation of the species matrix can be partitioned as follows: spatial species variation not shared by the environmental variables comprised, 8.54%, non-spatial environmental variation, 28.84%, spatially structured environmental variation, 10.46%, and unexplained variation and stochastic fluctuations, 52.16%. [Conclusion] This study revealed the temporal dynamics of flies in P. violascens stands and illustrated the main factors affecting the species diversity of flies. These results have both practical and theoretical implications for increasing the production of

  8. Diversity of Bamboos around springs in Malang East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Solikin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos have important roles to people in the villages area. They are planted and used by the people for making houses, food, buckets, fences, ropes, fuels, musical instruments and plaits. The root distribution of Bamboos is large and fibrous, also the growth of their new clumps is ascendant so the Bamboos has good potency for water and soil conservation on river banks, around the springs, hillsides and scarps. The survey to invent the bamboos growing around the springs was conducted in Singosari, Lawang, Karangploso, Dau and Lowokwaru Malang East Java in May 2009. The Bamboos invented at 0-100 m from the springs. The results Showed that there were four Bamboos founded around the springs namely Bambusa blumeana,Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter and Gigantochloa apus. Dendrocalamus asper was the most dominant species founded around the springs with relative frequency, relative density and important value index is 45.83 ; 58.49 and 104.32 respectively.

  9. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, J.; Sampson, C; Vargas, J; Nilsson, T.; Gil-Martin, L. M.; Aschheim, M.

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions), maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate), an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yi...

  10. Ecological functions of bamboo forest: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUBen-zhi; FUMao-yi; XIEJin-zhong; YANGXiao-sheng_; LIZheng-cai

    2005-01-01

    Bamboo forest is an important forest type in subtropical and tropical areas. Due to its biological characteristic and growth habits,bamboo is not only an ideal economic investment that can be utilized in many different manners but also has enormous potential for alleviating many environmental problems facing the world today. This review describes ecological functions of the bamboo forest on soil erosion control, water conservation, land rehabilitation, and carbon sequestration.

  11. Effects of silicon and copper on bamboo grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Blanche; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Keller, Catherine; Panfili, Frédéric; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Due to its high growth rate and biomass production, bamboo has recently been proven to be useful in wastewater treatment. Bamboo accumulates high silicon (Si) levels in its tissues, which may improve its development and tolerance to metal toxicity. This study investigates the effect of Si supplementation on bamboo growth and copper (Cu) sensitivity. An 8-month hydroponic culture of bamboo Gigantocloa sp. "Malay Dwarf " was performed. The bamboo plants were first submitted to a range of Si supplementation (0-1.5 mM). After 6 months, a potentially toxic Cu concentration of 1.5 μM Cu(2+) was added. Contrary to many studies on other plants, bamboo growth did not depend on Si levels even though it absorbed Si up to 218 mg g(-1) in leaves. The absorption of Cu by bamboo plants was not altered by the Si supplementation; Cu accumulated mainly in roots (131 mg kg(-1)), but was also found in leaves (16.6 mg kg(-1)) and stems (9.8 mg kg(-1)). Copper addition did not induce any toxicity symptoms. The different Cu and Si absorption mechanisms may partially explain why Si did not influence Cu repartition and concentration in bamboo. Given the high biomass and its absorption capacity, bamboo could potentially tolerate and accumulate high Cu concentrations making this plant useful for wastewater treatment.

  12. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-06-11

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants.

  13. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-04-16

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha(-1) y(-1) and 4.5 × 10(8)kg CO2 y(-1), respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 10(9) kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths.

  14. Characteristics of water and carbon balance in moso bamboo forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Laplace, S.; Tseng, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Wey, T.; Komatsu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Water and carbon cycles in mountainous areas can have considerable impacts on our available nature resources such as water resources and timber production. Thus, it is indispensable to clarify the difference of water and carbon balances between different types of forested ecosystems. Recently, bamboo forests have been expanding by replacing surrounding vegetation such as coniferous and broad-leaved forests in eastern Asian countries. It has been speculated that the replacements by bamboo forests could alter the vegetation water and carbon cycles. However, our knowledge for the bamboo forests was still limited due to lack of applicable methodology based on a field measurement. To clarify the potential impacts of bamboo expansion on water and carbon cycles, our previous study established optimal and effective design for assessing bamboo forest water use (ie, transpiration) based on sap flux measurements. Using the method, we quantified stand-scale transpiration in bamboo forests and coniferous forests in Taiwan. Consequently, we found significantly larger transpiration in bamboo forests compared with those of surrounding vegetation due to larger canopy conductance in bamboo forests. The unique characteristics of the water use accompanied larger carbon assimilation and soil CO2 efflux in bamboo forests.

  15. Functional components of bamboo shavings and bamboo leaf extracts and their antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Xia, Daozong; Huang, Jun; Ge, Qing; Mao, Jianwei; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to detect characteristic compounds and evaluate the free radical scavenging capacity of the bamboo leaves extract and bamboo shavings extract (BSE). The antioxidant capacity of bamboo leaf n-butanol fraction (AOB) exhibited the highest total phenolic content (49.93%), total flavonoids content (24.11%), and characteristic flavonoids and phenolic acids, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, orientin, homoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. Available data obtained with in vitro models suggested that AOB had higher free radical scavenging capacity with IC(50) values of 1.04, 4.48, 5.37, and 1.12 μg/mL on DPPH(•), O(2)(•-), (•)OH, and H(2)O(2), respectively, than the other two extracts, bamboo leaf water extract and BSE. The results indicated that the extracts from different parts of the bamboo possess excellent antioxidant activity, which can be used potentially as a readily accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-TiO2 Loaded Bamboo-based Activated Carbon Fibers by H2O Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongna Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the support for loading TiO2, bamboo-based activated carbon fibers (BACFs were obtained from Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel after liquefaction using phenol, melt-spinning, curing carbonization, and H2O activation. TiO2/BACFs were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. Anatase TiO2 film with high photocatalytic activity was formed on the surface of BACFs, and the average crystallite size of the TiO2 film was 17 to 30 nm. The characteristic absorbance peaks of anatase TiO2 were observed at 1402 and 541 to 605 cm-1 on the infrared spectrum of TiO2/BACFs. The surface of TiO2/BACFs was mainly comprised of C–C, C–O, C=O, and Ti-O bonds. With increased calcination temperature, the contents of element Ti and Ti-O bonds of lattice oxygen on the surface of TiO2/BACFs increased and then decreased. The degradation rate of TiO2/BACFs for methylene blue (MB solution reached more than 98% after 7 h of UV illumination.

  17. Structure and thermal property of alkaline hemicelluloses from steam exploded Phyllostachys pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd; Baird, Mark

    2014-01-30

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate hemicelluloses from dried and water-immersed Phyllostachys pubescens chips by steam explosion followed with alkali and alkali/ethanol extractions. The detailed chemical and structural features of the isolated hemicellulosic fractions were comparatively investigated by HPAEC, GPC, FT-IR, (13)C NMR spectroscopies, and TGA analysis. It was found that the xylose/arabinose ratios of hemicelluloses obtained from alkali and alkali/ethanol extractions were 21.5-34.4 and 7.7-9.9, respectively, suggesting that hemicelluloses extracted with alkali had relatively lower degree of branches than those extracted with alkali/ethanol. Hemicellulosic fractions isolated from the water-immersed samples were obtained in high yields and exhibited similar compositions, which can be used as raw materials for production of value-added products. Furthermore, the hemicelluloses extracted with alkali had relatively higher molecular weight than those extracted with alkali/ethanol. In addition, an increment of incubation time resulted in a decreased thermal stability of hemicelluloses obtained from water-immersed sample.

  18. Effect of Zn stresses on physiology, growth, Zn accumulation, and chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescen s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danli; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Li, Song; Yan, Wenbo; Chen, Junren; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Zinc (Zn) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes, growth, Zn accumulation, and leaf chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz. were investigated in two greenhouse experiments. Hydroponics experiment with Zn application of 0, 20, 100, and 400 μM revealed that lower concentration of Zn in solution led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents but inhibited SOD activity in all treatments. P. pubescens had showed strong ability to accumulate Zn in stems and reached maximum level at 100 μM with 7.91-fold increase compared with control. In pot experiment, treatment with Zn ranged from 0, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, to 3,200 mg kg(-1). Application of 800 mg kg(-1) revealed 116, 24.6, and 28.3 times increase in Zn concentration of roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Growth and chlorophyll contents of plants in pots were better promoted at 400 mg kg(-1) Zn, with 60.5 and 30.9 % enhanced roots and shoot compared with control. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was in the sequence of stem > roots > leaves. The translocation factor (TF) of stem was higher than leaves.

  19. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BAMBOO NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Yu,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC has many potential applications because of its special properties. In this paper, NCC was prepared from bamboo pulp. Bamboo pulp was first pretreated with sodium hydroxide, followed by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. The concentration of sulfuric acid and the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC were studied. The results showed that sulfuric acid concentration had larger influence than the hydrolysis time on the yield of NCC. When the temperature was 50oC, the concentration of sulfuric acid was 48wt% and the reaction time was 30 minutes, a high quality of nanocrystalline cellulose was obtained; under these conditions, the length of the nanocrystalline cellulose ranged from 200 nm to 500 nm, the diameter was less than 20 nm, the yield was 15.67wt%, and the crystallinity was 71.98%, which is not only higher than those of cellulose nanocrystals prepared from some non-wood materials, but also higher than bamboo cellulose nanocrystals prepared by other methods.

  20. Bamboo: an overview on its genetic diversity and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Lucina; Ali, Md Nasim; Gantait, Saikat; Chakraborty, Somsubhra

    2015-02-01

    Genetic diversity represents the heritable variation both within and among populations of organisms, and in the context of this paper, among bamboo species. Bamboo is an economically important member of the grass family Poaceae, under the subfamily Bambusoideae. India has the second largest bamboo reserve in Asia after China. It is commonly known as "poor man's timber", keeping in mind the variety of its end use from cradle to coffin. There is a wide genetic diversity of bamboo around the globe and this pool of genetic variation serves as the base for selection as well as for plant improvement. Thus, the identification, characterization and documentation of genetic diversity of bamboo are essential for this purpose. During recent years, multiple endeavors have been undertaken for characterization of bamboo species with the aid of molecular markers for sustainable utilization of genetic diversity, its conservation and future studies. Genetic diversity assessments among the identified bamboo species, carried out based on the DNA fingerprinting profiles, either independently or in combination with morphological traits by several researchers, are documented in the present review. This review will pave the way to prepare the database of prevalent bamboo species based on their molecular characterization.

  1. Diversity and utilization of bamboo species in Tigawasa Village, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS KETUT ARINASA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tigawasa is one of the famous traditional villages as a center of bamboo handicraft in Buleleng regency-Bali. As a center of bamboo handicraft its have been wrestled since centuries. Their peoples have done traditionally bamboo conservation surrounding their house and garden too. The marginal area, river flow area and stiff slope that are outskirts of village become to focus of bamboo conservation by their peoples, too. This research conducted at Tigawasa village in June 2003 by stripe and interview methods. Two kilometers stripe length by 50 meters width; follow the direction north south of the river was investigated. To know the utilization of kind of bamboo and their product conducted by interview to craftsman and community figure. The result of inventory knew about four genus consist of 19 species planted in this village. To know those bamboo species will be presented their key of determination. The genus of Gigantochloa and Schizostachyum to dominate of their species, and have many uses of it’s, also. Not less than 54 kind of bamboos handicraft product was produced in this village. The diversity of bamboos handicraft product, develop according progress of the technology and demand of period. Many of new products composed and use of color or paint develop to produce varieties of fixed product. Two-kind of product that is traditional boxes (“sokasi” handicraft and woven bamboo (“bedeg” to become this village famous at Bali, even though in foreign countries Energetic development of bamboos home industry to come to decrease stock of raw materials. About two trucks supply from east Java regularly to anticipation of decrease local stock of raw materials every week.

  2. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  3. The Material Behavior Of Plastered-Bamboo Wall Towards Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. R. Hutubessy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the lateral resistance capacity of the plastered-bamboo wall. The test was carried out on three pieces of plastered-bamboo wall. The first was plastered-bamboo wall without bracing (DP-TB, second was plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing (DP-BB, and the last is a plastered-bamboo wall which uses wiremesh bracing (DP-BK. The static load (monotonic test method was used to determine the correlation between the lateral resistance and the deflection of plastered-bamboo wall. The monotonic testing was only conducted until the load has experience 20% decrease from peak load. The test results showed that the plastered-bamboo wall using wiremesh bracing had the peak load capacity, energy dissipation, and higher ductility than the plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing. Elastic stiffness of the plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing was 1.27 greater than plastered-bamboo wall using wiremesh bracing. The ultimate load resulted from the experiment of the plastered-bamboo wall with either bamboo or additional wiremeshbracingwas 25.52 kN and 26.37 kN or two times greater than the results of an analysis of the flexural failure based on Subedi method (1991 which was 14.39 kN.

  4. 毛竹PePsbS1基因的分子特征及其原核表达%Molecular characteristics and prokaryotic expression of PePsbS1 gene from Phyllostachys edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东亮; 彭镇华; 高志民

    2013-01-01

    PsbS protein has a key role in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in plants. A PsbS homologous gene was cloned from the full length cDNA library of Phyllostachys edulis by alignment method, and designed as PePsbS1 (GenBank No. FP091683). The full length cDNA of PePsbS1 is 1 069 bp, containing many kinds of light responsive elements and cis-acting regulatory elements involved in light responsiveness. The open reading frame of PePsbS1 is 807 bp encoding a polypeptide with 268 amino acids. The protein structure analysis indicated that PePsbS1 consisted of transit peptide (53 aa) and mature protein (215 aa) including one chlorophyll a/b binding protein domain and four transmembrane domains. Blastp analysis showed that PePsbS1 had high identities with PsbS1 of Zea mays to 80.3%. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that PePsbS1 was hydrophobic overall as observed from the hydropathy plot with 42.5% of the total amino acid residues having hy-drophobicity. The prokaryotic expression vector containing fragment of PePsbS1 gene encoding mature protein was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli induced by IPTG. A purified protein with molecular weight about 28 kD was found through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, which agreed with that of the predicted mature protein encoded by PePsbS1. This work is helpful for further study on the structure and function of PsbS in bamboo.%PsbS蛋白在植物非光化学淬灭(NPQ)中发挥着重要作用.采用同源比对方法从毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis)全长(e)DNA文库中得到1个PsbS同源基因序列(FP091683),命名为PePsbS1.该基因全长1069 bp,具有多种光应答元件和参与光应答的顺式作用元件.PePsbS1的开放阅读框为807 bp,编码一个268 aa的蛋白.蛋白结构分析表明,该蛋白由转导肽(53 aa)和成熟蛋白(215 aa)组成,成熟蛋白包含1个叶绿素a/b结合蛋白功能域、4个跨膜区;疏水性分析表明该蛋白组成氨基酸

  5. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites; Estudo da influencia dos teores de fibra, agente compatibilizante e tamanho de fibra nas propriedades de compositos de polipropileno com fiobra de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caranti, Lilian R.A.; Bonse, Baltus C.; Costa, Ricardo A. da, E-mail: prebbonse@fei.edu.br [Dept. da Engenharia dos Materiais, Centro Universitario de FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  6. [Cloning and functional analysis of Phyllostachys edulis MYB transcription factor PeMYB2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong-Chang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Ying-Wu; Yang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Wang, Chao-Li

    2013-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factor is one of the largest families in plants, which plays important roles in accepting stress signals from environment and regulating the expression of stress-tolerant genes. In this paper, using homologous cloning and RACE technology, a MYB-type transcription factor, designated PeMYB2, was cloned from Phyllostachys edulis. The results of bioinformatics showed that PeMYB2 is a typical R2R3-MYB. It contained two tandem repeats in its N-terminus, and a membrane protein DUF3651 in its C-terminus. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeMYB2 shared the highest homology with 85.98% to OsMYB18 protein from Oryza sativa spp. Japonica. In addition, a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PeMYB2 could activate the expression of downstream genes. After PeMYB2 was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, seven PeMYB2 transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis showed that over-expression of PeMYB2 caused delayed flower or dwarfism in transgenic Arabidopsis. Under the abiotic stress conditions, such as salt and cold stresses, the over-expression of PeMYB2 in Arabidopsis had higher survival rate than the wild-type Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in the transgenic and wild-type plants under the salt stress condition showed that PeMYB2 regulated the expression of NXH1, SOS1, RD29A, and COR15A. As the result, PeMYB2 might play an important role in various responses to abiotic stresses in P. edulis.

  7. Effects of bamboo charcoal and bamboo vinegar as antibiotic alternatives on growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora population in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gyo Moon; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Hoi Yun; Ha, Ji Hee; Kim, Jong Hyun; Jung, Min Seob; Lee, Shin Ja; Song, Yuno; Ibrahim, Rashid Ismael Hag; Cho, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Sung Sill; Song, Young Min

    2013-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of bamboo charcoal and bamboo vinegar as alternatives of antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs and their influence on growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. Crossed pigs (n = 144, 79 kg body weight) were divided into 12 heads per pen, four diets and three replications. The basal diet (negative control: NC) was supplemented with 0.3% antibiotics (positive control: PC), 0.3% bamboo charcoal (BC) and 0.3% bamboo vinegar (BV). Average daily weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (P bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar as antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs leads to a better growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. The results of the present study suggest that bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar could be a potential additives in animal production as an alternative to antibiotics.

  8. "Bainiaoyi, " Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The "Bainiaoyi," or Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe, consists of young men and women of Miao nationality of the mountain villages in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Each of them can dance and sing well, and are often invited to perform in provinces and cities across China. Because of this, these young peasants who live deep in the mountain villages get a chance to leave their isolated homelands to visit other parts of the world and broaden their scope. The Miao people aren’t the only ones to benefit from these travels. More and more people now have the opportunity to

  9. Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Truss Bridge for Rural Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nuralinah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of a potential renewable construction material in the village. Bamboo is known to have a high mechanical strength in direction of the fibers. The weakness of bamboo in lateral direction of the fiber could be solved by constructing a composite structure with the concrete. The appropriate construction with hold the loads in axial direction is a truss structure. In a bamboo concrete truss structure, the bars are composed from the concrete column with a bamboo reinforcement. The research studies about the performance of the bridge and the effect of loading position on the strain and deformation of bamboo reinforced concrete truss bridge. The bridge whose span and width are respectively 1.5 m and 1.2 m was prepared. Load applied to the truss bridge conducted by using vehicle load changes with position. Mounting the strains gauge in bamboo reinforcement of primary truss is to observe the strain. The LVDT is used to observe the deflection of the truss bridge. The results show that the loading position influences the strain and deformation as well as a theoretical view.

  10. Evaluation and comparison of a lightweight bamboo composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Andreas; Berwing, Michael; Förster, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The demand for fast changing production lines and other facilities needs new lightweight and stable systems for partitioning walls. There is also a need for ecological products for this application. The wood like grass bamboo provides a wide potential to substitute conventional wood. A composite lightweight honeycomb like bamboo board was developed and compared with reinforced and unreinforced plywood specimen. The acquired mechanical properties gave a promising result for the usability of bamboo as basis material for wide span boards. It can be manufactured with minimal technical investments, that suits also well for regions with little industry. The ecological assessment of the structure is very positive.

  11. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  12. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  13. THE BIODIVERSITY AND POTENTIAL OF SOME BAMBOO SPECIES IN SEREALE DISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA REGENCY, SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Elis, Tambaru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the biodiversity and potential of some bamboo species in Sereale District, North Toraja Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, was done from January-May 2012 in location Sereale District, North Toraja Regency. The inventory of bamboo spesies growth was made by using the cruise method and identification of bamboo by using descriptive. The results showed that bamboo six species are Talang bamboo Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz.; Toi bamboo S. lima (Blanco) Merr.; Pa...

  14. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.

  15. 金竹竹叶提取物在HCl中对铝的缓蚀作用研究%Corrosion Inhibition of Extracts from Phyllostachy sulphurea Leaves for Aluminum in HCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建祥; 王瑞苓; 付惠; 李向红

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared( FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to characterize the main functional groups of extracts from Phyllostachy sulphured leaves (PSLE). The inhibition effect of PSLE on the corrosion of aluminum in 1. 0 mol/L HC1 was studied by mass loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the PSLE was a good inhibitor in hydrochloric acid for aluminum, and the maximum inhibition efficiency was 77.7 %. The corrosion inhibition of bamboo leaves was good at 20℃ and 30℃. The adsorption of PSLE on the aluminum surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Adsorption heat △Hads was calculated by Van't Hoff, and the inhibition mechanism was discussed in detail according to the parameters. All EIS exhibited that corrosion inhibitor at the aluminum surface had good are resistance. PSLE was a mix-type inhibition.%通过红外光谱(FT-IR)分析,表征了金竹竹叶提取物(PSLE)的主要官能团,利用失重法、电化学阻抗谱研究了PSLE在1.0 mol/L (')HCl介质中对铝的缓蚀作用.结果表明,PSLE具有较好的缓蚀作用,最大缓蚀率达77.7%,竹叶提取物的缓蚀率在20和30℃时效果较好,在铝表面的吸附符合Langmuir吸附校正模型,通过Van't Hoff方程求出吸附热(△Hads),讨论了缓蚀作用机理,吸附过程是一个自发放热的过程.通过电化学阻抗谱,表明缓蚀剂在铝表面发生吸附后使电荷传递明显抑制,PSLE为混合抑制型缓蚀剂.

  16. The Material Behavior Of Plastered-Bamboo Wall Towards Lateral Loads

    OpenAIRE

    V. R. R. Hutubessy,; Hrc. Priyosulistyo

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the lateral resistance capacity of the plastered-bamboo wall. The test was carried out on three pieces of plastered-bamboo wall. The first was plastered-bamboo wall without bracing (DP-TB), second was plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing (DP-BB), and the last is a plastered-bamboo wall which uses wiremesh bracing (DP-BK). The static load (monotonic) test method was used to determine the correlation between the lateral resistance and the deflection o...

  17. Bamboo Fabric: A Study of Using Thick Bamboo Fiber for Producing and Developing Thai Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisika Wannajun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The way of life of Thai people has involved utensils or things which made of bamboo since the ancient time. Rural Thai people use bamboo for building houses, making handicrafts, basketwork and household utensils. At present, thick bamboo is used and developed to many new products especially the textile products. Three purposes of this research were these: (1 to investigate the background of Thai textile production, (2 to investigate current situations and difficulties of Thai textile production and (3 to investigate the use of thick bamboo fiber for producing and developing Thai textiles. Approach: Research processes divided into 2 phases were these: the first phase was a quantitative experimental research type of bamboo fibers, the second phase was an application of the results of the first phase research to the phase was a qualitative research. The instruments for collecting data for the second phase research were a survey, an interview, a focus group interview and a workshop. Research areas were Ban Lung Pra Du, Amphoe Huay Talang, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Amphoe Chonnaabot, Khon Kaen Province and Ban Tha Khon Yang, Amphoe Kantharawichai, Maha Sarakham Province. A sample of 200 people consisted of 20 key informants, 100 casual informants and 100 general informants. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were analyzed by means of an interpretation within the concepts and theories involved. Research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: (1 in terms of the background of Thai textile production, it revealed that there were human beings lived in Thailand about 7,000-8,000 years ago and they could use natural fiber from plants and animals for weaving. The evidence which confirmed this truth was the excavation of historical objects in prehistorically sites in Thailand and there were remnants clung to or filled in

  18. Enhancing the combustible properties of bamboo by torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Patrick; Aguiar, Clarissa; Labbé, Nicole; Commandré, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo has wide range of moisture content, low bulk energy density and is difficult to transport, handle, store and feed into existing combustion and gasification systems. Because of its important fuel characteristics such as low ash content, alkali index and heating value, bamboo is a promising energy crop for the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Bambusa vulgaris. Three different torrefaction temperatures were employed: 220, 250 and 280°C. The elemental characteristics of lignite and coal were compared to the torrefied bamboo. The characteristics of the biomass fuels tend toward those of low rank coals. Principal component analysis of FTIR data showed a clear separation between the samples by thermal treatment. The loadings plot indicated that the bamboo samples underwent chemical changes related to carbonyl groups, mostly present in hemicelluloses, and to aromatic groups present in lignin.

  19. Nutritive value of bamboo as browse for livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small farms in Appalachia need management options that diversify income opportunities; are adaptable to new livestock management strategies; and help maintain environmental integrity. Plantings of temperate bamboo (Poaceae), including species native to West Virginia, were established to determine p...

  20. Flexural and Impact Resistance of FRC/Bamboo Laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flexural and impact resistance of a newly developed FRC/bamboo laminate have been investigated. The laminate considered in this study was combined with reformed bamboo plate and extruded fiber reinforced cementitious (FRC)sheet. Innovated from the raw bamboo, reformed bamboo showed high tensile strength and high strength to weight ratio. It can not only remarkably strengthen the FRC sheet but also reduce the total weight of the laminate. Flexural and impact load, broken energy, deflection and duration were measured. Test results showed that the flexural strength value for the laminate can be improved to greater than 90 MPa, while the impact resistance is increased more than 10 times for the laminate when compared with the FRC sheet only.

  1. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  2. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Owen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social networking, gaining viewpoints of young adults who are far more interested in marketing the products than manufacturing them. Additionally, a potential for bamboo as a food source and charcoal aligns with the fiesta culture of Guam. Sourcing of Bamboo vulgaris, Guamís major bamboo species, has ecological benefits, while blumeana could be cultivated for crafts for export and tourists. Future study is planned to further involve young adults utilizing social networking methods developing culturally appealing and ecologically beneficial industry for the island.

  3. The potential of bamboo in the design of polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Delgado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an alternative sustainable material for use in product design and has been incorporated into the concepts of eco-design. Here, we investigated the mechanical properties and morphologies of low density polyethylene (LDPE/bamboo flour (BF composites that were modified with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tensile tests of the composites demonstrated poor adhesion between the filler and matrix. Contact angle measurement showed that the surface of LDPE was modified by the presence of the load. The thermal stability of the composites was studied by measuring the oxidation induction time (OIT. Preliminary bacterial penetration tests were performed using culture inoculums of E. coli and S. aureus to investigate the natural antibacterial and bacteriostatic properties attributed to bamboo. Furthermore, bamboo may have interesting antioxidant activity with potential for use in food packaging applications.

  4. Characteristics of Bamboo Leaf Ash Blended Cement Paste and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bamboo leaf ash as cement supplement can contribute to reduction in cost and environmental hazard associated with cement production as well as waste pollution caused by the littered bamboo leaves. Therefore, the characteristics of cement paste and mortar incorporating bamboo leaf ash were investigated. The results of the physical properties of the pastes were within the requirements stipulated by relevant standards while that of the mortar cubes indicated that the compressive strength generally increased with curing age, and that the mix containing 15% Bamboo Leaf Ash (BLA by mass competes favorably with that of the reference mix at 28days and above. The water absorption and apparent porosity were observed to increase with increase in BLA content, while the bulk density decreases as the percentage of BLA increases from 5% to 25% by mass. The study concluded that 15% BLA replacing cement is adequate for the production of masonry mortar.

  5. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  6. Managing woody bamboos for carbon farming and carbon trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jyoti Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on identifying cost-effective managed ecosystems that can substantially remove atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2 while providing essential societal benefits has gained momentum since the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. Carbon farming allows farmers and investors to generate tradable carbon offsets from farmlands and forestry projects through carbon trading. Carbon trading is pertinent to climate negotiations by decelerating the climate change phenomenon. Thus, the objective of this article is to describe the potential of woody bamboos in biomass carbon storage and as an option for carbon farming and carbon trading. Bamboo is an important agroforestry and forest plant managed and used by the rural communities in several countries of the Asia-Pacific region for generating diverse economic and socio-environmental needs. Mean carbon storage and sequestration rate in woody bamboos range from 30–121 Mg ha−1 and 6–13 Mg ha−1  yr−1, respectively. Bamboo has vigorous growth, with completion of the growth cycle between 120 and 150 days. Because of its rapid biomass accumulation and effective fixation of CO2, it has a high carbon sequestration capacity. Over and above the high biomass carbon storage, bamboo also has a high net primary productivity (12–26 Mg ha−1  yr−1 even with regular selective harvesting, thus making it a standing carbon stock and a living ecosystem that continues to grow. Despite its high potential in carbon storage and sequestration and its important role in livelihood of millions of rural poor’s worldwide, prospects of bamboo ecosystems in CDM (Clean Development Mechanism and REDD (Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes remain to be explored. Thus, there is an urgent need to recognize ecosystem services that woody bamboo provides for well-being of rural communities and nature conservancy. Present synthesis suggests that bamboo offers tremendous opportunity for carbon farming and

  7. Bamboo as a potential material used for windmill turbine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jie; Qin, Yinyao; Zhang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    A mass of studies about windmill turbine blades have been addressed in the recent few decades. This report focus on the development of using bamboo composite materials for producing windmill turbine blades related to the life cycle assessment with sustainable perspective. So we made the problem formulation like this: How can bamboo fibers be used in the design and production of wind mill blades and how would it influence the impact of wind mill blades in a lifecycle perspective? In order to a...

  8. Molecular bonding characteristics of Self-plasticized bamboo composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiu; Peng, Wanxi; Ohkoshi, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo biomass fibers were gradually separated, prepared, and then self-plasticized for immune composites. The molecular bonding characteristics of the self-plasticized bamboo composites were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TG). The important results were as follows. (1) During self-plasticizing of bamboo biomass, the cross-linking between celluloses mainly depended on carboxylic acid anhydrides and carboxylic acid esters, that between cellulose and lignin depended on carboxylic acid esters and C=O groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons, and that of hemi cellulose had a ether bond and ester bond bridging effect between lignin and cellulose. The cross-linking effects of hemi cellulose, lignin, and cellulose could be stacked and coupled. (2) After self-plasticization, the crystallinity of the lingo cellulosic biomass, lignin cellulose, and cellulose were increased by 5.8%, 2.28%, and 11.67%, respectively. While the TG curves of all samples were basically similar in shape, the weight loss rate turning points of the self-plasticized samples were delayed compared with those of the bamboo biomass fibers. This result demonstrated that the molecular integration of the bamboo biomass was increased after self-plasticization, and confirmed that bond cross-linking between the hemi cellulose, lignin and cellulose of the bamboo biomass had occurred.

  9. Technologies of liquefaction of bamboo and preparation of adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwen SUN; Xiaoke LI; Qian ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The technology of liquefying processed-waste bamboo with phenol is investigated by single factor trials and an orthogonal design. We studied the preparation technology and properties of adhesives from this phe-nol-liquefied bamboo with formaldehyde (BPF). The results show that temperature has a significant effect on liquefaction. The effect of the mass ratio of phenol to bamboo comes second and the catalyst dosage within the range of 2%-4% is the least effective. The optimum conditions of liquefaction are as follows: a mass ratio of phenol to bamboo 3.5, a catalyst dosage of 4%, liquefying temperature 145℃ and liquefying time 60 min. The lique-faction rate of bamboo reached 99.1%. For the prepara-tion of the adhesive, a mass ratio of liquefied bamboo products to formaldehyde (37%) is 100 to 164.8-199.5, while the ratio 100 to 108.2 is the best. This adhesive has a lower curing temperature than that of normal PF resin. At a hot-press temperature of 130 or 140℃, this new adhesive provides excellent bonding strength of plywood. The most favorable temperature for hot-pressing is 140℃.

  10. Morphology and properties of recycled polypropylene/bamboo fibers composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tri; chuong, Bui; Guinault, Alain; Sollogoub, Cyrille

    2011-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is among the most widely used thermoplastics in many industrial fields. However, like other recycled polymers, its properties usually decrease after recycling process and sometimes are degraded to poor properties level for direct re-employment. The recycled products, in general, need to be reinforced to have competitive properties. Short bamboo fibers (BF) have been added in a recycled PP (RPP) with and without compatibilizer type maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Several properties of composite materials, such as helium gas permeability and mechanical properties before and after ageing in water, were examined. The effects of bamboo fiber content and fiber chemical treatment have been also investigated. We showed that the helium permeability increases if fiber content is higher than 30% because of a poor adhesion between untreated bamboo fiber and polymer matrix. The composites reinforced by acetylated bamboo fibers show better helium permeability due to grafting of acetyl groups onto cellulose fibers surface and thus improves compatibility between bamboo fibers and matrix, which has been shown by microscopic observations. Besides, mechanical properties of composite decrease with ageing in water but the effect is less pronounced with low bamboo fiber content.

  11. Growth rate determinations from radiocarbon in bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hönisch, Bärbel

    2015-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements are an important tool for determining growth rates of bamboo corals, a cosmopolitan group of calcitic deep-sea corals. Published growth rate estimates for bamboo corals are highly variable, with potential environmental or ecological drivers of this variability poorly constrained. Here we systematically investigate the application of 14C for growth rate determinations in bamboo corals using 55 14C dates on the calcite and organic fractions of six bamboo corals (identified as Keratoisis sp.) from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Calcite 14C measurements on the distal surface of these corals and five previously published bamboo corals exhibit a strong one-to-one relationship with the 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DI14C) in ambient seawater (r2=0.98), confirming the use of Keratoisis sp. calcite 14C as a proxy for seawater 14C activity. Radial growth rates determined from 14C age-depth regressions, 14C plateau tuning and bomb 14C reference chronologies range from 12 to 78 μm y-1, in general agreement with previously published radiometric growth rates. We document potential biases to 14C growth rate determinations resulting from water mass variability, bomb radiocarbon, secondary infilling (ontogeny), and growth rate nonlinearity. Radial growth rates for Keratoisis sp. specimens do not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that additional biological and/or environmental factors may influence bamboo coral growth rates.

  12. Bamboo resources of Sikkim Himalaya:diversity, distribution and utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deo Kumar Tamang; Dinesh Dhakal; D. G. Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    We recorded 8 genera and over 30 species of bamboo in Sikkim of the reported 23 genera and 125 species in India. Thirty percent of bamboo species were recorded in tropical forests (0-900 m), 40%of species in sub-tropical forests (900-1,800 m), 17%of species in temper-ate forests (1,800-2,700 m), 9% of species in sub-alpine forests (2,700-3,500 m) and 4%of species in alpine vegetation (3,500-4,500 m). Bamboo is used for various purposes and its versatility qualifies it to be a multiple-use alternative to timber, food for villagers and for tribal in particular. Bamboo is also equally important to Red Panda (Ailurus ful-gens), the state animal of Sikkim. We develop a list of bamboos occur-ring in Sikkim with their vernacular names, distributions and uses in the Himalayan state. However, more extensive study is required to fully describe the bamboo diversity of the Himalayan state.

  13. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fan-dan, E-mail: fandan_meng@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Yang-lun, E-mail: yuyanglun@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Zhang, Ya-mei, E-mail: zhangyamei@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Yu, Wen-ji, E-mail: yuwenji@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Gao, Jian-min, E-mail: gaojm@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the detailed chemical components contents change of bamboo due to heating. • Chemical analysis of bamboo main components during heating. • Identify the connection between the oxygen to carbon atomic ratio changes and chemical degradation. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  14. 液质联用技术分析竹笋及其废弃物醇提物中化学成分%HPLC-MS Analysis on Chemical Principles of Ethanol Extracts from Bamboo Shoots and Waste Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 袁艺; 武静文; 邰玉玲; 胡芳

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic method coupled with high resolution mass spectrometric detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of chemical principles of ethanol extracts from different parts and species of bamboo shoots and waste materials. The extracts were extracted by the method of ethanol backflow and then concentrated. The extracts were vacuum dried after purification with AB-8 resin and concentrated. The chemical principles of ethanol extracts from different parts and species of bamboo shoots and waste materials were separated on liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with high resolution mass spectrometry. Results were analyzed with comparison of their MS spectra and literature data. The results showed that, the different parts and species of bamboo shoots and waste materials had a lot of compounds, such as flavonoids and its derivative, amino acid, fatty acid, polysaccharide, ester and etc, winter shoot of Phyllostachys pubescens had triterpenoids and benzene, spring shoot of Phyllostachys pubescens had unsaturated alcohol, Latiflorus mcclure had fatty alcohol and etc. Were determined tentatively. Conclusion can be deserved that: theHPLC-HRMS was an easy, simple, rapid and accurate method for bamboo shoots analysis.%建立不同季节、不同竹种的竹笋及其废弃物醇提物中化学成分的高效液相色谱—质谱联用(LC-MS)的检测方法.竹笋及其废弃物样品采用乙醇热回流提取、浓缩,大孔树脂纯化、浓缩、真空干燥,以水—甲醇溶液为流动相进行色谱分离,用紫外光谱和高分辨质谱检测,根据所测得的各个组分分子离子峰质核比的(m/z)值及通过查阅文献分析结果.结果表明:不同季节、不同竹种的竹笋及其废弃物醇提物中都含有黄酮类及其衍生物、氨基酸类、脂肪酸、糖类、酯类等;毛竹冬笋中特含有三萜类、苯类等物质,毛竹春笋中特含有不饱和醇等物质,雷竹笋中无特有成分,麻

  15. 水竹叶的化学成分%Chemical Constituents of Leaves of Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤峰; 吴静义; 张剑; 张宏桂; 岳永德

    2013-01-01

    采用硅胶、聚酰胺和Sephadex LH-20等柱层析方法,首次从水竹叶乙醇提取物中分离得到4种化合物.利用核磁共振氢谱和碳谱等波谱鉴定为木犀草素(luteolin,1)、异牡荆苷(isovitexin,2)、异荭草苷(isoorientin,3)和荭草苷(orientin,4).%The leaves of Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliver were extracted with ethanol.The EtOH extract was isolated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel,polyamide and Sephadex LH-20.Four compounds were isolated for the firsttime,and the structures were identified as luteolin (1),isovitexin (2),isoorientin (3) and orientin (4) on the basis of 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectrum analyses respectively.

  16. Acoustic Emission from Breaking a Bamboo Chopstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Wang, Li-Min; Huang, Panpan; Yang, Zhengning; Chang, Chin-De; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic emission from breaking a bamboo chopstick or a bundle of spaghetti is found to exhibit similar behavior as the famous seismic laws of Gutenberg and Richter, Omori, and Båth. By the use of a force-sensing detector, we establish a positive correlation between the statistics of sound intensity and the magnitude of a tremor. We also manage to derive these laws analytically without invoking the concept of a phase transition, self-organized criticality, or fractal. Our model is deterministic and relies on the existence of a structured cross section, either fibrous or layered. This success at explaining the power-law behavior supports the proposal that geometry is sometimes more important than mechanics.

  17. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohamad; Yusuf, Nur'aini Raman; Yunus, Normawati M.; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-10-01

    The alkaline and water soluble polysaccharides were isolate by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1%, 5% and 8% NaOH. The samples were prepared at 60 °C for 3 h from local bamboo. The functional group of the sample were examined using FTIR analysis. The most precipitate obtained is from using 60% ethanol containing 8% NaOH with yield of 2.6%. The former 3 residues isolated by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1% and 5% NaOH are barely visible after filtering with cellulose filter paper. The FTIR result showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides consisted mainly of OH group, CH group, CO indicates the carbohydrate and sugar chain. The sample weight loss was slightly decreased with increasing of temperature.

  18. Bamboo structures: evoke the spirit workshop [organisation, facilitation, research] Brescia, Italy; 1-14 July 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.; Thompson, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Student workshop run by MM Kolakowski and Alan Thompson for architectural students. Construction of large scale bamboo structures: 18-metre high tower, 9-metre high wheel arches and other bamboo constructions.

  19. An Effective Method for Total RNA Isolation from Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhimin; LI Xueping; LI Lubin; PENG Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    Trizol reagent was used for RNA isolation from fresh leaves of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami, Bambusa ventricosa and Phyllostachys aureosulcata cv. Pekinensis. The extracted RNA from leaves had the normal ultraviolet absorption, the value of OD26(/OD280 varied between 1.8-2.0. The 28s rRNA was more than two times brighter than 18s rRNA in electrophoresis. These results indicated that the total RNA was complete and not degraded. According to our experiments, RNA could be obtained simply with this method, and can be used for molecular manipulation such as cDNA synthesis and gene cloning.

  20. CHARACTERISTIC OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD MADE FROM THREE SPECIES OF SULAWESI BAMBOO

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman; A Detti Yunianti1; Sahriyanti Saad1); Baharuddin

    2012-01-01

    Three species of sulawesi bamboo were used to produce binderless particleboard (BP). Parring bamboo (Gigantochloa ater) was taken from Tanralili Maros, while betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) and tallang bamboo (Schizostacyum barcahycladum) were taken from Batu Papan Makale Tana Toraja. The skin and nodia were removed before converted into chip. Particle was produced from chip after it air dried. The particles were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide 15% based on oven dry particle weight and 7...

  1. A Study on Chemical Compositions and Fiber Characteristics of Two Sympodial Bamboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition and fiber characteristics of two sympodial bamboos have been studied in this paper. Based on analysis results, it is shown that the Whangee (D. Membranaceus Munro) bamboo is better than Yunnanicus bamboo(D. yunnaicus Hsueh et D. Z. Li) in utilization because of its higher specific gravity, better fiber length and its distribution rule and higher wall/lumen ratio, and that the Whangee bamboo is more suitable for papermaking and panel processing used in house construction. In addi...

  2. Laminated Panel Manufacture of Two Kinds of Bamboo for Architecture Material and Property Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The manufacture technologies of two kinds of bamboo laminated panel and their physical-mechanical properties have been studied in the paper. The species of bamboo are the D. yunnanicus Hsueh et D. Z. Li in Yunnan Province and P. heterocycla var. pubescens Ohwi in Zhejiang Province. The data are offered in order to provide proof to produce architectural panel by bamboo materials. The results show as follows: Laminated bamboo panel can be produced by the reconstruction technology, and the mechanical prope...

  3. Research on the properties of dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers, the moisture regains, tensile properties, friction properties and electrical conductivity of them and the white bamboo pulp fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The results show that the moisture regains of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp fibers are smaller than the white bamboo pulp fiber's, whereas their friction coefficients, breaking strengths and elongations and mass ratio resistances are a bit larger.

  4. Study on Surface Wettability of Bamboo by Measurement of Contact Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the wettability of the processed bamboo surfaces. The important surface energy and acid-base properties for processed bamboo have been estimated by using contact angle techniques. According to the results, the change of ages has a positive relation with the contact angles of water on processed bamboo. The contact angles were increased after the bamboo surface treated in high temperature condition and preservation. The different treat methods have a stro...

  5. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to ...

  6. Antimicrobial Bamboo Materials Functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Junyi Zhang; Bo Zhang; Xiufang Chen; Bingbing Mi; Penglian Wei; Benhua Fei; Xindong Mu

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microsco...

  7. Design of Experimentation, Artificial Neural Network Simulation and Optimization for Integrated Bamboo Processing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Mehar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research work experimentation on integrated bamboo processing machine for splitting and slicing of bamboo has been carried out. This paper presents the experimental investigation of some parameters of integrated bamboo processing machine. In this research paper simulation of experimental data using artificial neural network is carried out. An attempt of minimum-maximum principle has been made to optimize by range bound process for maximizing production rate of integrated bamboo processing machine.

  8. Bamboo as a Building Material. Peace Corps. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, F. A.

    This manual, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Point Four program, presents critical features and principles of using bamboo as a building material. Information provided in the manual includes the following: parts of a house for which bamboos are suitable, bamboo reinforcement of concrete, geographical distribution of…

  9. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an elec

  10. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Synthesized Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron-Bamboo and Manganese-Bamboo Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon E. Shaibu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bamboo impregnated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI and nanoscale manganese (nMn were prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PIXE analysis. The synthesized nMn-bamboo and nZVI-bamboo composites were subsequently applied to the sorption of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB dye was investigated under various experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of MB dye and adsorbent dosage. The results showed that the synthesized nZVI-bamboo composite was more effective than nMn-bamboo composite in terms of higher MB dye adsorption capacity of 322.5 mg/g compared to 263.5 mg/g of nMn-bamboo composite. At a concentration of 140 mg/L MB dye, 0.02 g of nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites resulted in 79.6% and 78.3% removal, respectively, at 165 rpm, contact time of 120 min and at a solution pH of 7.6. The equilibrium data was best represented by Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model better explained the kinetic data for both nZVI-bamboo and nMn-bamboo composites.

  11. 红哺鸡竹笋早出覆盖的研究%Study on Mulching for Early Shooting of Phyllostachys iridescens Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卉

    2016-01-01

    在红哺鸡竹林中用稻草加谷壳的覆盖方式,并采取4种不同的覆盖处理,寻找最适红哺鸡竹竹笋早出的覆盖模式。经综合分析对比得知,模式4为最优模式(20 cm稻草+20 cm谷壳),可提前48 d出笋,并在3月3日进入盛笋期,基本满足红哺鸡竹早出覆盖的要求。%In this study straw and chaff were used as the mulching method with 4 different mulching treatments in the Phyllostachys iridescens plantations to find the most suitable mulching mode for early shooting of Phyllostachys iridescens plantations. Comprehensive analysis and comparison showed that Mode 4(20 cm straw+20 cm chaff) had the best mulching effects for earlier shooting by 48d, with the beginning of the full shooting period on 3 March, which could meet the basic mulching requirements for early shooting of phyllostachys iridescens plantations.

  12. Effects of Polymer Impregnation on Properties of Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchart PREECHATIWONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is targeted to investigate the effects of polymer impregnation on the properties of bamboo. Polymer impregnation can improve adhesion of flattened bamboo and also improve the resistance of polymer-impregnated bamboo to fungi. During the flattening bamboo process, linseed oil was used as a processing aid. Two different kinds of solvents, methanol and ethanol, were used to extract linseed oil. Weights of samples before and after extraction were compared. Ethanol is a better solvent than methanol to extract linseed oil since weight loss is higher. The flattened bamboo samples were adhered together by phenol-formaldehyde (PF adhesive or polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI adhesive. The adhesion test was performed in shear mode. Sample extracted with ethanol and adhered by MDI gave a maximum shear stress of 5.84 MPa while samples extracted with methanol and adhered by PF gave only 2.45 MPa. A higher percentage of wood failure was observed in samples with higher adhesion strength. In durability to fungi, a polymer-wood composite was made by impregnation of methyl methacrylate in the wood under vacuum. The composite showed better resistance to fungi, especially, in nodes. Nodes have a lower densities and less effective packing of fibers than internodes. Therefore monomers can diffuse into node and then polymerize. More polymer loading gives better durability to fungi.

  13. Production of Particleboards with Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses José Zaia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to study the utilization of residues from bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus lamination in the manufacturing of panels for structural purposes. Bamboo particleboards were produced under three conditions: pure boards, reinforced with bamboo laminas, and with treated particles. Castor oil-based polyurethane was the resin binder, in view of using lower toxicity materials. The mechanical tests were performed according to Brazilian Standard (NBR 14810-3 (2006 and European Standard (EN 310 (2000. The results were superior to those recommended by these and other standards for internal adhesion resistance, modulus of rupture, and elasticity in static bending, as well as to the results of other studies. Starch treatment was an unnecessary stage. According to the conditions of this process, the studied panels showed a good potential for construction use. Moreover, the bamboo particleboards are an economically viable, environmentally friendly, and sustainable alternative for the use of waste generated during the processing of Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo species, allied with castor oil-based polyurethane resin. The reinforced particleboard and its production process are being licensed as an Innovation Patent in Brazil, (BR 1020130133919-1-2013.

  14. Hydrolysis of bamboo fiber cellulose in formic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong SUN; Lu LIN; Haibo DENG; Hong PENG; Jiazhe LI; Runchang SUN; Shijie LIU

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo fiber dissolution and hydrolysis in formic acid were studied. After hydrolysis, formic acid can be recovered in a clean state and reused. Solid water-soluble sugars were obtained. After being dipped into the formic acid solution for 30 min, the bamboo fibers started to swell. After one hour, the bamboo fibers gradually started to dissolve in the formic acid solution. The color of the liquor/solution turned green and dark. In the end, the bamboo fibers became thoroughly dissolved in the liquor after four hours. There was a clear hierarch-ical tissue structure on the fiber surface, as observed by AFM before treatment. The differential structure disap-peared after 30 min of treatment. The fiber surface became plump and glossy. After six hours reaction at 60℃, the solid sugar mixture recovered contained glu-cose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetrose, cellopentose and cellohexaose. A significant fraction of the sugar pro-ducts consisted of monomeric glucose. More than 54.5% of the bamboo fiber mass had been transformed into monomeric glucose.

  15. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the treated substrate. The cellulose conversion to glucose yield reached 77.1 to 83.4% after enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids fraction for 48 h at an enzyme loading of 15 FPU cellulase/g cellulose and 30 IU β-glucosidase/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate was significantly accelerated as the ethanol organosolv pretreatment time increased, reaching the highest enzymatic glucose yield of 83.4% after 48 h at 50 °C. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors such as HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural and furfural were 0.96 g/L and 4.38 g/L in the spent liquor after the ethanol organosolv pretreatment, which were slightly lower than the concentrations quantified during H2SO4-water treatment. Spent liquor was diluted with water, and more than 87.2% of lignin in raw bamboo was recovered as ethanol organosolv lignin through the filtration process.

  16. Surveys of harvest technology of winter bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-hu

    2011-01-01

    Winter bamboo shoots are widely used in Asian cuisine. We surveyed growth depth (tail depth and root depth), harvest speed, and harvest processes to provide information for developing new harvest technology. The tail depth of most winter bamboo shoots was 100-350 mm below the soil surface, and the root depth was 200-500 mm below the soil surface. Most winter bamboo shoots were difficult to locate with only the naked eye. The digging depth was 200-500 mm to cut winter bamboo shoots from the root. The highest harvest rate was 7.75 times faster than the slowest one and the average harvest speed ratio of men: women was about 1.71:1. The harvest process of winter bamboo shoots was divisible into three steps: searching, digging a hole (around the shoot) and cutting the root. The ratio of searching time to the sum of digging and cutting time was about 8:1, showing that searching required more time than digging and cutting together.

  17. Damage of bamboo and wooden materials based on linear elastic fracture mechanics in garden design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo and wood are the most widely applied and the oldest natural structural materials in the world. Currently, worldwide output of wooden material is 1 billion ton, almost the same as steel. Most of them are used as structure, such as load carrying girder, scaffold, floor and support. Wooden materials and bamboo materials with clear microstructure are composite biomaterials which can be studied under multiple scales. Irregular evolution behaviors of initial defects or damage during loading determines macro mechanical behavior of wooden and bamboo materials. Taking wood and bamboo as test materials, this study explored mechanical characteristics and damage crack behavior of wood and bamboo as well as toughening mechanism.

  18. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-07

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1)) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P bamboo and P concentrations of mature bamboo but decreased mature bamboo foliar N:P ratios (P bamboo plantations, but the positive effects were diminished when the addition rate exceeded 60 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1). Nitrogen increased foliar N concentrations but aggravated P deficiency in CM bamboo plantations. The positive effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  19. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  20. Management practices regulate the response of Moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Quan

    2016-04-01

    Moso bamboo, well known for its high growth rate, is being subjected to increasing amounts of nitrogen deposition. However, how anthropogenic management practices regulate the effects of N deposition on Moso bamboo stoichiometry remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of two years of simulated N deposition (30, 60 and 90 kg N ha‑1yr‑1) on the foliar stoichiometry of Moso bamboo plantations under conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM). Young bamboo had significantly greater foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratios than mature plants (P bamboo and P concentrations of mature bamboo but decreased mature bamboo foliar N:P ratios (P bamboo plantations, but the positive effects were diminished when the addition rate exceeded 60 kg N ha‑1yr‑1. Nitrogen increased foliar N concentrations but aggravated P deficiency in CM bamboo plantations. The positive effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry were influenced by management practices and bamboo growth stage. The effects of N deposition on foliar stoichiometry combined with anthropogenic management practices can influence ecosystem production, decomposition, and subsequent N and P cycles in Moso bamboo plantations.

  1. Modified bamboo rayon-copper nanoparticle composites as antibacterial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2013-10-01

    In the current study the bamboo rayon fabric grafted with acrylamide was utilized as a backbone to immobilize copper nanoprticles. The grafted bamboo rayon was first treated with CuSO4 followed by chemical reduction. The modified product was characterized using FTIR, TGA and SEM. The characteristic color developed after reduction was measured spectrophotometrically. The grafted bamboo rayon with Cu nanoparticles was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and the durability of their antibacterial activity after washing. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was found to be durable till 50 washes. The material can be claimed as suitable candidate for medical textile applications to prevent cross-infections.

  2. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  3. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars.

  4. Starch composites reinforced by bamboo cellulosic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Zhong, Tuhua; Chang, Peter R; Li, Kaifu; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-04-01

    Using a method of combined HNO(3)-KClO(3) treatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, bamboo cellulose crystals (BCCs) were prepared and used to reinforce glycerol plasticized starch. The structure and morphology of BCCs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and solid-state (13)C NMR. Results showed that BCCs were of typical cellulose I structure, and the morphology was dependent on its concentration in the suspension. BCC of 50-100 nm were assembled into leaf nervations at low concentration (i.e. 0.1 wt.% of solids), but congregated into a micro-sized "flower" geometry at high concentration (i.e. 10.0 wt.% of solids). Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the starch/BCC composite films (SBC) were enhanced by the incorporation of the crystals due to reinforcement of BCCs and reduction of water uptake. BCCs at the optimal 8% loading level exhibited a higher reinforcing efficiency for plasticized starch plastic than any other loading level.

  5. Evaluation of Torrefied Bamboo for Sustainable Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.; Pels, J.; Fryda, L.; Zwart, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production. Bamboo presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. Up to date, there are no studies on fuel properties of the bamboo specie Guadua angustifolia. Bamboo is a difficult fuel and most thermal conversion processes have stringent fuel specifications, which are challenging to fulfil with biomass streams. Bamboo is tenacious and fibrous which makes it difficult and expensive to grind. Furthermore, the characteristics with regard to handling, storage and degradability are not favourable for biomass in general. The thermal pre-treatment torrefaction is a promising upgrading technology that can enhance the fuel quality by addressing these issues. During torrefaction, biomass is heated to 250-320C in the absence of oxygen. At the end of the process the material is milled and compressed into pellets. In this way, the biomass becomes easy to grind, more hydrophobic and has a high energy density. Alternatively, wet torrefaction (Torwash) allows for combined torrefaction and washing of the feedstock. Wet torrefaction, a form of hydro-thermal treatment, in addition to dry torrefaction removes salts and minerals from biomass, improving even more the quality of the product. This is in particular interesting for feedstock containing significant amounts of undesirable alkali components for combustion or gasification, as is the case of bamboo. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of Guadua angustifolia as a fuel for heat and power applications. The results of biomass fuel properties and characteristics and quality improvement via dry and wet torrefaction are assessed. Torrefaction clearly shows the improvement of fuel properties and grindability of biomass. Wet-torrefied Guadua angustifolia is chemically an attractive fuel, with favourable fuel properties, e.g. the results showed a 98% of alkali removal, and the

  6. Bambusa vulgaris as a roof material : A field study about bamboo age, treatment and the possibility to build with bamboo in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to investigate bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) and to gain a wider knowledge about bamboo as a construction material. A growing problem all over the world is global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions. Bamboo is a giant grass and can absorb more carbon dioxide in comparison to same-sized trees. The majority of bamboo species growing in Ghana is Bambusa vulgaris. The results are based on six qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted in Ghana and five supp...

  7. Elucidating how bamboo salt interacts with supported lipid membranes: influence of alkalinity on membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Min Chul; Park, Jae Hyeon; Herrin, Jason Scott; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Haiwon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-07-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional medicine produced from sea salt. It is widely used in Oriental medicine and is an alkalizing agent with reported antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic properties. Notwithstanding, linking specific molecular mechanisms with these properties has been challenging to establish in biological systems. In part, this issue may be related to bamboo salt eliciting nonspecific effects on components found within these systems. Herein, we investigated the effects of bamboo salt solution on supported lipid bilayers as a model system to characterize the interaction between lipid membranes and bamboo salt. The atomic composition of unprocessed and processed bamboo salts was first analyzed by mass spectrometry, and we identified several elements that have not been previously reported in other bamboo salt preparations. The alkalinity of hydrated samples was also measured and determined to be between pH 10 and 11 for bamboo salts. The effect of processed bamboo salt solutions on the fluidic properties of a supported lipid bilayer on glass was next investigated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. It was demonstrated that, with increasing ionic strength of the bamboo salt solution, the fluidity of a lipid bilayer increased. On the contrary, increasing the ionic strength of near-neutral buffer solutions with sodium chloride salt diminished fluidity. To reconcile these two observations, we identified that solution alkalinity is critical for the effects of bamboo salt on membrane fluidity, as confirmed using three additional commercial bamboo salt preparations. Extended-DLVO model calculations support that the effects of bamboo salt on lipid membranes are due to the alkalinity imparting a stronger hydration force. Collectively, the results of this work demonstrate that processing of bamboo salt strongly affects its atomic composition and that the alkalinity of bamboo salt solutions contributes to its effect on membrane

  8. NTDC United with Jigan to Promote "TANBOOCEL"Bamboo Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 27th,the National Textile Development Center and Hebei Jigao Chemical Fibre Co.,Ltd united together in Beijing to announce that the"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber product R&D cooperation system has been started,aiming at promoting the industrial application of"TANBOOCEL"Bamboo fiber markedly.Mr.Sun Reizhe,vice president of China National Textile and Apparel Council,Li Binhong,Director of National Textile Development Center,gave their key speeches during this ceremony.

  9. International Competitiveness of Main Bamboo and Rattan Commodities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo and Rattan(B&R) resources play a very important role for ecological and economical development as the two most important non-timber forest resources,due to deterioration of global ecological environment and supply pressure of timber resource.B&R industry has always been regarded as one of the green industries with great development potential as B&R can be used as wood substitute. Many countries and regions have their distinct advantages and successful experiences in developing bamboo and rattan in...

  10. 太湖流域上游西苕溪源头溪流中毛竹、石栎和山胡椒落叶分解比较%Leaf litter breakdown of Phyllostachys heterocycla, Lithocarpus glabra and Lindera glauca in a headwater stream of Xitiaoxi watershed, upper reaches of Taihu Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢东琪; 张勇; 刘东晓; 王备新

    2012-01-01

    比较了毛竹、石栎和山胡椒叶片的理化属性,采用粗网叶袋法研究了三种落叶在太湖流域上游西苕溪中的分解过程,探讨了毛竹叶成为溪流优势外来能源后对溪流生态过程和底栖动物群落结构的影响.三种落叶的氮、磷含量及叶片厚度都存在显著差异,毛竹叶的氮含量(30.23 g/kg)远高于石栎(20.98 g/kg)和山胡椒(9.69g/kg),其中毛竹叶的分解速率最快(k =0.00592 d-1),山胡椒(0.00297 d-1)和石栎叶(0.00212 d-1)较慢.三种落叶叶袋间的大型底栖无脊椎动物包括各取食功能团的多度和生物量无显著差异,而4次采样间的差异很显著.大型底栖动物的取食功能团中,撕食者的数量比例最高(40.3%),生物量比例为41.6%,是落叶分解的重要功能类群.撕食者中,利用阔叶筑巢的鳞石蛾Lepidostoma数量最多,占全部底栖动物的14%,是该溪流中主要的撕食者类群.因此,由于毛竹叶具有氮、磷含量较高、叶形较窄,以及两年进行一次换叶的特点,当毛竹叶替代其他阔叶秋季落叶的树种成为源头溪流优势外来能源后,可能会改变源头溪流中的氮磷含量、溪流外来能源的量和滞留时间以及底栖动物群落结构.%In order to explore the impact of the change of the dominant leaf litter source in stream from broad leaf trees to a bamboo tree of Phyllostachys heterocycla on headwater stream ecosystem and their associated benthic macroinvertebrates, we compared the leaf physical and chemical characters of Phyllostachys heterocycla, Luhocarpus glabra and Lindera glauca, and then evaluated the leaf litter breakdown of above three species using coarse-mesh litter bags in a headwater stream of Xitiaoxi watershed, Zhejiang Province. The concentrations of nitrogen , phosphorus and the thickness of the three categories of leaves varied significantly. The nitrogen concentration of bamboo tree leaf (30.23 g/kg) was much higher than that of L. glabra (20

  11. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  12. Crystallization kinetics and thermal resistance of bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumsorn, S.; Srisawat, N.; On, J. Wong; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hamada, H.

    2014-05-01

    Bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites were prepared in this study. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was blended with bamboo fiber in a twin screw extruder with varied bamboo content from 20-0wt%. PBS/bamboo fiber composites were fabricated by compression molding process. The effect of bamboo fiber contents on properties of the composites was investigated. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study of the composites was investigated based on Avrami equation. The kinetic parameters indicated that bamboo fiber acted as heterogeneous nucleation and enhanced crystallinity of the composites. Bamboo fiber was well dispersed on PBS matrix and good adhered with the matrix. Tensile strength of the composites slightly deceased with adding bamboo fiber. However, tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased when increasing bamboo fiber contents. It can be noted that bamboo fiber promoted crystallization and crystallinity of PBS in the composites. Therefore, the composites were better in impact load transferring than neat PBS, which exhibited improving on impact performance of the composites.

  13. How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In a research project funded by NSFC,Dr.Wei Fuwen of Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,explained how giant pandas thrive on a bamboo diet,and published their research findings in an article "Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the giant panda gut microbiome," on PNAS in October 17,2011.

  14. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  15. One laminated bamboo-frame house per hectare per year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flander, De K.; Rovers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a quantitative analysis that demonstrates the global potential of bamboo as a "modern" construction material. The underlying goal is to contribute to a real shift in resource management by focussing on renewable resources in general and on the high brow, modern use

  16. Flexible fabrication of biomimetic bamboo-like hybrid microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Wen, Hui; Ma, Jingyun; Lykkemark, Simon; Xu, Hui; Qin, Jianhua

    2014-04-23

    Biomimetic and flexible bamboo-like hybrid fibers are produced using a novel one-step strategy. By combining a droplet microfluidic technique with a wet-spinning process, biocompatible microfibers are incorporated with polymer spheres or multicellular spheroids. As a result of the controllability of this approach, it has potential applications in materials science and tissue engineering.

  17. Preparation and characterization of white bamboo charcoal PET fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Shan Li; Ming Shuang Xu; Guang Ju Zhou; Li Qiu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo charcoal polyester fiber (BC-PET) has been widely applied in home textiles, functional clothing and hydra-balance material, due to their strong adsorptivity, good resolvability, anti-statics, deodorization, antibacterial, anion releasing and far infrared emitting. But BC-PET is black and difficult to be dyed, and its application is limited. In this article, nitric acid was used to treat the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC) powder, and BC powder was modified by titanium dioxide sol to prepare white bamboo charcoal (white-BC) particle. White bamboo charcoal polyester fiber (white-BC-PET) was obtained by mixing white-BC and polyester (PET) resin in double screw extruder. Performance of fiber was tested referring to national standard GB/TI4464-2008 of common PET fiber and most of its indicators have already exceeded GB the level of excellent product. SEM photographs showed that the white-BC was uniformly distributed inside or on the surface of fiber. The white-BC-PET could absorb some aniline and had at least 90% anti-bacterial rate. The anti-bacterial rate could have almost been kept after it was washed 50 times. It was hopeful to be applied in various fields as functional fiber.

  18. 《竹取物语》中的时间意象与日本竹文化%Time Image and Japanese Bamboo Culture in "Bamboo Monogatari"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敬军

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo Monogatari is the Japanese classic "bamboo" story, has become a symbol of Japanese bamboo culture. The close relationship between the time image in the story and bamboo culture bamboo biological characteristics deepens Japanese bamboo culture connoted in Bamboo Monogatari.%《竹取物语》是日本古典"竹"之物语,小说中的时间意象与竹文化、竹子生物特性的密切关联深化了《竹取物语》的日本竹文化内涵。

  19. Effects of different proportion mixed Phyllostachys pubescens leaf litter on litter decomposition in P.pubescens forest%毛竹凋落叶组成对叶凋落物分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广路; 范少辉; 官凤英; 杜满义; 郭宝华

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Phyllostachys pubescens forest has high productivity and good ecological functions, which is possibly related to the nutrient return characteristics of mixed litter. By using litterbag method, a one-year experiment was conducted to study the decomposition characteristics of different proportion mixed P. pubescens leaf litters in P. pubescens forest in the Yangkou National Forest Farm, Fujian Province of Southeast China. Five treatments were installed, i. e. , pure P. pubescens leaf litters ( Ⅰ ) , P. pubescens+Phoebe bournei litters ( mass ratio 8:2, Ⅱ ) , P. pubescens+Cunninghamia lanceolata litters ( 8 :2, Ⅲ ) , P. pubescens +P. bournei litters (5 :5 , Ⅳ ) , and P. pubescens+C. lanceolata litters (5 :5, Ⅴ ) . The litter decomposition rates of different treatments were all compatible with the exponential decomposition model of Olson ( R2 >0. 92 , P<0. 01). The decomposition rate in treatments Ⅰ and Ⅱ was significantly higher than that in other treatments, and the coefficient of decomposition was in the order of Ⅱ > Ⅰ > Ⅲ > Ⅴ > Ⅳ , being 0. 68 , 0. 66, 0. 58, 0. 55 , and 0. 49 , respectively, which illustrated that only appropriate proportions of mixed tree species leaf litters could promote the litter decomposition. The litter of mixed bamboo-broadleaved forest had higher decomposition rate than that of mixed bambooconifer forest. Therefore, the mixed bamboo-broadleaved forest could benefit the persistent productivity of bamboo forest. During decomposition, the N, P, and K in the litters had different release patterns. The N followed the pattern of alternate enrichment and release; the P was rapidly enriched in the first four month, released from the fourth month to fifth month, and then enriched; the K was released in the first three months, and then enriched. The nutrient return of the litters was closely related to the nutrient contents of the litters. The litter C/N ratio and P content could be the key indices

  20. Unusual sleeping site selection by southern bamboo lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2016-04-01

    Selection of sleeping sites has consequences for individual fitness. Non-human primates often bias their selection towards arboreal sites, and the lemurs of Madagascar typically rest/sleep in trees, tree holes, and/or constructed nests. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain sleeping site selection include protection from predators, avoidance of parasitic vectors, and improved thermoregulation. Here, we examine these hypotheses for the unusual sleeping site selections by the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). Within the Mandena littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, the southern bamboo lemur is known for its ecological flexibility compared to other bamboo lemur species, including a dietary niche expansion to feeding on the ground. Between October 2012 and December 2013, we observed bamboo lemurs from three social groups for 1778.67 h, conducting full-day focal follows on 11 adult individuals (five males, six females). During this period, all three groups were observed to sleep on the ground, with one of these groups also using an abandoned nest of a Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata). We collected habitat and temperature data to examine whether selection was influenced by environmental variables. Terrestrial sleeping (N = 17) was observed in all individuals but one adult female, with individuals burrowing under thick vegetation more often during the hot austral summer. While difficult to rigorously test, it is possible that terrestrial sleep sites and/or sleeping in a bird nest may impair visual detection by some aerial and terrestrial predators. Neither of these sites (i.e., terrestrial sleeping or use of a bird nest), however, is likely to minimize exposure to parasites/vectors. Terrestrial sleeping appears to support a thermoregulatory strategy, whereas the use of a bird nest could not be empirically tested. Our observations of unique sleeping site locations used by southern bamboo lemurs further the complexity of their

  1. Performance and Durability Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Cement Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Singh Mehra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A big part of population in India is still homeless due to raising unaffordability of housing structures. People sleeping on roadsides and living in slums is a common sight in Indian cities. To overcome this problem India today needs millions of houses for their growing population, making concrete as the most widely to be used material in the country. Concrete has found to have excellent compressive strength but poor in tensile strength, to take care of the tensile stresses steel is commonly used as reinforcing material in concrete. Production of steel is a very costly business and its use in concrete as reinforcing material increases the cost of construction by many folds. Also production of steel emits a large amount of green house gases causing considerable deterioration of the environment. The above mentioned socio-economic and environmental factors creates a necessity for finding an appropriate environment friendly and cheap material that can successfully substitute steel as reinforcement in concrete elements of a low cost dwelling for the poor and homeless people of the country. It is here that engineered bamboo can be of great value to Civil Engineers owning to its several net worthy features. Production of every tone of bamboo consumes about a tone of atmospheric CO2 in addition to releasing fresh O2. From structural point of view bamboo has been used as a structural material from the earlier times as it possesses excellent flexure and tensile strength as well as high strength to weight ratio. All this necessitates examining bamboo-reinforced cement concrete in detail for its appropriateness as a structural material for construction of a low cost dwelling unit. The study focuses on evaluating the mechanical and durability properties of cement-concrete beams both singly and doubly reinforced with bamboo splints.

  2. Effects of different fertilization treatments on loss of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in seepage water under phyllostachy pracox stand%不同施肥对雷竹林渗漏水中可溶性有机碳、氮流失的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裴裴; 吴家森; 郑小龙; 姜培坤; 吴建军

    2014-01-01

    ,具有经济和环境双重效益,是雷竹合理施肥的发展方向。%Objectives]Lei bamboo ( Phyllostachys praecox f.preveynalis) is an excellent variety for producing bamboo shoots and is widely distributed in the subtropical area of China.In order to improve yields of bamboo shoots, intensive management practices including over-application of chemical fertilizers have been adopted by the farmers.Although the farmers obtain great economic benefits, these practices bring out a serious new problems, such as bamboo grove degradation or even death, water system pollution, decline in soil quality and so on. Although the percentage of dissolved organic carbon( DOC) and organic nitrogen( DON) in soil was very low, they were sensitive for the change of soil environment.Change in DOC and DON concentrations in the seepage water from the soil under phyllostachy praecox stand in the whole year was monitored to ascertain the effects of reducing chemical and organic fertilizer rates on the concentrations of DOC and DON.[Methods]Five treatments were designed:conventional fertilizer ( CF ) , decreased organic fertilizer ( DO ) , decreased inorganic fertilizer ( DI ) , decreased organic and inorganic fertilizer(DOI),no fertilizer (CK).Fertilizers were separately applied in May 18, September 7 and November 9 with respective 40%,30% and 30% of total amount of fertilizer, and then plowed into soil at the depth of 5 cm.[Results]The results showed that the average concentrations of DOC and DON in the seepage water for the different fertilization treatments were 33.7-45.5 mg/L and 6.6 -12.6 mg/L, respectively, whereas the average seepage loss loads of DOC and DON for the different fertilization treatments were 84.5-138.2 kg/ha and 17.2-46.3 kg/ha, respectively.The seepage loss loads of DOC from the soil with different fertilization treatments decreased as follows: CF ( 138.2 kg/ha ) >DO ( 133.7 kg/ha ) >DI ( 120.9 kg/ha ) >CK ( 99.8 kg/ha)>DOI ( 84.5 kg/ha ) , whereas the

  3. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  4. Isolation, structural characterization, and potential applications of hemicelluloses from bamboo: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai; She, Diao

    2014-11-04

    Bamboo is one of the mostly fast growing natural resources and has great potential to be used as a valuable feedstock for biorefinery. The hemicelluloses, next to cellulose, represent a diverse group of polysaccharides in plant cell wall. Elucidation and understanding of the hemicelluloses from bamboo play an important role in the efficient conversion of bamboo into biofuels and bioproducts. This review summarized the recent reports on hemicelluloses from bamboo, including immunohistochemical localization, focused on extraction and purification methods, chemical components, characterization of structural features, as well as physicochemical properties. In addition, attention was also paid to derivatives prepared from bamboo hemicelluloses and to potential applications of bamboo hemicelluloses in a variety of areas such as biomaterials, biofuel, and food.

  5. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  6. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  7. Design of Experimentation, Artificial Neural Network Simulation and Optimization for Integrated Bamboo Processing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Mehar; Dr.A.V.Vanalkar

    2015-01-01

    In this research work experimentation on integrated bamboo processing machine for splitting and slicing of bamboo has been carried out. This paper presents the experimental investigation of some parameters of integrated bamboo processing machine. In this research paper simulation of experimental data using artificial neural network is carried out. An attempt of minimum-maximum principle has been made to optimize by range bound process for maximizing production rate of integrated b...

  8. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, ...

  9. Dense understory dwarf bamboo alters the retention of canopy tree seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Zhang, Tengda; Guo, Qinxue; Tao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    Tree seed retention is thought to be an important factor in the process of forest community regeneration. Although dense understory dwarf bamboo has been considered to have serious negative effects on the regeneration of forest community species, little attention has been paid to the relationship between dwarf bamboo and seed retention. In a field experiment we manipulated the density of Fargesia decurvata, a common understory dwarf bamboo, to investigate the retention of seeds from five canopy tree species in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Jinfoshan National Nature Reserve, SW China. We found that the median survival time and retention ratio of seeds increased with the increase in bamboo density. Fauna discriminately altered seed retention in bamboo groves of different densities. Arthropods reduced seed survival the most, and seeds removed decreased with increasing bamboo density. Birds removed or ate more seeds in groves of medium bamboo density and consumed fewer seeds in dense or sparse bamboo habitats. Rodents removed a greater number of large and highly profitable seeds in dense bamboo groves but more small and thin-husked seeds in sparse bamboo groves. Seed characteristics, including seed size, seed mass and seed profitability, were important factors affecting seed retention. The results suggested that dense understory dwarf bamboo not only increased seeds concealment and reduced the probability and speed of seed removal but also influenced the trade-off between predation and risk of animal predatory strategies, thereby impacting the quantity and composition of surviving seeds. Our results also indicated that dense understory dwarf bamboo and various seed characteristics can provide good opportunities for seed storage and seed germination and has a potential positive effect on canopy tree regeneration.

  10. Simultaneous flowering of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae) at its native home in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-hua; Manfred DENICH; Thomas BORSCH

    2006-01-01

    Flowering pattern and seedling establishment of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae (Gamble) Yi) were studied in its native habitat, Mount Shennongjia in Central China. Here in 1996-2000, over 95% of the bamboo plants simultaneously flowered and died, extending from lower elevations to the higher mountains along the altitude and from southwest to northeast along the mountain settings. following the flowering. After a high mortality throughout the first winter, bamboo seedlings remained a stable density in following 2-4 years (1130-1230 seedlings· m-2). Seedling density positively related to the coverage of parent bamboo, but negatively to the herb layers.

  11. Research on Air-dried Density and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo from Different Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to further research bamboo cultivation and expand its application field, air-dried density and mechanical properties of Moso bamboo from the 2 plantations under the same site condition were measured and analyzed by using the national standard The Testing Methods for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (GB / T 15780-1995). And the single linear regression analysis was carried out. The results showed that air-dried density and mechanical properties of the 2 kinds of Moso bamboo increase with...

  12. On Structure, production, and market of bamboo-based panels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since bamboo has the advantages of straight grain, beautiful color, high strength and toughness, and excellent abrasion resistance, bamboo-based panels have been widely used in the fields of vehicle, construction, ship building, furniture, and decoration to partly take the place of wood, steel, plastic etc in China. This paper briefly described the basic component units, including strip, sliver, and particle, of bamboo-based panel and pointed out that to design the structure of bamboo-based panels should follow the principle of symmetric structure, surface forming method, and structuring principle of equalizing stress. According to the processing methods and formation of component units, the authors classified the bamboo-based panels in China into 13 types and presented the manufacturing technique and uses of the bamboo products, such as plybamboo, bamboo flooring, and bamboo-wood composite products in detail. In the last part of the paper, much information were offered on the output, market, and selling prospect of each type of bamboo-based panels.

  13. Seasonal Variations in Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of Leaves of Phyllostachys Taxa Using Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András NEMÉNYI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in total phenolic content (TP and total antioxidant capacity (AC during the vegetation period (April-November were analysed in Phyllostachys aureosulcata f. aureocaulis (PAA, P. flexuosa (PF, P. humilis (PH, P. sulphurea var. sulphurea (PSS. Different extraction methods were compared: infusion or decoction with water or aqueous methanol. The highest significant value for TP was measured in the case of infusion at 90 °C for 5 min, which lead to the highest value for AC. During the vegetation period the highest values of TP were measured in April and May in the case of PAA (409.5; 314.9 and 258.7; 119.0 μg GA/ml and PH (388.4; 411.6 and 252.9; 253.3 μg GA/ml. There was a clear trend in the changes of TP, with high values in April and November and a peak during August-September. Similar to TP, the highest values of AC were measured in April and May in PH (519.7; 566.3 and 513.5; 510.4 μg AA/ml and PAA (534.5; 337.8 and 394.9; 275.4 μg AA/ml. We compared the change of TP in all taxa with stress index values derived from daily maximum and minimum air temperature, cumulative precipitation plus irrigation and cumulative evapotranspiration values. A close correlation R2 = 0.32 (p=0.001 was found between stress index values and the change in TP of all taxa. The correlation is even closer R2 = 0.52 (p=0.001 with PF, PH and PSS. Our results with PAA can be explained by possible inter/intra-specific differences in freeze tolerance and cold-acclimation.

  14. Characterization of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Daniel; Escala, Marina [Institute of Natural Resource Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Facility Management, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Waedenswil (Switzerland); Supawittayayothin, Kawin; Tippayawong, Nakorn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Ching Mai (Thailand)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation on producing biochar from bamboo using a technique of hydrothermal carbonization. Laboratory scale experimentation to produce carbonaceous materials was carried out. The suspended biomass samples in water were subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 220 C, 2.2 MPa in a closed vessel for six hours. The resulting products were in solid and liquid phase. The coal-like biochar was found to have rough surface and porous structure. The aqueous solution was found to contain a high concentration of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The study shows that bamboo is an interesting and adequate biomass for the production of biochar with several applications including carbon sequestration.

  15. Characterization of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schneider, Marina Escala, Kawin Supawittayayothin, Nakorn Tippayawong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary investigation on producing biochar from bamboo using a technique of hydrothermal carbonization. Laboratory scale experimentation to produce carbonaceous materials was carried out. The suspended biomass samples in water were subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 220 C, 2.2 MPa in a closed vessel for six hours. The resulting products were in solid and liquid phase. The coal-like biochar was found to have rough surface and porous structure. The aqueous solution was found to contain a high concentration of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The study shows that bamboo is an interesting and adequate biomass for the production of biochar with several applications including carbon sequestration.

  16. Carbonization of Bamboo and Japanese Cedar under Soft Hydrothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Kana; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Inamaru, Hiroshi; Mori, Yuki; Li, Zhixia; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2010-11-01

    Carbons formed from biomass have many potential applications including as absorbents for environmental contaminants, catalysts, and constituents of various medicines. Bamboo and Japanese cedar leaves were used as the starting materials for carbonization at temperatures up to 200° C using dry steam below the saturated vapor pressure which has the ability to dehydrate hydrocarbons. These carbonization processes were studied using a continuous pipe line autoclave under non-equilibrium conditions. The effect of various reaction conditions on carbonization were examined by thermal analysis, extraction components, and surface observation. The bamboo carbonization product exhibited the ability to highly adsorb chlorinated organic compounds such as chloroform in aqueous solution compared with a commercial activated carbon.

  17. 夏季与秋季钩梢对5年生毛竹竹材物理力学性质的影响%Influence of Obtruncation in Summer and Autumn on Physical and Mechanical Properties of 5 Years Old Culms of Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董敦义; 李子川; 桂仁意; 俞友明

    2015-01-01

    毛竹林钩梢是预防雪灾的重要抚育措施,一般在秋季进行。而随着劳动力成本日趋高涨,劳动强度相对较低的夏季钩梢则成为了一种新的技术选择。为了弄清夏季钩梢对竹材物理力学性质的影响,试验分别选取夏季钩梢、秋季钩梢和未钩梢毛竹( Phyllostachys pubescens)林的5年生立竹试材,比较分析钩梢尤其是夏季钩梢对竹材物理力学性质的影响。结果表明:夏季或秋季钩梢对竹材的3种密度指标(基本密度、气干密度和绝干密度)、体积干缩率、顺纹抗压强度、顺纹抗剪强度和弦向抗弯弹性模量均没有显著影响。钩梢毛竹竹材的纵向干缩率显著低于未钩梢毛竹,顺纹抗拉强度显著高于未钩梢毛竹,而同时弦向抗弯强度也高于未钩梢毛竹,差异接近显著水平( P=0.0501);夏季钩梢竹材的径向干缩率高于秋季钩梢和未钩梢毛竹,差异也接近显著水平( P=0.0508)。逐项分析结果表明钩梢显著降低了基部竹材的纵向干缩率,夏季钩梢对增加竹材径向干缩率的作用主要表现在基部和中部。竹材力学性质的逐项分析结果表明不同钩梢处理同一部位间没有显著差异,但其部位效应更加显著。以上结果说明夏季钩梢与秋季钩梢均不会降低毛竹竹材的物理使用价值。%Obtruncation management in autumn is widely used in northern Zhejiang Province to protect Moso bamboo plantation from snow disaster. As the labor costs rise steadily, relatively lower labor intensive management,i.e.,obtrucation in summer,may be a better choice. But there exists a question on whether this practice would adversely affect the physical and mechanical properties of bamboo culms.This study investigated the influence of obtruncation on 5⁃year⁃old culms of Phyllostachys pubescens by determining the parameters of the physical and mechanical properties of three parts

  18. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  19. Ideas on Policy Framework of China's Bamboo Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiyong; WANG Dengju; FAN Baomin; XIAO Jianming; CHEN Yong; LIU Yan; BAO Yingshuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the current situation of China's bamboo industry,the major policy issues,future development trends and policy orientation.And then with industry policy theory as a guide,the paper propounds the basic framework and policy proposals in resources cultivation and management,industrial structure and pattern,markets and trade,industrial organization system,finance and taxes,industrial technologyand So forth.

  20. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-ling; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii) plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1) control (CK, without N added), (2) low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), (3) medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), and (4) high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+), NO3(-), microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease) and phosphorus (acid phosphatase) and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) activities. Results suggest that (1) this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2) the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  1. [Sediment content and nitrogen and phosphorus load characteristics of surface runoff on bamboo forest slopes: a simulation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Fu, Xing-Tao; Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2012-04-01

    To understand the load characteristics and related mechanisms of surface runoff on two management types of bamboo forests (bamboo timber forest and bamboo shoot forest) slopes (gradient 20 degrees) in Zhejiang Province, this study measured the runoff volume, sediment yield, its total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations of runoff under six artificial simulated rainfall intensity (31.8-114.0 mm x h(-1)). In bamboo timber forest, the total runoff volume and runoff coefficient were higher, but the runoff sediment content and the total sediment yield were far lower, as compared with those in bamboo shoot forest. The runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest decreased with increasing rainfall intensity. Under the same rainfall intensity, the runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest was 5-6 times of that in bamboo timber forest. The runoff TP concentration was higher in bamboo timber forest than in bamboo shoot forest, but the TP loss from the sediment runoff in bamboo shoot forest was hundreds times of that in bamboo timber forest. During the processes of the TN and TP losses from the sediment runoff, the TN and TP concentrations at the prophase of runoff yield played a cardinal role, while the runoff volume and sediment yield at the anaphase played a decisive role.

  2. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  3. Elastic Buckling of Bionic Cylindrical Shells Based on Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-feng Ma; Wu-yi Chen; Ling Zhao; Da-hai Zhao

    2008-01-01

    High load-bearing efficiency is one of the advantages of biological structures after the evolution of billions of years.Biomimicking from nature may offer the potential for lightweight design. In the viewpoint of mechanics properties, the culm of bamboo comprises of two types of cells and the number of the vascular bundles takes a gradient of distribution. A three-point bending test was carried out to measure the elastic modulus. Results show that the elastic modulus of bamboo decreases gradually from the periphery towards the centre. Based on the structural characteristics of bamboo, a bionic cylindrical structure was designed to mimic the gradient distribution of vascular bundles and parenchyma cells. The buckling resistance of the bionic structure was compared with that of a traditional shell of equal mass under axial pressure by finite element simulations. Results show that the load-bearing capacity of bionic shell is increased by 124.8%. The buckling mode of bionic structure is global buckling while that of the conventional shell is local buckling.

  4. Pretreatment of moso bamboo with dilute phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of moso bamboo materials was studied for producing high quality dissolving pulp for textile applications. The dynamics of dilute acid pretreatment were considered. The Saeman model was found to describe well the acid hydrolysis of moso bamboo hemicelluloses to their monomers under different temperatures and different dilute phosphoric acid concentrations. The initial degradation rate of hemicelluloses was much higher than its subsequent degradation rate, and the xylose generation rate increased with increasing temperature. The change rule of the pentose extraction rate was considered along with the pretreatment factor (P factor. Optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions were 170 °C and 45 minutes. Based on the optimum conditions and a mass balance of sugars, a weight loss of 26.5% of the solid and liquid fractions combined was observed after the pretreatment. SEM results revealed that the moso bamboo fibers surfaces and cell wall were damaged. With the surface area increasing, the accessible pore areas also increased. At the same time, the crystallinity of the cellulose was reduced, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment.

  5. Record of Tylonycteris pachypus (Lesser Bamboo Bat from Andaman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Aul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There was very limited and fragmented information on the bat fauna in the Andaman Islands before the study initiated in the Islands (2003-2007 and during this survey 25 species of bats were recorded along with the roosts and habitats. Our survey reconfirmed the presence of the bamboo bat after almost 3 decades from its last report by Hill in 1967. Bamboo bats are a group of small bats with unique skull and morphology. This species has been recorded from southern and northeastern South Asia, southern China, and much of Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this species is widely distributed and is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet divisions and India (Andaman Islands, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura and West Bengal (Bates et al., 2008. They roost inside hollow bamboo stems. During survey, we examined 8 specimens of Tylonycteris from Andaman Islands of which six were caught by local inhabitants and 2 were mist netted across fresh water pond in Webi (North Andaman Island. The earlier record of this specimen from this zone was without any proper information regarding its proper distribution and habitats.

  6. High-throughput sequencing of six bamboo chloroplast genomes: phylogenetic implications for temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bambusoideae is the only subfamily that contains woody members in the grass family, Poaceae. In phylogenetic analyses, Bambusoideae, Pooideae and Ehrhartoideae formed the BEP clade, yet the internal relationships of this clade are controversial. The distinctive life history (infrequent flowering and predominance of asexual reproduction of woody bamboos makes them an interesting but taxonomically difficult group. Phylogenetic analyses based on large DNA fragments could only provide a moderate resolution of woody bamboo relationships, although a robust phylogenetic tree is needed to elucidate their evolutionary history. Phylogenomics is an alternative choice for resolving difficult phylogenies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the complete nucleotide sequences of six woody bamboo chloroplast (cp genomes using Illumina sequencing. These genomes are similar to those of other grasses and rather conservative in evolution. We constructed a phylogeny of Poaceae from 24 complete cp genomes including 21 grass species. Within the BEP clade, we found strong support for a sister relationship between Bambusoideae and Pooideae. In a substantial improvement over prior studies, all six nodes within Bambusoideae were supported with ≥0.95 posterior probability from Bayesian inference and 5/6 nodes resolved with 100% bootstrap support in maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. We found that repeats in the cp genome could provide phylogenetic information, while caution is needed when using indels in phylogenetic analyses based on few selected genes. We also identified relatively rapidly evolving cp genome regions that have the potential to be used for further phylogenetic study in Bambusoideae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The cp genome of Bambusoideae evolved slowly, and phylogenomics based on whole cp genome could be used to resolve major relationships within the subfamily. The difficulty in resolving the diversification among

  7. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental im

  8. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental im

  9. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linghui; Guo, Ronghui; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Lin, Shaojian

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  10. Detection of understory bamboo in giant panda habitats using an indirect remote sensing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Wang, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo is the exclusive food of the wild giant pandas. Detection of the bamboo forest in giant panda habitat will help scientists further understand the spatial distribution pattern of giant pandas and their habitats. Moreover, it provides crucial scientific evidence for estimating habitat suita

  11. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr‑1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr‑1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm‑2 yr‑1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  12. Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Kil, Jeung-Ha; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-08-01

    Bamboo salt, a Korean folk medicine, is prepared with solar salt (sea salt) and baked several times at high temperatures in a bamboo case. In this study, we compared the preventive effects of bamboo salt and purified and solar salts on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with purified and solar salts, bamboo salts prevented hepatic damage in rats, as evidenced by significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (P Bamboo salt (baked 9×) triggered the greatest reduction in these enzyme levels. In addition, it also reduced the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Histopathological sections of liver tissue demonstrated the protective effect of bamboo salt, whereas sections from animals treated with the other salt groups showed a greater degree of necrosis. We also performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat liver tissues. Bamboo salt induced a significant decrease (~80%) in mRNA and protein expression levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β, compared with the other salts. Thus, we found that baked bamboo salt preparations could prevent CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo.

  13. Withered on the stem: is bamboo a seasonally limiting resource for giant pandas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youxu; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Wei, Wei; Nie, Yonggang; Hu, Yibo; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun

    2017-03-10

    In response to seasonal variation in quality and quantity of available plant biomass, herbivorous foragers may alternate among different plant resources to meet nutritional requirements. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are reliant almost exclusively on bamboo which appears omnipresent in most occupied habitat, but subtle temporal variation in bamboo quality may still govern foraging strategies, with population-level effects. In this paper, we investigated the possibility that temporal variation in the quality of this resource is involved in population regulation and examined pandas' adaptive foraging strategies in response to temporal variation in bamboo quality. Giant pandas in late winter and early spring consumed a less optimal diet in Foping Nature Reserve, as the availability of the most nutritious and preferred components and age classes of Bashania fargesii declined, suggesting that bamboo may be a seasonally limiting resource. Most panda mortalities and rescues occurred during the same period of seasonal food limitation. Our findings raised the possibility that while total bamboo biomass may not be a limiting factor, carrying capacity may be influenced by subtle seasonal variation in bamboo quality. We recommend that managers and policy-makers should consider more than just the quantity of bamboo in the understory and that carrying capacity estimates should be revised downward to reflect the fact that all bamboos are not equal.

  14. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, flexural modulus, and pressure in bagasse fiber was apparently different from that of bamboo due to the differences in the cross-sectional structure. In bagasse, the flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with the increase in pressure, whereas in bamboo those properties decreased. In bagasse, an increase in pressure made the fibers into a more compressed structure, increasing their flexural properties. In rigid bamboo, an increase in pressure caused the resin to extrude between fibers, and this resulted in lower flexural properties. At temperatures above 170 oC, the resin depolymerized thermally and the degree of polymerization decreased. Thus, the flexural modulus and strength decreased gradually with increase in holding temperature in both bagasse and bamboo composites. Furthermore, a maximum fiber volume fraction existed for both bagasse and bamboo plastic composites in the approximate range of 75% to 80%.

  15. Improvement in the biochemical and chemical properties of badland soils by thorny bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chen, Tsai-Huei; Jien, Shih-Hau; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Badland soils—which have high silt and clay contents, bulk density, and soil electric conductivity— cover a large area of Southern Taiwan. This study evaluated the amelioration of these poor soils by thorny bamboo, one of the few plant species that grows in badland soils. Soil physiochemical and biological parameters were measured from three thorny bamboo plantations and nearby bare lands. Results show that bamboo increased microbial C and N, soil acid-hydrolysable C, recalcitrant C, and soluble organic C of badland soils. High microbial biomass C to total organic C ratio indicates that soil organic matter was used more efficiently by microbes colonizing bamboo plantations than in bare land soils. High microbial respiration to biomass C ratio in bare land soils confirmed environmentally induced stress. Soil microbes in bare land soils also faced soil organic matter with the high ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C. The high soil acid-hydrolysable C to total organic C ratio at bamboo plantations supported the hypothesis that decomposition of bamboo litter increased soil C in labile fractions. Overall, thorny bamboo improved soil quality, thus, this study demonstrates that planting thorny bamboo is a successful practice for the amelioration of badland soils.

  16. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.;

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided in this...

  17. Antimicrobial Bamboo Materials Functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, which confirmed the existence of GO and ZnO in the composites. Antibacterial performances of bamboo samples were evaluated by the bacteriostatic circle method. The introduction of ZnO/GO nanocomposites into bamboo yielded ZnO/GO/bamboo materials which exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, Gram-negative and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, Gram-positive bacteria and high thermal stability. The antimicrobial bamboo would be expected to be a promising material for the application in the furniture, decoration, and construction industry.

  18. Profiling the Chemical Composition and Growth Strain of Giant Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ting Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the wax layer and green epidermis at the surface of giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro culms were conveniently analyzed through the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT with Si-Carb sampling technique. Results from the radial lignin content profiling of giant bamboo showed that the lignin content in the middle layer was lower than the layers either from the inner or outer culms. As for the longitudinal depth profiling, the lignin contents of bamboo culms increased gradually from the top toward base portion. The distribution of growth strains in the radial direction of giant bamboo culm was investigated by the kerf method with strain gauges. The longitudinal tensile strains in various positions of giant bamboo culm were found to decrease in the order of the middle layer, the outer layer, and the inner layer. The tensile strains of different layers in the radial direction of giant bamboo culm correlate with their lignin content. The highest tensile strain on the middle layer of the bamboo culm was associated with the lowest lignin content. These results provided experimental evidence in the relationship between longitudinal tensile strain and lignin content of bamboo culm.

  19. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  20. An enhanced anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating bamboo industry wastewater by bamboo charcoal addition: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Gao, Xinyi; Wang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR. Regarding the issue of membrane fouling, BC lowered the soluble microbial product (SMP) content by approximately 62.73mg/L and decreased the membrane resistance, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. Analysis of the microbial communities demonstrated that BC increased the microbial diversity and promoted the activity of Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum, and Methanobacterium, which are dominant in methane production.

  1. PREPARATION OF BAMBOO DISSOLVING PULP FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION; PART 1. STUDY ON PREHYDROLYSIS OF GREEN BAMBOO FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prehydrolysis was used as the first treatment of bamboo materials for producing high dissolving pulp for textile applications. In this paper, green bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami was hydrolyzed in water, and the hydrolysis process was optimized. The morphology and super-molecular structures of the raw material and prehydrolyzed material were studied by SEM and XRD, respectively. Based on the optimum conditions, a study of the kinetics and mechanism showed that pentosan dissolution during the hydrolysis process was a first order reaction. When cooking temperature was 150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC, and 180 oC, the corresponding reaction rate constants were 0.00411h-1, 0.00495h-1, 0.00730h-1, and 0.00925h-1, respectively. The activation energy was 44.94 kJ/mol based on the Arrhenius empirical equation. SEM results revealed that after the pre-hydrolysis process, the bamboo structure became loose because of hemicellulose dissolution, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment. Furthermore, the degree of crystallinity was increased from 45.43% to 57.06% during the prehydrolysis. Both the treated and the untreated fibers were assumed to be cellulose I.

  2. Chemicals loading in acetylated bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, Petermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a large tropical forest. However, the deforestation still appears annually and vastly. This reason drives a use of bamboo as wood alternative. Recently, there are many modifications of bamboo in order to prolong the shelf life. Unfortunately, the processes need more chemicals and time. Based on wood modification, esterifying of bamboo was undertaken in present of a dense gas, i.e. supercritical CO2. Calculation of chemicals loading referred to ASTM D1413-99 by using the phase equilibrium data at optimum condition by a statistical design. The results showed that the acetylation of bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 required 14.73 kg acetic anhydride/m3 of bamboo for a treatment of one hour.

  3. Bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)-based thin film, a novel biomass material with high performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Chen; Bao, Wen-Yi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-03-30

    Exploration of biomass based materials to replace conventional petroleum based ones has been a trend in recent decades. In this work, bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) with abundant resources was used for the first time to prepare films in the presence of cellulose. The effects of weight ratio of bamboo/cellulose on the appearances and properties of the films were investigated. It was confirmed there existed strong interactions between bamboo and cellulose, which were favorable to formation of homogeneous structure of blend films. Particularly, the presence of bamboo could improve the surface hydrophobicity, water resistance and thermal stability of blend films, and the films possessed an excellent oxygen barrier property, compared with generally used commercial packaging films. The bamboo biomass, therefore, is successfully used to create a new film material with a good application prospect in the fields of packaging, coating, and food industry.

  4. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  5. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin (Convenia) in white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert H; Bulman, Frank; Baine, Katherine; Cox, Sherry

    2014-06-01

    Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.

  7. Export Market Change of Boiled Bamboo Shoot and Developmental Prospects of Bamboo Shoot Industry in China%我国水煮笋出口市场变化及竹笋产业发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宗胜

    2012-01-01

    研究了2003 ~ 2011年水煮笋出口增长与出口市场结构变化,分析了竹笋产业的发展前景,并提出了开发中小径竹、强化资源培育、扶持竹笋加工业和市场网络建设等建议,以期进一步提高竹笋产业的市场竞争力.%The author studied the export increase and export market structure changes of boiled bamboo shoots in China during 2003 -2011, analyzed the developmental prospects of bamboo shoot industry, and put forward the suggestions of exploiting the medium - diameter and small - diameter bamboo, strengthening the breeding of bamboo resources, supporting the bamboo shoot processing industry, and constructing bamboo shoot, market network, in order to further improve the market competitiveness of bamboo shoot industry.

  8. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  9. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  10. Field tests for mold resistance with BHT and BTA added to bamboo preservatives%不同添加剂对防霉剂野外防霉性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月英; 孙芳利; 鲍滨福

    2013-01-01

    为了提高户外用竹材防霉剂的抗水解、光降解和抗氧化降解能力,采用向防霉剂中添加抗氧剂、紫外线吸收剂等方法,以4年生新伐毛竹Phyllostachys edulis为试材,以防霉剂丙环唑和戊唑醇为试剂,通过24周野外防霉实验,研究抗氧剂和紫外线吸收剂的添加对防霉剂防霉性能的影响.结果表明:抗氧剂二叔丁基对甲酚(BHT)对戊唑醇的防霉效力具有较好的促进作用,以质量分数1.0%戊唑醇为例,其处理材上表面的综合防霉效力为19.14%,加入BHT后提高到34.84%,而同时加入BHT和BTA这2种添加剂可提高到42.75%;然而,BHT对丙环唑防霉效果的影响不明显,紫外线吸收剂苯骈三氮唑(BTA)对戊唑醇防霉效果有减弱作用,对丙环唑则起到明显的促进作用,以质量分数1.0%的丙环唑处理材上表面为例,纯药剂防霉效力为14.43%,加入BTA后提高到37.23%,同时添加BHT和BTA防霉效力增加到54.12%.;同时添加BHT和BTA对所选2种防霉剂均能起到明显的防霉促进作用.%To improve resistance of bamboo preservatives against hydrolysis,light degradation,and oxidation degradation in outdoor applications,an antioxidant,butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),and an ultraviolet absorber,benzotriazole (BTA),were added to the preservatives propiconazole and tebuconazole and applied to four-year-old bamboo samples.Then,the influence on mold resistance was studied through 24 weeks of field tests.Results showed that for a 1.0% concentration of tebuconazole,adding BHT alone increased resistance against mold fungi on the up-face of bamboo from 19.14% to 34.84% ; however,BTA alone reduced mold resistance.Nevertheless,adding both BHT and BTA to tebuconazole increased mold resistance to 42.75%.For a 1.0% propiconazole concentration,mold resistance on the up-face of bamboo with BTA alone increased from 14.4% to 37.23%,but BHT alone had little effect; adding both BHT and BTA to

  11. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  12. Flower Organs Morphology and Structure of Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹花器官的形态与结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立方; 郭起荣; 王青; 冯云; 牟少华

    2012-01-01

    A systematic anatomic study was conducted on morphology and structure of inflorescences, spikelets, florets, stamens, pistils of Phyllostachys edulis from a typical flowering area. This study updated and supplemented comprehensive statistical data of the flower organs, and for the first time found that there are four locules in an anther which is basifixed. The systematic descriptions are as follows: P. edulis is fake inflorescences and spicate inflorescences ( indefinite inflorescence) , average length ot the inflorescences is 8.01 cm, there are 2-7 gradually auxetic scaly bracts; 4-13 spathes, there is one spikelet in each spathe; An inflorescence has about 10 fake spikelets on average, the spikelet is 3.76 cm long on average, and has 1-3 glumes and 1-6 florets, the average length betwen rachises is 0.48 cm. Average length of florets is 2. 6 cm,a floret has 2-3 shells and 3 lodicules, 2-3 stamens whose average length is 4. 34 cm. The anther has four chambers and is basifixed, its average length is 1.26 cm, the average number of pollens in an anther is 15 807, the average diameter of the pollen is 61.00 μm, it is about globular under a scanning electron microscope, the ornamentation cf its outer wall is granulated smally, it has a round germinal aperture which has a circle around, the outer diameter of the germinal aperture is 8.69 μm, the inner 4.52 μm, filaments are 2. 98 cm long on average, they stretch out 1. 59 cm when opening widely. There is a pistil, an ovary with a chamber; a reversal ovule; the average length of styles is 1. 19 cm, the stigma is 1.70 cm long on average, and exposes length of 0.95 cm when it opens widely. The duration from the appearing anther to the pollen falling out of the anther is about 1 -2 h.

  13. Optimization on the Conversion of Bamboo Shoot Shell to Levulinic Acid with Environmentally Benign Acidic Ionic Liquid and Response Surface Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cunshan; YU Xiaojie; MA Haile; HE Ronghai; Saritporn Vittayapadung

    2013-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) has been identified as a promising green,biomass derived platform chemical.Response surface analysis (RSA) with a four-factor-five-level central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the hydrolysis conditions for the conversion of bamboo (Phyllostachys Praecox f.preveynalis) shoot shell (BSS) to LA catalyzed with ionic liquid [C4mim]HSO4.The effects of four main reaction parameters including temperature,time,C[c4mim]HSO4 (initial [C4mim]HSO4 concentration) and XBss (initial BSS intake) on the hydrolysis reaction for yield of LA were analyzed.A quadratic equation model for yield of LA was established and fitted to the data with an R2 of 0.9868,and effects of main factors and their corresponding relationships were obtained with RSA.Model validation and results of CCD showed good correspondence between actual and predicted values.The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results indicated that the yield of LA in the range studied was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the four factors.The optimized reaction conditions were as follows:temperature of 145 ℃,time of 103.8 min,C[c4mim]HSO4 of 0.9 mol.L-1 and XBss of 2.04% (by mass),respectively.A high yield [(71±0.41)% (by mol),triplicate experiment] was obtained at the optimum conditions of temperature of 145 ℃,time of 104 min,C[C4mim]HSO4 of 0.9 mol.L-1 and XBss of 2% (by mass),which obtained from the real experiments,concurred with the model prediction [73.8% (by mol) based on available C6 sugars in BSS or 17.9% (by mass) based on the mass of BSS],indicating that the model was adequate for the hydrolysis process.

  14. Amido a partir de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Em colmos de bambu da espécie tida como Guadua flabellata, determinaram-se os teores de amido e das frações fibrosa, parenquimatosa e solúvel em água. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos colmos processados foram também determinados. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de amido extraído foi 8,53% (base seca, representando cerca de 59% da fração solúvel em água e 32% do total de amido existente no colmo. Os teores médios das frações fibrosa, parenquimatosa e solúvel em água foram, respectivamente, 61,76%, 23,05% e 15,18%, Quanto às dimensões do colmo, a espécie em estudo pode ser considerada de porte mediano, em comparação com as espécies mais difundidas em nossas condições.In bamboo culms of the species reported as Guadua flabellata were determined the contents of starch, fibrous fraction, parenchymatous fractions and water soluble fractions. The height and diameter of the bamboo culms were also determined. The results showed that the average content of extracted starch was 8.53% (over dry material. This content corresponds to about 59% of the fractions and 32% of the total starch present in the bamboo culm. The fibrous fractions and water soluble fractions were, respectively 61.76% and 23.05%. Regarding to culm dimensions, this species can be considered as a middle sized culm.

  15. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures.

  16. Detection of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingrong; Ge, Yinghua; Cheng, Dandan; Nie, Zuoming; Lv, Zhengbing

    2016-09-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26 to 31-nt small non-coding RNAs that have been reported mostly in germ-line cells and cancer cells. However, the presence of piRNAs in the whitespotted bamboo shark liver has not yet been reported. In a previous study of microRNAs in shark liver, some piRNAs were detected from small RNAs sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 4857 piRNAs were predicted and found in shark liver. We further selected 17 piRNAs with high and significantly differential expression between normal and regenerative liver tissues for subsequent verification by Northern blotting. Ten piRNAs were further identified, and six of these were matched to known piRNAs in piRNABank. The actual expression of six known and four novel piRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 401 target genes of the 10 piRNAs were predicted by miRanda. Through GO and pathway function analyses, only five piRNAs could be annotated with eighteen GO annotations. The results indicated that the identified piRNAs are involved in many important biological responses, including immune inflammation, cell-specific differentiation and development, and angiogenesis. This manuscript provides the first identification of piRNAs in the liver of whitespotted bamboo shark using Solexa technology as well as further elucidation of the regulatory role of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver. These findings may provide a useful resource and may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against liver damage.

  17. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  18. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  19. Effects of Ethanol Pulping on the Length of Bamboo Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Liao Junhe; Luo Xuegang

    2006-01-01

    On the conditions of different ethanol concentration, acids and catalyzers, the effects of ethanol pulping on the cellulose length of bamboo were studied. The results indicates that ethanol pulping has remarkable effects on the length of cellulose, which is clearly reduced with adding ethanol and acid. The margin of length of cellulose become smaller with the increase of the catalyzer. When the ethanol concentration was 70%, the concentration of acid was 0.3% and some NaOH was used as catalyzer, the length of cellulose was the longest.

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC, THERMAL, AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CULTIVATED BAMBOO (GIGANTOCHLOA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad ul Haq Bhat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spectroscopic, thermal, and morphological properties of two bamboo species viz. Gigantochloa brang and Gigantochloa wrayi. The nature of cell wall structure and distribution of vascular bundles in G. brang and G. wrayi were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Gigantochloa spp. at various positions and locations showed identical thermal stability and are stable up to 200 °C. The decomposition of cellulose and hemicelluloses component of the culm occurred between 220 °C and 390 °C, while the degradation of lignin takes place above 400 °C.

  1. Assessment of L/D Ratio of Eco Fibre - Bamboo as a Reinforcement Material in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha.s

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fibres are commonly used in concrete to control the cracks, shrinkage and to improve the strength and performance of the concrete. Generally various types of fibres are used like natural and artificial fibres in the concrete mix to produce the expected strength and crack resistance. an attempt is made to innovate a natural, eco friendly fibre which is available to the common man. In this paper, tests are carryout on bamboo fibre reinforced concrete to evaluate aspect ratio (l/d of bamboo fibres. Different ages of bamboo is collected, the extraction of fibres is done by mechanical method. Once the bamboo fibres are extracted the various lengths and diameters are selected and SEM analysis is carried out to find out the microstructure of bamboo fibres to know the failure analysis .these selected bamboo fibres add at the fixed rate of 0.1% to 1.5%(0.5,0.75,1,1.25,1.5 by the cement weight to the concrete mix. Then the samples of cubes, beams and cylinders are casted from the concrete mix and curing will be done for required period. Experimental investigations are carried out using most commonly used tests in laboratory, which includes concrete workability test, compressive test, split tensile test, and test for flexure from the various test results the aspect ratio (l/d ratio and also the effectiveness of bamboo fibres usage in concrete has been evaluated.

  2. Mechanical and thermal properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the potential of sodium silicate modification on moso bamboo particles as reinforcements for thermoplastic. Moso bamboo particles were modified with sodium silicate aqueous solutions (of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% concentrations). The mechanical properties of sodium silicate treated moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites (BPPC) were calculated and compared with raw bamboo particles filled samples. The thermal characteristics of the BPPC were studied to investigate the feasibility of sodium silicate treatment on moso bamboo particles. The particle morphology and BPPC microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the BPPC increased before the concentration of sodium silicate solution reached 5% and got their maximum values of 15.72 MPa and 2956.80 MPa, respectively at 5% concentration. The modulus of rupture obtained the maximum value of 27.73 MPa at 2% concentration. The mechanical curve decreased as the concentration of solution went higher. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis illustrated that the sodium silicate solution treated BPPC possesses a better compatibility. More uniform dispersion of moso bamboo particles in PVC matrix was obtained after the sodium silicate treatment. Hence, the sodium silicate was a feasible and competitive agent of creating moso bamboo particles reinforced PVC composites.

  3. Study on the Mould-Resistant Properties of Moso Bamboo Treated with High Pressure and Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo’s products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for six different treatment durations. The results showed that reducing sugar content was decreased dramatically from 0.92 mg/L to 0.19 mg/L and the starch content decreased from 1.18% to 0.96% when the pressure was increased from 0 psi to 100 psi. Regression analysis showed that the effects of an individual amylase reaction and individual pressure treatment on the starch or reducing sugar content were significant with a high correlation coefficient. Three traditional types of moso bamboo moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, and Trichoderma viride were then used for mould resistance testing. The results revealed that the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo blocks could be greatly improved by the combined effect of enzyme activity and pressure treatment. Mould resistance was enhanced by increasing the pressure or prolonging the treatment time. This research could provide a new method for the protection of bamboo from mould attack.

  4. Fuel properties and combustion kinetics of hydrochar prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Meng; Zhu, Jiayu; Zhou, Jie; Wu, Shengji

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization, an environmental friendly treatment method was employed to pretreat bamboo for hydrochar preparation in the present study. Hydrothermal carbonization could elevate the fuel properties and combustion behavior of bamboo. The combustion kinetic parameters of raw bamboo and hydrochars were calculated by a simple Arrhenius equation based on the thermogravimetric curves. Two distinct zones were observed for raw bamboo and hydrochars. The activation energies of raw bamboo in zone 1 and zone 2 were 109.5kJ/mol and 46.6kJ/mol, respectively, in the heating rate of 20°C/min. The activation energy of hydrochar in zone 1 increased at the hydrothermal carbonization temperature under 220°C and then decreased at higher hydrothermal carbonization temperature, due to the decomposition of relative reactive compounds in bamboo, and destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose structures, respectively. The activation energies of hydrochars in zone 2 were among 52.3-57.5kJ/mol, lower than that of lignin extracted from bamboo.

  5. [Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D bamboo charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate.

  6. BENZYLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLD NAOH/UREA PRE-SWELLED BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Li,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo was pre-swelled with a cold aqueous solution of NaOH and urea, and then reacted directly with benzyl chloride to synthesize benzylated bamboo. The effects of the molar ratio of benzyl chloride to OH groups in the bamboo (1 to 4, the reaction temperature (70 to 110 °C, and the reaction time (2 to 8 h on both the product yield and the degree of substitution (DS were evaluated. Yields between 67.6 and 94.0% and DS between 0.31 and 0.74 of the benzylated bamboo were obtained under such conditions. The incorporation of benzyl groups was evidenced by FT-IR and CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the crystalline structure of the native ball-milled bamboo was markedly damaged after modification. In addition, the benzylated bamboo was subjected to thermal degradation at a high temperature with an increase in substitution. It was suggested that the benzylated bamboo with a low crystallinity as well as large non-polar groups is promising as a filler for use in the composite material industry.

  7. Fuel properties and combustion characteristics of some promising bamboo species in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh Kumar; N.Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fuel characteristics of five important bamboo species viz., Dendrocalamus strictus, D. brandisii, D. stocksii, Bambusa bambos and B. balcooa. The selected species cover more than 85%of the total growing stock of bamboo in India. Basic density varied from 0.48 to 0.78 g⋅cm-3 among the bamboo species studied. Ash content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content ranged between 1.4%-3.0%, 77.2%-80.8%and 17.6%-21.1%, respectively. Variation in calorific value (18.7-19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) was marginal. Fuel value index var-ied widely (586-2120) among bamboo species. The highest calorific value (19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) and fuel value index (2120) were found in B. bal-cooa. Ash elemental analysis revealed that silica and potassium are the major ash forming minerals in bamboo biomass. Silica content ranged from 8.7%to 49.0%, while potassium ranged from 20.6%to 69.8%. We studied combustion characteristics under oxidizing atmosphere. Burning profiles of the samples were derived by applying the derivative thermo-gravimetric technique which is discussed in detail. The five bamboo species were different in their combustion behaviour, mainly due to differences in physical and chemical properties. We compare fuel prop-erties, ash elemental analysis and combustion characteristics of bamboo biomass with wood biomass of Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus tereticor-nis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

  8. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  9. PARIWISATA KREATIF DAN KEGIATAN EKSTRAKURIKULER BERBASIS BAMBU DALAM PENGEMBANGAN MODEL BISNIS CV SURATIN BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ayu Tenara Kardinia Cidhy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a prototype of a future business model which would be adopted to achieve balance between the aspects of new business opportunities and competitive advantages of CV Suratin Bamboo. The analytical method utilized in the study was the business model canvas approach (BMC supported by the blue ocean strategy and SWOT.  The results revealed that through this business model development, bamboo workshop is expected to provide information regarding bamboo derived products, raise awareness of preserving the indigenous bamboo culture, increase sense of belonging to domestic products, as well as become the primary support of innovation and ideas in constructing Indonesia as a nation. Meanwhile, for businesses actors, besides increasing revenue, conducting bamboo workshops is expected to increase the company growths for the long term. The opportunity to maneuver in the development of bamboo-based business model demonstrates that bamboo business with high quality products has both tangible and intangible potentials to be developed further.Keywords: bamboo, blue ocean strategy, business model canvas, creative tourism, extracurricularABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang prototype model bisnis masa depan yang akan digunakan untuk menemukan keseimbangan antara aspek peluang bisnis yang baru dan aspek keuntungan kompetitif CV Suratin Bamboo. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah dengan pendekatan kanvas model bisnis (BMC dilengkapi dengan blue ocean strategy serta SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan melalui pengembangan model bisnis ini, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu memberikan informasi tentang produk turunan bambu, meningkatkan kesadaran melestarikan kearifan lokal budaya bambu, meningkatkan rasa cinta produk dalam negeri, serta menjadi pendorong lahirnya inovasi dan gagasan yang membangun bangsa Indonesia. Sementara bagi pelaku usaha, selain peningkatan revenue, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu meningkatkan

  10. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  11. Research on Breeding Traits of Turf Bamboo by ~(137)Cs γ-radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of breeding new and fine varieties of turf bamboo, 5 turf bamboo species (Sasa pygmaea, Indocalamus decorus, I. latifolius, Shibataea chinensis, and S. fortune) were radiated through 137Cs γ-ray in tissue cultures at different radiation dose. It was shown that: 1) Four species of turf bamboo were sensitive to radiation, low dose radiation had no effect on bud germination, high dose radiation delayed bud germination; 2) Radiation at 5 and 10 Gy had not impact on shoot emergence, but radiation...

  12. Guadua chacoensis in Bolivia : - an investigation of mechanical properties of a bamboo species

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Maria; Palm, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis has been performed at CTD- the Centre for Wood Technology and Design at the University of Linköping and has been carried out in Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia. The objective of this thesis is to study the mechanical properties and uses of Guadua chacoensis, a bamboo native to Bolivia. Throughout history, bamboo has been used in many countries for a variety of purposes. In Asia bamboo is an important raw-material for buildings and furniture. It is also used for making pa...

  13. Super strong nanoindentors for biomedical applications based on bamboo-like nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Kolesnikova, A. S.; Kossovich, E. L.; Zhnichkov, R. Y.

    2012-03-01

    The results of quantum-chemical analysis of elastic and strength properties of the bamboo-like tube are presented in this paper. For the first time the configuration of the thinnest stable bamboo-like tube was established. The bamboo-like nanotube breaking point is established to be under compression of 11GPa. Configuration of the nanoindentor based on symmetric and streamlined tip of the tube (15,15), presented in this work, provides perfect interaction between the nanoindentor tip and the tissue because tip has no sharp protruding pieces.

  14. Evaluation of statistical strength of bamboo fiber and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced green composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 吴义强

    2008-01-01

    Green composites made from bamboo fibers and biodegradable resins were fabricated with press molding.On the basis of the Weibull distribution and the weakest-link theory,the statistical strength and distribution of bamboo fiber were analyzed,and the tensile strength of green composites was also investigated.The result confirms that the tensile statistical strength of fiber fits well with two-parameter Weibull distribution.In addition,the tensile strength of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is about 330 MPa with the fiber volume fraction of 70%.This value is close to or higher than that of other natural fiber reinforced green composites.

  15. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  16. Fractionation of bamboo hemicelluloses by graded saturated ammonium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Xian-Ming; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-09-20

    The hemicelluloses were isolated with 10% KOH at 25°C from dewaxed and delignified bamboo powder. The alkali-soluble hemicelluloses from Sinocalamus affinis were fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The bamboo alkali-soluble hemicelluloses yielded seven hemicellulosic fractions obtained at 0, 5, 15, 25, 40, 55, and 70% saturation with ammonium sulphate. It was found that the more branched hemicelluloses were precipitated at higher ammonium sulphate concentrations (55 and 70%), the more linear hemicelluloses were precipitated at lower ammonium sulphate concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25, and 40%). The molecular weights of hemicellulosic fractions become lower from 35,270 (H0) to 18,680 (H70)gmol(-1) with the increasing concentrations of saturated ammonium sulphate from 0 to 70%. Based on the FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and 2D HSQC NMR studies, the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were 4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylans composed of the (1→4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl backbone with branches at O-3 of α-L-arabinofuranosyl or at O-2 of 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid.

  17. REFINING BEHAVIOUR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBRE FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NishiK.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres, there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefmer under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp. Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  18. Effects of surface performance on bamboo by microwave plasma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanben DU; Zhaobin SUN; Linrong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Surface treatment of bamboo was carried out by microwave plasma (MWP), surface contact angle of the sample was measured using glycerin and urea-form-aldehyde resin (UFR) liquid, and the effects on the surface performance of the bamboo sample was evaluated. The results show that the surface contact angle of the sample presented a generally decreasing trend when prolonging the MWP treatment time and shortening the distance between the sample and the resonance cavity. The surface contact angle of the sample decreased by 49%-59% under the following conditions: MWP treatment for 30 s, the distance between the sample and resonance cavity at 40 mm, and measurement at 15 s after dripping with gly-cerin. The surface contact angle of the sample measured with the glycerin was lower than that with UFR. No mat-ter whether we used glycerin or UFR, the contact angle of the sample at 15 s after dripping was lower than that at 5 s after dripping. The grinding treatment had little effect on the surface contact angle of the sample after MWP treat-ment, and the modification effect of MWP treatment after grinding was better than that of sole MWP treatment.

  19. REFINING BEHAVIOR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBER FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres,there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefiner under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp.Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  20. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat Nguyen, Huu; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Bich Nguyen, Ngoc; Duy Dang, Thanh; Loan Phung Le, My; Dang, Tan Tai; Tran, Van Man

    2013-03-01

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A & J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase.

  1. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  2. The original bamboo (bamboo) building structure node applied research%原竹(毛竹)建筑构造节点的应用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高传; 徐建三

    2015-01-01

    以原竹(毛竹)作为建筑建造的基础材料为切入点,从原竹本身性能和实际施工工艺实践中提炼出一些通性和一般规律,试图探寻原竹竹材作为一种新的基础建筑材料来代替传统建筑材料(钢筋混凝土),从而为新形式下,原竹建筑的推广普及与发展提供借鉴经验。%based on the original bamboo (bamboo) as the basis of building materials as the breakthrough point, from the original bamboo itself performance and the actual construction process in the practice of extracting some connectivity and the general rules, trying to explore bamboo as a foundation for a new building materials to replace traditional building materials (reinforced concrete), to the new form, the popularity of bamboo building development to provide reference experience.

  3. Synthesis of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes by ethanol catalytic combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin; ZOU Xiao-ping; LI Fei; ZHANG Hong-dan; REN Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Bamboo-like carbon nanotubes were synthesized by ethanol catalytic combustion (ECC) technique with combustion method. Copper plate was employed as substrate,ethanol as carbon source,and iron chloride as catalyst precursor. The as-grown black powder was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the thinner bamboo-like carbon nanotubes have a relatively good structure that the compartment layers are more regular,while the thicker carbon nanotubes have a relatively irregular bamboo-like structure:the proposed method is simple to synthesize bamboo-like carbon nanotubes and has some advantages,such as flexible synthesis conditions,simple setup,and environment-friendly.

  4. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  5. Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on Bamboo for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the steam explosion pretreatment that has been applied to other types of lignocellulosic biomass, the steam explosion pretreatment of bamboo, along with a study of the chemical compositions and enzymatic hydrolyzability of substrates, was conducted. The results show that steam explosion pretreatment can greatly enhance the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield after enzymatic hydrolysis, which is sometimes affected by bamboo age and steam explosion conditions. When the steam explosion pretreatment conditions were 2.0 MPa (pressure and 4 min (time, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield of 2-year-old bamboo substrate was 62.5%. However, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield of bamboo substrates after direct (without steam explosion pretreatment sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification was 93.1%. Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in about 88.1% to 96.2% of the corresponding theoretical ethanol yield after 24 h.

  6. Self-adaptive formation of uneven node spacings in wild bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroyuki; Sato, Motohiro; Inoue, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Bamboo has a distinctive structure wherein a long cavity inside a cylindrical woody section is divided into many chambers by stiff diaphragms. The diaphragms are inserted at nodes and thought to serve as ring stiffeners for bamboo culms against the external load; if this is the case, the separation between adjacent nodes should be configured optimally in order to enhance the mechanical stability of the culms. Here, we reveal the hitherto unknown blueprint of the optimal node spacings used in the growth of wild bamboo. Measurement data analysis together with theoretical formulations suggest that wild bamboos effectively control their node spacings as well as other geometric parameters in accord with the lightweight and high-strength design concept.

  7. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure.

  8. Acoustic monitoring using bamboo set net in the Southern Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Kyounghoon; La, Hyoung Sul; Yang, Yongsu; Kim, Pyungkwan

    2017-01-01

    High-temporal resolution profiles of acoustic backscatter were collected from a traditional bamboo set net along the coast of the Southern Sea, Korea, using sideward-looking multi-beam imaging sonar. These data were used to examine the impact of variations in tidal cycles and current speeds on the bamboo set net. The relatively high influx of fish during the nighttime compared to the low influx and high outflux of fish during the daytime suggests visual avoidance of the net by the fish during the daytime. The observed diel variation in the captured fish flux was significantly correlated with the current speed (day: r = 0.35, p = 0.002, night: r = 0.60, p bamboo set nets appears to be greatly influenced by day-night differences and current speed. The present study enhances understanding of fish behavior via utilization of a bamboo set net in the coastal zone.

  9. Investigating pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of torrefied bamboo, torrefied wood and their blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia; Hu, Wanhe; Wei, Penglian; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua

    2016-06-01

    Bamboo and masson pine was torrefied with 300°C of temperature for 2.0h of residence time using GSL 1600X tube furnace in the argon atmosphere. Torrefied bamboo and masson pine particles were uniform mixed with different weight ratios. Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated through thermogravimetry (TGA). The results showed that pyrolysis and combustion process of all samples included three steps even though their characteristics were different. Torrefied biomass had a higher pyrolysis and combustion temperature, due to moisture and volatile removal and thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin during torrefaction process. Torrefaction also increased high heating value, ash content and C/H and C/O ratio of biomass. The synergy of torrefied bamboo and torrefied mason pine was not found during pyrolysis and combustion process of blends. The results from this research will be very important and helpful to develop and utilize the wastes of masson pine and bamboo for energy products.

  10. Influence of different formulations on chlorpyrifos behavior and risk assessment in bamboo forest of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Mo, Runhong; Tang, Fubin; Fu, Yan; Guo, Yirong

    2015-12-01

    The effects of two formulations (emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and granule (G)) on the distribution, degradation, sorption, and residue risk of chlorpyrifos (CHP) were investigated in two producing areas of bamboo shoot. The results showed that CHP was mainly distributed in the topsoil (0-5 cm, P bamboo shoots were in the range of 15.2-75.6 (G) and 10.4-35.7 μg/kg (EC), respectively. The soil type had a notable effect on the CHP behaviors in soil (P bamboo shoot samples (CHP residue exceeding maximum residue limits) were found, the hazard quotients did not exceed 7 %, which meant there was a negligible risk associated with the exposure to CHP via the consumption of bamboo shoots.

  11. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose from Green Bamboo by Chemical Treatment with Mechanical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fui Kiew Liew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo cellulose was prepared by chemical process involving dewaxing, delignification, and mercerization process. Four samples namely, green bamboo fiber (GBF, dewaxed bamboo fiber (DBF, delignified bamboo fiber (DLBF, and cellulose fiber (CF had been analysed. FTIR and TGA analysis confirmed the removal of hemicellulose and lignin at the end stage of the process. FTIR results reveal that the D-cellulose OH group occurred at 1639 cm−1 region. SEM micrograph showed that mercerization leads to fibrillation and breakage of the fiber into smaller pieces which promote the effective surface area available for contact. Barrer, Joiyner, and Halenda (BJH method confirmed that the effective surface area of CF is two times larger compared to GBF. CF showed the highest activation energy compared to GBF. It indicates that CF was thermally stable.

  13. Effect of hydrothermal treatment with different aqueous solutions on the mold resistance of moso bamboo with chemical and FTIR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Cheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has received increased attention as a biomass material because it is fast growing and has good mechanical properties. But bamboo is very vulnerable to mold fungi, which greatly limits its applications. In this paper, bamboo was firstly hydrothermally treated at 140 °C by three different treatments: with water only, NaOH, and NaAc aqueous solution, then heat treated at relatively mild conditions (180 °C. Subsequently, the mold resistance of bamboo before and after the two-step heat treatment was investigated. The mechanism of mold resistance was analyzed by a bamboo chemical component analysis, FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that strong degradation of hemicelluloses by heat treatment could inhibit mold growth to some extent. Moreover, the modification of lignin and the creation of phenolic compounds in the bamboo could prevent or slow down fungal growth.

  14. Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on Bamboo for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Li; Benhua Fei; Zehui Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the steam explosion pretreatment that has been applied to other types of lignocellulosic biomass, the steam explosion pretreatment of bamboo, along with a study of the chemical compositions and enzymatic hydrolyzability of substrates, was conducted. The results show that steam explosion pretreatment can greatly enhance the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield after enzymatic hydrolysis, which is sometimes affected by bamboo age and steam explosion conditions. When the steam explosio...

  15. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world.

  16. Effect of processing methods on the mechanical properties of engineered bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhavna; Gat?o, Ana; Ramage, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061815001956. Engineered bamboo is increasingly explored as a material with significant potential for structural applications. The material is comprised of raw bamboo processed into a laminated composite. Commercial methods vary due to the current primary use as an architectural surface material, with processing used to achieve different colours in the material. The present work ...

  17. Effects of Anatomical Characteristics of Ethiopian Lowland Bamboo on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYOUM; Kelemwork

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anatomical characteristics of Ethiopian lowland bamboo on selected physical and mechanical properties. A total of 45 solid culms from three different age groups (2-, 3- and 4- year-old) were harvested from natural bamboo forest in Ethiopia and then samples were transported to China for carrying out anatomical characteristics test. Physical and mechanical properties testing were conducted in Ethiopia. The result indicates that age and height had signi...

  18. Promotion of Sustainable Buildings in China- Integration of Bamboo and Renewable Energy Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    WWF China and the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INB AR) jointly launched the project "Promotion of Energy Efficient Buildings: Integration of Bamboo and Renewable Energy Technologies" together with the Urban & Rural Planning & Design Institute of Yunnan and BEAR Architecten Gouda (Holland) in March 2002. The objective of the project is to design model houses, hotels and school buildings for rural people in Yuanan Province to provide 'comfortable' living conditions with a minimum and meani...

  19. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin.

  20. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively.

  1. Correlations between axial stiffness and microstructure of a species of bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Sayyad; Paul Knox, J; Basu, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo is a ubiquitous monocotyledonous flowering plant and is a member of the true grass family Poaceae. In many parts of the world, it is widely used as a structural material especially in scaffolding and buildings. In spite of its wide use, there is no accepted methodology for standardizing a species of bamboo for a particular structural purpose. The task of developing structure-property correlations is complicated by the fact that bamboo is a hierarchical material whose structure at the nanoscopic level is not very well explored. However, we show that as far as stiffness is concerned, it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of important structural properties like the axial modulus from the knowledge of certain key elements of the microstructure. Stiffness of bamboo depends most sensitively on the size and arrangement of the fibre sheaths surrounding the vascular bundles and the arrangement of crystalline cellulose microfibrils in their secondary cell walls. For the species of bamboo studied in this work, we have quantitatively determined the radial gradation that the arrangement of fibres renders to the structure. The arrangement of the fibres gives bamboo a radially graded property variation across its cross section.

  2. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Green Bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro Keng f. for Dissolving Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the sustained growth of dissolving pulp demand all over the world, the search for alternative bamboo materials has come into focus in China due to the shortage of wood and the abundance of bamboo resources. In this study, to obtain updated information concerning green bamboo growing in southeastern China and to develop its processing technologies for dissolving pulp, the fiber morphology, chemical composition, elemental composition, degree of polymerization (DP of cellulose, and crystallinity index (CrI of cellulose were investigated. The experimental results show that green bamboo has potential for use as dissolving pulp because it has a lower Runkel ratio and fines content than moso bamboo, and a much lower lignin content and similar α-cellulose and hemicellulose contents compared to softwoods and hardwoods. Compared to the cortex and culm, the node had the shortest fibers and more than 30% of fines, the highest content of extractives and lignin, and the lowest α-cellulose content. As a result, a de-knotting operation prior to cooking can contribute to the production of high-grade dissolving pulp. The DP and CrI of cellulose from the node were much lower than that of cellulose from the culm and cortex. Moreover, green bamboo had the high content of ash, primarily distributed in the cortex. The concentration of Si was 4487 ppm in the cortex, nearly five times higher than that in the culm and node.

  3. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PANELS MANUFACTURED WITH BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.-WOOD COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of derived products from bamboo for some countries and the wood shortage in some areas of Brazil, this work analyzed the quality of boards composed by particles of Eucalyptus sp. and bamboo strips (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.. The panels were produced with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ and 10% of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The influence of the epidermis on the properties of the panels was also evaluated. The panels were constituted by five layers: core (Eucalyptus sp. or bamboo particles, layers of reinforcement (bamboo strips and finish faces (particles of same nature as the core. The press time was 8 minutes, at 120ºC. None of the treatments satisfied the quality patterns established by A208.1 (ANSI, 1987 and DIN 68761 (1-1961, (3-1971 (GERMAN STANDARDS COMMITTEE, 1971 codes. However, particleboards produced exclusively by bamboo or combined with wood presented a similar behavior to those produced exclusively of wood, showing to be a viable alternative. The modulus of rupture (MOR and elasticity (MOE were approximately the same in all treatments due to the irregular distribution of the layers in the mattress. The absence of epidermis tended to reduce the thickness swelling (2 and 24 hours and internal bond strength, however, without significant statistical difference. Therefore, other parameters of production of boards using bamboo, such as density and adhesive content, should be investigated in order to check whether the removal of epidermis is a really advantageous procedure.

  4. 竹提取物对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens幼虫的活性评价%EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操海群; 岳永德; 彭镇华; 花日茂; 汤锋

    2004-01-01

    报道了竹提取物对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens幼虫的毒杀作用.研究结果表明,巨县苦竹(Pleioblastusjuxianensis)、白纹短穗竹(Brachystachyum albostriatum)、灰水竹(Phyllostachysplatyglossa)和苦竹(Pleioblastus amarus)提取物对淡色库蚊幼虫的24h致死中浓度(LC50)分别为30.65 mg/L、53.94 mg/L、41.21 mg/L、54.49 mg/L.巨县苦竹索氏抽提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用明显强于间歇振荡提取物,前者对淡色库蚊幼虫的LC50为30.65 mg/L,95%置信限27.12~34.63 mg/L;后者的LC50为48.34 mg/L,95%置信限为40.37~59.62 mg/L.巨县苦竹乙醚浸提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用效果显著,125mg/L浓度时12h校正死亡率为56.67%,24h后达92.90%;石油醚浸提物及甲醇浸提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用则不明显,24h校正死亡率均不超过40%.研究结果将有助于综合利用竹类资源,开发新型环境友好农药.%The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65 mg/L,53.94 mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of

  5. 热处理对竹基纤维复合材料性能的影响%Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Properties of Bamboo-Based Fiber Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚梅; 于文吉

    2013-01-01

    The Phyllostachys edulis bamboo fibrous veneers were heat-treated at high temperatures,and then made for BFC (bamboo-based fiber composites).The chemical properties of bamboo fibrous veneers were measured,and surface color,dimensional stability,mechanical properties of BFC were studied.The results pointed-out that chemical degradation occurred,the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose decreased significantly,mainly in relation to hemicelluloses contents,pH value decreased after thermal treatment,whereas,alkali buffering capacity increased compared with control samples and acid buffering capacity decreased.Thermal treatment can significantly change the surface color of BFC,and the board surface was darkened.The dimensional stability of BFC was significantly improved by reducing thickness swelling and wideness swelling.The mechanical properties were affected with the reduction in MOR (modulus of rupture)and HS (horizontal shear strength) which decreased with increased steam pressure and treatment duration,but MOE (modulus of elasticity) was affected slightly.%毛竹竹材的纤维化单板经高温处理后,热压制备成竹基纤维复合材料(BFC).分析热处理对纤维化竹单板化学性能的影响及热处理对BFC表面颜色、尺寸稳定性、力学性能的影响.结果表明:纤维化竹单板经热处理后,其综纤维素和d-纤维素的含量相对于未处理材显著降低,其中半纤维素含量降幅最大;热处理后竹材的pH值相对于未处理材显著降低,碱缓冲容量显著增大,而酸缓冲容量降低.由纤维化竹单板经热处理后制备的BFC,表面颜色变深,吸水厚度膨胀率和吸水宽度膨胀率相对于未处理材显著降低,尺寸稳定性得到改善;材料的静曲强度和水平剪切强度相对于未处理材显著降低,且随着蒸汽压力的增大和热处理时间的增长呈逐渐降低的趋势,而弹性模量变化不显著.

  6. Antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional Korean baked solar salt processed by packing the solar salt in bamboo joint cases and heating it several times to high temperatures. The antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells were investigated and compared to those of other salt samples. Although solar salt and purified salt exhibited comutagenicity with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, bamboo salt was associated with a lower degree of comutagenicity or antimutagenic activity. Bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) showed a greater increase in antimutagenic activity than salts baked once (1×) or three times (3×). At a concentration of 1%, the growth rate of HepG2 cells treated with 9× bamboo salt determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MIT) assay was reduced by 65%; this rate of inhibition was higher than that achieved with 1× baked bamboo salt (40%). Purified and solar salts had relatively lower inhibitory effects on growth rate (25% and 29%, respectively). Compared to the other salt samples, 9× bamboo salt significantly (pbamboo salts, especially 9× bamboo salt, also significantly (p<0.05) downregulated the expression of inflammation-related NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulated the gene expression of IκB-α compared to the other salt sample.

  7. Histoplasmosis associated with a bamboo bonfire--Arkansas, October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk T; Safi, Haytham; Holcomb, David; Smith, Nathaniel; Wagner, Kendall D; Bolden, Branson B; Harik, Nada S

    2014-02-28

    On October 27, 2011, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) was notified by a northeast Arkansas primary care provider of a cluster of three histoplasmosis cases. On November 4, ADH was notified by a pediatric infectious diseases specialist regarding seven potential cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis associated with a family gathering that included a bonfire that burned bamboo from a grove that had been a red-winged blackbird roost. These reports prompted an outbreak investigation to ensure that the persons involved received appropriate medical care, to identify whether any novel exposures were associated with illness, and to determine whether any factors were associated with hospitalization. The investigation found that, among the 19 attendees at the family gathering, seven were confirmed with histoplasmosis, 11 were probable, and one did not have histoplasmosis.

  8. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from bamboo leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-ni; TIAN Cheng-rui; ZHAO Li-li

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction (UE) was employed for the extraction of bamboo leaf polysaccharides (BLP).The influential parameters of UE procedure including extraction time,ultrasonic power and solid/liquid ratio were optimized by orthogonal experiments.DEAE-cellulose column chromatography was applied to purify BLP and then the radical scavenging activity of BLP was also evaluated.Optimal extraction conditions were:extraction time of 15 min,ultrasonic power of 300 W,and solid/liquid ratio of 1:15.Four kinds of polysaccharides were obtained by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography; the maximum superoxide radical scavenging rate (20.4%) of BLP was inferior to that of vitamin C (Vc,the control) and the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (50%) was equivalent to that of Vc.

  9. Formability Analysis of Bamboo Fabric Reinforced Poly (Lactic Acid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fazita M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly (lactic acid (PLA composites have made their way into various applications that may require thermoforming to produce 3D shapes. Wrinkles are common in many forming processes and identification of the forming parameters to prevent them in the useful part of the mechanical component is a key consideration. Better prediction of such defects helps to significantly reduce the time required for a tooling design process. The purpose of the experiment discussed here is to investigate the effects of different test parameters on the occurrence of deformations during sheet forming of double curvature shapes with bamboo fabric reinforced-PLA composites. The results demonstrated that the domes formed using hot tooling conditions were better in quality than those formed using cold tooling conditions. Wrinkles were more profound in the warp direction of the composite domes compared to the weft direction. Grid Strain Analysis (GSA identifies the regions of severe deformation and provides useful information regarding the optimisation of processing parameters.

  10. Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW, respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms.

  11. 绿肥对集约经营毛竹林土壤微生物特性的影响%Effeets of green manure on soil mierobial properties of Phyllostachys pubescens stands under intensive management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋芳; 姜培坤; 王奇赞; 陆贻通

    2009-01-01

    Intensive management of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) stands is commonly practiced to yield high profits. Long-term intensive management may have adverse effects on soil quality, especially soil biological properties. To evaluate the potential of using green manure to improve soil microbial properties of P. Pubescens stands, a pot trial was conducted over a period of seven weeks. The treatments included the control (no vegetation), white clover, green gram, rye grass, the mixture of green gram and rye grass, and elousine coracana. Concentrations of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in all green manure treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than in the control. There was no significant difference in soil MBC concentrations between the green manure treatments except green gram treatment, which was significantly great (P<0.05). The ability of carbon utilization of soil microbial communities measured by Biolog Eco-microplate characterized as average well color development (AWCD) was improved by green manure treatments. The AWCD measurements of white clover, and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of other 3 manure treatments. Shannon index of the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatment was significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of the other treatments. McIntosh indexes of the white clover, and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of the other treatments. Among the AWCD, Shannon index and Mclntosh index, Mcintosh index was found to be the best indicator of the soil microbial functional diversity in the current study. White clover and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were the most efficient in improving soil microbial properties. We recommend planting white clover under P. Pubescens stands to improve soil microbial properties because of its superior shade tolerance.%毛竹集约经营是目前普遍采用的

  12. The growth investigation of different types of bamboo natural mixed forest%不同类型毛竹天然混交林生长调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林世友; 杨敬; 林斌; 曹流清; 粟林丽

    2016-01-01

    There are 58 block of bamboo forest by different setting standards of natural mixed forest were test for growth investigation.The results showed that there mixed types of 80% bamboo +10% Chinese fir +10% broad-leaved,70%bamboo +30% Chinese fir and broad-leaved,60% bamboo +30% Chinese fir +10% broad-leaved and pinus has a best forest stand structure,the growth index of number of bamboo shoots,number of new bamboo,shoots back production, quality of new bamboo per hectare and income of new bamboo and shoots back hectare are more obvious higher than pure bamboo forest in different level,and number of bamboo shoots,number of bamboo of single mother bamboo tree also higher than pure bamboo forest.The mixed types of 80% bamboo +10% pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved;70% bamboo +20% pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved has a better forest stand structure,the growth index of number of bamboo shoots,number of new bamboo,quality of new bamboo per hectare and income of new bamboo and shoots back hectare are higher than pure bamboo forest,but the number of bamboo shoots,number of bamboo and shoots back production of single mother bamboo tree are lower than pure bamboo forest.The mixed types of 60% bamboo +30%pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved;50% bamboo +40% pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved,40%bamboo +40% pinus +10% Chinese fir +10% broard-leaved,30% bamboo +50% pinus +20% Chinese fir and broard-leaved,has a bad forest stand structure,the growth index of number of bamboo shoots,number of new bamboo, and income of new bamboo and shoots back per hectare are obvious lower than pure bamboo forest.%在不同类型毛竹天然混交林内设置58块标准地进行生长调查。结果表明:8竹1杉1阔、7竹3杉+阔、6竹3杉1阔+松混交林,林分结构组成较合理,每公顷出笋数、新成竹数、退笋产量、新竹质量、新竹、退笋经济收入均不同程度大于纯竹林,每株母竹出笋、成竹数等各项

  13. Changes in the soil bacterial communities in a cedar plantation invaded by moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Tang, Sen-Lin; Pai, Chuang-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2014-02-01

    Moso bamboo is fast-growing and negatively allelopathic to neighboring plants. However, there is little information on the effects of its establishment and expansion to adjacent forest soil communities. To better understand the impacts of bamboo invasion on soil communities, the phylogenetic structure and diversity of the soil bacterial communities in moso bamboo forest, adjacent Japanese cedar plantation, and bamboo-invaded transition zone were examined using a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and bar-coded pyrosequencing techniques. Based on the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Shannon diversity index, Chao1 estimator, and rarefaction analysis of both techniques, the bamboo soil bacterial community was the most diverse, followed by the transition zone, with the cedar plantation possessing the lowest diversity. The results from both techniques revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria predominated in the three communities, though the relative abundance was different. The 250 most abundant OTUs represented about 70% of the total sequences found by pyrosequencing. Most of these OTUs were found in all three soil communities, demonstrating the overall similarity among the bacterial communities. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed further that the bamboo and transition soil communities were more similar with each other than the cedar soils. These results suggest that bamboo invasion to the adjacent cedar plantation gradually increased the bacterial diversity and changed the soil community. In addition, while the 10 most abundant OTUs were distributed worldwide, related sequences were not abundant in soils from outside the forest studied here. This result may be an indication of the uniqueness of this region.

  14. Diversity and biogeography of neotropical bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae Diversidade e biogeografia de bambus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn G Clark

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the distribution of bamboos in New World. For convenience, bamboos are divided into two broad groups, the woody bamboos and the herbaceous bamboos. These categories do not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relationships among bamboo groups. The Bambuseae includes all of the woody bamboos and is probably monophyletic, whereas the herbaceous bamboos are classified into eight tribes. In the New World (including underscribed taxa, 45-46 genera and approximately 515 species are represented; only two genera: Arundinaria and Streptogyna are not exclusively neotropical. The area of greatest endemism and diversity is the humid coastal forests of Bahia, Brazil. 22 genera have been found in this relatively small area, representing 48% of all New World genera. Five of the 22 genera are endemic to the Bahia coastal forests.O presente trabalho analisa a distribuição geográfica dos bambus do Novo Mundo. Por questões práticas, os bambus foram divididos em dois grupos: os bambus lenhosos e os herbáceos, essas categorias entretanto, nem sempre refletem relacionamentos filogenéticos, pois embora as Bambuseae incluam todos os bambus lenhosos, sendo portanto provavelmetne monofiléticos, os bambus herbáceos são classificados em oito tribos. No Novo Mundo, (incluindo os taxa ainda não descritos existem cerca de 45-46 gêneros e aproximadamente 515 espécies. Desses gêneros, apenas dois: Arundinaria e Streptogyna não são exclusivamente neotropicais. A área de maior endemismo e diversidade do grupo, está nas florestas costeiras da Bahia, Brasil. Nesta região são encontrados 22 gêneros, representando 48% de todos os gêneros neotropicais e desses, 5 são exclusivos desta região da Bahia.

  15. Characterisation of siRNAs derived from new isolates of bamboo mosaic virus and their associated satellites in infected ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenwu; Yan, Wenkai; Yang, Wenting; Yu, Chaowei; Chen, Huihuang; Zhang, Wen; Wu, Zujian; Yang, Liang; Xie, Lianhui

    2017-02-01

    We characterised the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) of bamboo mosaic virus (Ba-vsiRNAs) and its associated satellite RNA (satRNA)-derived siRNAs (satsiRNAs) in a bamboo plant (Dendrocalamus latiflorus) by deep sequencing. Ba-vsiRNAs and satsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length, with both (+) and (-) polarity, predominated. The 5'-terminal base of Ba-vsiRNA was biased towards A, whereas a bias towards C/U was observed in sense satsiRNAs, and towards A in antisense satsiRNAs. A large set of bamboo genes were identified as potential targets of Ba-vsiRNAs and satsiRNAs, revealing RNA silencing-based virus-host interactions in plants. Moreover, we isolated and characterised new isolates of bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV; 6,350 nt) and BaMV-associated satRNA (satBaMV; 834 nt), designated BaMV-MAZSL1 and satBaMV-MAZSL1, respectively.

  16. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  17. Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: zafuqfsun@163.com [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.

  18. Obtenção de amido a partir do colmo de bambu Starch from bamboo culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo chips (Guadua flabellata Fournier was desintegrated in presence of cold water (25°C. The starch was isolated by decantation from the material soluble in water. Regarding color, the bamboo starch is similar to the soluble potato starch but its average dimension is smaller.

  19. 林地覆盖经营雷竹林叶片养分特征及其与土壤养分的关系%Correlations between soil nutrient contents and nutrient characteristics of Phyllostachys violascens leaves under mulching management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊; 陈双林; 郭子武; 樊艳荣

    2014-01-01

    Phyllostachys violascens is a favorite bamboo shoot species that has been widely planted in southern China. High rate of fertilization and heavy winter mulch have been a common practice to gain a good yield and better eco-nomic benefit.However,the longterm use of the above techniques can also result in a series of negative environmental and ecological consequences,such as degradation of soil physical and biological properties,increases in soil heavy metal concentrations,premature degradation of bamboo forest ecosystems.In order to reveal the degradation mechanism of mulched stand of P .violascens forest,and provide theoretical guidence for regeneration of degraded bamboo forest, leaf nutrient concentration,nutrient stoichiometry,and nutrient resorption efficiency of 2-year culms from short-term mulching (1 a),respite-mulching (mulched 3 a and rest 3 a),long-term mulching (6 a)and non mulching stand(CK)were analyzed,as well as their relationships with soil nutrient characteristics were analyzed.The results showed that short-term and the respite-mulching treatment increased mature leavf N,P,K concentrations and leaf nutrient resorp-tion effiency compared with CK.Leaf P concentration,N,P resorption efficiency were influenced by long-term mulc-hing,which increased mature leavf P concentration and leaf N resorption efficiency,and decreased leaf K resorption ef-ficiency.Compared with CK,the short-term mulching and respite-mulching treatment did not affect stoichiometric ra-tio in leaves and soil,but long-term mulching treatment led to a decline in N∶P and K∶P.Compared with CK, short-term mulching treatment increased the correlation among soil and leaf nutrient concentration,nutrient stoichi-ometry,and nutrient resorption efficiency,but the correlation weakened with the increasing of mulching years.All re-sults showed that soil nutrient concentrations and their balances remarkably influenced leaf nutrient characteristics. The correlation among soil and leaf nutrient

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  1. Biotemplate synthesis of carbon nanostructures using bamboo as both the template and the carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaodan [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China); China National Bamboo Research and Development Center, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Yang, Qian [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zheng, Yifan; Mo, Weimin; Hu, Jianguan [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Huang, Wanzhen, E-mail: risohuang@zjut.edu.cn [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures was demonstrated. • The bamboo was selected as both the green carbon source and the biotemplate. • Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructure have been identified. • The corresponding growth mechanism of each carbon nanostructure was proposed. - Abstract: A series of carbon nanostructures were prepared via a biotemplate method by catalytic decomposition of bamboo impregnated with ferric nitrate. The natural nanoporous bamboo was used as both the green carbon source and the template for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures. Scanning electron microscope, field emission transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope were used to characterize the product. Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructures have been identified, namely nanofibers, hollow carbon nanospheres, herringbone and bamboo-shaped nanotubes. The effect of reaction temperature (from 600 to 900 °C) on the growth behavior of carbon nanostructures was investigated and the corresponding growth mechanism was proposed. At low temperature the production of nanofibers was favored, while higher temperature led to bamboo-shaped nanostructures.

  2. High Per formance and Flexible Supercapacitors based on Carbonized Bamboo Fibers for Wide Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zequine, Camila; Ranaweera, C. K.; Wang, Z.; Singh, Sweta; Tripathi, Prashant; Srivastava, O. N.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Ramasamy, K.; Kahol, P. K.; Dvornic, P. R.; Gupta, Ram K.

    2016-08-01

    High performance carbonized bamboo fibers were synthesized for a wide range of temperature dependent energy storage applications. The structural and electrochemical properties of the carbonized bamboo fibers were studied for flexible supercapacitor applications. The galvanostatic charge-discharge studies on carbonized fibers exhibited specific capacity of ~510F/g at 0.4 A/g with energy density of 54 Wh/kg. Interestingly, the carbonized bamboo fibers displayed excellent charge storage stability without any appreciable degradation in charge storage capacity over 5,000 charge-discharge cycles. The symmetrical supercapacitor device fabricated using these carbonized bamboo fibers exhibited an areal capacitance of ~1.55 F/cm2 at room temperature. In addition to high charge storage capacity and cyclic stability, the device showed excellent flexibility without any degradation to charge storage capacity on bending the electrode. The performance of the supercapacitor device exhibited ~65% improvement at 70 °C compare to that at 10 °C. Our studies suggest that carbonized bamboo fibers are promising candidates for stable, high performance and flexible supercapacitor devices.

  3. Engineering bamboo-type TiO2 nanotube arrays to enhance their photocatalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongsheng; Hymel, Paul J; Zhou, Chengjun; Wang, Ying

    2014-06-01

    Bamboo-type TiO2 nanotube arrays with high surface area can be synthesized by alternating voltage (AV) anodization for their important use as photocatalytic medium. Their morphologies are highly dependent on preparation parameters including anodization time and electrolyte composition. Minimum time of high-voltage steps required for forming desired bamboo ridge spacing on these nanotubes can be calculated from current-time profiles recorded during potentiostatic anodization at the voltage. Water content in NH4F-containing ethylene glycol (EG) electrolytes is optimized simply from analyses of current transients or current-voltage relations for anodization in EG electrolytes with different amount of water, in order to achieve efficient electrochemical growth of TiO2 nanotubes for large ridge density and long tube length. Two types of bamboo-type TiO2 nanotubes with the same length of 5.46 microm but different ridge spacing are synthesized for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV radiation. Both of the bamboo-type nanotube arrays show improved photo catalysis compared to smooth TiO2 nanotubes of the same length, due to their larger surface area favorable for heterogeneous catalytic processes. In particular, the apparent rate constant of photocatalytic degradation on bamboo-type nanotubes is up to 29.4% higher than that for degradation on smooth ones.

  4. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shengbo; Liu, Zhenling; Li, Rende; Furuta, Yuzo; Peng, Wanxi

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2) often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO4)3's, Na2SO4's, Na2S2O8's, S's, and Na2SO3's optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO4)3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1) and 2925 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm(-1), 1060 cm(-1) and 660 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm(-1), 1060 cm(-1) and 660 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1), 2925 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1060 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1), 2925 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1060 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1060 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the number of the transmissivity of

  5. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2 often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO43’s, Na2SO4’s, Na2S2O8’s, S’s, and Na2SO3’s optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO43, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 and 2925 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the

  6. Production and characterization of charcoal from species and varieties of bamboos; Producao e caracterizacao do carvao vegetal de especies e variedades de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Tomazello Filho, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Barros Salgado, A.L. de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    Samples of bamboo culms (B. vulgaris var. vittata, B vulgaris, B. tuldoides. Dendrocalamus, Guandua angustifolia) were collected in three longitudinal positions from adult culms and carbonized in laboratory conditions. Eucalypt (E. urophilla hybrid) wood was used as a comparative parameter. Differences between the charcoal from the bamboo species and Eucalypt were observed. The bamboo culms presented higher values of lignin and holorcelulose in relation to wood samples. The bamboo culms provided higher charcoal yields and non-condensable gases.The bamboo charcoal was denser and with higher ash content in relation to wood charcoal. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves as an effective way to reduce the formation of acrylamide in fried chicken wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Weizhong; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ying

    2007-03-01

    The efficiency of antioxidant from bamboo leaves on the reduction of acrylamide during thermal processing and optimization of levels of addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves applied to fried chicken wings are reported. The authors optimized the method of the addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves to fried chicken wings and the frying processing parameters, and also compared the relationship between the content of total flavonoids in three extracts (EBL(971), EBL(972) and antioxidant from bamboo leaves) and the extent of the reduction of acrylamide. The acrylamide levels were quantified by a validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection method and the sensory evaluation was performed in a double-blind manner. The results showed that nearly 57.8 and 59.0% of acrylamide in fried chicken wings were reduced when the antioxidant from bamboo leaves addition ratios were 0.1 and 0.5% (w/w), respectively. The maximum inhibitory rate was achieved when antioxidant from bamboo leaves was chosen as the additive with a total flavonoid content of 32% compared with other two extracts and antioxidant from bamboo leaves mixed with flour was selected as the method of addition. Sensory evaluation results showed that the odour and flavour of fried chicken wings with antioxidant from bamboo leaves treatments had no significant difference compared with normal food matrixes (p > 0.05) when the antioxidant from bamboo leaves addition ratio was Colour acceptability in the study of sensory evaluation was in good correspondence with colour formation of fried chicken wings in each test group. These results suggest that antioxidant from bamboo leaves could significantly reduce acrylamide formation in fried chicken wings and yet still retain the original flavour and odour of the fried products. This study could be regarded as a pioneer contribution to the reduction of acrylamide in various foods by natural antioxidants.

  8. 毛竹大片段双元细菌人工染色体基因组文库的构建%Construction of a large genomic DNA fragments,BIBAC library for Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管雨; 杨洋; 张智俊; 罗淑萍; 汤定钦

    2011-01-01

    One plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed which represents the first large genomic DNA fragment library generated for Phyllostachys pubescens. High-quality, genomic DNA extracted from young leaves of Phyllostachys pubescens was gradiently enzyme-digested with a gradient using BamH I. Desirable DNA fragments were isolated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, ligated to the dephosphorylatedion carrier Pcld04541 with a mass ratio of 3:1, and then transformed to Escherichia coli DH10B competent cells. This was followed by blue-white screening with establishment of a binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) genome library. Results showed a high recombination positive colony from which a BIB AC genome library, consisting of 104 clones with an average insert fragment size of about 105 kb after detection with a pulsed field gel electrophoresis, was constructed. The BIBAC library was 5 times larger than the Phyllostachys pubescens genome. The construction of this BIBAC genome library laid a good foundation for related genome research.%从毛竹Phyllostachys pubescens幼嫩叶片中提取纯化得到高质量的基因组DNA,经限制性内切酶BamH I对它们进行梯度酶切,脉冲场电泳选择合适酶切DNA片段,与脱磷酸化处理过的质粒载体pCLD04541按质量比3∶1相互连接,转化大肠杆菌Escherichia coli DH10B感受态细胞进行蓝白斑筛选,挑取白色克隆,获得重组率较高的阳性克隆,构建了含有104个克隆的双元细菌人工染色体(BIBAC)基因组文库,并通过脉冲场电泳检测分析后确定,所构建的毛竹BIBAC文库平均插入片段为105 kb,约覆盖5倍毛竹基因组.该文库的构建为毛竹基因组研究做好了前期的基础工作.

  9. Non-indigenous bamboo along headwater streams of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Leaf fall, aquatic leaf decay and patterns of invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, P. J.; Covich, A.P.; Scatena, F.N.; Loope, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of bamboo to montane rain forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico in the 1930s and 1940s has led to present-day bamboo monocultures in numerous riparian areas. When a non-native species invades a riparian ecosystem, in-stream detritivores can be affected. Bamboo dynamics expected to influence stream communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) were examined. Based on current distributions, bamboo has spread down-stream at a rate of 8 m y-1. Mean growth rate of bamboo culms was 15.3 cm d-1. Leaf fall from bamboo stands exceeded that of native mixed-species forest by c. 30% over a 10-mo study. Bamboo leaves (k = -0.021), and leaves from another abundant riparian exotic, Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae) (k = -0.018), decayed at relatively slow rates when submerged in streams in fine-mesh bags which excluded macro-invertebrate leaf processors. In a second study, with leaf processors present, bamboo decay rates remained unchanged (k = -0.021), while decay rates of S. jambos increased (k = -0.037). Elemental losses from bamboo leaves in streams were rapid, further suggesting a change in riparian zone/stream dynamics following bamboo invasion. As non-indigenous bamboos spread along Puerto Rico streams, they are likely to alter aquatic communities dependent on leaf input.

  10. Effect of Different Parameters on Mechanical and Erosion Wear Behavior of Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer composites has been continuously growing during the last few decades. These composites find diverse applications in hostile environment where they are exposed to external attacks such as solid particle erosion. Also, in many respects, the mechanical properties of different polymer composites are their most important characteristics. Therefore, improvement of the erosion resistance and mechanical behavior of polymer composites are the prime requirements in their applications. Bamboo fiber which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive, and abundantly available has the potential for reinforcement in polymers. To this end, an attempt has been made in this paper not only to study the utilization potential of bamboo fiber in polymer composites but also to study the effect of various parameters on mechanical and erosion wear performance of bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  11. Adsorptive removal of SO{sub 2} from coal burning by bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Xiang, Jun; Zeng, Hancai [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) is an environmentally friendly, low-cost and renewable bioresource with porous structure. The adsorption property of bamboo charcoal for sulfur dioxide was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed and mechanism study by BET, XPS, and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD). The varying parameters investigated include particle size of BC, moisture, oxygen, nitric oxide. The experimental data suggest that BC has a good adsorption potential for SO{sub 2}, which removal efficiency is greatly dependent upon the operation conditions. This study provides a good reference for BC to be used for SO{sub 2} removal in the actual flue gas over a wide range of conditions and further provided the preliminary experimental studies and theoretical discussion for bamboo charcoal to be used in multiple pollutants removing.

  12. Increasing efficiency of enzymatic hemicellulose removal from bamboo for production of high-grade dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingfeng; Yuan, Zhaoyang; Kapu, Nuwan Sella; Chang, Xue Feng; Beatson, Rodger; Trajano, Heather L; Martinez, D Mark

    2017-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hemicellulose removal from bamboo pre-hydrolysis kraft pulp, mechanical refining was conducted prior to enzyme treatment. Refining significantly improved the subsequent hemicellulose removal efficiency by xylanase treatment. Results showed that when PFI refining was followed by 3h xylanase treatment, the xylan content of the bamboo pre-hydrolysis kraft pulp (after first stage oxygen delignification) could be decreased to 2.72% (w/w). After bleaching of enzyme treated pulp, the alpha-cellulose content was 93.4% (w/w) while the xylan content was only 2.38%. The effect of refining on fibre properties was investigated in terms of freeness, water retention value, fibre length and fibrillation characteristics. The brightness, reactivity and viscosity were also determined to characterize the quality of final pulp. Results demonstrated the feasibility of combining refining and xylanase treatment to produce high quality bamboo dissolving pulp.

  13. Experimental Study on the Flexural Performance of Parallel Strand Bamboo Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching for materials to provide proper housing with less emission and low energy becomes an urgent demand with the ever-growing population. Bamboo has gained a reputation as an ecofriendly, highly renewable source of material. Parallel Strand Bamboo (PSB is a new biocomposite made of bamboo strips which has superiority performances than wood products. It has attracted considerable interests as a sustainable alternative for more traditional building materials. But the mechanical performance study of PSB as construction materials is still inadequate. Also, the structural behavior of PSB is not quite understood as conventional construction materials, which results in the difficulties to predict the performances of PSB structural members. To achieve this purpose, 4-point bending experiments for PSB beams were carried out. The flexural performances, mode of failure in bending, and the damage mechanism of PSB beams were investigated in this paper.

  14. Experimental study on the flexural performance of parallel strand bamboo beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiping; Bian, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Searching for materials to provide proper housing with less emission and low energy becomes an urgent demand with the ever-growing population. Bamboo has gained a reputation as an ecofriendly, highly renewable source of material. Parallel Strand Bamboo (PSB) is a new biocomposite made of bamboo strips which has superiority performances than wood products. It has attracted considerable interests as a sustainable alternative for more traditional building materials. But the mechanical performance study of PSB as construction materials is still inadequate. Also, the structural behavior of PSB is not quite understood as conventional construction materials, which results in the difficulties to predict the performances of PSB structural members. To achieve this purpose, 4-point bending experiments for PSB beams were carried out. The flexural performances, mode of failure in bending, and the damage mechanism of PSB beams were investigated in this paper.

  15. Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless deposition process for electromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qian; Lu, Yinxiang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    2013-09-15

    Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless plating process is reported. The microstructure of the composite was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, which illustrated that the copper coating was composed of spherical particles and clusters. The composition and chemical state of the metal layer were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis spectra; copper and a small amount of nickel were detected. Mechanical properties were measured based on a standard (ISO 13934-1:1999) for the fabrics with and without copper coating. The breaking force for the composite was improved by about 16.8% compared to uncoated bamboo fabric. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of the composite was more than 40 dB at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 1000MHz. The copper coating on bamboo fabric passed the Scotch {sup registered} -tape test. (orig.)

  16. Efficacy of bioconversion of paper mill bamboo sludge and lime waste by composting and vermiconversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, B; Sinha, I; Sharma, P; Goswami, L; Bhattacharyya, P; Gogoi, N; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Paper mill bamboo sludge (PMBS) and Paper mill lime waste (PMLW) are extensively produced as solid wastes in paper mills. Untreated PMBS and PMLW contain substantial amount of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr) in soluble forms. Efficiency of vermiconversion and aerobic composting with these wastes is reported here. Adopted bioconversion systems enhanced the availability of some essential nutrients (N, P, K and Zn) in various combinations of cow dung (CD) with PMBS and PMLW. Colonization of nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria considerably intensified under the vermiconversion system. Moreover, significant metal detoxification occurred due to vermiconversion. Various combinations of bioconverted PMBS and PMLW were applied to tissue cultured bamboo (Bambusa tulda) and chilli (Capsicum annum). Accelerated nutrient uptake coupled with improved soil quality resulted in significant production of chilli. Furthermore, vermiconverted PMBS+CD (1:1) and PMLW+CD (1:3) confirmed as potential enriching substrate for tissue cultured bamboo.

  17. Removal of elemental mercury by modified bamboo carbon☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengqiang Tan; Guoping Niu; Xiaowen Chen

    2015-01-01

    The mercury removal performance of modified bamboo charcoal (BC) was investigated with a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. A simple impregnation method was used to modify the BC with ZnCl2 and FeCl3 separately. BET and XPS were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The role of Fe3+in the re-moval of elemental mercury by modified sorbents was discussed. The experimental results suggest that the mod-ified BCs have excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature, 140 °C. The BET surface area and average pore size of modified sorbents do not show noticeable priority compared to un-modified BC. XPS spectra indicate that Fe atoms mainly exist in the form of Fe3+for the FeCl3-impregnated BC. Better performance of FeCl3-impregnated BC at different temperatures (20, 140 and 180 °C) suggests the en-hancement of non-chloride functional groups (Fe3+). Inhibition effect of SOx and NO for Hg0 removal by BC sam-ples is present in the study.

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of the Bamboo Sharks (Chiloscyllium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haslina Masstor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiloscyllium, commonly called bamboo shark, can be found inhabiting the waters of the Indo-West Pacific around East Asian countries such as Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List has categorized them as nearly threatened sharks out of their declining population status due to overexploitation. A molecular study was carried out to portray the systematic relationships within Chiloscyllium species using 12S rRNA and cytochrome b gene sequences. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian were used to reconstruct their phylogeny trees. A total of 381 bp sequences’ lengths were successfully aligned in the 12S rRNA region, with 41 bp sites being parsimony-informative. In the cytochrome b region, a total of 1120 bp sites were aligned, with 352 parsimony-informative characters. All analyses yield phylogeny trees on which C. indicum has close relationships with C. plagiosum. C. punctatum is sister taxon to both C. indicum and C. plagiosum while C. griseum and C. hasseltii formed their own clade as sister taxa. These Chiloscyllium classifications can be supported by some morphological characters (lateral dermal ridges on the body, coloring patterns, and appearance of hypobranchials and basibranchial plate that can clearly be used to differentiate each species.

  19. Isolation, chemical characterization, and immunomodulatory activity of naturally acetylated hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju-qing; Qi, Rui-ting; Pang, Mei-rong; Liu, Cong; Li, Guang-yu; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo shavings, the outer or intermediate layer of bamboo stems, are the bulk of by-products produced in bamboo processing. In this study we investigated the isolation, chemical characterization, and immunostimulatory activity in vitro of the hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings. Shavings were first pretreated by steam explosion. The optimal pretreatment was found to be steam explosion at 2.2 MPa for 1 min. Following this pretreatment, the yield of hemicelluloses reached (2.05±0.22)% (based on the dry dewaxed raw materials), which was 5.7-fold higher than that of untreated samples. Bamboo-shavings hemicellulose (BSH) was then prepared by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation from the steam-exploded shavings. Purification of BSH by anion-exchange chromatography of diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-sepharose Fast Flow resulted in a neutral fraction (BSH-1, purity of 95.3%, yield of 1.06%) and an acidic fraction (BSH-2, purity of 92.5%, yield of 0.79%). The weight-average molecular weights (M w) of BSH-1 and BSH-2 were 12 800 and 11 300 g/mol, respectively. Chemical and structural analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC)) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra revealed that BSH-1 was O-acetylated-arabinoxylan and BSH-2 was O-acetylated-(4-O-methylglucurono)-arabinoxylan. BSH-1 had a higher content of acetyl groups than BSH-2. For the immunomodulatory activity in vitro, BSH and BSH-2 significantly stimulated mouse splenocyte proliferation while BSH-1 had no effect; BSH, BSH-1, and BSH-2 markedly enhanced the phagocytosis activity and nitric oxide production of the murine macrophage RAW264.7 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the water-extractable hemicelluloses from steam-exploded bamboo shavings are naturally acetylated and have immunostimulatory activity. PMID:28124842

  20. Bamboo Fibre-reinforced Semi-Metallic Brake Friction Materials for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three friction material formulations composed of bamboo fiber along with binder, friction modifiers and filler have been prepared through powder metallurgy process. Sample F1 and F2 are composed of 10 wt. % of copper and barium, respectively, while the other ingredients in both formulations have the same wt. %. The wt. % of bamboo fiber in sample F3 is, however, increased by 100%, while the compositions of the other ingredients are proportionally decreased. The samples were examined for their porosity, hardness, and friction and wear properties using hot bath, Rockwell hardness tester, and CHASE friction dynamometer, respectively. The test results are compared with those of a commercial sample as the benchmark. Normal and hot frictions of all the three samples developed comply with the requirements specified by Automotive Manufacturer Equipment Companies Agency (AMECA. However, sample F3 which is composed of 20 wt. % of bamboo fiber does not comply with the minimum requirement of friction coefficient. Whereas, sample F2, which is composed of 10 wt. % of bamboo fiber and 10 wt. % of barium, has lower friction coefficient than the commercial sample, and has a sudden drop in friction coefficient at a temperature of 500°F. Out of three developed samples, sample F1, which is composed of 10 wt. % of bamboo fiber and 10 wt. % of copper, complies with all the requirements and has higher friction coefficient than the commercial sample, and has higher fade resistance. Thus, it could be postulated that bamboo fiber could be used as a reinforcing fiber with composition of 10 wt. %.

  1. Isolation, chemical characterization, and immunomodulatory activity of naturally acetylated hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju-Qing; Qi, Rui-Ting; Pang, Mei-Rong; Liu, Cong; Li, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Ying

    Bamboo shavings, the outer or intermediate layer of bamboo stems, are the bulk of by-products produced in bamboo processing. In this study we investigated the isolation, chemical characterization, and immunostimulatory activity in vitro of the hemicelluloses from bamboo shavings. Shavings were first pretreated by steam explosion. The optimal pretreatment was found to be steam explosion at 2.2 MPa for 1 min. Following this pretreatment, the yield of hemicelluloses reached (2.05±0.22)% (based on the dry dewaxed raw materials), which was 5.7-fold higher than that of untreated samples. Bamboo-shavings hemicellulose (BSH) was then prepared by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation from the steam-exploded shavings. Purification of BSH by anion-exchange chromatography of diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-sepharose Fast Flow resulted in a neutral fraction (BSH-1, purity of 95.3%, yield of 1.06%) and an acidic fraction (BSH-2, purity of 92.5%, yield of 0.79%). The weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of BSH-1 and BSH-2 were 12 800 and 11 300 g/mol, respectively. Chemical and structural analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D (heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC)) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra revealed that BSH-1 was O-acetylated-arabinoxylan and BSH-2 was O-acetylated-(4-O-methylglucurono)-arabinoxylan. BSH-1 had a higher content of acetyl groups than BSH-2. For the immunomodulatory activity in vitro, BSH and BSH-2 significantly stimulated mouse splenocyte proliferation while BSH-1 had no effect; BSH, BSH-1, and BSH-2 markedly enhanced the phagocytosis activity and nitric oxide production of the murine macrophage RAW264.7 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the water-extractable hemicelluloses from steam-exploded bamboo shavings are naturally acetylated and have immunostimulatory activity.

  2. Influence of Laundering on the Quality of Sewn Cotton and Bamboo Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the effect of laundering on the quality of sewn cotton and bamboo plain woven fabrics was investigated considering both the textile parameters and the type of chemical treatment. Quality parameters of sewn cotton and bamboo woven fabrics such as: fabric strength, seam strength and seam slippage at the moment of 4 mm seam opening were evaluated before and after washing with “Tide” washing powder without softeners or with softeners: “Surcare” and “Pflege Weicspuler”. There was also determined surface density, warp and weft densities as well as thicknesses under the pressures 0.625 kPa and 3.125 kPa, and calculated the comparative thickness that was considered as softness or porosity of fabrics. Notwithstanding that both the investigated fabrics were cellulosic their behavior after laundering was different. Under the tested conditions, unwashed and laundered with or without chemical softeners cotton fabric didn’t demonstrate seam slippage. The seam slippage resistance of laundered without or with softener specimens of bamboo fabric was increased in respect to control fabric. The larger changes in seam efficiency and seam strength because of laundering were determined for bamboo woven fabric then for cotton fabric. They could be influenced by the higher changes in bamboo fabric’s structure. The highest difference between the structure parameters of both fabrics was determined for comparative thickness. It was significantly increased for cotton fabric and decreased for bamboo fabric after chemical softening comparing to untreated fabrics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3831

  3. Bamboo coral skeletal Sr/Ca: An indicator of growth rate or other vital effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T. M.; Lavigne, M.; Spero, H. J.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated that intermediate waters (300-2000m) may play an important role in forcing and responding to perturbations to the climate system, via circulation (ventilation), temperature, carbon cycling, and nutrients. Here we investigate the geochemistry of deep-sea bamboo corals, collected on a transect across intermediate water depths (250-2500m) on the California margin. Radiocarbon dating of the calcite skeleton of coral specimens indicates that bamboo corals live for centuries, with growth rates of ~50-100 microns/year, consistent with previous bamboo coral investigations (Roark et al., 2005). Although skeletal Sr/Ca is typically interpreted as a temperature proxy in aragonitic surface corals, it is less clear what factors influence the incorporation of Sr/Ca in calcitic deep sea corals. Recent results indicate that while a strong vital effect is present in bamboo coral stable isotopes (d18O, d13C), Sr/Ca ratios do not covary with isotopic values, indicating different biological or growth factors must control these tracers. Laser ablation ICPMS results from California margin bamboo corals show reproducible Sr/Ca variations in agreement with the timing of PDO shifts for corals collected from different California margin locations. Synchronous coral Sr/Ca and PDO index variability suggest that bamboo coral Sr/Ca trends are related to PDO phase, and may be dictated by surface-driven processes such as food source, quality, or quantity. These results suggest that intermediate waters are impacted by surface water environmental shifts such as changes in productivity and carbon export. Additional work is required to determine whether such shifts in Sr/Ca are apparent through multiple PDO cycles, and to understand the origin of Sr/Ca shifts.

  4. Characterization of bamboo cellulose-based green composite film by NMMO technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxia FANG; Jinyu SUN; Lei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo cellulose, lignin and starch have been molecularly blended to form homogeneous composite films by NMMO-technology. The structural properties of the films were investigated with FTIR, WAXD and AFM technologies, respectively. The results show that bamboo cellulose, lignin and starch have been molecularly blended through NMMO-technology. There was a two-phase system consisting of ternary composite components as one phase and pores as the other on the surface of the composite film. Because of the existence of homogeneous phase structure formed by the rearrangement of the nat-ural polymer molecules, the film shows good properties originating from the mutual supplement of different nat-ural components.

  5. A new genus of bamboo coral (Octocorallia: Isididae) from the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Les

    2015-02-11

    A bamboo coral collected during a deep-sea expedition to the Bahamas in 2009 proved to have a unique combination of features for a member of the bamboo coral subfamily Keratoisidinae: the structure and shape of the polyps, the sclerites consisting entirely of rods, some of which extend the length of the polyp, the delicateness of the branches with solid internodes, and the deep funnel construction of the peristomal region into which the tentacles can contract. The specimens are described as a new genus and species.

  6. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  7. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-08-16

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline.

  8. Impact resistance performance of green construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced bamboo concrete slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Z. C.; Usman, F.; Beddu, S.; Alam, M. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Saadi, S.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm x 300mm size reinforced with different thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter for a constant spacing for various slab thickness using 0.45 OPS and 0.6 OPS bamboo reinforced concrete. The increment in bamboo diameter has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Increment in slab thickness of the slab has more effect on the crack resistance as compare to the increment in the diameter of the bamboo reinforcement.

  9. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline. PMID:27526781

  10. Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelena L de Carvalho

    Full Text Available We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km(2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27-28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km(2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Combustion Characteristic of Nature Bamboo Floorings and Carbonized Bamboo Floorings%本色和炭化竹地板燃烧特性的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志伟; 关明杰

    2016-01-01

    为了研究竹地板的燃烧特性,以锥形量热仪为研究手段,对本色和炭化胶合竹地板、本色和炭化重竹地板这4种竹地板的燃烧特性进行了对比研究。结果表明,与本色胶合竹地板相比,炭化胶合竹地板的点燃时间提前了3,s;热释放速率、有效燃烧热、总热释放量和质量损失速率的峰值到达时间均提前了2,min,热释放速率、有效燃烧热和质量损失速率的峰值均上升,总热释放量的峰值下降;最终成炭率有所提高。与本色重竹地板相比,炭化重竹地板的点燃时间没有变化;热释放速率、有效燃烧热、总热释放量和质量损失速率的峰值到达时间没有变化,但是峰值均有所下降;最终成炭率有所提高。炭化胶合竹地板的阻燃性能弱于本色胶合竹地板,炭化重竹地板的阻燃性能优于本色重竹地板;总体上,重竹地板的阻燃效果优于胶合竹地板。%The aim of this research was to analyze the combustion characteristic of bamboo floorings.Experiments on nature flat pressed bamboo flooring,carbonized flat pressed bamboo flooring,nature strand woven bamboo flooring and carbonized strand woven bamboo flooring were performed by using a cone calorimeter.The results show that,compared with nature flat pressed bamboo flooring,time to ignition(TTI)of carbonized flat pressed bamboo flooring is 3,s earlier.The time to the peak of the rate of heat release(RHR),the effective heat of combus-tion(EHC),the total heat release(THR)and the mass loss rate(MLR)of carbonized flat pressed bamboo flooring is all 2,min earlier.The peak of RHR,EHC,MLR of carbonized flat pressed bamboo flooring is all increased while that of THR is decreased.The final char yield is increased.Compared with nature strand woven bamboo flooring, the time to the peak of RHR,EHC,THR and MLR of carbonized strand woven bamboo flooring shows no change, and the peak of RHR,EHC,THR and MLR is all

  12. 不同竹种竹叶提取物制备及其抗氧化活性比较研究%Preparation and comparative analysis of antioxidant activity of bamboo leaf extracts from different varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 岳永德; 郭雪峰; 汤锋; 王进; 姚曦; 孙嘏

    2012-01-01

    Phyllostachys heterocycla, Pleioblastus amaru, Bambusa tuldoides, Bambusa chungii, Bambusa textilis, Chimonocalamus Hsueh and Indocalamus tessellates were used to extract bamboo-leaf-flavonoids by the heat reflux method and purified by AB-8 macroporous absorption resin. The extractions were separated and structurally identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The bamboo leaf extracts were assayed based on DPPH radical scavenging capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, superoxide anion free radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power with TBHQ (tert-butyl hydroquinone) as the positive control. The results showed that the yield of extracts from Pleioblastus amarus was maximum, up to 3.60%-3.70%; the amount of orientin and isoorientin in Chimonocalamus Hsueh was maximum, up to 2.523 0%-2.532 6%; the amount of vitexin in Pleioblastus amarus was maximum, up to 0.887 0%-0.889 6%; the amount of isovitexin in Bambusa textilis was maximum, up to 2.223 l%-2.226 1%. Chimonocalamus Hsueh revealed the strongest scavenging capacity against DPPH, and the IC50 value was 30.50 mg·L-1; Indocalamus tessellates revealed the strongest scavenging capacity against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion free radical, and the IC50 values were 339.32 mg·L-1 and 324.87 mg·L-1, respectively.%以毛竹、苦竹、香竹、箬竹、粉单竹、青杆竹和青皮竹7个竹种竹叶为材料,采用热回流法提取,大孔树脂法分离纯化,对得到竹叶提取物测定其得率和主要黄酮成分的含量,进而探讨竹叶提取物的抗氧化活性,为竹叶提取物在食品和化妆品领域的应用提供科学依据.结果表明,苦竹叶提取物得率最高,为3.60%~3.70%;香竹叶提取物中所含的荭草苷和异荭草苷量最高,为2.5230%~2.5326%,苦竹叶提取物中所含的牡荆苷量最高,为0.8870%~0.8896%,青杆竹叶提取物中所含的异牡荆苷量最高,为2.2231%~2.2261%;竹叶提取物具有较强的自

  13. Comparison of Bending Creep Behavior of Bamboo-based Composites Manufactured by Two Types of Stacking Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xinxin Ma; Ge Wang; Zehui Jiang; Yu Xian; Haidong Li

    2014-01-01

    The study of viscoelastic and mechano-sorptive creep on bamboo laminated veneer lumber (BLVL) and bamboo/poplar plywood (BPP) is described in this paper. Bending creep tests parallel to the grain were carried out on two bamboo-based composites for a length of 90 days. The specimens measured 500 mm × 20 mm × 12 mm. Based on the experimental data, the creep curves of two boards were evaluated. The results are summarized as follows: (1) the anti-creep property of BLVL was better than that of BPP...

  14. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  15. Seasonal variations of the antioxidant composition in ground bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qinxue; Xu, Guangzhi; Wang, Zhiqiang; Gao, Qianxin; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Youzuo

    2012-01-01

    Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF): phenolics (TP) and triterpenoid (TT) of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid) were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  16. Reduction of time for producing and acclimatizing two bamboo species in a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aquino Gasparetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available China has been investing in bamboo cultivation in Brazilian lands. However, there’s a significant deficit of seedling production for civil construction and the charcoal and cellulose sectors, something which compromises a part of the forestry sector. In order to contribute so that the bamboo production chain solves this problem, this study aimed to check whether the application of indole acetic acid (IAA could promote plant growth in a shorter cultivation time. In the study, Bambusa vulgaris and B. vulgaris var. vitatta stakes underwent two treatments (0.25% and 5.0% of IAA and they were grown on washed sand in a greenhouse. Number of leaves, stem growth, rooting, and chlorophyll content were investigated. There was no difference with regard to stem growth, root length, and number of leaves for both species in the two treatments (0.25% and 5% IAA. The chlorophyll content variation between the two species may constitute a quality parameter of forest seedling when compared to other bamboo species. After 43 days, the seedlings are ready for planting in areas of full sun. For the species studied here, the average time to the seedling sale is from 4 to 6 months, with no addition of auxin. Using this simple and low cost technique, several nurserymen will produce bamboo seedlings with reduced time, costs, and manpower.

  17. Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lindner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key actors along the value chain. Results revealed distinctive differences in proportion of cash income, value chain structure, and management engagement among the districts. Percentages of cash income were 60.15, 42.60, and 9.48 at Awi, Sidam, and Sheka, respectively. Differences were statistically significant between Sheka and both other districts (p = 0.05, but not between Awi and Sidama. The value chain structure showed that compared with Sheka, Awi and Sidama have a relatively large number of actors involved. The major factors explaining commercialization differences among regions were distance to market and presence of alternative forest products. Within Sheka, households with larger family size, higher education attainment, and access to training reportedly engaged more in commercial extraction. Therefore, we conclude that development of infrastructure for linking resource and consumer centers and expansion of extension education among producers may enhance the commercial engagement of producers and improve the accessibility of bamboo resources for commercial production.

  18. Running Bamboo: A Mentoring Network of Women Intending to Thrive in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Unterreiner, Ann; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Esnard, Talia; Wu, Ke; Beck, Makini

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the authors' experiences as women academics who engage in informal peer mentoring to persist in the cultural milieus of their respective institutions. The authors draw on poststructural perspectives and the metaphor of the rhizome "running bamboo" to illustrate the connections they forged in a mentoring network…

  19. Bamboo and Poison Gas: Take-Off Points for Developing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, James

    1986-01-01

    Shows how to use common topics within area studies to develop important social studies skills. The example provided illustrates how to develop data analysis, data evaluation, problem solving, and map skills using the topics of bamboo and the Bhopal, India, chemical disaster. (JDH)

  20. Remembering or Misremembering? Historicity and the Case of "So Far from the Bamboo Grove"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ae

    2008-01-01

    A recent controversy in the USA centres on classroom use of Yoko Kawashima Watkins's semi-autobiographical "So Far from the Bamboo Grove" (1986), a novel focused on the flight of Japanese settler families to Japan after the liberation of Korea at the end of World War II. Taught in a literary and historical vacuum under the thematic…

  1. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method.

  2. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzuo Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF: phenolics (TP and triterpenoid (TT of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  3. "So Far from the Bamboo Grove:" Multiculturalism, Historical Context, and Close Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walach, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In May 2006, the summer-reading committee in the author's middle school debated the relevance of "So Far from the Bamboo Grove" by Yoko Kawashima Watkins and decided against using the book as a required summer-reading selection. Therefore, the author was interested in the controversy that erupted a few months later in Dover-Sherborn, a district…

  4. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Light Weight Rice Husk Concrete with Bamboo Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Beddu, Salmia; Syamsir, Agusril; Sigar Ating, Joshua; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight rice husk concrete (LWRHC) with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced with varied slab thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at 0.65 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter and slab thickness. 5% RH content exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 1.80 times and up to 1.72 times respectively against 10% RH content.

  5. The Effect of Water Molecules on Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Microfibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nima

    Bamboo fibers have higher strength-to-weight ratios than steel and concrete. The unique properties of bamboo fibers come from their natural composite structures that comprise mainly cellulose nanofibrils in a matrix of intertwined hemicellulose and lignin called lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). Here, we have utilized atomistic simulations to investigate the mechanical properties and mechanisms of interactions between these materials, in the presence of water molecules. Our results suggest that hemicellulose exhibits better mechanical properties and lignin shows greater tendency to adhere to cellulose nanofibrils. Consequently, the role of hemicellulose found to be enhancing the mechanical properties and lignin found to be providing the strength of bamboo fibers. The abundance of Hbonds in hemicellulose chains is responsible for improving the mechanical behavior of LCC. The strong van der Waals forces between lignin molecules and cellulose nanofibrils is responsible for higher adhesion energy between LCC/cellulose nanofibrils. We also found out that the amorphous regions of cellulose nanofibrils is the weakest interface in bamboo Microfibrils. In presence of water, the elastic modulus of lignin increases at low water content (less than 10 NSF CAREER Grant No. 1261284.

  6. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  7. Sustainable value chains for bamboo working communities: Integrating the tenets of sustainability through the Rhizome Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reubens, R.R.R.; Brezet, J.C.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand globally for products which impact sustainability positively. Bamboo fulfills these criteria, since it is a highly renewable timber replacement material which does not cause deforestation. It simultaneously has the potential to create livelihood opportunities for both the u

  8. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sassu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively.

  9. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development from bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Longfei Zhu; Yan Shi; Qiaolu Zang; Quan Shi; Shinan Liu; Yingwu Xu; Xinchun Lin

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo flowering owns many unique characteristics and remains a mystery. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a PISTILLATA homologue named BoPI from Bambusa oldhamii (bamboo family). Expression analysis showed that BoPI was highly expressed in flower organs and gradually increased during flower development stage, suggesting that BoPI played an important role in flower development. Ectopic expression of BoPI in Arabidopsis caused conversion of sepals to petals. 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal formation in the pi-1 mutant. BoPI could interact with BoAP3 protein in vitro. These results suggested that BoPI regulated flower development of bamboo in a similar way with PI. Besides flower organs, BoPI was also expressed in leaf and branch, which revealed that BoPI may involve in leaf and branch development. Similar to other MIKC-type gene, BoPI contained the Cterminal sequence but its function was controversial. Ectopic expression of the C-terminal deletion construct (BoPI-C) in Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI-C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length construct. The result implied that the C-terminal sequence may not be absolutely required for organ identity function in the context of BoPI.

  10. Investigations on gradient a.c. conductivity characteristics of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navin Chand; Deepak Jain; Archana Nigrawal

    2006-04-01

    Effect of temperature and frequency variation on a.c. conductivity of bamboo was determined by using a 4274 A Multi-Frequencies LCR meter. Electrical measurements were carried out in the temperature range 24–120°C and in the frequency range 4–100 kHz. It was observed that the a.c. conductivity increased initially and then decreased with increase of temperature and frequencies. The increase of distance from outer surface to the inner surface side increased the a.c. conductivity values and showed the grading in a.c. conductivity behaviour. Two phases of a.c. conductivity behaviour with temperature exist in bamboo. At 10 mm distance a.c. conductivity suddenly increases which is the critical depth from skin for this bamboo. Increase of temperature, at all the frequencies increases the a.c. conductivity initially and then decreases. Downward peaks in a.c. conductivities are observed at all the frequencies due to the presence of moisture in bamboo, which liberated on heating. Sharp peak is observed in case of sample 4, which is inner most strip. Maximum sharp peak is observed at lowest 4 kHz frequency.

  11. Holocellulase activity from Schizophyllum commune grown on bamboo: a comparison with different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Valencia, Jorge William; Valencia Jiménez, Arnubio; Gonçalves de Siqueira, Félix; Dussan Medina, Kelly; Restrepo Franco, Gloria M; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira; Siegfried, Blair D; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2011-12-01

    The natural biodiversity that is found in tropical areas offers countless biotechnological opportunities; especially if we take in account that many biomolecules from several microorganisms have supported for many years, different industrial applications in areas such as pharmacology, agro-industry, bioprocess, environmental technology, and bioconversion. In order to find new lignocellulolytic enzymes and evaluate bamboo fibers as substrate, Schizophyllum commune a fungus with broad distribution was isolated and grown during 15 days in liquid culture medium containing 1% lignocellulosic fibers from bamboo, banana stem, and sugarcane bagasse. The enzymatic activity of xylanase, mannanase, polygalacturonase, CMCase, FPase, and avicelase were evaluated. Sugarcane bagasse and banana stem showed to induce higher hollocellulase activity when compared with bamboo as the main carbon source. The physical mechanism that the fungus uses to degrade bamboo was observed not only in fibers naturally infected but also in healthy fibers that were treated and untreated with enzyme solution. SEM analysis showed the structural disruption and invasion of the vascular bundles, parenchyma cells, and parenchymatous tissues as a consequence of the presence of this fungus and the catalytic action of its enzymes into the plant tissue.

  12. Measuring leaf necrosis and chlorosis of bamboo induced by typhoon 0613 with RGB image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; Haruhiko Yamamoto; Yasuomi Ibaraki

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of leaf necrosis or chlorosis of bamboo induced by Typhoon 0613 (T0613) were analyzed using RGB image analysis in Yamaguchi city, Japan. Results showed a closely positive relationship between Green/Red (G/R) value for indoor taking images of bamboo individual leaves and chlorophyll meter value (SPAD) with regression coefficient of 0.961. The relation between G/R value of room taking images and Necrotic Area Percentage (NAP) for bamboo individual leaves showed an inverse logistic function relationship, with the correlated coefficient equaling to 0.958. Both leaf chlorosis and necrosis can be quantitatively estimated by RGB image analysis. Moreover, the variance of Green/Luminance (G/L) value for the same leaf was less than that of G/R for images taken in the conditions with large light difference, especially for green leaves. G/L value also exhibited a closer relationship with SPAD value of leaves with chlorosis than that of G/R values at the same condition. The relationship between G/L value for bamboo canopies and the Distance from Coastline (DC) was also closer than that of the G/R value for the images taken at field sites with big light difference.

  13. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a five-year period (2003-2007 after a mast flowering event (2003. We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the five years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves. Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction.

  14. Bamboo coral Ba/Ca: Calibration of a new deep ocean refractory nutrient proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, Michèle; Hill, Tessa M.; Spero, Howard J.; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2011-12-01

    It is poorly understood how intermediate water masses are affected by decadal scale climate via biogeochemical cycling, export production, and changes in circulation/ventilation. To this end, a geochemical nutrient proxy from deep-sea bamboo corals would provide decadal to centennial scale records of deep and intermediate-water nutrient dynamics. Seawater barium (Ba SW) has a nutrient-like distribution in the water-column (similar to silicate), so Ba/Ca records in foraminifera, shallow water surface corals, and other deep-sea corals have been used to trace refractory nutrients. Here we present the first calibration of a nutrient proxy from skeletal barium preserved in the calcitic internodes of deep-sea bamboo corals, collected from intermediate water depths. A calibration was calculated from a broadly distributed suite of Isidella and Keratoisis corals spanning a silicate and Ba SW gradient (n = 33 corals; 300-2800 m): Ba/Caμmol/mol=0.079±0.008∗Banmol/kg+4.205±0.870r=0.77;n=33 The strong linear correlation between Ba/Ca bamboo coral and Ba SW suggests that coral Ba/Ca is a reliable recorder of seawater barium (and, therefore, silicate). We find a distribution coefficient (D Ba) for Ba/Ca bamboo coral of 1.3 ± 0.2, similar to that of other corals (surface and deep-sea dwelling) and inorganic calcium carbonate precipitation experiments (D Ba = 1.2-1.5). This suggests that Ba incorporation is primarily driven by cationic substitution in bamboo corals and holds promise as a globally applicable refractory nutrient proxy. We find interannual-decadal scale variability in a Ba/Ca bamboo coral timeseries from a California Margin coral (San Juan Seamount; 1295 m). These data suggest that additional high-resolution Ba/Ca bamboo coral records may reveal a connection between regional-scale intermediate water biogeochemistry and low-latitude surface ocean/atmospheric climate.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses.

  16. Precooking processing of bamboo shoots for removal of anti-nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Ojha, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots being low in fat, high in dietary fiber and rich in mineral content, like an ideal vegetable have been used traditionally. Besides nutrients, bamboo shoots also contain lethal concentration of the anti-nutrient (cyanogen) that need to be removed before human consumption. Therefore an attempt has been made to find out the best processing method for confiscation of cyanogens. B. bambos, B. tulda, D. strictus and D.asper were selected for the study. Fresh and processed bamboo shoots were analyzed for their various nutritional and anti-nutritional contents. Carbohydrate content in fresh shoots of studied species ranged from 2.39%-3.6%, proteins from 1.65%-2.08%, phenols from 0.36%-0.63%, cyanogens from 0.011%-0.018%, minerals did not vary significantly among the species except potassium which ranged from 0.32%-0.52%. The shoots were processed by boiling in water and different concentrations of NaCl (1%, 5% and 10%) for different intervals (10, 15, 20 and 25 min) to achieve maximum removal of cyanogens with minimum loss of nutrients. Boiling shoots in 5% NaCl for 15 min was found to be the best method for B. bamboos, 10 min boiling in 1% NaCl for B. tulda, 15 min boiling in 1% NaCl for D. strictus and 10 min boiling in 5% NaCl for D. asper. These processing methods will be very useful in utilization of bamboo shoots as these are very simple and can be used by the local inhabitants and shoot processing industries.

  17. Removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water using a bamboo-based charcoal adsorbent modified with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Zhu, Guoying; Jia, Xiuying; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Mi; Gao, Qing; Hu, Ciming; Xu, Shuying

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of low-cost syntactic adsorbent from bamboo charcoal and chitosan was developed for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water. Removal efficiency was higher for the syntactic adsorbent when the amount of bamboo charcoal was increased. The optimum dose ratio of bamboo charcoal to chitosan was 6:4, and the optimum amount was 15 mg/L; equilibrium time was 6 hr. The adsorption isotherm was non-linear and could be simulated by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9337). Adsorption efficiency was strongly affected by pH and natural organic matter (NOM). Removal efficiency was 16% higher at pH 3 than at pH 9. Efficiency rate was reduced by 15% with 25 mg/L NOM (UV254 = 0.089 cm(-1)) in drinking water. This study demonstrated that the bamboo charcoal modified with chitosan can effectively remove microcystin-LR from drinking water.

  18. High-Pressure Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Reveal Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Bamboo Fiber Using a Supercritical Water Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo fiber was treated using a high-pressure enzyme hydrolysis process. The process performance was compared with the pulping and bleaching process for bamboo fiber. Several analytical methods, including field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry, were employed to determine the physicochemical and thermal properties of the treated cellulosic bamboo fiber. It was found that the pressurized enzyme hydrolysis treated bamboo fiber had the most uniform morphological structure, along with lowest crystallinity and highest thermal stability. Thus, utilizing high-pressure enzyme hydrolysis is the most effective process for treating fiber to remove non-cellulosic components from the raw material, including lignin, hemicelluloses, and waxy materials.

  19. Pretreatment of bamboo by ultra-high pressure explosion with a high-pressure homogenizer for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua; Li, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo shoots, 2- and 5-year-old bamboo were treated by using a homogenizer in a constant suspended state, a process termed as ultra-high pressure explosion (UHPE). The bamboo powder was heated in 2% NaOH solution at 121°C, and then 100MPa UHPE-treated through a homogenizer. The results verified that UHPE changed the suspension solution of powder into a stick fluid. The contents of lignin were decreased significantly. The bamboo shoots and 2-year-old bamboo were completely hydrolyzed to glucose within 48h by enzymes loading of 15 FPU of cellulase and 30IU of β-glucosidase per gram glucan. Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in about 89.7-95.1% of the theoretical ethanol yield after 24h. Therefore, NaOH+UHPE is argued to be a potential alternative technology for pretreatment of bamboo.

  20. Gender Issues in Household-based Bamboo Industries: A Case Study of Two Villages in Xinping County, Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGShineng; YANGLingyun(ElsieYANG)

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative gender assessment of household-based bamboo industries was conducted in Zhuyuan and Lagadi villages in Laochang Township, Xinping County in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Results showed that both women and men were actively involved in the production and marketing of bamboo products in the two villages. There were gender differences in bamboo-based rural industries that were closely associated with the ethnic habits, traditional norms of the rural society, the differences of educational levels that women and men achieved, and the gender blind-spots in the enforcement of laws and policies. It is evident that women were “equal” partners in the production of bamboo products, but “unequal” when the rights of access to and control over resources and personal independence are concerned. Suggestions are made to achieve a gender-balanced production system of bamboo products in rural areas of bamboo producing counties in Yunnan Province, China.

  1. 竹子分子生物学研究进展%Recent Advances in Bamboo Molecular Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜可以; 周明兵

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo species (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) possess a distinct life history characterized by a predominance of rhizome-dependent asexual reproduction and erratic lfowering at intervals of 1 year to 120 years. Some bamboo species are of notable economic, ecological and social signiifcance throughout the World. Considerable progress has been made in bamboo research in the past few years. The advances in bamboo molecular biology since 2003 were reviewed, including the development and application of modern molecular tools in the taxonomy; the cloning and characterization of key genes involved in the critical biological processes of bamboo, such as rhizome bud development, rapid growth, flowering and stress-tolerance; the accomplishment of bamboo genome and transcriptome sequencing projects; and the establishment of genetic transformation systems. The progresses in bamboo molecular biology research provide new insights into further biological studies in Bamboo.%对2003年以来的竹子分子生物学研究进展进行了综述,包括现代分子手段在竹子分类学研究中的开发与应用,鞭芽发育、快速生长、开花、抗逆等相关的重要功能基因研究,基因组测序和转录组测序,遗传转化体系的建立等。这些为今后竹子生物学的研究提供了依据。

  2. Response of a Wild Edible Plant to Human Disturbance: Harvesting Can Enhance the Subsequent Yield of Bamboo Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kishida, Osamu; Sakai, Rei; Hayakashi, Shintaro; Miyoshi, Chikako; Ito, Kinya; Naniwa, Aiko; Yamaguchi, Aya; Wada, Katsunori; Kowata, Shiro; Koike, Yoshinobu; Tsubakimoto, Katsuhiro; Ohiwa, Kenichi; Sato, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Toru; Oiwa, Shinichi; Oka, Tsubasa; Kikuchi, Shinya; Igarashi, Chikako; Chiba, Shiho; Akiyama, Yoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible plants, ecological foodstuffs obtained from forest ecosystems, grow in natural fields, and their productivity depends on their response to harvesting by humans. Addressing exactly how wild edible plants respond to harvesting is critical because this knowledge will provide insights into how to obtain effective and sustainable ecosystem services from these plants. We focused on bamboo shoots of Sasa kurilensis, a popular wild edible plant in Japan. We examined the effects of harvesting on bamboo shoot productivity by conducting an experimental manipulation of bamboo shoot harvesting. Twenty experimental plots were prepared in the Teshio Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University and were assigned into two groups: a harvest treatment, in which newly emerged edible bamboo shoots were harvested (n = 10); and a control treatment, in which bamboo shoots were maintained without harvesting (n = 10). In the first year of harvesting (2013), bamboo shoot productivities were examined twice; i.e., the productivity one day after harvesting and the subsequent post-harvest productivity (2-46 days after harvesting), and we observed no difference in productivity between treatments. This means that there was no difference in original bamboo shoot productivity between treatments, and that harvesting did not influence productivity in the initial year. In contrast, in the following year (2014), the number of bamboo shoots in the harvested plots was 2.4-fold greater than in the control plots. These results indicate that over-compensatory growth occurred in the harvested plots in the year following harvesting. Whereas previous research has emphasized the negative impact of harvesting, this study provides the first experimental evidence that harvesting can enhance the productivity of a wild edible plant. This suggests that exploiting compensatory growth, which really amounts to less of a decline in productivity, may be s a key for the effective use of wild edible plants.

  3. Response of a Wild Edible Plant to Human Disturbance: Harvesting Can Enhance the Subsequent Yield of Bamboo Shoots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Katayama

    Full Text Available Wild edible plants, ecological foodstuffs obtained from forest ecosystems, grow in natural fields, and their productivity depends on their response to harvesting by humans. Addressing exactly how wild edible plants respond to harvesting is critical because this knowledge will provide insights into how to obtain effective and sustainable ecosystem services from these plants. We focused on bamboo shoots of Sasa kurilensis, a popular wild edible plant in Japan. We examined the effects of harvesting on bamboo shoot productivity by conducting an experimental manipulation of bamboo shoot harvesting. Twenty experimental plots were prepared in the Teshio Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University and were assigned into two groups: a harvest treatment, in which newly emerged edible bamboo shoots were harvested (n = 10; and a control treatment, in which bamboo shoots were maintained without harvesting (n = 10. In the first year of harvesting (2013, bamboo shoot productivities were examined twice; i.e., the productivity one day after harvesting and the subsequent post-harvest productivity (2-46 days after harvesting, and we observed no difference in productivity between treatments. This means that there was no difference in original bamboo shoot productivity between treatments, and that harvesting did not influence productivity in the initial year. In contrast, in the following year (2014, the number of bamboo shoots in the harvested plots was 2.4-fold greater than in the control plots. These results indicate that over-compensatory growth occurred in the harvested plots in the year following harvesting. Whereas previous research has emphasized the negative impact of harvesting, this study provides the first experimental evidence that harvesting can enhance the productivity of a wild edible plant. This suggests that exploiting compensatory growth, which really amounts to less of a decline in productivity, may be s a key for the effective use of wild edible

  4. 竹子在使用过程中的保护%Protection of Bamboo in Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter Liese

    2003-01-01

    Bamboo culms are an excellent material for countless applications. Their wider use for construction is encouraged by the growing scarcity of timber. Since bamboo has a low natural resistance, protection against biological degradation is of vital importance for long term service.Protective measures without chemicals are preferable , but often limited in their effectiveness.When using preservatives, the restricted permeability of culm tissue, choice of preservative and treatment method and environmental effects as well as economical aspects have to be considered.

  5. Functional traits enhance invasiveness of bamboos over co-occurring tree saplings in the semideciduous Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montti, Lía; Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I.; Gatti, M. Genoveva; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Many woody bamboo species are forest understory plants that become invasive after disturbance. They can grow rapidly forming a dense, nearly monospecific understory that inhibits tree regeneration. The principal aim of this study was to understand what functional traits of bamboos allow them to outcompete tree seedlings and saplings and become successful species in the semideciduous Atlantic Forests of northeastern Argentina. We studied leaf and whole-plant functional traits of two bamboo species of the genus Chusquea and five co-occurring saplings of common tree species growing under similar solar radiation and soil nutrient availabilities. Nutrient addition had no effect on bamboo or tree sapling survival and growth after two years. Tree species with high-light requirements had higher growth rates and developed relatively thin leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area and short leaf life-span when growing in gaps, but had lower survival rates in the understory. The opposite pattern was observed in shade-tolerant species that were able to survive in the understory but had lower photosynthetic capacity and growth than light-requiring species in gaps. Bamboos exhibited a high plasticity in functional traits and leaf characteristics that enabled them to grow rapidly in gaps (e.g., higher photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass and clonal reproduction in gaps than in the understory) but at the same time to tolerate closed-canopy conditions (they had thinner leaves and a relatively longer leaf life-span in the understory compared to gaps). Photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass was higher in bamboos than in trees. Bamboo plasticity in key functional traits, such as clonal reproduction at the plant level and leaves with a relatively low C cost and high photosynthesis rates, allows them to colonize disturbed forests with consequences at the community and ecosystem levels. Increasing disturbance in some forests worldwide will likely enhance bamboo

  6. Isolation of total RNA from hard bamboo tissue rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides for gene expression studies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    RNA isolation from hard and woody internodal bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) tissue is very difficult due to the presence of secondary metabolites, polysaccharides, and polyphenolics. These compounds often co-precipitate with isolated RNA and hinder downstream applications. We have developed an efficient, cost effective and reproducible RNA isolation method from hard tissue of bamboo internode. This protocol includes an additional organic solvent refinement steps to remove endogenous phenolic compou...

  7. Larval diapause termination in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suang, Suphawan; Manaboon, Manaporn; Singtripop, Tippawan; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Yu; Tiansawat, Pimonrat; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulate larval growth and molting. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is terminating larval diapause especially in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we here measured the expression levels of genes which were affected by juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in diapausing O. fuscidentalis larvae. Corresponding mRNA expression changes in the subesophageal ganglion (SG) and prothoracic gland (PG) were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The data showed similar response patterns of JH receptor gene (OfMet), diapause hormone gene (OfDH-PBAN), ecdysone receptor genes (OfEcR-A and OfEcR-B1) and ecdysone inducible genes (OfBr-C, OfE75A, OfE75B, OfE75C and OfHR3). JHA induced the expressions of OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in both SG and PG, whereas ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were induced by JHA only in PG. For 20E treatment group, expressions of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes in both SG and PG were increased by 20E injection. In addition, the in vitro experiments showed that OfMet and OfDH-PBAN were up-regulated by JHA alone, but ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes were up-regulated by JHA and 20E. However, OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the SG was expressed faster than OfMet and OfDH-PBAN in the PG and the expression of ecdysone receptor genes and ecdysone inducible genes induced by JHA was much later than observed for 20E. These results indicate that JHA might stimulate the PG indirectly via factors (OfMet and OfDH-PBAN) in the SG, which might be a regulatory mechanism for larval diapause termination in O. fuscidentalis. PMID:28369111

  8. TLC Screening for Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Fifteen Bamboo Species and Identification of Antioxidant Flavone Glycosides from Leaves of Bambusa. textilis McClure

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Sun; Feng Tang; Yong-De Yue; Jin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves is growing. To discover new sources of natural antioxidants, a TLC bioautography method combined with a new image processing method was developed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from 15 different species of bamboo. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Bambusa. textilis McClure possessed the highest antioxidant activity among the selected bamboo species. To rapidly identify the antioxidant compounds, the c...

  9. Effect of Red Mud and Copper Slag Particles on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo-Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhyarani Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a series of bamboo-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated by using red mud and copper slag particles as filler materials. A filler plays an important role in determining the properties and behavior of particulate composites. The effects of these two fillers on the mechanical properties of bamboo-epoxy composites are investigated. Comparative analysis shows that with the incorporation of these fillers, the tensile strength of the composites increases significantly, whereas the flexural strength and impact strength decrease with increase in filler content (red mud and copper slag fillers in the epoxy-bamboo fiber composites. The density and hardness are also affected by the type and content of filler particles. It is found that the addition of copper slag filler improves the hardness of the bamboo-epoxy composites, whereas the addition of red mud filler reduces the hardness value of bamboo-epoxy composites. The study reveals that the addition of copper slag filler in bamboo-epoxy composites shows better physical and mechanical properties as compared to the red-mud-filled composites.

  10. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  11. An effective protocol for micropropagation of edible bamboo species (Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera) through nodal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Louis, Bengyella

    2014-01-01

    High demand for edible bamboo shoots of Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera in many Asian ethnic groups has led to the need for developing intensive bamboo farming. To achieve this, in vitro regeneration of bamboo plantlets is needed due to the long and irregular bamboo flowering cycle and scarcity of bamboo seeds. An effective protocol for plantlets regeneration in B. tulda and M. baccifera from nodal explants following validation of the species using the sequence of trnL-F intergenic spacer region is described. Effective axillary bud breaking was achieved at 3 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in MS medium. Importantly, combining 2 mg/L of kinetin (Kn) with 3 mg/L of BAP produced a synergistic effect for shoot multiplication in B. tulda and M. baccifera. Under optimized conditions in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 10 mg/L of coumarin, and 3% sucrose, profuse production of dark-brown rhizome in B. tulda and abundant rooting (81.67%, P < 0.05, F = 15.46) for M. baccifera within 30 days were achieved. The established protocol and the validation of the reported species at the molecular level will be of help to stakeholders in edible bamboo trade to conserve gene-pool and increase productivity.

  12. Contributions to the Taxonomy of the Genus Phyllostachys (Gramineae:Bambusoideae)%竹亚科刚竹属植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖广辉

    2013-01-01

      描述了竹亚科Bambusoideae刚竹属Phyllostachys的2新种和5个新变型:瓜水竹Ph. longiciliata、浙江甜竹Ph. zhejiangensis、黄槽黄古竹Ph. angusta f. flavosulcata、绿槽人面竹Ph. aurea f. koi、蝶毛竹 Ph. edulis f. abbreviata、黄条燥壳竹Ph. hirtivagina f. flavovittata和笔笋竹Ph. nidularia f. basipilis;作出3个新组合变型:厚皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. pachyloen、安吉锦毛竹Ph. edulis f. anjiensis和花秆早竹Ph. violascens f. viridisulcata;对金条竹Ph. aureosulcata f. flavostriata、对花竹Ph. bambusoides f. duihuazhu、黄槽斑竹Ph. bambusoides f. mixta和黄皮毛竹Ph. edulis f. holochrysa的模式标本给予了重新指定.%Two species and five forms of Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc. (Bambusoideae), Ph. longiciliata G. H. Lai, Ph. zhejiangensis G. H. Lai, Ph. angusta McClure f. flavosulcata G. H. Lai, Ph. aurea Carr. ex A. et C. Riv. f. koi G. H. Lai, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. abbreviata G. H. Lai, Ph. hirtivagina G. H. Lai f. flavovittata G. H. Lai and Ph. nidularia Munro f. basipilis G. H. Lai, are described as new to science, and the photos of the living plants are provided. Three new combinations including Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. pachyloen (G. Y. Yang et al.) Y. L. Ding, Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. anjiensis (P. X. Zhang) G. H. Lai and Ph. violascens (Carr.) A. et C. Riv. f. viridisulcata (P. X. Zhang et W. X. Huang) G. H. Lai are proposed. The type specimens of Ph. aureosulcata McClure f. flavostriata S. J. Zhao, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. duihuazhu C. J. Wu, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. f. mixta Z. P. Wang et N. X. Ma and Ph. edulis (Carr.) H. de Lehaie f. holochrysa (Muroi et K. Kasahara) Ohrnberger are newly designated here.

  13. Development status and strategies of Chinese bamboo industry%我国竹产业发展现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开良

    2012-01-01

    为了加快我国竹产业的发展,文中分析了我国竹资源与竹加工产业的现状及竹产业发展中存在的问题,提出了建立健全竹产业财政补贴制度、完善竹产业金融税收扶持政策、拓宽竹产业发展资金来源、建立完善竹产品市场体系、构建多层次竹产业标准体系、大力培育龙头企业等6项对策与建议.%In order to accelerate development of Chinese bamboo industry, present status of Chinese bamboo resources and bamboo processing industry were discussed, and some problems existing in bamboo industry were analyzed. Six strategies and proposals were put forward, including establishment and improvement of financial subsidy system for bamboo industry, improvement of finance and tax support policy for bamboo industry, broadening of fund sources for bamboo industry development, establishment and improvement of bamboo production market, construction of a multi-faceted standardization system for bamboo industry, and development of leading companies.

  14. 毛竹圆竹人工干燥特性研究%Artificial Drying Properties of Moso Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩健; 罗丹

    2012-01-01

    对毛竹圆竹的人工干燥特性进行了研究,研究结果表明:圆竹在干燥过程中重量变化主要发生在干燥前期,而后重量变化很小,这是圆竹脱水的主要阶段;干燥初期竹材在高含水率状态下,水分蒸发在细胞壁和细胞腔同时发生,使竹壁在干燥初期就开始发生收缩,随着竹壁厚度增加,其收缩率相应增加;在干燥前期,在高含水率状态下,薄壁圆竹比厚壁圆竹有更快的干燥速度;在后续干燥阶段,不同壁厚的圆竹脱水率相差不大,圆竹干燥终点的脱水率与竹壁厚度和长度无相关性,圆竹在干燥过程中,水分蒸发不仅发生在圆竹的横切面上,也发生在其内、外壁上.%Artificial drying properties of Moso bamboo were studied. The results showed that the weight loss of round bamboo occurred mainly at earlier stage, the main dehydration period, thereafter, the weight changed little. At earlier stage of drying, water content of round bamboo was high, water evaporated from cell wall and lumen of the bamboo at the same time so that bamboo wall started to shrink, and shrink ratio increased with the increase of bamboo wall thickness, thin-wall round bamboo dried faster than thick-wall one. In the follow-up drying stages, the dehydration ratio of round bamboo with different wall-thickness had little difference, and at the end dehydration ratio was not correlated with wall-thickness and length of round bamboo. The evaporation occurred not only at the cross section, but also on inner and outer faces of round bamboo.

  15. 竹木复合板与竹木复合层积材的抗弯性能%Flexural Performance of Bamboo-wood Composite Boards and Bamboo-wood Composite LVL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武秀明; 孙正军; 许敏敏; 覃道春; 宋光喃

    2014-01-01

    采用成熟的竹木复合集装箱底板制造工艺,根据不同的组坯方式,用竹帘及杨木单板压制成竹木复合板和竹木复合层积材。该工艺的创新点在于只将杨木单板浸胶,而竹帘直接干燥铺装,以减少人工操作对竹帘的破坏。通过研究两种板的抗弯性能,发现其顺向抗弯性能非常好,可将其分别作为集装箱底板和建筑结构用材。此外,针对竹木复合板性能不稳定的问题提出了改进方案。%Using mature bamboo-wood composite container floor manufacturing process and according to different assembly modes, bamboo-wood composite plate and laminated bamboo-wood composite lumber are made by using bamboo curtains and poplar veneers. The innovation point of the process is that only the poplar veneer is dipped in the glue and the bamboo curtains are directly dried and paved to reduce the damage to bamboo curtains caused by artificial operation. The study on the flexural performances of the two kinds of boards shows that they have excellent forward bending performances and can be directly used as materials for container floors and building structural material. Besides, an improvement plan for solving the instability of bamboo-wood composite boards is presented.

  16. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi; Sugiman, Saputra, Yudhi

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  17. Endoscopic retrieval of multiple fragmented gastric bamboo chopsticks by using a flexible overtube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jang Chang; Cho-Li Yen

    2004-01-01

    This is a rare case of a patient with mental disorder, who ingested nineteen pieces of fragmented bamboo chopsticks.We managed the multiple gastric foreign bodies with a sclerotherapy overtube, and these multiple fragmented bamboo chopsticks were retrieved successfully using the endoscopic method. There were only multiple erosions with hemorrhage over the mucosa of fundus and body of stomach,no fragments adhered or perforated through the gastric wall.The mucosa of esophagus was intact. The patient tolerated the procedure well and without any major complications.Multiple sharp elongated gastric foreign bodies can be successfully and safely retrieved by using protective sheath of oropharynx without assistance with laparoscopy or surgical intervention. This renders an option for the endoscopists to manage multiple elongated gastric foreign bodies.

  18. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of lique-faction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liq-uefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120 °C, the reaction time of 7 min, the glycerol–methanol–bamboo ratio of 8/0/2 (W/W), and the microwave power of 300 W. Maximum conversion yield was 96.7%. The liquid products were separated into two contents (water soluble part and precipitate part) by addi-tion of a sufficient amount of water. By Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), the water soluble content mainly con-tained glycerol and its derivate and carbohydrate degra-dation products, and the precipitate content was mainly lignin derivatives.

  19. Preparation and adsorption performances of mesopore-enriched bamboo activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin WANG; Congmin LIU; Yaping ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon with high specific surface area and considerable mesopores was prepared from bam-boo scraps by phosphoric acid activation. The effect of activation conditions was studied. Under the conditions of impregnating bamboo with 80% H3PO4 at 80℃ for 9 days and activation at 500℃ for 4 h, the prepared acti-vated carbon had the highest mesopore volume of 0.67 cm3/g, a specific surface area of 1567 m2/g, and the mesopore ratio reached 47.18%. The study on adsorption isotherms of CH4, CO2, N2 and O2on the activated carbon were carried out at 298 K. The considerable difference in the adsorption capacity between CO2 and the other gases was observed, which would be of interest for the adsorp-tive separation/purification of gaseous CO2 from its mix-tures, especially from mixtures with N2 and/or O2.

  20. 重组竹的耐冲击性能%Impact Resistance Properties of Bamboo Scrimber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于子绚; 江泽慧; 王戈; 程海涛; 张文福; 邱亚新

    2012-01-01

    Low-velocity impact tests were conducted on bamboo scrimber and bamboo-wood scrimber by Instron Dynatup 9 250 HV drop weight impact testing machines in order to explore the adaptabilities of bamboo-wood composites under impact load in extreme circumstances (hurricane or hail storm) and provide a basis for reasonable structural design. The impact properties and damage mechanisms of the two kinds of materials were investigated. Results show that the impact properties of the bamboo scrimber with high density are better compared with that with low density, while the bamboo-wood serimber with vertical and horizontal structure is prior to the bamboo scrimber at the same density level. The impact damage results in longitudinal crack along the fiber direction which leads to overall failure of the material. However, the bamboo-wood scrimber with vertical and horizontal structure could restrain the crack propagation, and defects only occur near the impact position, in which the exit plane of the hammer presents a layered cracking, indicating a layered energy absorbing mechanism. The bamboo-wood scrimber with the same density exhibits a strong ability to resist impact damage.%探索竹/木复合材料在极端环境中(飓风、雹暴等)对冲击载荷的适应性,并在此基础上进行合理的结构设计.利用Instron 9250HV落锤冲击试验机对毛竹重组竹和竹木复合重组材进行了低速冲击试验,研究了密度和组坯形式对冲击性能和损伤模式的影响,并分析了组坯结构与吸能机制的关系.结果表明:高密度重组竹的耐冲击性能较好,纵横组坯的竹木复合重组材冲击性能优于同密度的重组竹.冲击损伤使重组竹沿纤维方向纵向开裂,导致材料整体失效;而竹木复合重组材的横纵结构抑制了裂纹的扩展,使缺陷仅发生在冲击点附近;落锤出射面表现为层状开裂,具有分层吸能的能量吸收机制.相同密度的竹木复合重组材可以更好地抵抗冲击破坏.

  1. Kinetic study of pentosan solubility during heating and reacting processes of steam treatment of green bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiaojuan; Hu, Huichao; Li, Canghai; Cao, Shilin; Huang, Liulian; Chen, Lihui

    2013-02-01

    Green bamboo was hydrolyzed over a range of durations at different temperatures. A simple pseudo-homogeneous irreversible first order kinetic model was developed to describe pentosan solubility during steam treatment of green bamboo. To avoid the influence of soluble pentosan during heating process, kinetic parameters were effectively dissolved based on the data in the reacting process. Moreover, the pentosan solubility during heating process was also well modeled by numerical algorithm method. According to the origin of H factor, a modified parameter called steam treatment factor (f(P)) was proposed in this paper based on the determined kinetic constants. Finally, residual pentosan in whole process could be predicted properly based on the f(P) and the introducing of potential hydrolysis degree (h(d)). After using f(P) to combine reaction temperature and time into a single factor, comparative result showed that steam treatment is more effective for removing pentosan compared with hot water extraction.

  2. Comparison between the Direct Dyeing Kinetics of Bamboo and Conventional Viscose Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ji-liang; TANG Ren-cheng; CHEN Wen-jang

    2010-01-01

    Two direct dyes were applied to conventional viscose(CV)and bamboo viscose(BV)fibers,which were prepared from bamboo cellulose pulps,and the dyeing kinetics of two fibers were compared.Three kinetic equations,namely Chrastil,Cegarra-Puente,and Vickerstaff,were used to fit the experimental dyeing rate points,showing that the best result was obtained by the Chrastil equation.BV fibers displayed slightly higher dyeing rates and dye adsorption values at initial stages,but a bit lower dye adsorption values at equilibrium than CV fibers.Furthermore,the dyeing of BV fibers exhibited lower activation energies and higher dyeing rate constants than that of CV fibers,and therefore showed slightly lower dependence on temperature.

  3. Biosynthesis of Succulent Bamboo Shoots of Bambusa balcooa into Phytosterols and Its Biotransformation into ADD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kananbala SARANGTHEM; Thongam Nabakumar SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation of the succulent bamboo shoots of Bambusa balcooa Roxb. resulted in an enrichment of phytosterols from 0.12% to 0.62% dry weight as compared to that of the fresh unfermented samples. The bacterial strains responsible for higher accumulation of phytosterols during fermentation of the bamboo shoots have been isolated and further extraction and purification of the crude phytosterols (isolated from the fermented samples) were done by TLC, UV, NMR, IR and Mass spectral analysis. The isolated phytosterols (β-sitos-terols) were then subjected to microbial transformation which yielded a considerable amount of androsta-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the incubation mixture in presence of metabolic inhibitors (α, α'-dipyridyl and sodium arsenate).

  4. Effect of Stem Density on Leaf Nutrient Dynamics and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Dwarf Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fu-Zhong; YANG Wan-Qin; WANG Kai-Yun; WU Ning; LU Ye-Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The monthly dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and stocks in leaves,resorption efficiency,and resorption proficiency as well as leaf-level use efficiency,nutrient productivity,and mean residence time were studied to understand the effect of stem density of dwarf bamboo (Fargesia denudata Yi) on leaf-level N and P use efficiency in three dwarf bamboo stands with different stem densities under bamboo-fir (Picea purpurca Mast.) forest over one growing period in the Wanglang National Nature Reserve,Sichuan,China.Dwarf bamboo density had little effect on the dynamics pattern of both N and P concentrations,stocks,resorption efficiency,and resorption proficiency,but strongly affected their absolute values and leaf-level use efficiency.Higher density stands stored more nutrients but had lower concentrations.There was a clear difference in the resorption of limiting nutrient (N) and non-limiting nutrient (P) among the stands.Phosphorus resorption efficiency,N resorption proficiency,and P resorption proficiency increased with increase of stem density,but no significant variation of N resorption efficiency was found among the stands.Moreover,the higher density stands used both N and P more efficiently with higher N productivity and higher P mean residence time,respectively.Higher P productivity was found in the lower density stands,but there was no clear variation in the N mean residence time among stands.These suggested that the higher density stands may have more efficient strategies for utilizing nutrients,especially those which axe limiting.

  5. A delayed frontorbital abscess caused by a penetrating nonmissile foreign body a bamboo stick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-ke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an interesting case of delayed frontal abscess caused by a penetrating nonmissile foreign body, a bamboo stick in a 1.5-year-old male child. A parietal craniotomy was performed, and the brain abscess was resected along with the foreign body without any damage to the surrounding brain tissue. He also received the appropriate antibiotics. The child made a good recovery.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of four flavone C-glycosides in Phyllostachys edulis leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Juan; Meng, Zhi-Fen; Guo, Xue-Feng; Yue, Yong-De; Tang, Feng; Yu, Jin; Chen, Chao

    2014-09-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet spectrometer (HPLC-UV) was used to simultaneously detect the four flavone C-glycosides, i. e. orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin. Analytes were separated with Waters XTerra MS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using acetonitrile and 0.5% (φ) formic acid as mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL · min(-1) with the column temperature at 30 °C, and the detection wavelength was 360 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.1-10.0 mg · L(-1) for the mixed standard solution. Analytes were separated in 22 minutes, and the relative standard deviation values were all above 0.999. LOD values of standards were found to be between 0.03 and 0.07 mg · L(-1), and LOQ values were in the range of 0.04-0.08 mg · L(-1). After comparing the spectra (240-400 nm) of four flavone C-glycosides in mixed standards and the final product purified by macroporous resin, respectively, the curve shape and characteristic ultraviolet absorption wavelength of each flavone C-glycoside including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin were fitted well. The bamboo leaves sample was extracted by ethanol under reflux, and then partitioned with water and petroleum ether. The aqueous phase was added onto macroporous resin (AB-8), and the fraction of ethanol-water (40%, φ) was concentrated. It was found that the contents of orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin relative to the fraction of ethanol- water were 13.73, 49.68, 7.85 and 30.70 mg · g(-1), respectively. In addition, the average recovery of the four flavone C-glycosides ranged from 34.90% to 87.64% with RSD values from 0.41% to 10.83%. The results showed that bamboo leaves sample had good stability and repeatability. The new method was used to analyze the four flavone C-glycosides quickly and provide quality control for commercial products.

  7. Soil Structure Characteristics and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Phyllostachys edulis Forests in Anfu,Jiangxi Province%赣中不同类型毛竹林土壤结构特征及其综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林; 徐海宁; 肖复明; 曾伟; 熊振宇

    2012-01-01

    Five kinds of stand type(Pure Moso bamboo forest,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir,broad-leaved forest,Chinese fir pure forest) had been chosen at Anfu,Jiangxi province.Through the study on soil structural characteristics,such as soil bulk density,soil porosity condition,and content,size,stability of soil aggregate were exposed.Finally,soil structural was comprehensive evaluated by grey correlation degree analysis.The results showed that the order of soil bulk density was mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest〉mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest;soil porosity condition manifested as broadleaf forest is superior to Chinese fir pure forest,Moso bamboo forest is relatively poor.〉0.25 mm soil aggregates content from 94.43% to 97.25%,broadleaf forest were the largest in all soil layers.The order of soil aggregates fractal dimension mean was pure Moso bamboo forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 Chinese fir pure forest 〉 broad-leaved forest.The soil MWD and GMD of different stand types were difference.The soil MWD and GMD mean of mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest and mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir were increased by 3.38%,4.10% and 5.04%,8.11%,respectively.The order of index grey correlation degree of soil structure were broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest by grey correlation degree analysis.The results could provide some scientific basis for forest resources management and vegetation construction in the subtropical region of China.%以赣中毛竹纯林(MC)、竹阔混交林(ZK)、竹杉混交林(ZS)3种不同类型毛竹林地土壤容重、孔

  8. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent.

  9. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Smith

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running" bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata, wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  10. Preparation of adhesive for bamboo plywood using concentrated papermaking black liquor directly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive for bamboo plywood prepared directly using lignin existing in the black liquor as a kind of material replacing phenol was proposed on the basis of the same structural properties of lignin and phenol. The results indicate that the reaction time of black liquor methylating is 30 min, when the ratio of alkali to formaldehyde is controlled at approximately 0.20, decomposition rate of formaldehyde is the lowest and the effect of black liquor methylating is the best, the optimal molar ratio of phenol: formaldehyde to NaOH to H2O of preparing phenolic resin is liquor to phenolic resin, all terms of performance of black liquor phenolic resin are excellent and satisfy the requirement. All terms of performance of bamboo plywood prepared using this technique are better than that of excellent bamboo plywood of national criteria. Using this technique, the cost is depressed by 28.69% without altering the traditional adhesive producing technique flow, and without using additional equipment.

  11. Standardization of harvesting age of bamboo shoots with respect to nutritional and anti-nutritional components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok K.Pandey; Vijayalakshmi Ojha

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo shoots can be harvested at different ages but the data on the changes in nutritional composition with age are scanty.We standardized harvesting age of bamboo shoots in central India to obtain best quality produce with respect to nutritional composition.The shoots harvested on different days (2-20 days after emergence from ground)were analyzed for their nutritional (dietary fibres,carbohydrates,proteins,total phenols,ascorbic acid,sodium,potassium,phosphorus,calcium,magnesium and phenolic acids) and anti nutritional (cyanogen) constituents.A significant variation (at p ≤ 0.5) was observed in the nutritional composition of shoots of Dendrocalamus asper,D.strictus and Bambusa tulda harvested at different days.An overall decrease was observed in proteins and total phenols while dietary fibres and carbohydrates increased with ages.Significant variation (atp ≤ 0.5) was also observed in phenolic acids while minerals did not vary significantly.Results revealed that the optimum harvesting age for D.asper,D.strictus and B.tulda was on 10-14 days,6-10 days and 10-16 days (after emergence from the ground) respectively.These results can be used to obtain quality bamboo shoots.

  12. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  13. The rheological properties of bamboo cellulose pulp/ionic liquid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. F.; Zhang, P. R.; Wu, J.; Jia, Q. X.; Liu, X. Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, two kinds of spinning solutions were prepared by dissolving bamboo cellulose pulp into 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazole chloride salt ([EMIM] Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazole diethyl phosphate salt ([BMIM]DEP) ionic liquids, respectively. Furthermore, the rotational rheometer was used to test the steady-state rheological properties of above as-prepared spinning solutions. The research results show that both of these two ionic liquids exhibit better solubility to the bamboo cellulose pulp. The apparent viscosities(ηa) decrease with the increased temperature(T) and shear rate(γ) and increase with the increased concentration. The non-Newtonian index(n) declined with the increase of both shear rate and concentration, as well as increased with the build-up temperature. The structural viscosity index(Δη) increased with the increased concentration and tended to decrease with temperature rise. Meanwhile, viscous flow activation energy(Eη) decreases with the increased share rate as well as the concentration. According to the results, it can be seen that the bamboo cellulose pulp/[EMIM]Cl with the concentration of 6% at 70°C exhibits better spinnability.

  14. Synthesis of boron carbide nanoflakes via a bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jun [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Li, Qianqian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xia, Yang; Cheng, Xuejuan; Gan, Yongping; Huang, Hui [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Wenkui, E-mail: msechem@zjut.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Tao, Xinyong, E-mail: tao@zjut.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2013-12-25

    Graphical abstract: B{sub 4}C nanoflakes were synthesized via a facile and cost-effective bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method. Highlights: •Boron carbide nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method. •A fluoride-assisted VLS nucleation and VS growth mechanism were proposed. •We studied the resistivity of boron carbide nanoflakes via in situ TEM techniques for the first time. -- Abstract: Boron carbide nanoflakes have been successfully synthesized by a facile and cost-effective bamboo-based carbon thermal reduction method. The majority of the boron carbide products exhibited a flake-like morphology with lateral dimensions of 0.5–50 μm in width and more than 50 μm in length, while the thickness was less than 150 nm. The structural, morphological, and elemental analyses demonstrated that these nanoflakes grew via the fluoride-assisted vapor–liquid–solid combined with vapor–solid growth mechanism. The corresponding growth model was proposed. In addition, the electrical property of individual boron carbide nanoflake was investigated by an in situ two point method inside a transmission electron microscope. The resistivity of boron carbide nanoflakes was measured to be 0.14 MΩ cm.

  15. Characteristics of Bamboo Leaf Ash Stabilization on Lateritic Soil in Highway Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwole A. Adetuberu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the characteristics of bamboo leaf ash stabilization on lateritic soil in highway construction. Preliminary tests were performed on three samples, A, B, and C foridentification and classification purposes followed by the consistency limit tests. Geotechnical property tests (compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR, and triaxial were also performed on the samples, both at the stabilized and unstabilized states by adding 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% bamboo leaf ash (BLA by weight of sample tothe soils. The results showed that the addition of BLA improved the strengths of the samples. Optimum moisture contents reduced to 20.20, 19.60 and 9.32% at 8, 4 and 6% BLA additions in samples A, B and Crespectively while MDD increased to 1400, 1676 and 1941 kg/m3 respectively at 8, 2 and 4% BLA additions in samples A, B, and C. The unsoaked CBR values of samples A and B increased from 5.44 to 38.21% and from 11.42 to 34.99% respectively. The shear strengths of samples A and B also increased from 181.31 to 199.00 kN/m2 and from 144.81 to 155.90 kN/m2 respectively. It was therefore concluded that bamboo leaf ash has a good potential for stabilizing lateritic soils in highway construction.

  16. Grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo, a lignocellulosic biopolymer material, is of interest as feedstock for production of cellulose derivatives by chemical functionalization. Optimization of grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material (average Degree of Polymerization 816, isolated from bamboo (Dendrocalamus stictus was performed by varying the process parameters such as duration of soaking of cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration, polymerization time, temperature of reaction and acrylonitrile concentration to study their influence on percent grafting and grafting efficiency. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus in heterogenous medium can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The optimum reaction conditions obtained for grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material were: duration of dipping cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution 1 hr, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration 0.02 M, acrylonitrile concentration 24.6 mol/anhydroglucose unit, temperature of reaction 40°C and polymerization time 4 hrs. The percent grafting for optimized samples is 210.3% and grafting efficiency is 97%. The characterization of the grafted products by means of FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy furnished the evidence of grafting of acrylonitrile onto the cellulosic material.

  17. Modified Weibull Distribution for Analyzing the Tensile Strength of Bamboo Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that the standard Weibull strength distribution is not always accurate for the description of variability in tensile strength and its dependence on the gauge size of brittle fibers. In this work, a modified Weibull model by incorporating the diameter variation of bamboo fiber is proposed to investigate the effect of fiber length and diameter on the tensile strength. Fiber strengths are obtained for lengths ranging from 20 to 60 mm and diameters ranging from 196.6 to 584.3 μm through tensile tests. It is shown that as the within-fiber diameter variation increases, the fracture strength of the bamboo fiber decreases. In addition, the accuracy of using weak-link scaling predictions based on the standard and modified Weibull distribution are assessed, which indicates that the use of the modified distribution provides better correlation with the experimental data than the standard model. The result highlights the accuracy of the modified Weibull model for characterizing the strength and predicting the size dependence of bamboo fiber.

  18. Experimental study of bamboo using banana and linen fibre reinforced polymeric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural fibres such as bamboo, jute, banana, coir, linen and the like in Fibre Reinforced Polymeric (FRP composites have become so vital due to their high effective stiffness and strength, availability, low cost, specific strength, better dimensional stability and mechanical properties, eco-friendly and biodegradable as compared with synthetic fibres. The interest in natural fibre reinforced polymeric composites is rapidly springing up in terms of research and industrial applications. The increased applications of these natural fibres in such composites are a proof to this claim. The paper deals with the detailed study of bamboo fibre, banana fibre and linen fibre cut into 2−4 mm of length with epoxy resin having random orientations. Various tests like Impact test (IZOD and CHARPY test, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test and Rockwell Hardness test were conducted on 10 specimens of bamboo epoxy resin composite, bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite and bamboo−linen epoxy resin composite. It is analysed and proved that bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite shows better results in Impact test with values of 4 Joules for Izod test and 5 Joules for Charpy test and in FTIR test, compatibility of fibres with polymers in bamboo−banana epoxy resin composite are