WorldWideScience

Sample records for bamboo phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

  1. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, E.

    2000-02-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing tissue

  2. Effect of bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens ) extract on broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens ) extract on broiler chickens under cold stress. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... powdered bamboo extract (BFRE) as a feed additive for chickens was effective in maintaining body weight gain and serum enzymatic activity when birds are exposed to cold stress. Broiler ...

  3. Discovery and comparative profiling of microRNAs in representative monopodial bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and sympodial bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansheng Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to the growth pattern of bamboo, sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo are considered as two mainly kinds of bamboo. They have different phenotypes and different characteristics in developmental stage. Much attention had been paid on the study of bamboo cultivation, processing, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, which had made great progresses in the last decade, especially for the highlighted achievement of the bamboo genomics. However, there is no information available on concerning comparative profiling of miRNAs between sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, which might play important roles in the regulation of bamboo development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified the profiles of small RNAs using leaf tissues from one sympodial bamboo i.e. moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and another monopodial bamboo i.e. ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus. The result showed that there were 19,295,759 and 11,513,888 raw sequence reads, in which 92 and 69 conserved miRNAs, as well as 95 and 62 novel miRNAs were identified in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively. The ratio of high conserved miRNA families in ma bamboo is more than that in moso bamboo. In addition, a total of 49 and 106 potential targets were predicted in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively, in which several targets for novel miRNAs are transcription factors that play important roles in plant development. More importantly, annotation of differentially expressed target genes was performed based on the analysis of pathway and gene ontology terms enrichment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first large-scale sight of discovery and comparative characterization of miRNAomes between two representative bamboos belonged to sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, respectively. Although it will be necessary to validate the function of miRNAs through more experimental research in further, these results lay a foundation for

  4. Surface runoff and phosphorus (P) loss from bamboo (Phyllostachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... Key words: Phyllostachys pubescens, ecosystem, surface runoff, phosphorus (P) loss. .... targets and corresponding nutrient demand, nutrient balance and nutrient use .... rainfall, rainfall intensity as well as solar radiation and.

  5. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  6. Alkali extraction and physicochemical characterization of hemicelluloses from young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Luo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two hemicellulose fractions were obtained by extraction of one-month- old young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel. The fractionation procedure employed 2% NaOH as extractant, followed by filtration, acidification, precipitation, and washing with 70% ethanol solution. The total yield was 26.2%, based on the pentosan content in bamboo. The physicochemical properties were determined and sugar composition analysis showed that the hemicelluloses consisted mainly of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and a small amount of uronic acid. Furthermore, based on FT-IR and NMR spectra analyses, the structure of hemicelluloses was determined to be mainly arabinoxylans linked via (1→4-β-glycosidic bonds with branches of arabinose and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid. The molecular weights were 6387 Da and 4076 Da, corresponding to the hemicelluloses HA and HB. Finally, the thermal stability was elucidated using the TG-DTG method. The obtained results can provide important information for understanding young bamboo and the hemicelluloses in it.

  7. Carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests along a latitude gradient in the subtropical region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjie; Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao

    2018-01-01

    Latitude is an important factor that influences the carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests. Accurate estimation of the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest can contribute to sufficient evaluation of forests in carbon sequestration worldwide. Nevertheless, the effect of latitude on the carbon stock of Moso bamboo remains unclear. In this study, a field survey with 36 plots of Moso bamboo forests along a latitude gradient was conducted to investigate carbon stock. Results showed that the diameter at breast height (DBH) of Moso bamboo culms increased from 8.37 cm to 10.12 cm that well fitted by Weibull model, whereas the bamboo culm density decreased from 4722 culm ha-1 to 3400 culm ha-1 with increasing latitude. The bamboo biomass carbon decreased from 60.58 Mg C ha-1 to 48.31 Mg C ha-1 from north to south. The total carbon stock of Moso bamboo forests, which comprises soil and biomass carbon, ranged from 87.83 Mg C ha-1 to 119.5 Mg C ha-1 and linearly increased with latitude. As a fast-growing plant, Moso bamboo could be harvested amounts of 6.0 Mg C ha-1 to 7.6 Mg C ha-1 annually, which indicates a high potential of this species for carbon sequestration. Parameters obtained in this study can be used to accurately estimate the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest to establish models of the global carbon balance.

  8. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi, E-mail: mitsutoshi.ume@gmail.com; Takenaka, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth. - Highlights: • The bamboo efficiently utilizes boron by the retranslocation and local accumulation. • Zinc found in nodes at high concentrations may support

  9. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth. - Highlights: • The bamboo efficiently utilizes boron by the retranslocation and local accumulation. • Zinc found in nodes at high concentrations may support

  10. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p panda diets when available. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable fungi from fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Ke; Shen, Xiao-Ye; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2017-06-01

    An important and useful bamboo species, fishscale bamboo (Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliver), is broadly distributed in Southeast China and has multiple purposes, including uses in cuisine, weaving, Chinese medicine and ecological protection. However, no previous studies have focused on the endophytes of this plant. In our article, a total of 127 fungal strains were first isolated from the healthy branches and leaves of common P. heteroclada. These endophytic fungi could be directly categorized into 50 morphotypes according to their culture characteristics, and their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed for molecular identification. Using the BLAST search tool of the NCBI database and phylogenetic tree analysis, these isolates were divided into two phyla, Ascomycota (95.28%) and Basidiomycota (4.72%), including at least six orders (Xylariales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Chaetothyriales and Polyporales) and fourteen genera (Arthrinium, Pestalotiopsis, Epicoccum, Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Setophoma, Didymella, Calcarisporium, Preussia, Nemania, Creosphaeria, Ophiobolus, Phialophora and Perenniporia). It is fascinating that four genera, Calcarisporium, Preussia, Creosphaeria and Phialophora were isolated from bamboos for the first time. The inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens were also preliminarily screened, and four isolates FB43 (Calcarisporium arbuscula), FB06 (Preussia minima), FB16 (Setophoma sp.) and FB21 (Perenniporia medulla-pains) among the candidate strains displayed broad-spectrum activities according to the agar diffusion method and the disk diffusion assay. Strain FB16 (Setophoma sp.) especially indicated high bioactivity against both clinical bacteria and yeast. This study is the first report on the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi associated with P. heteroclada, which could be regarded as a potential source of drug precursors and could be used in biocontrol development.

  12. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  13. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (200 μM), ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O (100 μM), CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O (25 μM), and CdCl 2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R 2 values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  14. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of SBP-like transcription factor genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Yue; Liu, Huanglong; Wu, Min; Chu, Wenyuan; Chen, Danmei; Xiang, Yan

    2017-06-27

    The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) that function in a variety of developmental processes including growth, flower development, and signal transduction. SPL proteins are encoded by a gene family, and these genes have been characterized in two model grass species, Zea mays and Oryza sativa. The SPL gene family has not been well studied in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), a woody grass species. We identified 32 putative PeSPL genes in the P. edulis genome. Phylogenetic analysis arranged the PeSPL protein sequences in eight groups. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the SBP-like and SBP proteins from rice and maize clustered them into eight groups analogous to those from P. edulis. Furthermore, the deduced PeSPL proteins in each group contained very similar conserved sequence motifs. Our analyses indicate that the PeSPL genes experienced a large-scale duplication event ~15 million years ago (MYA), and that divergence between the PeSPL and OsSPL genes occurred 34 MYA. The stress-response expression profiles and tissue-specificity of the putative PeSPL gene promoter regions showed that SPL genes in moso bamboo have potential biological functions in stress resistance as well as in growth and development. We therefore examined PeSPL gene expression in response to different plant hormone and drought (polyethylene glycol-6000; PEG) treatments to mimic biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression of three (PeSPL10, -12, -17), six (PeSPL1, -10, -12, -17, -20, -31), and nine (PeSPL5, -8, -9, -14, -15, -19, -20, -31, -32) genes remained relatively stable after treating with salicylic acid (SA), gibberellic acid (GA), and PEG, respectively, while the expression patterns of other genes changed. In addition, analysis of tissue-specific expression of the moso bamboo SPL genes during development showed differences in their spatiotemporal expression patterns, and many were expressed at high levels in flowers and

  15. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Li, Song; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Peng, Danli; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Moso bamboo is recognized as phytoremediation plant due to production of huge biomass and high tolerance in stressed environment. Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to investigate mechanism of copper tolerance and to evaluate copper accumulation capacity of Moso bamboo. In hydroponics experiment there was non significant variation in MDA contents of leaves compared with control. SOD and POD initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 5 μM Cu and then decreased consistently with application of 25 and 100 μM Cu. Application of each additional increment of copper have constantly enhanced proline contents while maximum increase of proline was observed with application of 100 μM copper. In pot experiment chlorophyll and biomass initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with application of each additional increment of Cu. Normal growth of Moso bamboo was observed with application of 100 mg kg-1 copper. However, additional application of 300 or 600 mg kg-1 copper had significantly inhibited growth of Moso bamboo. The concentration of Cu in Moso bamboo has attained the levels of 340, 60, 23 mg kg-1 in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The vacuoles were the main organs which accumulated copper and reduced toxicity of copper as studied by TEM-DEX technology.

  16. Detecting latitudinal and altitudinal expansion of invasive bamboo Phyllostachys edulis and Phyllostachys bambusoides (Poaceae) in Japan to project potential habitats under 1.5°C-4.0°C global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kohei Takenaka; Hibino, Kenshi; Numata, Ayaka; Oguro, Michio; Aiba, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Takayabu, Izuru; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2017-12-01

    Rapid expansion of exotic bamboos has lowered species diversity in Japan's ecosystems by hampering native plant growth. The invasive potential of bamboo, facilitated by global warming, may also affect other countries with developing bamboo industries. We examined past (1975-1980) and recent (2012) distributions of major exotic bamboos ( Phyllostachys edulis and P. bambusoides ) in areas adjacent to 145 weather stations in central and northern Japan. Bamboo stands have been established at 17 sites along the latitudinal and altitudinal distributional limit during the last three decades. Ecological niche modeling indicated that temperature had a strong influence on bamboo distribution. Using mean annual temperature and sun radiation data, we reproduced bamboo distribution (accuracy = 0.93 and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) = 0.92). These results infer that exotic bamboo distribution has shifted northward and upslope, in association with recent climate warming. Then, we simulated future climate data and projected the climate change impact on the potential habitat distribution of invasive bamboos under different temperature increases (i.e., 1.5°C, 2.0°C, 3.0°C, and 4.0°C) relative to the preindustrial period. Potential habitats in central and northern Japan were estimated to increase from 35% under the current climate (1980-2000) to 46%-48%, 51%-54%, 61%-67%, and 77%-83% under 1.5°C, 2.0°C, 3.0°C, and 4.0°C warming levels, respectively. These infer that the risk areas can increase by 1.3 times even under a 1.5°C scenario and expand by 2.3 times under a 4.0°C scenario. For sustainable ecosystem management, both mitigation and adaptation are necessary: bamboo planting must be carefully monitored in predicted potential habitats, which covers most of Japan.

  17. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2007-01-01

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm 2 ) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00±51.56 or 663.20±62.58 per mm 2 of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm 2 were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm 2 )-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB

  18. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00{+-}51.56 or 663.20{+-}62.58 per mm{sup 2} of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm{sup 2} were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm{sup 2})-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB.

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Family and the Expression Patterns of DREB Genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wu

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF transcription factor family, one of the largest families unique to plants, performs a significant role in terms of regulation of growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is a fast-growing non-timber forest species with the highest ecological, economic and social values of all bamboos in Asia. The draft genome of moso bamboo and the available genomes of other plants provide great opportunities to research global information on the AP2/ERF family in moso bamboo. In total, 116 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in moso bamboo. The phylogeny analyses indicated that the 116 AP2/ERF genes could be divided into three subfamilies: AP2, RAV and ERF; and the ERF subfamily genes were divided into 11 groups. The gene structures, exons/introns and conserved motifs of the PeAP2/ERF genes were analyzed. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns and divergence showed the PeAP2/ERF genes underwent a large-scale event around 15 million years ago (MYA and the division time of AP2/ERF family genes between rice and moso bamboo was 15-23 MYA. We surveyed the putative promoter regions of the PeDREBs and showed that largely stress-related cis-elements existed in these genes. Further analysis of expression patterns of PeDREBs revealed that the most were strongly induced by drought, low-temperature and/or high salinity stresses in roots and, in contrast, most PeDREB genes had negative functions in leaves under the same respective stresses. In this study there were two main interesting points: there were fewer members of the PeDREB subfamily in moso bamboo than in other plants and there were differences in DREB gene expression profiles between leaves and roots triggered in response to abiotic stress. The information produced from this study may be valuable in overcoming challenges in cultivating moso bamboo.

  20. Antioxidative and Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) via PKA/CREB-Mediated MITF Downregulation in B16F10 Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Jo, Han-Gyo; Yang, Ji Hye; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2018-01-30

    Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a P. nigra stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p -coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of TYR , TRP-1 , and MITF were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics.

  1. Biochar amendment decreases soil microbial biomass and increases bacterial diversity in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations under simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Lei, Zhaofeng; Song, Xinzhang; Zhang, Zhiting; Ying, Yeqing; Peng, Changhui

    2018-04-01

    Biochar amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve acidic soils after overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. However, little is known of the role of biochar in soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and bacterial community structure and diversity after soil acidification induced by nitrogen (N) deposition. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we determined the effects of biochar amendment (BC0, 0 t bamboo biochar ha‑1 BC20, 20 t bamboo biochar ha‑1 and BC40, 40 t bamboo biochar ha‑1) on the soil bacterial community structure and diversity in Moso bamboo plantations that had received simulated N deposition (N30, 30 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 N60, 60 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 N90, 90 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 and N-free) for 21 months. After treatment of N-free plots, BC20 significantly increased soil MBC and bacterial diversity, while BC40 significantly decreased soil MBC but increased bacterial diversity. When used to amend N30 and N60 plots, biochar significantly decreased soil MBC and the reducing effect increased with biochar amendment amount. However, these significant effects were not observed in N90 plots. Under N deposition, biochar amendment largely increased soil bacterial diversity, and these effects depended on the rates of N deposition and biochar amendment. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to the soil C/N ratio, pH, and soil organic carbon content. These findings suggest an optimal approach for using biochar to offset the effects of N deposition in plantation soils and provide a new perspective for understanding the potential role of biochar amendments in plantation soil.

  2. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  3. Dynamic allocation and transfer of non-structural carbohydrates, a possible mechanism for the explosive growth of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Zhou, Guomo; Gu, Honghao; Li, Quan; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Moso bamboo can rapidly complete its growth in both height and diameter within only 35–40 days after shoot emergence. However, the underlying mechanism for this “explosive growth” remains poorly understood. We investigated the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in shoots and attached mature bamboos over a 20-month period. The results showed that Moso bamboos rapidly completed their height and diameter growth within 38 days. At the same time, attached mature bamboos transferred almost all the NSCs of their leaves, branches, and especially trunks and rhizomes to the “explosively growing” shoots via underground rhizomes for the structural growth and metabolism of shoots. Approximately 4 months after shoot emergence, this transfer stopped when the leaves of the young bamboos could independently provide enough photoassimilates to meet the carbon demands of the young bamboos. During this period, the NSC content of the leaves, branches, trunks and rhizomes of mature bamboos declined by 1.5, 23, 28 and 5 fold, respectively. The trunk contributed the most NSCs to the shoots. Our findings provide new insight and a possible rational mechanism explaining the “explosive growth” of Moso bamboo and shed new light on understanding the role of NSCs in the rapid growth of Moso bamboo. PMID:27181522

  4. Thermal and hygroscopic expansion characteristics of bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Puxi; Chang, Wen-shao; Ansell, Martin P.; Bowen, Chris R.; Chew, John Y. M.; Adamak, Vana i

    2017-01-01

    The expansion and contraction of bamboo caused by temperature and moisture variations must be evaluated\\ud if bamboo is to be utilised as a building material. However, detailed expansion data, especially data in the ascent and\\ud descent processes of temperature and moisture are unexplored. The aim of this study is to investigate the expansion\\ud characteristics of Phyllostachys edulis (Moso bamboo) in ascent and descent processes of temperature and moisture.\\ud The measurement of linear ther...

  5. Insights into the Bamboo Genome: Syntenic Relationships to Rice and Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jie Gui; Nai-Xun Ma; Tian-Zhen Zhang; Long-Jiang Fan; Yan Zhou; Yu Wang; Sheng Wang; Sheng-Yue Wang; Yan Hu; Shi-Ping Bo; Huan Chen; Chang-Ping Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family and plays a significant role in the forest industry.We produced 1.2 Mb of tetraploid moso bamboo(Phyllostachys pubescens E.Mazel ex H.de Leh.)sequences from 13 bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC)clones,and these are the largest genomic sequences available so far from the subfamily Bambusoideae.The content of repetitive elements(36.2%)in bamboo is similar to that in rice.Both rice and sorghum exhibit high genomic synteny with bamboo,which suggests that rice and sorghum may be useful as models for decoding Bambusoideae genomes.

  6. PLANTATION MANAGEMENT AND BAMBOO RESOURCE ECONOMICS IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Antonio Troya Mera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos constitute a very important and versatile resource worldwide. A lot of Asian, African and South American people rely on bamboo products for their housing and farming tools. Meanwhile, the shoots of these plants are regarded as vegetables in East and South-East Asian nations. China has the greatest bamboo forest area (extension and the largest number of bamboo species (more than 590 species, many of them with significant economic importance, being Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis, the most important bamboo species in China, due to its usage not only as timber but also for food. China has paid unprecedented attention in recent decades to bamboo forest management. The vast economic profits derived from silviculture have contributed much to rural development and poverty alleviation. Bamboo industry has become the pillar of economy in mountainous areas. Besides being a tool for poverty alleviation in rural areas, bamboo plantations are also a significant carbon sink and a key option to mitigate land degradation. This paper highlights such aspects as bamboo silviculture (fertilization, pruning, thinning, irrigation, shoot and timber harvesting its domestic and international applications (timber, plywood, food, paper, fuel, housing, etc. in daily life, and  its current role in Chinese industry and economy, without particular reference to any of its species.

  7. Microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo pulp and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Song, Hainong; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Pang, Chunsheng; Liu, Shijie

    2012-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was obtained by disintegrating bleached kraft bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) pulp with a procedure of chemical pretreatment and high-pressure homogenization. The influences of sodium hydroxide dosage and homogenization times were evaluated by water retention value (WRV) of MFC. The properties, such as the surface morphology, rheological property and carboxyl acid content of MFC were also characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), rheometer and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) separately.

  8. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  9. Effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) extract on broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    additive for chickens was effective in maintaining body weight gain and serum enzymatic ... Broiler Huainan partridge chickens (4 weeks old), fed a diet containing ... pubescens) grows particularly well in south-eastern Asia and represents a.

  10. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  11. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Properties of Phyllostachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research March 2016; 15 (3): 569-575. ISSN: 1596-5996 ... China [8]. Phyllostachys prominens is not only used as a building material, but also as a source of high ... Chinese Academy of Forestry. A voucher.

  13. Diversity and Utilization of Bamboo Plants in The Area of Hotel in Kedewatan Village, Ubud, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N. W. F.; Pradnyawathi, N. L. M.

    2017-10-01

    Bamboo or tiying (Balinese language) is a widely used non-timber plant in Indonesia especially in Bali. The presence of bamboo appertains to its ethno-botanical function of bamboo especially for rituals. However, there are other utilization of bamboo which is naturally grown or intentionally planted. Kedewatan as a famous place in northern Ubud, Bali have many lavish hotels with its natural environment and appealing place. The aims of this study is to invent bamboo species diversity and bamboo utilization on private areas of hotel in Kedewatan. Methods used in this study was field survey with observation and interview technic. Observation was implemented by purposive sampling methods by selecting hotel which adjacent to Ayung and Wos rivers. Interview was conducted with some key persons in charge on managing hotel garden. In addition, bamboo species identification was established through literature study. The results show that there are eleven bamboo species found on the survey area with most commonly employed species in the area were tiying tali (Gigantochloa apus (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Kurz.) and tiying gading (Phyllostachys sulphurea (Carr.) A. e.t. C. Riv.) which were belong to exotic species. The areas which bamboo cultivated were welcome area as a hedgerow and near hotel lobby, between, outside and inside villa buildings, and naturally grown in the riverbanks with a good landscaping arrangement. Bamboo plantations were utilized to adorn and support the quality of the hotel building as well as to conserve soil and water along Ayung and Wos river canyons. The other utilization of bamboo was to facilitate ritual activity in Kedewatan village. They are allowed to ask for limited amount of bamboo culms with condition not to damage the physical appearance and function that desired by the hotel manager or hotel owner.

  14. [Effects of mulching management on biomass of Phyllostachys praecox and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wan Lu; Yang, Chuan Bao; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Gao, Gui Bin; Zhong, Zhe Ke

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of stand growth and soil nutrient availability during the degradation processes of Phyllostachys praecox plantation, taking the advantage of bamboo forest stands with different mulching ages (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 a). The results showed the aboveground and belowground biomass of bamboo forest reached the maximum value when they were covered by three years, which was significantly increased by 14.6% and 146.6% compared with the control. The soil nutrient content was affected by the mulching age and soil layer. Soil nutrients gradually accumulated in upper layer. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content were increased with the increases of coverage years. The soil total phosphorus content at different soil layers showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing. It was the lowest level in the surface layer (0-20 cm) and the bottom (40-60 cm) in 6 years, and the subsurface (20-40 cm) soil reached the lowest level in three years. The total potassium content kept increasing in 0-20 cm soil layer, but decreased during the first three years of mulching and then increased in 20-60 cm soil layer. The comprehensive index of soil fertility quality was greatly improved after nine years mulching, with fertility of subsurface soil being better than that of surface and bottom soils. There was no relationship between the soil fertility index and biomass of different organs in bamboo in the different mulching ages. In the subsurface, however, nitrogen content was negatively related to leaf biomass and potassium was negatively correlated with the biomass of leaves and whip roots. Our results indicated that excessive accumulation of soil nutrients seriously inhibited the propagation and biomass accumulation of P. praecox after long-term mulching management and a large amount of fertilizer, which further aggravated the degradation of bamboo plantation.

  15. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  16. Elevated CO2 and O3 Levels Influence the Uptake and Leaf Concentration of Mineral N, P, K in Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. and Oligostachyum lubricum (wen King f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Zhuang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rising CO2 and O3 concentrations significantly affect plant growth and can alter nutrient cycles. However, the effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on the nutrient dynamics of bamboo species are not well understood. In this study, using open top chambers (OTCs, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on leaf biomass and nutrient (N, P, and K dynamics in two bamboo species, Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. and Oligostachyum lubricum (wen King f. Elevated O3 significantly decreased leaf biomass and nutrient uptake of both bamboo species, with the exception of no observed change in K uptake by O. lubricum. Elevated CO2 increased leaf biomass, N and K uptake of both bamboo species. Elevated CO2 and O3 simultaneously had no significant influence on leaf biomass of either species but decreased P and N uptake in P. edulis and O. lubricum, respectively, and increased K uptake in O. lubricum. The results indicate that elevated CO2 alleviated the damage caused by elevated O3 in the two bamboo species by altering the uptake of certain nutrients, which further highlights the potential interactive effects between the two gases on nutrient uptake. In addition, we found differential responses of nutrient dynamics in the two bamboo species to the two elevated gases, alone or in combination. These findings will facilitate the development of effective nutrient management strategies for sustainable management of P. edulis and O. lubricum under global change scenarios.

  17. Analysis of Soil Degradation Causes in Phyllostachys edulis Forests with Different Mulching Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. is famous for its fast growth and biomass accumulation, as well as high annual output for timber and bamboo shoots. Organic mulches are widely used to improve shoots’ production in moso bamboo forests. However, continuous mulching management may cause bamboo forest degradation and affect sustainable development. The objective of this study was to identify the degradation mechanism and to provide a theoretical basis for recovery. A complete randomized block design with four treatments was conducted, including mulching for one year (M1, two years (M2, three years (M3 and no-mulching management (NM. Soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities and microbial biomass were determined. With the increase of mulching years, the soil pH value gradually reduced, causing soil acidification, but the content of soil organic matter was inclined to ascend. Soil total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP and total potassium (TK contents showed an increasing trend, and they were significantly higher in mulching stands than those in NM (p < 0.05. Contents of soil available nutrients (AN, AP and AK increased, then decreased with the increase of mulching years and peaked in M1. With the increase of mulching years, the soil stoichiometry ratio (C/N, C/P and N/P gradually increased. Soil invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities presented a single-peak curve and reached the maximum within one year after mulching. Total microbial biomass and that of individual groups changed greatly after mulching. Soil microbial biomass increased first and then decreased, and it was the largest in M1. The fungi:bacteria ratio decreased in the first year and then began to rise, while the aerobic:anaerobic ratio showed the opposite trend. According to the overall results, M3 leads to soil acidification, imbalance of the nutrients’ proportion, abnormal enzyme activity and change of soil microbial flora, and rotated mulching

  18. Flocculation characteristics of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla: An efficient and eco-friendly flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Hangcheng; Yao, Juming

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a synthesis process and flocculation characteristics of an eco-friendly flocculant based on bamboo pulp cellulose (BPC) from Phyllostachys heterocycla. Ployacrylamide (PAM) was grafted onto the BPC by free-radical graft copolymerization in homogeneous aqueous solution. The optimal synthesis conditions of the bamboo pulp cellulose-graft-ployacrylamide flocculant (BPC-g-PAM) and its performance on wastewater treatments were investigated. A UV-based method was used to rapidly determine the degree of substitution (DS) of BPC. The results showed that, under the optimal synthesis conditions, the obtained BPC-g-PAM held a grafting ratio of 43.8% and DS of 1.31. Turbidity removal of the product reached 98.0% accompanying with the significant flocculation and sedimentation in target suspensions. The flocculation mechanism was explored by means of zeta potential method. For negatively charged contaminants, like kaolin clay particles, the BPC-g-PAM could remove the contaminants efficiently via bridging and charge neutralization in acidic or neutral environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis- based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  20. Biobased bamboo composite development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Uday Kumar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Resource Fiber LLC identified that bamboo fiber could be integrated with synthetic materials to create stronger, lighter weight and “greener” products. In this Phase I work, Resource Fiber collaborated with the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee (MDF). The goal of the collaboration was to conduct proof of concept studies on bamboo fibers with thermoset and thermoplastic resins with a view to create commercial products.

  1. [Effects of intensive management on soil C and N pools and soil enzyme activities in Moso bamboo plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Li, Yong Fu; Li, Yong Chun; Xiao, Yong Heng; Yue, Tian; Jiang, Pei Kun; Zhou, Guo Mo; Liu, Juan

    2016-11-18

    In order to elucidate the effects of intensive management on soil carbon pool, nitrogen pool, enzyme activities in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) plantations, we collected soil samples from the soil surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) layers in the adjacent Moso bamboo plantations with extensive and intensive managements in Sankou Township, Lin'an City, Zhejiang Province. We determined different forms of C, N and soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities. The results showed that long-term intensive management of Moso bamboo plantations significantly decreased the content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), with the SOC storage in the soil surface and subsurface layers decreased by 13.2% and 18.0%, respectively. After 15 years' intensive management of Masoo bamboo plantations, the contents of soil water soluble carbon (WSOC), hot water soluble carbon (HWSOC), microbial carbon (MBC) and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) were significantly decreased in the soil surface and subsurface layers. The soil N storage in the soil surface and subsurface layers in intensively managed Moso bamboo plantations increased by 50.8% and 36.6%, respectively. Intensive management significantly increased the contents of nitrate-N (NO 3 - -N) and ammonium-N (NH 4 + -N), but decreased the contents of water-soluble nitrogen (WSON) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). After 15 years' intensive management of Masoo bamboo plantations, the soil invertase, urease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities in the soil surface layer were significantly decreased, the soil acid phosphatase activity in the soil subsurface layer were significantly decreased, and other enzyme activities in the soil subsurface layer did not change. In conclusion, long-term intensive management led to a significant decline of soil organic carbon storage, soil labile carbon and microbial activity in Moso bamboo plantations. Therefore, we should consider the use of organic

  2. Nomenclature for Engineered Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmiao Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in the development of engineered bamboo materials, which have the potential to play an important role as alternatives to conventional building materials. Despite the growing diversity of bamboo products available on the market, the international standardization of both bamboo products and their constituent elements is limited, and a lack of universal nomenclature is recognized as one of the main constraints on developing standards. Similar or identical terminology is used interchangeably to describe different bamboo elements, processes, or products across sectors and continents. In some cases, translated colloquial names are misleading and scientifically inaccurate, which forms a barrier to global collaboration and research, creates ambiguity, and potentially limits trade. The present work aims to address this gap by proposing a set of appropriate terms in English that accurately describe and differentiate between currently produced engineered bamboo products and their constituent elements, accompanied by parallel terms in Chinese and Spanish. From these, new categories of engineered bamboo building materials are proposed for the Harmonized System of product codes. This paper highlights current ambiguities and provides terminology together with clear definitions of the main primary elements, processing steps, and products.

  3. Arsenic speciation in moso bamboo shoot - A terrestrial plant that contains organoarsenic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Rui [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China (China); Zhao Mengxia [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Hui [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taneike, Yasuhito [Shimadzu Co Ltd, Spectroscopy Business Unit Analytical Instruments Div, Nakagyo Ku, Kyoto, 6048511 (Japan); Zhang Xinrong [Department of Chemistry, Key laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: xrzhang@chem.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic is predominantly found as an inorganic species in most terrestrial plants. However, we found that a significant proportion of organic arsenic was present in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) shoot in a market survey of arsenic species in edible terrestrial plants. Moso bamboo shoots from different producing areas in China were collected for analysis to confirm the ubiquity of methylated arsenic species. The total arsenic concentrations of bamboo shoots were determined by hydride generation coupled atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS), ranging from 27.7 to 94.0 {mu}g/kg. Information about arsenic species was acquired from cold trap-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (CT-HG-AAS). Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was present in the amount of 13.9% to 44.9% of sum of the arsenic species in all these samples. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were also detected in certain samples in the range of 4.2-16.5% and 11.8-18.4%, respectively. In addition, bamboo shoots collected in winter were found to have more total arsenic and organic arsenic than those collected in spring. To investigate the source of the organic arsenic in moso bamboo shoots, arsenic species in the rhizosphere soils of the plants were examined. The absence of organic arsenic in soils would suggest the possibility of formation of methylated arsenic in the plants. In addition, studies of arsenic speciation in the peel and core of winter bamboo shoots showed that all the cores contained organic arsenic while no organic arsenic was detected in the peels. The study provides useful information for better understanding of the distribution of arsenic species in terrestrial plants.

  4. Fine root dynamics in moso bamboo and Japanese cedar forest by scanner method in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Po-Hsuan; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens is one of the most important economic plant in the world. Phyllostachys pubescens originates from China and it had been introduced to neighbor countries about three hundred ago due to its economic value. But substantial bamboo forests were abandoned due to declines in demand. These unmanaged bamboo forests have been expanding to adjacent original forests in northern Taiwan. This vegetation alternation may not only decrease the local biodiversity but also affect the carbon cycle. Fine roots are responsible for water and nutrients acquisition and forming the most active part of the whole root system. The characteristics of fine roots are non-woody, small diameter and short lifespan. When roots keep producing new roots and replacing old roots, carbon and nutrients was transported into soil. Consequently, fine root production is one of the important component to understand the below-ground carbon cycle. However, there is few studies about fine root production in moso bamboo forests. We still lack effective method to obtain quantitative and objective data in Taiwan. It severely limits us to understand the below-ground carbon dynamics there. Minirhizotrons method has been used to investigate fine root dynamics by inserting transparent tubes into soil and by comparing changes in root length in images taken by micro-camera. But this method has some shortcomings; i.e. Most of image analysis are conducted manually and time-consuming. And it is difficult to estimate the stand level fine root production from small observation view. A new method "scanner method", which collect A4-size image (bigger than minirhizotrons) can overcome some parts of the shortcoming of minirhizotrons. The transparent acrylic box with A4-box view is inserted into soil and the interface between soil and box is scanned by commercial scanner. We can monitor the total projected root area, growth and decomposition separately by series of images. The primary objective of this study

  5. International building code for bamboo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.J.A.; Kumar, Arun; Ramanuja Rao, I.V.; Sastry, Cherla

    2002-01-01

    One of the recommendations in the International Bamboo Congress and Workshop, held at Bali in 1995, requested the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), "to organize a task force to discuss and finalize a building code for bamboo". Consequently a draft was prepared under the title, "An

  6. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  7. Instructions for collecting Bamboos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1962-01-01

    Although our knowledge of reproductive parts of bamboos is still very defective, an adequately collected vegetative specimen is valuable and sufficient for identification. Like in tree ferns (see p. 567) and in rattans, a well-collected specimen does not need to be excessively bulky, provided the

  8. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qunCao; Yong-deYue; Zhen-huaPeng; Ri-maoHua; FengTang

    2004-01-01

    The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65mg/L,53.94mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of bamboo.

  9. Effervescent Granules Prepared Using Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Moso Bamboo Leaves: Hypoglycemic Activity in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhou Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens leaves are used as folk medicines in central-western China to treat diabetes. To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the effervescent granules prepared using E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo leaves (EBEG in HepG2 cells, EBEG were prepared with 5% of each of polysaccharides and chlorogenic acids from moso bamboo and E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves, respectively. HepG2 cells cultured in a high-glucose medium were classified into different groups. The results displayed EBEG-treated cells showed better glucose utilization than the negative controls; thus, the hypoglycemic effect of EBEG was much greater than that of granules prepared using either component alone, thereby indicating that this effect was due to a synergistic action of the components. Further, glucose consumption levels in the cells treated with EBEG (156.35% at 200 μg/mL and the positive controls (metformin, 162.29%; insulin, 161.52% were similar. Thus, EBEG exhibited good potential for use as a natural antidiabetic agent. The hypoglycemic effect of EBEG could be due to the synergistic action of polysaccharides from the moso bamboo leaves and chlorogenic acids from E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves via the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphate displacement enzyme.

  10. Benefits from additives and xylanase during enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kena; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-09-01

    Effects of additives (BSA, PEG 6000, and Tween 80) on enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo fractions (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, bamboo node, and bamboo branches) by cellulases and/or xylanase were evaluated. The addition of additives was comparable to the increase of cellulase loadings in the conversion of cellulose and xylan in bamboo fractions. Supplementation of xylanase (1 mg/g DM) with cellulases (10 FPU/g DM) in the hydrolysis of bamboo fractions was more efficient than addition of additives in the production of glucose and xylose. Moreover, addition of additives could further increase the glucose release from different bamboo fractions by cellulases and xylanase. Bamboo green exhibited the lowest hydrolyzability. Almost all of the polysaccharides in pretreated bamboo shoot fractions were hydrolyzed by cellulases with the addition of additives or xylanase. Additives and xylanase showed great potential for reducing cellulase requirement in the hydrolysis of bamboo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1 and agamous-like 24 (AGL24. Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  12. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoming; Fu, Yaping; Zhu, Longfei; Wei, Hantian; Lin, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At) is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1) and agamous-like 24 (AGL24). Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1 , a homolog of Pin1At , from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae). Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis -acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis . On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  13. Bamboo as Soil Reinforcement: A Laboratory Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaji Mohammed MUSTAPHA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A lateritic soil classified as A-6 under AASHTO soil classification system was reinforced with 0, 1, 2 and 3 bamboo specimens at laboratory trial level to evaluate its unconfined compressive strength (UCS and modulus of rigidity. The soil specimens were molded in cylindrical form of 38mm diameter and 76mm height while the bamboo specimens were trimmed in to circular plates of 34mm diameter and 3mm thickness. The trial soil specimens are: soil specimen without bamboo specimen (0 bamboo, soil specimen with one bamboo specimen in the center (1 bamboo, soil specimen with one bamboo specimen on top and one at the bottom (2 bamboos and soil specimen with one bamboo specimen on top, center and bottom (3 bamboos. Though, the dry density of the molded soil specimen decreased from 1.638Mg/m3 at 0 bamboo to 1.470Mg/m2 at 3 bamboos, the UCS increased from 226KN/m2 at 0 bamboo to 621KN/m2 at 3 bamboos. Also, for each of the 3 percentage strains (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% considered, the modulus of rigidity increased with bamboo specimens.

  14. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction of antioxidants from black bamboo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ya Fang; Kim, Sang Min; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-07-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovering bioactive compounds from natural plants, the potential of using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) was examined on black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) leaves, with ethanol/water as solvents. The superheated PLE process showed a higher recovery of most constituents and antioxidative activity, compared to reflux extraction, with a significantly improved recovery of the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) content and DPPH radical scavenging ability. For a broad range of ethanol aqueous solutions and temperatures, 50% EtOH and 200°C (static time: 25min) gave the best performance, in terms of the TP and TF (75% EtOH) content yield and DPPH scavenging ability (25% EtOH). Under the optimised extraction conditions, eight main antioxidative compounds were isolated and identified with HPLC-ABTS(+) assay guidance and assessed for radical scavenging activity. The superheated extraction process for black bamboo leaves enhanced the antioxidant properties by increasing the extraction of the phenolic components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  16. Bamboo construction generated by cocoon contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif; Kim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reflective description of the ecological aspects of the bamboo building 'Cocoon I' in South India.......Reflective description of the ecological aspects of the bamboo building 'Cocoon I' in South India....

  17. Towards a new tectonics in bamboo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif; Kim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reflective description of the unique development of three constructions in bamboo - in India, Italy and South Korea......Reflective description of the unique development of three constructions in bamboo - in India, Italy and South Korea...

  18. A comparative study of regenerated bamboo, cotton and viscose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very little information is available about the validation of these properties through scientific research studies. It is also evident that information about natural bamboo and regenerated bamboo fibre products is often confusing. Regenerated bamboo (also referred to as bamboo viscose or bamboo rayon) is manufactured from ...

  19. Micropropagation of important bamboos: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deba

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Benlate and coconut water (CW) supplemented MS medium. Thereafter, Ogita et al. (2008) reported multiple shoot formation of Phyllostachys meyeri on Plant. Preservative Mixture (PPM) enriched half strength of modified MS medium. Mehta et al. (2010) established multiple shoots from nodal segments of ...

  20. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caranti, Lilian R.A.; Bonse, Baltus C.; Costa, Ricardo A. da

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  1. Resilient bamboo and rattan anchor environmental revival | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... A new bamboo plantation in China's Guizhou province reduced soil erosion ... New bamboo-based building techniques developed in Latin America ... bamboo and rattan as a platform for practising “sustainable development.

  2. Long-term intensive management increased carbon occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) in bamboo forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhang-Ting; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Chang, Scott X.; Song, Zhao-Liang; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Guo-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) is highly stable at millennium scale and its accumulation in soils can help increase long-term C sequestration. Here, we report that soil PhytOC storage significantly increased with increasing duration under intensive management (mulching and fertilization) in Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantations. The PhytOC storage in 0-40 cm soil layer in bamboo plantations increased by 217 Mg C ha-1, 20 years after being converted from paddy fields. The PhytOC accumulated at 79 kg C ha-1 yr-1, a rate far exceeding the global mean long-term soil C accumulation rate of 24 kg C ha-1 yr-1 reported in the literature. Approximately 86% of the increased PhytOC came from the large amount of mulch applied. Our data clearly demonstrate the decadal scale management effect on PhytOC accumulation, suggesting that heavy mulching is a potential method for increasing long-term organic C storage in soils for mitigating global climate change.

  3. The Recent Research on Bamboo Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Murni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last research on bamboo reinforced concrete in Brawijaya University Indonesia. Three kinds of structures studied in recent year, the mounting of pegs on reinforcement, the use of lightweight brick to reduce the weight of the beams, and the use the light weight aggregate for bamboo concrete composite frame. All that experiments overcome some problems exist in using bamboo as environmental acceptance structures.

  4. Fractionation of bamboo culms by autohydrolysis, organosolv delignification and extended delignification: understanding the fundamental chemistry of the lignin during the integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Ni; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-12-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) was successfully fractionated using a three-step integrated process: (1) autohydrolysis pretreatment facilitating xylooligosaccharide (XOS) production (2) organosolv delignification with organic acids to obtain high-purity lignin, and (3) extended delignification with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) to produce purified pulp. The integrated process was comprehensively evaluated by component analysis, SEM, XRD, and CP-MAS NMR techniques. Emphatically, the fundamental chemistry of the lignin fragments obtained from the integrated process was thoroughly investigated by gel permeation chromatography and solution-state NMR techniques (quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC, and (31)P-NMR spectroscopies). It is believed that the integrated process facilitate the production of XOS, high-purity lignin, and purified pulp. Moreover, the enhanced understanding of structural features and chemical reactivity of lignin polymers will maximize their utilizations in a future biorefinery industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Phenological changes in bamboo carbohydrates explain the preference for culm over leaves by giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca during spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina K Knott

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the foodscape force herbivores to select different plant species or plant parts to meet nutritional requirements. We examined whether the search for calorie-rich carbohydrates explained giant panda's selection for bamboo culm over leaves during spring. Leaves and culms were collected from four Phyllostachys bamboos (P. aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. glauca, and P. nuda once per month over 18-27 months. Monthly changes in annual plant part nutrients were examined, and compared to seasonal foraging behaviors of captive giant pandas. Although total fiber was greater (p<0.0001 in culm (85.6 ± 0.5% than leaves (55.3 ± 0.4% throughout the year, culm fiber was at its lowest in spring (79-85% when culm selection by giant pandas exceeded 70% of their overall diet. Culm starch also was greatest (p = 0.044 during spring (5.5 ± 1.1% and 2.5-fold the percentage of starch in leaves (2.2 ± 0.6%. The free sugars in spring culm consisted of a high proportion of glucose (35% and fructose (47%, whereas sucrose made up 42% of the total free sugar content of spring leaves. Bound sugars in culm consisted of 60% glucose and 38% xylose likely representative of hemicellulose. The concentrations of bound sugars (hemicelluloses in spring culms (543.7 ± 13.0 mg/g was greater (p<0.001 than in leaves (373.0 ± 14.8 mg/g. These data help explain a long-standing question in giant panda foraging ecology: why consume the plant part with the lowest protein and fat during the energetically intensive spring breeding season? Giant pandas likely prefer spring culm that contains abundant mono- and polysaccharides made more bioavailable as a result of reduced fiber content. These data suggest that phenological changes in bamboo plant part nutrition drive foraging decisions by giant pandas.

  7. Composition of the epicuticular waxes coating the adaxial side of Phyllostachys aurea leaves: Identification of very-long-chain primary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The present study presents comprehensive chemical analyses of cuticular wax mixtures of the bamboo Phyllostachys aurea. The epicuticular and intracuticular waxes were sampled selectively from the adaxial side of leaves on young and old plants and investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The epi- and intracuticular layers on young and old leaves had wax loads ranging from 1.7 μg/cm(2) to 1.9 μg/cm(2). Typical very-long-chain aliphatic wax constituents were found with characteristic chain length patterns, including alkyl esters (primarily C48), alkanes (primarily C29), fatty acids (primarily C28 and C16), primary alcohols (primarily C28) and aldehydes (primarily C30). Alicyclic wax components were identified as tocopherols and triterpenoids, including substantial amounts of triterpenoid esters. Alkyl esters, alkanes, fatty acids and aldehydes were found in greater amounts in the epicuticular layer, while primary alcohols and most terpenoids accumulated more in the intracuticular wax. Alkyl esters occurred as mixtures of metamers, combining C20 alcohol with various acids into shorter ester homologs (C36C40), and a wide range of alcohols with C22 and C24 acids into longer esters (C42C52). Primary amides were identified, with a characteristic chain length profile peaking at C30. The amides were present exclusively in the epicuticular layer and thus at or near the surface, where they may affect plant-herbivore or plant-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Manufacturing Process of Bamboo Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai; Benhua Fei; Xing' e Liu

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo was a kind of biomass materials and had great potential as a bio-energy resource of the future in China. The physical and combustion properties of bamboo pellets were determined and the effects of moisture content (MC) and sizes of particle on these properties were investigated in this research. The results showed that MC and sizes of particle affected these...

  9. Opportunities of Bamboo for Industrial Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.J.A.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, S. de; Vliet, A.A.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Bamboo as resource for industrial raw material has many opportunities: It contains a 40 percent cellulose, with a fibre length of 3 to 4 mm, more than wood. This can be used as pulp in the paper industry or as cellulose. The fibres also can be used for fibreboard or for furniture parts. Bamboo

  10. Using Bamboo as an Alternative Material for Environmental Friendly Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardjono, F.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, S. de; Vliet, A.A.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Bamboo is one of natural resources that can be applied for building materials. In such bamboo growing countries, bamboo has main role as a building material for more than hundreds years ago. Sometimes bamboo can be used to replace wood based building material. Based on the detecting of problems on

  11. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  12. Review on Bamboo Utilization as Biocomposites, Pulp and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sulaeman; Syamani, F. A.; Fatriasari, W.; Subyakto

    2018-03-01

    One of potential non wood bioresources utilized in industrial application is bamboos. Bamboos are include in graminae family which have high biomass productivity, easy and rapid production, wide avability and high holocellulose content. Indonesia has a huge potential of bamboos, more than 162 bamboo species are found however only some of them are planted that have a high economic value. Bamboos have some advantages such as can be harvested at 3 years, straight culm, high strength, easy to be processed, and relatively cheap. Research Center for Biomaterials has developed utilization of bamboo culm for ply bamboo product as alternative of plywood since 1995, using gombong bamboo, tali bamboo, sembilang bamboo, andong bamboo with PF resin as adhesive. Other biocomposite products from bamboos include particle board, cement board and polymer-bamboo fiber composites. In term of processing technique and final product quality, bamboo composites from ply bamboo are the most prospectable material to be utilized in industrial application. Yellow bamboo and betung bamboo have also been developed as pulp and paper. Biopulping using soda and kraft pulping after biological pretreatment using white rot fungi to remove lignin was used as pulping method in this conversion. Biokraft pulping with Trametes versicolor for 45 days with inoculum loading of 10% resulted better pulp quality compared to the other fungi. Betung bamboo had good morphological characteristics and chemical component content to be converted into bioenergy such as bioethanol. Several pretreatment methods have been developed in order to result high sugar yield. Microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was preferedin producing higher yield from the pretreated bamboo compared to enzymatic hydrolysis. By using this method, the bamboo pretreated by biological-microwave pretreatment results higher improvement to increase sugar yield.

  13. Experimental Research on Destruction Mode and Anchoring Performance of Carbon Fiber Phyllostachys pubescens Anchor Rod with Different Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yulan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anchoring technology is extensively applied in reinforcing protection of the earth relics. Now that no specification is available for different new anchor rods in earth relics protection due to diversified destruction modes of earth relics and complexity of engineering technology conditions, it is urgent to guide reinforcing design and construction with a complete detailed anchor rod research document. With the new carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod as the research object, six lots of in situ tests are designed to, respectively, study the destruction mode and anchoring performance of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod under different anchor length L, anchor rod diameter D, bore diameter H, grouting material S, rib spacing R, and inclination angle A in this paper. By studying load shift curve experiment in drawing of the anchor rod, the destruction mode and ultimate bearing capacity of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod in different experiment lots are obtained, and the concept of permitted application value N in anchor rod design is proposed. By studying strain distribution characteristics of anchor rods in experimental lots along the length direction under action of the permitted application value N and combining the existing destruction mode and ultimate bearing capacity, this paper analyzes influences of L, D, H, S, R, and A on anchoring effect of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod; gives the reasonable value range of L, D, H, and R when the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod is used for reinforcing design of the earth relics; and provides favorable experiment basis for reinforcing design of the earth relics based on the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod.

  14. Propagation Techniques for Highland Bamboo (Arundinaria alpina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Forestry Research Center, ... (10 new shoots per propagule), along its stem length (at the upper, middle and butt ... laminated bamboo lumber (LBL), oriented strand board (OSB), medium density ...

  15. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  16. Socio-Economic Benefits of Bamboo-Craft Entrepreneurship: The Case of Rinconada Bamboo Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Barandon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available –Bamboo entrepreneurship is one of the key instruments in uplifting the socio-economic status of the poor and under privileged people in Rinconada area. This study evaluated the socioeconomic benefits of bamboo craft making on the entrepreneurs of the district. Using descriptive-survey, data were obtained from 60 purposely chosen bamboo entrepreneurs from a list given by the Department of Trade of Industry. A 12-item researcher-made questionnaire was the main gathering tool supported by interview and observation. Results revealed that the social benefits derived by the bamboo entrepreneurs can able to communicate to more networks, adequate support to education of children is being provided, and television sets, while economic benefits is having their own house with sanitation. The bamboo entrepreneurs can satisfy the hierarchy of needs for shelter, security and social communication.

  17. Prefabricated Engineered Bamboo Housing for East Africa | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will endeavor to transfer new bamboo-based prefabricated housing technology from China and India to ... durable, healthy and environmentally friendly houses for the urban poor. ... International Network for Bamboo and Rattan.

  18. Bamboo may be the answer to Ethiopia's growing housing needs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... assesses the potential of bamboo to meet East Africa's urgent housing needs. ... However, modernization, the decreasing availability of bamboo resources, ... the construction of tourist lodges and low-income urban housing which would be a ...

  19. Flowering of Woody Bamboo in Tissue Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flowering and subsequent seed set are not only normal activities in the life of most plants, but constitute the very reason for their existence. Woody bamboos can take a long time to flower, even over 100 years. This makes it difficult to breed bamboo, since flowering time cannot be predicted and passing through each generation takes too long. Another unique characteristic of woody bamboo is that a bamboo stand will often flower synchronously, both disrupting the supply chain within the bamboo industry and affecting local ecology. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that initiates bamboo flowering is important not only for biology research, but also for the bamboo industry. Induction of flowering in vitro is an effective way to both shorten the flowering period and control the flowering time, and has been shown for several species of bamboo. The use of controlled tissue culture systems allows investigation into the mechanism of bamboo flowering and facilitates selective breeding. Here, after a brief introduction of flowering in bamboo, we review the research on in vitro flowering of bamboo, including our current understanding of the effects of plant growth regulators and medium components on flower induction and how in vitro bamboo flowers can be used in research.

  20. Effects of carbonization conditions on properties of bamboo pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai; Benhua Fei; Yan Yu; Xing' e Liu

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a biomass material and has great potential as a bio-energy resource of the future in China. Bamboo pellets were successfully manufactured using a laboratory pellet mill in preliminary work. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the effect of carbonization conditions (temperature and time) on properties of bamboo pellets and to evaluate product...

  1. Mechanical properties of moso bamboo treated with chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhua Fei; Zhijia Liu; Zehui Jiang; Zhiyong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a type of biomass material and has great potential as a bioenergy resource for the future in China. Surface chemical and thermal–mechanical behavior play an important role in the manufacturing process of bamboo composites and pellets. In this study, moso bamboo was treated by sodium hydrate solution and acetic acid solution. Surface chemical and dynamic...

  2. Ethnobotany of Bamboo in Sangirese, North Celebes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Liana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances in technology have encouraged the growth of a variety of biodiversity processing methods. These conditions encourage efforts to use natural resources more broadly. Ethnobotany can be used to document the local knowledge of the plants and their utilization. This study is aimed to describe the various forms of bamboo utilization by Sangirese. The method used was survey with purposive sampling. The data were analyzed descriptively based on exploration results and interviews with the people. The results showed there were 11 species of bamboo that are directly related to the life of local community in Sangirese, consisting of seven species of Bambusa, three species of Schizostachyum, and each one species of Dendrocalamus and Gigantochloa. Local community use bamboo for a variety of daily necessities; as building materials, handicraft, furniture, ceremonies, musical instruments, transportation, medicine, ornamental plants, as well as food. These exploration results are expected to complement the data of bamboo ethnobotany in Indonesia. Applicatively, this research is expected to be a reference in the national strategy of bamboo germplasm resource conservation.

  3. Study on the mould-resistant properties of moso bamboo treated with high pressure and amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Dong Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo's products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for...

  4. Biomonitoring of Urban Pollution Using Silicon-Accumulating Species, Phyllostachys aureosulcata 'Aureocaulis'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morina, Filis; Vidovic, M.; Streckovic, T.; Radovic, V.; Veljovic-Jovanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 6 (2017), s. 706-712 ISSN 0007-4861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bamboo * phytoliths * carbon * stress * rice Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.412, year: 2016

  5. Simple clamped connection for bamboo truss systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, R.

    2016-01-01

    “How to make fast and simple tension connections for truss systems?” The Solution: The innovation is a connection that uses only widely available base components (boltsand threaded steel bars) and simple hand tools to install it. With a handsaw and aspanner, the bamboo stems can be combined into to

  6. Understory bamboo discrimination using a winter image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Liu, X.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a new approach is presented that combines forest phenology and Landsat vegetation indices to estimate evergreen understory bamboo coverage in a mixed temperate forest. It was found that vegetation indices, especially the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from

  7. Effects if 60Co γ rays radiation on seed vigor and young seedling growth of phyllostachys edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunju; Gao Jian; Mu Shaohua

    2007-01-01

    The dry seeds of Phyllostachys edulis were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ rays, the effects of the radiation on seed vigor and seedling growth characters were investigated by four testing methods, i.e. germination testing indoor, electrical conductivity, TTC vigor testing and growth classification of saddling. Results showed that the germination process and germination rate could be accelerated by doses of 60 Co γ rays (≤100 Gy), and higher doses of 60 Co γ rays (>100 Gy) could obviously inhibit the germination process and reduce seed vigor, while induce seed embryo broken, cell division, growth restrained, the height of young seedling and length of root decreasing. The inhibition effects were significantly increased with radiation dose increase. The optimal range of radiation dose for radiation breeding of Phyllostachys edulis dry seeds was 100 to 175 Gy. Linear relationships were existed in electrical conductivity after dipping in water for 24h in germination rate (G), germination index (GI), vigor index (VI), height of seedlings and length of root. EC after 24h and height of seedlings were chosen to test the change of seeds vigor and the effect of the radiation of 60 Co γ rays on Phyllostachys edulis. (authors)

  8. Different carbonization process of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, S. S. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Bamboo charcoal has attracted a lot of interests due to their microporous structure, high surface area and great adsorption properties. Some of the applications utilizing this material focused on these advantages such as water purification, electromagnetic wave absorber and blood purification. However, these advantages really depend on the carbonization and activation process of bamboo charcoal. The production must be carried out in properly control environment with precise temperatures and timing. This paper report the production of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata in controlled environment at 500 °C for 1 hour (lab-prepared). Then the material was characterized for their dispersibility and adsorption behaviour. Furthermore, the bamboo charcoal that was produced commercially, by company, was also characterized and compared. The results show, bamboo charcoal produced by lab-prepared has similar qualities with the commercial bamboo charcoal.

  9. Diversity of Bamboos around springs in Malang East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Solikin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos have important roles to people in the villages area. They are planted and used by the people for making houses, food, buckets, fences, ropes, fuels, musical instruments and plaits. The root distribution of Bamboos is large and fibrous, also the growth of their new clumps is ascendant so the Bamboos has good potency for water and soil conservation on river banks, around the springs, hillsides and scarps. The survey to invent the bamboos growing around the springs was conducted in Singosari, Lawang, Karangploso, Dau and Lowokwaru Malang East Java in May 2009. The Bamboos invented at 0-100 m from the springs. The results Showed that there were four Bamboos founded around the springs namely Bambusa blumeana,Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter and Gigantochloa apus. Dendrocalamus asper was the most dominant species founded around the springs with relative frequency, relative density and important value index is 45.83 ; 58.49 and 104.32 respectively.

  10. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-04-16

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha(-1) y(-1) and 4.5 × 10(8)kg CO2 y(-1), respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 10(9) kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths.

  11. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-06-11

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants.

  12. Intraorbital wooden and bamboo foreign bodies: CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the CT findings of intraorbital wooden and bamboo foreign bodies in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages. We examined four patients using CT a total of seven times. The CT findings were reviewed. There were three dry wooden foreign bodies. CT within a day of the accident demonstrated wooden foreign bodies as low density relative to surrounding orbital fat, while CT 8-29 days after the accident showed them as denser than the extraocular muscles. In the acute stage, dry wooden foreign bodies mimic air bubbles. Wooden foreign bodies in the subacute and chronic stages should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions of soft tissue density or above on CT of traumatised orbits. There was one dry bamboo foreign body. Within a day of the accident it was recognised as linear lesion isodense with fat. Therefore, such foreign bodies may be missed on CT when located in the orbital fat. (orig.)

  13. Electrical valorization of bamboo in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Bussy, Jacques de

    2012-01-01

    ENEA releases a technical benchmark of small-scale woody biomass-to-electricity technologies, as well as its application to a project to valorize bamboo in Rwanda and Burundi. Within the framework of its voluntary consulting action, ENEA has provided technical and project management support to help INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rottin) evaluate the technical feasibility of its project and assess what would be the best available technology to fit with the project's objectives and local context. This report thus includes up-to-date description of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis technologies as well as associated power-generation engines. For each, principle, advantages and drawbacks, technical maturity, adaptation to small-scale, flexibility to a change in biomass, scale-up feasibility, economical aspects or else environmental impacts are described and compared. Unit's integration within its environment, electricity use and associated business models are also addressed, and needed bamboo crop surfaces to meet power supply objectives are assessed

  14. Homogenate-assisted Vacuum-powered Bubble Extraction of Moso Bamboo Flavonoids for On-line Scavenging Free Radical Capacity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yinnan; Yang, Kui; Cao, Qin; Sun, Jinde; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-07-11

    A homogenate-assisted vacuum-powered bubble extraction (HVBE) method using ethanol was applied for extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens (P. pubescens) leaves. The mechanisms of homogenate-assisted extraction and vacuum-powered bubble generation were discussed in detail. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of flavonoids by HPLC was established. HVBE followed by HPLC was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of four flavonoids in P. pubescens , including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This method provides a fast and effective means for the preparation and determination of plant active components. Moreover, the on-line antioxidant capacity, including scavenging positive ion and negative ion free radical capacity of different fractions from the bamboo flavonoid extract was evaluated. Results showed that the scavenging DPPH ˙ free radical capacity of vitexin and isovitexin was larger than that of isoorientin and orientin. On the contrary, the scavenging ABTS⁺ ˙ free radical capacity of isoorientin and orientin was larger than that of vitexin and isovitexin.

  15. Heterodera guangdongensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from bamboo in Guangdong Province, China--a new cyst nematode in the Cyperi group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Kan; Wang, Honghong; Zhang, Hongling; Liao, Jinling

    2014-11-07

    Heterodera guangdongensis n. sp. is described from bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) based on morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA D2D3 expansion domains of large subunit (LSU D2D3) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. This new species can be classified in the Cyperi group. Cysts are characterized by a prominent, ambifenestrate vulval cone with weak underbridge, a vulva-anus distance of 28.9-35.9 μm and a vulval slit of 31.1-41.0 μm, but without bullae. Females are characterized by a 25.1-27.6 μm stylet with rounded knobs sloping slightly posteriorly. Males are characterized by a 21.5-23.0 μm stylet with knobs slightly projecting or flat anteriorly, lateral field with four lines, and a 22.0-26.0 μm spicule with bifurcate tip. Second-stage juveniles are characterized by a 19.3-21.3 stylet with slightly projecting or anteriorly flattened knobs, lateral field with three lines, a 41.7-61.3 μm tail with finely rounded terminus and hyaline portion forming 43.0-57.1% of the tail length. Molecular analyses show that the species has unique D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences and RFLP-ITS-rRNA profiles.

  16. Heterodera fengi n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from bamboo in Guangdong Province, China--a new cyst nematode in the Cyperi group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Zhuo, Kan; Ye, Weimin; Zhang, Hongling; Peng, Deliang; Liao, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Heteroderafengi n. sp. is described and illustrated from bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) based on morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA LSU D2D3 region and ITS. This new species belongs to the Cyperi group. Cysts are characterized by prominent vulval cone with ambifenestrate, bifurcate underbridge that is thicker in middle and a 47.0 (40.0-60.0) µm long vulval slit, but without bullae. The second-stage juveniles are characterized by a 23.2 (22.0-24.0) µm long stylet with slightly projected or anteriorly flattened knobs, three incisures in lateral field, a 70.2 (62.5-77.0) µm long tail with bluntly rounded terminus and hyaline portion ca 58.9 (50.0-62.5)% of the tail length. Males are characterized by a 25.1 (24.5-26.3) µm long stylet with rounded knobs sloping posteriorly, four incisures in lateral field, a 29.8 (27.5-31.3) µm long spicule with bifurcate tip. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the species has unique D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences and RFLP-ITS-rRNA profiles. Heteroderafengi n. sp. is closest to H. elachista in dendrograms inferred from both DNA sequences.

  17. Micropropagation of important bamboos: A review | Mudoi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tissue culture mediated biotechnological interventions made in bamboo for large scale micropropagation, that being the need of the hour. Keywords: Bamboo, micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro flowering, macroproliferation, field performance, clonal fidelity. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(20), pp.

  18. Effectiveness of Nigerian Bamboo Activated with Different Activating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Nigerian Bamboo activated with different activating agents on the adsorption of BTX was investigated. A series of activated carbons was prepared from Nigerian bamboo, carbonized at 400oC – 500oC and impregnated with different concentrations of four acids at 800oC in a muffle furnace for 2 hours.

  19. Using bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as a field drainage material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), one of the most widespread member of its genus, was used as field drainage material in Akure, Nigeria. Pre-determined sizes of bamboo with uniform lengths and diameters were installed as sub-drains in agricultural field for drainage purposes, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

  20. Bamboo Fibre Reinforced Cement Used as a Roofing Sheet | Alade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo fibre roofing sheet was able to withstand an average load of 51Kg, which is above the minimum required strength of 50kg. Comparatively, Asbestos roofing sheets and coconut fibre roofing sheets of similar dimensions had failure loads of 104.65Kg and 79Kg respectively. When immersed in water, bamboo fibre ...

  1. Utilization of vast Nigeria's bamboo resources for economic growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo is recognized as an industrial raw material globally and has tremendous potentials for the economic development of the nations. This paper reviewed the potentials of the abundant Nigeria's bamboo resources used for house construction, household items, biofuel, charcoal, pulp and paper, irrigation and drainage ...

  2. Diversity and utilization of bamboo species in Tigawasa Village, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS KETUT ARINASA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tigawasa is one of the famous traditional villages as a center of bamboo handicraft in Buleleng regency-Bali. As a center of bamboo handicraft its have been wrestled since centuries. Their peoples have done traditionally bamboo conservation surrounding their house and garden too. The marginal area, river flow area and stiff slope that are outskirts of village become to focus of bamboo conservation by their peoples, too. This research conducted at Tigawasa village in June 2003 by stripe and interview methods. Two kilometers stripe length by 50 meters width; follow the direction north south of the river was investigated. To know the utilization of kind of bamboo and their product conducted by interview to craftsman and community figure. The result of inventory knew about four genus consist of 19 species planted in this village. To know those bamboo species will be presented their key of determination. The genus of Gigantochloa and Schizostachyum to dominate of their species, and have many uses of it’s, also. Not less than 54 kind of bamboos handicraft product was produced in this village. The diversity of bamboos handicraft product, develop according progress of the technology and demand of period. Many of new products composed and use of color or paint develop to produce varieties of fixed product. Two-kind of product that is traditional boxes (“sokasi” handicraft and woven bamboo (“bedeg” to become this village famous at Bali, even though in foreign countries Energetic development of bamboos home industry to come to decrease stock of raw materials. About two trucks supply from east Java regularly to anticipation of decrease local stock of raw materials every week.

  3. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  4. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.

  5. New conceptual design of portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaffa, A. A.; Nor, N. M.; Yusof, M. A.; Yuhazri, M. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Portable bridges serve as routes for troops during the military operations and the disaster relief operation. Nowadays, bamboo has been regarded as one of the alternative construction materials for building and bridge structures. This paper presents the conceptual design of the portable bridge. Several types of portable bridges and bamboo bridges are reviewed in the current work. The characteristics, capability and method of construction of each bridge are discussed. Finally, the conceptual of the portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes is presented. The idea of producing portable bridge is proposed in the current work as it is crucial for providing route for communities affected by natural disasters.

  6. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  7. Ecology of litterfall production of giant bamboo Dendrocalamus asper in a watershed area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Toledo Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant bamboo Dendrocalamus asper is recommended in environmental and livelihood programs in the Philippines due to its various ecological, economic and social benefits. However, there are limited data on the ecology of giant bamboo litterfall production, which contributes to soil nutrient availability. Bamboo also contributed in carbon sequestration. The study was conducted within the Taganibong Watershed in Bukidnon, Philippines. Nine litterfall traps measuring 1mx1m were established within the giant bamboo stand in the study area. Results show that giant bamboo litterfall is dominated by leaves. Biological characteristics of bamboo litterfall do no not influence litterfall production but temperature, wind speed and humidity correlate with the amount of litterfall. Findings of the study further revealed that fresh giant bamboo tissue contains high carbon content and the soil in the bamboo stand has higher organic matter than the open clearing. These data indicate the role of giant bamboo in carbon sequestration and soil nutrient availability.

  8. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. PMID:27433496

  9. The potential of bamboo in the design of polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Delgado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an alternative sustainable material for use in product design and has been incorporated into the concepts of eco-design. Here, we investigated the mechanical properties and morphologies of low density polyethylene (LDPE/bamboo flour (BF composites that were modified with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tensile tests of the composites demonstrated poor adhesion between the filler and matrix. Contact angle measurement showed that the surface of LDPE was modified by the presence of the load. The thermal stability of the composites was studied by measuring the oxidation induction time (OIT. Preliminary bacterial penetration tests were performed using culture inoculums of E. coli and S. aureus to investigate the natural antibacterial and bacteriostatic properties attributed to bamboo. Furthermore, bamboo may have interesting antioxidant activity with potential for use in food packaging applications.

  10. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Owen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social networking, gaining viewpoints of young adults who are far more interested in marketing the products than manufacturing them. Additionally, a potential for bamboo as a food source and charcoal aligns with the fiesta culture of Guam. Sourcing of Bamboo vulgaris, Guamís major bamboo species, has ecological benefits, while blumeana could be cultivated for crafts for export and tourists. Future study is planned to further involve young adults utilizing social networking methods developing culturally appealing and ecologically beneficial industry for the island.

  11. Enhancing the combustible properties of bamboo by torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Patrick; Aguiar, Clarissa; Labbé, Nicole; Commandré, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo has wide range of moisture content, low bulk energy density and is difficult to transport, handle, store and feed into existing combustion and gasification systems. Because of its important fuel characteristics such as low ash content, alkali index and heating value, bamboo is a promising energy crop for the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Bambusa vulgaris. Three different torrefaction temperatures were employed: 220, 250 and 280°C. The elemental characteristics of lignite and coal were compared to the torrefied bamboo. The characteristics of the biomass fuels tend toward those of low rank coals. Principal component analysis of FTIR data showed a clear separation between the samples by thermal treatment. The loadings plot indicated that the bamboo samples underwent chemical changes related to carbonyl groups, mostly present in hemicelluloses, and to aromatic groups present in lignin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and mechanical characterization of green bamboo composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aidy; Ng, W. K.; Arifin, F.; Rassiah, K.; Othman, F.; Hazin, M. S.; Ahmad, M. M. H. Megat

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a bamboo composite is developed using specific bamboo species known as Gigantochloa Scortechinii (Buluh Semantan) which can be found in Malaysia. In precise, the woven bamboo (WB) was formed from the culm fier composite with an average of 0.5 mm thickness and 5.0 mm width strip is laminated with Wowen E Glass (WEG) and reinforced with epoxy (EP). The laminated was using a hand lay-up technique. The developed bamboo composites are then characterized comprehensively in the term of tensile, hardness, impact, fatigue and fracture test. It is found that the strength was equivalent with the existing steel alloy in term of tensile and fracture properties.

  13. Investigating co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wang, Ruijuan; Jiang, Changle; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wanhe; Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-11-01

    To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage. With the increase of bamboo content, characteristic temperatures decreased. Compared with untreated biomass, torrefied biomass had a higher initial and burnout temperature. With the increase of heating rates, combustion process of samples shifted to higher temperatures. Compared with non-isothermal models, activation energy obtained from isothermal model was lower. The result is helpful to promote development of co-combustion of bamboo and masson pine wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dowelled structural connections in laminated bamboo and timber

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Thomas Peter; Sharma, Bhavna; Harries, Kent; Ramage, Michael Hector

    2015-01-01

    Structural sections of laminated bamboo can be connected using methods common in timber engineering, however the different material properties of timber and laminated bamboo suggest that the behaviour of connections in the two materials would not be the same. This study investigates the dowelled connection, in which a connector is passed through a hole in the material, and load is resisted by shear in the connector and embedment into the surrounding material. Steel dowels were used in a conne...

  15. Morphology and properties of recycled polypropylene/bamboo fibers composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tri; Guinault, Alain; Sollogoub, Cyrille; Chuong, Bui

    2011-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is among the most widely used thermoplastics in many industrial fields. However, like other recycled polymers, its properties usually decrease after recycling process and sometimes are degraded to poor properties level for direct re-employment. The recycled products, in general, need to be reinforced to have competitive properties. Short bamboo fibers (BF) have been added in a recycled PP (RPP) with and without compatibilizer type maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Several properties of composite materials, such as helium gas permeability and mechanical properties before and after ageing in water, were examined. The effects of bamboo fiber content and fiber chemical treatment have been also investigated. We showed that the helium permeability increases if fiber content is higher than 30% because of a poor adhesion between untreated bamboo fiber and polymer matrix. The composites reinforced by acetylated bamboo fibers show better helium permeability due to grafting of acetyl groups onto cellulose fibers surface and thus improves compatibility between bamboo fibers and matrix, which has been shown by microscopic observations. Besides, mechanical properties of composite decrease with ageing in water but the effect is less pronounced with low bamboo fiber content.

  16. Performance Using Bamboo Fiber Ash Concrete as Admixture Adding Superplasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Gunalaan

    2017-06-01

    The increasing demand on natural resources for housing provisions in developing countries have called for sourcing and use of sustainable local materials for building and housing delivery. Natural materials to be considered sustainable for building construction should be ‘green’ and obtained from local sources, including rapidly renewable plant materials like palm fronds and bamboo, recycled materials and other products that are reusable and renewable. Each year, tens of millions of tons of bamboo are utilized commercially, generating a vast amount of waste. Besides that, bamboo fiber is easy availability, low density, low production cost and satisfactory mechanical properties. One solution is to activate this waste by using it as an additive admixture in concrete to keep it out of landfills and save money on waste disposal. The research investigates the mechanical and physical properties of bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement. The structural value of the bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement was evaluated with consideration for its suitability in concrete. Varied percentage of bamboo fiber powder (BFP) at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% as an admixture in 1:2:4 concrete mixes. The workability of the mix was determined through slump; standard consistency test was carried on the cement. Compressive strength of hardened cured (150 x 150 x 150) mm concrete cubes at 7days, 14days and 28days were tested.

  17. Bamboo structures: evoke the spirit workshop [organisation, facilitation, research] Brescia, Italy; 1-14 July 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.; Thompson, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Student workshop run by MM Kolakowski and Alan Thompson for architectural students. Construction of large scale bamboo structures: 18-metre high tower, 9-metre high wheel arches and other bamboo constructions.

  18. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products : Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an

  19. Improved understorey bamboo cover mapping using a novel hybrid neural network and expert system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    The giant panda is an obligate bamboo grazer. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo determines the quantity and quality of panda habitat. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to

  20. Isolation and evaluation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial ability from Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi (30 isolates from bamboo branches were categorized into 12 genera, based on the blast analyses of ITS nrDNA sequence in GenBank and microscopic examination. The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of endophytic fungi. Inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens have been screened for all the isolates preliminarily and strains tentatively identified as Cladosporium sphaerospermum (PE106, Simplicillium lanosoniveum (PE120, Curvularia sp. (PE127, Didymella sp. (PE128 and Penicillium cf. raistrickii (PE130 presented bioactivity against at least four tested pathogens using the agar diffusion method. Crude extracts of PE106, PE120, PE127 and PE130 displayed broad-spectrum activity against plant pathogenic fungi by mycelial radial growth test. All of the four isolates were found to have high bioactivity against the frequent plant pathogenic fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana, and two of the isolates (PE120 and PE130 also inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Thanatephorus cucumeris noteworthily. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with branches of Ph. edulis.

  1. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the treated substrate. The cellulose conversion to glucose yield reached 77.1 to 83.4% after enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids fraction for 48 h at an enzyme loading of 15 FPU cellulase/g cellulose and 30 IU β-glucosidase/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate was significantly accelerated as the ethanol organosolv pretreatment time increased, reaching the highest enzymatic glucose yield of 83.4% after 48 h at 50 °C. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors such as HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural and furfural were 0.96 g/L and 4.38 g/L in the spent liquor after the ethanol organosolv pretreatment, which were slightly lower than the concentrations quantified during H2SO4-water treatment. Spent liquor was diluted with water, and more than 87.2% of lignin in raw bamboo was recovered as ethanol organosolv lignin through the filtration process.

  2. Influence of bio-solution pretreatment on the structure, reactivity and torrefaction of bamboo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chu, Yen-Shih; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A bio-solution of natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) is used to pretreat bamboo. • The bio-solution removes hemicellulose in powdered bamboo significantly. • Bamboo powder pretreated by bio-solution may be feasible for producing bioethanol. • Penetration of bio-solution into block bamboo controls the pretreatment mechanism. • The homogeneity of bamboo is improved by the bio-solution pretreatment. - Abstract: A bio-solution of natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) is used to pretreat bamboo, with emphasis on the influence the pretreatment upon the structure, reactivity, and torrefaction of the biomass. Two different operating modes accompanied by five different soaking durations are considered. In Mode 1 the bamboo is ground followed by pretreated by the bio-solution, and an inverse procedure is used in Mode 2. The results indicate that, with the operation of Mode 1, NOE-7F removes hemicellulose in the bamboo significantly, thereby improving the homogeneity of the biomass. This pretreated bamboo may be feasible for enzymatic hydrolysis to produce bioethanol. The penetration of the bio-solution into block bamboo becomes the controlling mechanism under Mode 2 operation, and therefore relatively less hemicellulose is consumed from Mode 2. The ignition and burnout temperatures of the pretreated bamboo are higher than those of the raw bamboo, revealing the lower reactivity and higher storage safety of the former. The atomic H/C and O/C ratios as well as the calorific value of the bamboo are insensitive to the pretreatments, whereas the crystalline structure of cellulose is affected by the bio-solution to a certain extent, regardless of Mode 1 or Mode 2 operation. This suggests that torrefaction is required if the pretreated bamboo is employed as a fuel. The pretreated bamboo with Mode 2 is more suitable for torrefaction because of higher torrefaction severity.

  3. Modification of bamboo surface by irradiation of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nishigaito, S.; Flauta, R.; Kasuya, T.

    2003-01-01

    When beams of hydrogen ions, He + and Ar + were irradiated onto bamboo surface, gas release of hydrogen, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were enhanced. Time evolution of the gas emission showed two peaks corresponding to release of adsorbed gas from the surface by sputtering, and thermal desorption caused by the beam heating. The difference in etched depths between parenchyma lignin and vascular bundles was measured by bombarding bamboo surface with the ion beams in the direction parallel to the vascular bundles. For He + and Ar + , parenchyma lignin was etched more rapidly than vascular bundles, but the difference in etched depth decreased at a larger dose. In the case of hydrogen ion bombardment, vascular bundles were etched faster than parenchyma lignin and the difference in etched depth increased almost in proportion to the dose. The wettability of outer surface of bamboo was improved most effectively by irradiation of a hydrogen ion beam

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Potassium Extraction from Bamboo Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadhi Tjokorde W.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potentially economical fuel crop that has not been utilized at a substantial extent for energy generation in Indonesia. As a thermal conversion waste, bamboo ash is particularly interesting due to its high potassium content. This paper discusses the determination of several key parameters of a simple batchwise extraction process to recover potassium in the form of weak solution from bamboo ash. To produce the ash, black bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae is charred in a fixed bed combustor. The bamboo char is ground and ashed at 500 °C in an electric furnace. The ash yield is 3.3 %-mass relative to as-received ash, with an ash K2O content of 12.9 %-mass. The ash is ground until passing 100-mesh standard sieve, and extracted by deionized water on a 2-stage laboratory-scale batchwise extractor battery. Process variables include extractror battery configuration (counter-current and co-current, temperature (nominal setting at 45-80 °C, and contact period of 1-6 hours. The concentration of extracted K2O increases asymptotically with temperature and contact time. Counter-current extraction yields more than twice the extract K2O concentration compared to cross-current extraction. The optimum conditions for the counter-current extraction is identified as a temperature of 78 °C and contact time of 4 hours, resulting in a 0.70 %-mass K2O solution concentration. Spot sampling of commercial liquid fertilizer products in Indonesia indicates an equivalent K2O content of 0.08-13.6 %-mass, suggesting the potential of the bamboo ash extract as an intermediate for fertilizer product.

  5. Evaluation of Torrefied Bamboo for Sustainable Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.; Pels, J.; Fryda, L.; Zwart, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production. Bamboo presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. Up to date, there are no studies on fuel properties of the bamboo specie Guadua angustifolia. Bamboo is a difficult fuel and most thermal conversion processes have stringent fuel specifications, which are challenging to fulfil with biomass streams. Bamboo is tenacious and fibrous which makes it difficult and expensive to grind. Furthermore, the characteristics with regard to handling, storage and degradability are not favourable for biomass in general. The thermal pre-treatment torrefaction is a promising upgrading technology that can enhance the fuel quality by addressing these issues. During torrefaction, biomass is heated to 250-320C in the absence of oxygen. At the end of the process the material is milled and compressed into pellets. In this way, the biomass becomes easy to grind, more hydrophobic and has a high energy density. Alternatively, wet torrefaction (Torwash) allows for combined torrefaction and washing of the feedstock. Wet torrefaction, a form of hydro-thermal treatment, in addition to dry torrefaction removes salts and minerals from biomass, improving even more the quality of the product. This is in particular interesting for feedstock containing significant amounts of undesirable alkali components for combustion or gasification, as is the case of bamboo. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of Guadua angustifolia as a fuel for heat and power applications. The results of biomass fuel properties and characteristics and quality improvement via dry and wet torrefaction are assessed. Torrefaction clearly shows the improvement of fuel properties and grindability of biomass. Wet-torrefied Guadua angustifolia is chemically an attractive fuel, with favourable fuel properties, e.g. the results showed a 98% of alkali removal, and the

  6. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

  7. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  8. Bamboo-inspired optimal design for functionally graded hollow cylinders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Sato

    Full Text Available The optimal distribution of the reinforcing fibers for stiffening hollow cylindrical composites is explored using the linear elasticity theory. The spatial distribution of the vascular bundles in wild bamboo, a nature-designed functionally graded material, is the basis for the design. Our results suggest that wild bamboos maximize their flexural rigidity by optimally regulating the radial gradation of their vascular bundle distribution. This fact provides us with a plant-mimetic design principle that enables the realization of high-stiffness and lightweight cylindrical composites.

  9. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  11. Distribution of radiocesium in bamboo leaves, roots and shoots. Application of an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Haruka; Ogata, Yoshimune; Satou, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    When radiocesium is taken into a wild plant accidentally, it will circulate for a certain period of time. Bamboo is that in some cases relative high concentration of radiocesium have been reported. Radiocesium is considered to be concentrated in bamboo shoot by translocation in plants from bamboo leaves or roots. In this study, to investigate the behavior of radiocesium, shoots, roots, branches and leaves of bamboo (Phyllostadhys edulis) were collected at Yamakiya area, Kawamata-machi, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture. Radiation image analysis was conducted using an imaging plate BAS 2040 (Fujifilm) and an image analyzer Typhoon FLA7000 (GE Healthcare Japan Corp.). The content of radiocesium was about 500 Bq for "1"3"4Cs and 700 Bq for "1"3"7Cs per the bamboo shoot (500 g approximately). In the edible parts of bamboo shoots, the skin of bamboo shoots and leaves of newly-grown, radiocesium uptake was in high concentration, especially at the tip. (author)

  12. Interfering Satellite RNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV, the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of interfering satBaMV and BaMV. Like other satRNAs, satBaMV mimics the secondary structures of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs of BaMV as a molecular pretender. However, a conserved apical hairpin stem loop (AHSL in the 5′-UTR of satBaMV was found as the key determinant for downregulating BaMV replication. In particular, two unique nucleotides (C60 and C83 in the AHSL of satBaMVs determine the satBaMV interference ability by competing for the replication machinery. Thus, transgenic plants expressing interfering satBaMV could confer resistance to BaMV, and interfering satBaMV could be used as biological-control agent. Unlike two major anti-viral mechanisms, RNA silencing and salicylic acid-mediated immunity, our findings in plants by in vivo competition assay and RNA deep sequencing suggested replication competition is involved in this transgenic satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference. We propose how a single nucleotide of satBaMV can make a great change in BaMV pathogenicity and the underlying mechanism.

  13. 533 assessment of the impacts of bamboo promotion on soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... Formal, informal interviews and field observation were used to collect data. 41 ... which is harvested from existing natural forests, plantation and mixed ... National Park (VNP) and the restoration of. Virunga ... capacities of bamboo propagation techniques and ... The study area was Gataraga Sector situated.

  14. One laminated bamboo-frame house per hectare per year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flander, De K.; Rovers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a quantitative analysis that demonstrates the global potential of bamboo as a "modern" construction material. The underlying goal is to contribute to a real shift in resource management by focussing on renewable resources in general and on the high brow, modern use

  15. Secondary metabolites from the unique bamboo, Melocanna baccifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Viswanathan, Gayathri; Ramaswamy, Venkataraman; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2018-02-15

    Phytochemistry of fruits and leaves of the unique bamboo Melocanna baccifera resulted in the isolation of 27 secondary metabolites, including 4-Oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7),5,8-triene and Verbacine. Biological activity studies of Verbacine revealed it as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and as cytotoxic against C6 cancer cells.

  16. Deployable bamboo structure project: A building life-cycle report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Adrian; Prastyatama, Budianastas; Sagara, Altho; Wirabuana, Revian N.

    2017-11-01

    Bamboo is considered as a sustainable material in the world of construction, and it is vastly available in Indonesia. The general utilization of the material is increasingly frequent, however, its usage as a deployable structure-a recently-developed use of bamboo, is still untapped. This paper presents a report on a deployable bamboo structure project, covering the entire building life-cycle phase. The cycle encompasses the designing; fabrication; transportation; construction; operation and maintenance; as well as a plan for future re-use. The building is made of a configuration of the structural module, each being a folding set of bars which could be reduced in size to fit into vehicles for easy transportation. Each structural module was made of Gigantochloa apus bamboo. The fabrication, transportation, and construction phase require by a minimum of three workers. The fabrication and construction phase require three hours and fifteen minutes respectively. The building is utilized as cafeteria stands, the operation and maintenance phase started since early March 2017. The maintenance plan is scheduled on a monthly basis, focusing on the inspection of the locking mechanism element and the entire structural integrity. The building is designed to allow disassembly process so that it is reusable in the future.

  17. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  18. Weight loss in bamboo ( Bambusa vulgaris ) treated with neem seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Split-bamboo samples conditioned to 11.76% moisture content were converted to test specimens for Percentage Weight Loss (PWL) and treated with mechanically extracted neem seed oil at two different treatment temperature regimes by completely soaking a set in oil at ambient room temperature of 25 ± 2oC for 24 hours ...

  19. Insights on predominant edible bamboo shoot proteins | Sayanika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that high level of peptides polymorphism among 13 bamboo species was within the range of 20.10-15.50 and 66.50-29 KDa. Gel analysis shows that Bambusa oliveriana expressed the maximum number of diverse peptides while Bambusa nutans expressed the minimum ...

  20. The durability and mechanical strenght properties of bamboo in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The durability and mechanical strenght properties of bamboo in reinforced concrete. GA Alade, FA Olutoge, AA Alade. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 4(2) 2004: 35-40. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Preparation, characterization of chitosan/bamboo charcoal/poly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-22

    Sep 22, 2017 ... analyses. The composite beads showed low carbon particle released at pH 7.4 and 6.8. ... Bamboo plant has recently been considered as an important biomass ... it changed with temperature over time, morphology, etc. The.

  2. Changes of foraging patch selection and utilization by a giant panda after bamboo flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochun; Song, Huadong; Altigani, Latifa A A; Zheng, Xueli; Bu, Shuhai

    2017-07-01

    The bamboo flowering leads to the habitat fragmentation and food quality decline of a giant panda. Few empirical research has been conducted about the giant panda's response to the bamboo flowering. Here, we investigated the characteristics of bamboo stands, giant panda's activity, and selection and utilization of bamboo stands by giant panda in Taibaishan National Nature Reserve, China, over a 3-year period (September 2013-May 2016) during the Fargesia qinlingensis flowering period. Our results indicated that the proportion of whole bamboo stands flowering has gradually expanded from 26.7% in 2013 and 33.9% in 2014 to 52.3% in 2015. Although the flowering bamboo has lower crude protein and higher crude fiber than a non-flowering bamboo, the giant panda still fed on flowering bamboo from the evidence of droppings. The giant panda left its feeding sites and moved to the high elevation along river when the proportion of flowering reached 69.2% at elevation of 2350-2450 m in the third year. With the decline of the quality of bamboo stand of Fargesia qinlingensis, the giant panda abandoned its feeding sites when the threshold value of bamboo flowering reached 56.9-69.2%. Flexibility in foraging strategy and spatial behavior can help the giant panda to better adapt to the environment.

  3. Higher level phylogenetic relationships within the bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) based on five plastid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchner, Scot A

    2013-05-01

    Bamboos are large perennial grasses of temperate and tropical forests worldwide. Two general growth forms exist: the economically and ecologically important woody bamboos (tribes Arundinarieae and Bambuseae), and the understory herbaceous bamboos (tribe Olyreae). Evolutionary relationships among the 1400+described species have been difficult to resolve with confidence. Comparative analysis of bamboo plastid (chloroplast) DNA has revealed three to five major lineages that show distinct biogeographic distributions. Taxon sampling across tribes and subtribes has been incomplete and most published data sets include a relatively small number of nucleotide characters. Branching order among lineages is often poorly supported, and in more than one study herbaceous bamboos form a clade within the woody bamboos. In this paper, the Bamboo Phylogeny Group presents the most complete phylogeny estimation to date of bamboo tribes and subtribes using 6.7 kb of coding and noncoding sequence data and 37 microstructural characters from the chloroplast genome. Quality of data is assessed, as is the possibility of long branch attraction, the degree of character conflict at key nodes in the tree, and the legitimacy of three alternative hypotheses of relationship. Four major plastid lineages are recognized: temperate woody, paleotropical woody, neotropical woody, and herbaceous bamboos. Woody bamboos are resolved as paraphyletic with respect to Olyreae but SH tests cannot reject monophyly of woody species (Arundinarieae+Bambuseae). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Characterization And Composition Liquid Smoke-charcoal-compost Bamboo Sawdust As Natural Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wijaya M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to produce liquid smoke through pyrolisis process and to get fractions of potential chemical components from bamboo wastes. Results of this research are expected to give benefits as follows: (1 Liquid smoke produced from wood and bamboo waste through pyrolisis process is able to diversify preservative products, (2 Rate reaction from value rate constanta by pyrolitic kinetic model resulted from this process can be used to find expected compounds in large quantities. Results of pyrolisis bamboo dust have the highest yield of liquid smokes as much as 18.18% in pyrolitic temperature of 200 C. The highest acid content of results of pyrolisis of bamboo dust with electrical reactor resulted at pyrolitic temperature of 400 C was 7,89%, whereas, in pyrolisis result of bamboo dust with electrical reactor was shown ar pyrolitic temperature of 500 C. In terms of the charcoal produced from pyrolisis process containing the highest yield was bamboo dust (33,28%. Identification of GC-MS of bamboo dust could provide compounds that mostly derived from acid group and was dominated by aceton, acetic acid, 3 hidroksi 2 butanone, icocyanat acid and n butana. Change kinetic model of bamboo wastes is energy activasi bamboo. The technology of integrated bamboo vinegar-charcoal-compost production hence deserved its dissemination throughout Indonesia, as pesticide natural.

  5. Effect of carbonization temperatures on biochar formation of bamboo leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, D.; Kumar, S.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Bamboo is a typical plant native in Asia, been used in many sectors, which also produces a large volume of leaves which goes waste and not find its application for any useful purposes; is often considered as a bio-waste and normally incinerated or dumped; as its applications are not yet fully explored. However, some research work done on bamboo fibers for use as a reinforcement in making polymer matrix composite. In the present piece of research work, the influence of burning/carbonization of bamboo leaves (at different temperatures) have been studied and characterized. Proximate analysis gave the fixed carbon content (of ~nearly21%). X-Ray diffraction results revealed the presence of various phases viz. cristobalite (SiO2), Calcite (Ca2O3) etc. accompanied with changes in crystal structures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed various modes of vibrations viz. O-H stretching bending of other bonds; (for aromatic benzene derivatives) etc. Scanning Electron Microscopic observation (of morphology) showed irregular stacking arrangements between the randomly spaced lamellae structure, with variation in carbonizing temperature. Results revealed the advantages of pyrolysis process in biochar production/formation. It appears that, the bamboo biochar can have suitable properties for its use as an alternative energy source and also for agricultural applications. Its high porosity and carbon content suggest its application as activated carbon also; after physical or chemical treatments. The present research focuses on extending the frontiers of use of bamboo leaves from being an unutilized biowaste to its conversion into a value added product, which can be compassed in terms of sustainable applications.

  6. Bamboo-Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Material for Structural Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Morales, Angel; Güemes, Alfredo; Fernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Carcelen Valero, Veronica; De La Rosa Llano, Sonia

    2017-11-09

    Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long) were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at industrial sectors such

  7. Bamboo vs. crops: An integrated emergy and economic evaluation of using bamboo to replace crops in south Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on long-term monitoring conducted in Chang-ning county, a pilot site of the ‘Grain for Green Program’ (GFGP), an integrated emergy and economic method was applied to evaluate the dynamic ecological-economic performance of 3 kinds of bamboo systems planted on slo...

  8. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  9. Dense understory dwarf bamboo alters the retention of canopy tree seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Zhang, Tengda; Guo, Qinxue; Tao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    Tree seed retention is thought to be an important factor in the process of forest community regeneration. Although dense understory dwarf bamboo has been considered to have serious negative effects on the regeneration of forest community species, little attention has been paid to the relationship between dwarf bamboo and seed retention. In a field experiment we manipulated the density of Fargesia decurvata, a common understory dwarf bamboo, to investigate the retention of seeds from five canopy tree species in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Jinfoshan National Nature Reserve, SW China. We found that the median survival time and retention ratio of seeds increased with the increase in bamboo density. Fauna discriminately altered seed retention in bamboo groves of different densities. Arthropods reduced seed survival the most, and seeds removed decreased with increasing bamboo density. Birds removed or ate more seeds in groves of medium bamboo density and consumed fewer seeds in dense or sparse bamboo habitats. Rodents removed a greater number of large and highly profitable seeds in dense bamboo groves but more small and thin-husked seeds in sparse bamboo groves. Seed characteristics, including seed size, seed mass and seed profitability, were important factors affecting seed retention. The results suggested that dense understory dwarf bamboo not only increased seeds concealment and reduced the probability and speed of seed removal but also influenced the trade-off between predation and risk of animal predatory strategies, thereby impacting the quantity and composition of surviving seeds. Our results also indicated that dense understory dwarf bamboo and various seed characteristics can provide good opportunities for seed storage and seed germination and has a potential positive effect on canopy tree regeneration.

  10. Bamboo mapping of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda for the year 2016 using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Feng, Duole; Jayaraman, Durai; Belay, Daniel; Sebrala, Heiru; Ngugi, John; Maina, Eunice; Akombo, Rose; Otuoma, John; Mutyaba, Joseph; Kissa, Sam; Qi, Shuhua; Assefa, Fiker; Oduor, Nellie Mugure; Ndawula, Andrew Kalema; Li, Yanxia; Gong, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of bamboo in East Africa is necessary for biodiversity conservation, resource management and policy making for rural poverty reduction. In this study, we produced a contemporary bamboo cover map of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda for the year 2016 using multi-temporal Landsat imagery series at 30 m spatial resolution. This is the first bamboo map generated using remotely sensed data for these three East African countries that possess most of the African bamboo resource. The producer's and user's accuracies of bamboos are 79.2% and 84.0%, respectively. The hotspots with large amounts of bamboo were identified and the area of bamboo coverage for each region was estimated according to the map. The seasonal growth status of two typical bamboo zones (one highland bamboo and one lowland bamboo) were analyzed and the multi-temporal imagery proved to be useful in differentiating bamboo from other vegetation classes. The images acquired in September to February are less contaminated by clouds and shadows, and the image series cover the dying back process of lowland bamboo, which were helpful for bamboo identification in East Africa.

  11. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DURABILITY OF BAMBOO Gigantochloa scortechinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norashikin Kamarudin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo signifies as one of the fastest growing plants and it can be used for various products. In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, bamboo is abundantly available at reasonable prices, therefore it is used for numerous purposes. However, as lignocellulosic material, bamboo is susceptible to fungal and insect attacks. Heat treatment is an option to improve bamboo's durability. The objective of this study was to improve the durability of bamboo using hot oil palm treatment. A Malaysian grown bamboo species, Buluh Semantan (Gigantochloa scortechinii, as a study material was soaked in hot oil palm for various temperatures and soaking time, before being inoculated with the basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor in an agar block test. The results demonstrated that the longer the heating time, the more improved the durability of bamboo. Altering the temperature in the palm oil treatment produced varying results. Bamboo blocks that heated in hot oil palm at 100°C for 60 minutes shows considerably less weight eduction that indicates less fungal attack. Overall, the higher the temperature, the better the durability of bamboo. Please indicates what the meaning of heat treatment in this experiment, it is not clear.

  12. Effect of clonal integration on nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere of rhizomatous clonal plant, Phyllostachys bissetii, under heterogeneous light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Jing-Song; Xue, Ge; Peng, Yuanying; Song, Hui-Xing

    2018-07-01

    Clonal integration plays an important role in clonal plant adapting to heterogeneous habitats. It was postulated that clonal integration could exhibit positive effects on nitrogen cycling in the rhizosphere of clonal plant subjected to heterogeneous light conditions. An in-situ experiment was conducted using clonal fragments of Phyllostachys bissetii with two successive ramets. Shading treatments were applied to offspring or mother ramets, respectively, whereas counterparts were treated to full sunlight. Rhizomes between two successive ramets were either severed or connected. Extracellular enzyme activities and nitrogen turnover were measured, as well as soil properties. Abundance of functional genes (archaeal or bacterial amoA, nifH) in the rhizosphere of shaded, offspring or mother ramets were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Carbon or nitrogen availabilities were significantly influenced by clonal integration in the rhizosphere of shaded ramets. Clonal integration significantly increased extracellular enzyme activities and abundance of functional genes in the rhizosphere of shaded ramets. When rhizomes were connected, higher nitrogen turnover (nitrogen mineralization or nitrification rates) was exhibited in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets. However, nitrogen turnover was significantly decreased by clonal integration in the rhizosphere of shaded mother ramets. Path analysis indicated that nitrogen turnover in the rhizosphere of shaded, offspring or mother ramets were primarily driven by the response of soil microorganisms to dissolved organic carbon or nitrogen. This unique in-situ experiment provided insights into the mechanism of nutrient recycling mediated by clonal integration. It was suggested that effects of clonal integration on the rhizosphere microbial processes were dependent on direction of photosynthates transport in clonal plant subjected to heterogeneous light conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Improvement of acoustical characteristics : wideband bamboo based polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, M.; Purniawan, A.; Rasyida, A.; Ramadhani, M.; Komariyah, S.

    2017-07-01

    Environmental friendly and comfortable materials are desirable for applications in the automobile interior. The objective of this research was to examine and develop bamboo based polymer composites applied to the sound absorption materials of automobile door panels. Morphological analysis of the polyurethane/bamboo powder composite materials was carried out using scanning electron microscope to reveal the microscopic material behavior and followed by the FTIR and TGA testing. The finding demonstrated that this acoustical polymer composite materials provided a potential wideband sound absorption material. The range of frequency can be controlled between 500 and 4000 Hz with an average of sound absorption coefficient around 0.411 and it met to the door panels criteria.

  14. Utilization of Merbau Wood Extract to Bind Laminated Bamboo Products

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, Adi; Sulastiningsih, Ignasia Maria; Pari, Gustan; Jasni, Jasni

    2016-01-01

    The report describes the use of adhesive made from merbau wood extract (Intsia Spp.) which is allowed to copolymerize with resorcinol, formaldehyde under alkaline conditions, and tapioca as an extender. The adhesive was used to manufacture three-ply composite board consisting of a back and core layers made from sengon (Falcataria mollucana), and jabon (Anthocephalus chinensis), while the face layer was made either one of three bamboo species, namely, andong (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea)...

  15. Dadih bamboo ampel (bambusa vulgaris) and bamboo gombong (gigantochloa verticilata) 2 and 3 days fermented : effect on salad dressing hedonic quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Nurzainah

    2018-03-01

    The study aims to find time of fermentation of dadih and hedonic quality of dadih salad dressing. Goat milk was fermented in two kinds of bamboo: bamboo Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris) and bamboo Gombong (Gigantochloa verticilata) with different days; i.e. 2 and 3 days which will then became dadih while the dadih then were used as a raw material for making salad dressing. In Indonesia today there is an increasing on vegetable salad demand due to understanding of the benefits of consuming vegetables. One form of vegetable preparation is vegetable salad that is generally used as non local dressings. This research was conducted from April to May 2017 using Factorial Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors; i.e factor 1 (2 and 3 days fermented dadih) and factor 2 (bamboo types : bamboo Ampel and bamboo Gombong) with 4 replications. The parameters were flavor, color, aroma and texture (hedonic evaluation) where there were 25 panelists in doing evaluation. The results showed that 2 days fermented in bamboo ampel significantly (P <0.05) were preferred.

  16. Effect of Board Type on Some Properties of Bamboo Strandboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihak Sumardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of bamboo strandboard (OSB by comparing different board types and strand-lengths. Bamboo strandboards with nominal dimensions of 37 mm by 37 mm by 12 mm and target density 0.65 g/cm3 were manufactured using moso bamboo (Pyllostachys pubescent Mezel and MDI resin to produce two types of strandlength. Two types of strand length and MDI resin were used to produce three types of strandboard. The bending properties and dimensional stability of the strandboards were evaluated according to the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS for particleboard. The results of this experiment indicate that the bending properties and internal bond strength were affected by both board type and strand-length. The distribution of resin inside the 80 mm strandboard was less homogenous than in the 50 mm strandboard, which affects the internal bond strength. Thickness swelling of the RAND board was the highest and linear stability was affected substantially by strand alignment. The RAND board and cross-oriented 3LAY board effectively restrained linear expansion in the direction perpendicular to the strand alignment. A cross-oriented core may be the most effective way to reduce dimensional change and bending property values in perpendicular directions.

  17. Bamboo leaf ash as the stabilizer for soft soil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. S. A.; Jais, I. B. M.; Sidek, N.; Ahmad, J.; Rosli, M. I. F.

    2018-04-01

    Soft soil is a type of soil that have the size of particle less than 0.063mm. The strength of the soft soil does not fulfil the requirement for construction. The present of soft soil at the construction site always give a lot of problems and issues to geotechnical sector. Soil settlement is one of the problems that related to soft soil. The determination of the soft soil physical characteristics will provide a detail description on its characteristic. Soft soil need to be treated in order to gain the standard strength for construction. One of the method to strengthen the soft soil is by using pozzolanic material as a treatment method for soft soil. Furthermore bamboo leaf ash is one of the newly founded materials that contain pozzolanic material. Any material that consist of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) as the main component and followed by Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) are consider as pozzolanic material. Bamboo leaf ash is mix with the cement as the treatment material. Bamboo leaf ash will react with the cement to produce additional cement binder. Thus, it will increase the soil strength and will ease the geotechnical sector to achieve high quality of construction product.

  18. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  19. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  20. Effective of Microwave-KOH Pretreatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang Li; Zehui Jiang; Yan Yu; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo, with its advantages of fast growth, short renovation, easy propagation and rich in cellulose and hemicellulose, is a potential feedstock for bioethanol or other biofuels production. The objective of this study was to examine the fea- sibility of microwave assistant KOH pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo. Pretreatment was car- ried out by...

  1. Water absorption and tensile strength degradation of Petung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) fiber-reinforced polymeric composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judawisastra, H.; Sitohang, Ramona; Rosadi, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo fibers have attracted great interest and are believed to have the potential as natural fiber for reinforcing polymer composites. This research aims to study water absorption behavior and its effect to tensile strength of the composites made from petung bamboo fiber, which is one of the most

  2. Evaluation of Bamboo Porous Pipe as Line Source Emitter in Trickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to evaluate the use of bamboo as porous pipe (line source) emitter in trickle irrigation at the Cross River University of Technology Teaching and Research Farm Obubra. Two sets of bamboo laterals: opened and plugged ends were used for the trial. The experiment was conducted using four different ...

  3. evaluation of bamboo porous pipe as line source emitter in trickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHRISTY

    This paper attempts to evaluate the use of bamboo as porous pipe (line source) emitter in trickle irrigation at the Cross River University of Technology Teaching and Research Farm Obubra. Two sets of bamboo laterals: opened and plugged ends were used for the trial. The experiment was conducted using four different ...

  4. Production of a manual on testing methods for the use of bamboo in engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.J.A.; Kumar, Arun; Ramanuja Rao, I.V.; Sastry, Cherla

    1998-01-01

    Tests on different properties of bamboo are being conducted in many laboratories in bamboo-growing countries. In the absence of standards that prescribe definite methods, the laboratory staff often has to improvise and innovate to find clever methods or tools. In many cases, such useful information

  5. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental

  6. Preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo assisted by mechanical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, S.; Hadiyanto, H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of green composites by using natural fibres is developed due to their availability, ecological benefits, and good properties in mechanical and thermal. One of the potential sources is bamboo that has relative high cellulose content. This paper was focused on the preparation of sago starch-based reinforced microfribrillated cellulose of bamboo that was assisted by mechanical treatment. Microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo was prepared by isolation of cellulose with chemical treatment. Preparation of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose was conducted by homogenizers for dispersing bamboo cellulose, i.e. high pressure homogenizer and ultrasonic homogenizer. Experiments were elaborated on several variables such as the concentration of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose dispersed in water (1-3 %w) and the volume of microfibrillated cellulose (37.5-75%v). Four %w of sago starch solution was mixed with bamboo microfibrillated cellulose and glycerol with plasticizer and citric acid as cross linker. This paper provided the analysis of tensile strength as well as SEM for mechanical and morphology properties of the biocomposite. The results showed that the preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced bamboo microfibrillated cellulose by using ultrasonic homogenizer yielded the highest tensile strength and well dispersed in the biocomposite.

  7. Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshan Wu; Jianfeng Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Genlin Tian; Shumin Yang; Youhong Wang; Xing' e Liu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic biochar composites is a major new research area in advanced materials sciences. A series of magnetic bamboo charcoal composites (MBC800, MBC1000 and MBC1200) with high saturation magnetization (Ms) was fabricated in this work by mixing bamboo charcoal powder with an aqueous ferric chloride solution and subsequently...

  8. Detection of understory bamboo in giant panda habitats using an indirect remote sensing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Wang, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo is the exclusive food of the wild giant pandas. Detection of the bamboo forest in giant panda habitat will help scientists further understand the spatial distribution pattern of giant pandas and their habitats. Moreover, it provides crucial scientific evidence for estimating habitat

  9. Liquefaction behaviors of bamboo residues in a glycerol-based solvent using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Jinqiu Qi; Hui Pan

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of bamboo was performed in glycerol–methanol as co-solvent using microwave energy and was evaluated by characterizing the liquefied residues. High efficiency conversion of bamboo was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Liquefaction temperature and time interacted to affect the liquefaction reaction. Fourier transform infrared analyzes of the residues...

  10. Rapid determination of chemical composition and classification of bamboo fractions using visible-near infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong; Li, Kang; Zhang, Maomao; Xin, Donglin; Zhang, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    During conversion of bamboo into biofuels and chemicals, it is necessary to efficiently predict the chemical composition and digestibility of biomass. However, traditional methods for determination of lignocellulosic biomass composition are expensive and time consuming. In this work, a novel and fast method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of chemical composition and enzymatic digestibilities of juvenile bamboo and mature bamboo fractions (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, bamboo node, and bamboo branch) using visible-near infrared spectra was evaluated. The developed partial least squares models yielded coefficients of determination in calibration of 0.88, 0.94, and 0.96, for cellulose, xylan, and lignin of bamboo fractions in raw spectra, respectively. After visible-near infrared spectra being pretreated, the corresponding coefficients of determination in calibration yielded by the developed partial least squares models are 0.994, 0.990, and 0.996, respectively. The score plots of principal component analysis of mature bamboo, juvenile bamboo, and different fractions of mature bamboo were obviously distinguished in raw spectra. Based on partial least squares discriminant analysis, the classification accuracies of mature bamboo, juvenile bamboo, and different fractions of bamboo (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, and bamboo branch) all reached 100 %. In addition, high accuracies of evaluation of the enzymatic digestibilities of bamboo fractions after pretreatment with aqueous ammonia were also observed. The results showed the potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis in efficiently analyzing the chemical composition and hydrolysabilities of lignocellulosic biomass, such as bamboo fractions.

  11. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  12. Application of bamboo laminates in large-scale wind turbine blade design?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long WANG; Hui LI; Tongguang WANG

    2016-01-01

    From the viewpoint of material and structure in the design of bamboo blades of large-scale wind turbine, a series of mechanical property tests of bamboo laminates as the major enhancement materials for blades are presented. The basic mechanical characteristics needed in the design of bamboo blades are brie?y introduced. Based on these data, the aerodynamic-structural integrated design of a 1.5 MW wind turbine bamboo blade relying on a conventional platform of upwind, variable speed, variable pitch, and doubly-fed generator is carried out. The process of the structural layer design of bamboo blades is documented in detail. The structural strength and fatigue life of the designed wind turbine blades are certified. The technical issues raised from the design are discussed. Key problems and direction of the future study are also summarized.

  13. Experimental research on friction coefficient between grain bulk and bamboo clappers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gan; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Yanqi; Yin, Lingfeng; Zhuang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    A silo is an important piece of storage equipment, especially in the grain industry. The internal friction angle and the friction coefficient between the grain and the silo wall are the main parameters needed for calculating the lateral pressure of the silo wall. Bamboo is used in silo walls, but there are no provisions about the friction coefficient between bulk grain and bamboo clappers in existing codes. In this paper, the material of the silo wall is bamboo. The internal friction of five types of grain and the friction coefficient between the grain and the bamboo clappers were measured with an equal-strain direct shear apparatus. By comparing the experimental result values with the code values, the friction coefficient between the grain bulk and bamboo clappers is lower than that between grain and steel wall and that between grain and concrete wall. The differences in value are 0.21 and 0.09, respectively.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin (Convenia) in white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert H; Bulman, Frank; Baine, Katherine; Cox, Sherry

    2014-06-01

    Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.

  15. Adsorption Kinetics of Cd(ll and Pb(ll Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bamboo-Based Activated Charcoal and Bamboo Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bamboo dust (BD and bamboo-based activated charcoal for adsorption of Pb(ll and Cd(ll ions from aqueous solutions were assessed in this work. The effect of contact time on the uptake of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and diffusivity kinetic models. Results show that pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description for the adsorption process. Kinetic studies further showed that the adsorption transport mechanism was particle-diffusion controlled for the adsorption process. Results obtained generally showed that lead(ll ions were better adsorbed onto both adsorbents as compared to cadmium(ll. Comparison of sorption capacity for the two adsorbents shows that bamboo-based activated charcoal exhibited better removal for the metal ions than the bamboo dust.

  16. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  17. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  18. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  19. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from bamboo - industrial wood particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid vaziri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical and mechanical properties of single layer particleboard made from bamboo powder (with and without alkali treatment and wood particles were investigated. Bamboo powder (30 mesh particles was treated with 5% hydroxide sodium for 120 minutes. Industrial wood chips from Sanate Choube Shomal Company were used.The variable in this research were the ratio of bamboo powder (with and without alkali treatment to wood chips (at four levels; 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70. Urea formaldehyde resin used at 10 percent level of dry weight of raw material as well as ammonium chloride was used as a catalyst at 2 percent level of the dry weight of adhesive. Physical and mechanical properties of panels measured according to EN Standard. Mechanical properties of the particleboards made from treated bamboo was superior to the relevant untreated bamboo. Water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours immersion in water decreased with alkali treatment. Mercerization, or treating cellulose fibers in alkaline solution, because of fibrillation, the removal of lignin and hemicellulose enhances the mechanical properties and dimension stability of the particleboard by promoting resin-fiber mechanical interlocking at the interface. Results showed, there was usability of the treated bamboo up to 30 percent for general purpose boards for use in dry conditions.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Bamboo Charcoal/TiO2 Composites Using Four Sizes Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Visible-light-active bamboo biochar/TiO2 composites were fabricated by the calcination method using C16H36O4Ti as the titanium source and bamboo powder with different sizes as the carbon source. The TiO2 nanoparticles were observed to disperse onto the surface of bamboo biochar fiber. The sizes of the bamboo powder played an important role in the microstructures and the properties of bamboo biochar/TiO2 composites. The bamboo biochar/TiO2 composites displayed the photocatalytic activities both under visible light irradiation and UV irradiation. The adsorption isotherms better fitted Freundlich isotherm models and the photodegradation reactions followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Bamboo charcoal/TiO2 composites exhibited high stability after up to four cycles. This research could pave the way for high-value applications of biomass in the environmental field.

  1. Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo, pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06% than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%. At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.

  2. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  3. Fuel properties and combustion kinetics of hydrochar prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Meng; Zhu, Jiayu; Zhou, Jie; Wu, Shengji

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization, an environmental friendly treatment method was employed to pretreat bamboo for hydrochar preparation in the present study. Hydrothermal carbonization could elevate the fuel properties and combustion behavior of bamboo. The combustion kinetic parameters of raw bamboo and hydrochars were calculated by a simple Arrhenius equation based on the thermogravimetric curves. Two distinct zones were observed for raw bamboo and hydrochars. The activation energies of raw bamboo in zone 1 and zone 2 were 109.5kJ/mol and 46.6kJ/mol, respectively, in the heating rate of 20°C/min. The activation energy of hydrochar in zone 1 increased at the hydrothermal carbonization temperature under 220°C and then decreased at higher hydrothermal carbonization temperature, due to the decomposition of relative reactive compounds in bamboo, and destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose structures, respectively. The activation energies of hydrochars in zone 2 were among 52.3-57.5kJ/mol, lower than that of lignin extracted from bamboo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Giant panda foraging and movement patterns in response to bamboo shoot growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingchun; Zhang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhong; Hong, Mingsheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-03-01

    Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody. The time required for shoots to reach optimum height for foraging was significantly delayed as elevation increased, a pattern which corresponded with panda elevational migration patterns beginning from the lower elevational end of Fargesia robusta distribution and gradually shifting upward until the end of the shooting season. These results indicate that giant pandas can respond to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo resources, such as available shoots. Anthropogenic interference of low-elevation F. robusta habitat should be mitigated, and conservation attention and increased monitoring should be given to F. robusta areas at the low- and mid-elevation ranges, particularly in the spring shooting season.

  5. Properties of nonvolatile and antibacterial bioboard produced from bamboo macromolecules by hot pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Employing the antibacterial property of industrial bamboo vinegar (IBV and the photocatalytic degradation of TiO2, bamboo macromolecules were pretreated and processed into nonvolatile and antibacterial bio board (NVABB. The NVABB was then analyzed by conducting Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Results show that NVABB samples had average density of 0.96 g/cm3, which is appropriate for application. In terms of physical and mechanical properties, the best NVABB sample obtained from IBV, TiO2 and bamboo had an IBV pretreatment time of 10 min, 2% TiO2 and 1% bamboo charcoal. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that optimum conditions for hot pressing were a temperature of 170 °C, duration of 15 min and the addition of IBV and TiO2. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis curves suggest that the thermal degradation of NVABB was less than that of bamboo and that hot pressing obviously increased the thermal stability of HDBB samples. Analysis of the antimicrobial effect revealed that IBV pretreatment improves the antibacterial property of NVABB. Keywords: Industrial bamboo vinegar, Nonvolatile and antibacterial bio board, Bamboo macromolecules, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis

  6. Bamboo as sustainable material for furniture design in disaster and remote areas in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiana, Yunida; Wahidiyat, Mita; Caroline, Octaviana Sylvia

    2018-03-01

    Bamboo has been known as a sustainable material for architecture, but only used on a small scale for furniture. However, even though it a sustainable resource, many people considered Bamboo as outcast material for furniture because of its appearance. Evidently, the use of bamboo is often used to make simple tools with similar traditional designs for everyday life. The tradition of using bamboo was not further explored with respect to the ongoing development of creative design and function in the era of today’s modern technology. In retrospect to the above issues, this study is aimed to introduce the used of bamboo for material furniture in disaster and remote areas in Indonesia to increases their quality of life. It uses a research by a method of collecting data through surveys, literature review, interviews and training to determine the types of bamboo used for material furniture in disaster and remote territories. The results of this study is intended to show that the use of bamboo can be further developed into furniture for disaster and remote territory to create higher values of the products and increase the quality of life.

  7. Study on the Mould-Resistant Properties of Moso Bamboo Treated with High Pressure and Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo’s products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for six different treatment durations. The results showed that reducing sugar content was decreased dramatically from 0.92 mg/L to 0.19 mg/L and the starch content decreased from 1.18% to 0.96% when the pressure was increased from 0 psi to 100 psi. Regression analysis showed that the effects of an individual amylase reaction and individual pressure treatment on the starch or reducing sugar content were significant with a high correlation coefficient. Three traditional types of moso bamboo moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, and Trichoderma viride were then used for mould resistance testing. The results revealed that the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo blocks could be greatly improved by the combined effect of enzyme activity and pressure treatment. Mould resistance was enhanced by increasing the pressure or prolonging the treatment time. This research could provide a new method for the protection of bamboo from mould attack.

  8. PARIWISATA KREATIF DAN KEGIATAN EKSTRAKURIKULER BERBASIS BAMBU DALAM PENGEMBANGAN MODEL BISNIS CV SURATIN BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ayu Tenara Kardinia Cidhy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a prototype of a future business model which would be adopted to achieve balance between the aspects of new business opportunities and competitive advantages of CV Suratin Bamboo. The analytical method utilized in the study was the business model canvas approach (BMC supported by the blue ocean strategy and SWOT.  The results revealed that through this business model development, bamboo workshop is expected to provide information regarding bamboo derived products, raise awareness of preserving the indigenous bamboo culture, increase sense of belonging to domestic products, as well as become the primary support of innovation and ideas in constructing Indonesia as a nation. Meanwhile, for businesses actors, besides increasing revenue, conducting bamboo workshops is expected to increase the company growths for the long term. The opportunity to maneuver in the development of bamboo-based business model demonstrates that bamboo business with high quality products has both tangible and intangible potentials to be developed further.Keywords: bamboo, blue ocean strategy, business model canvas, creative tourism, extracurricularABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang prototype model bisnis masa depan yang akan digunakan untuk menemukan keseimbangan antara aspek peluang bisnis yang baru dan aspek keuntungan kompetitif CV Suratin Bamboo. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah dengan pendekatan kanvas model bisnis (BMC dilengkapi dengan blue ocean strategy serta SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan melalui pengembangan model bisnis ini, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu memberikan informasi tentang produk turunan bambu, meningkatkan kesadaran melestarikan kearifan lokal budaya bambu, meningkatkan rasa cinta produk dalam negeri, serta menjadi pendorong lahirnya inovasi dan gagasan yang membangun bangsa Indonesia. Sementara bagi pelaku usaha, selain peningkatan revenue, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu meningkatkan

  9. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  10. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  11. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  12. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Xiang, Jun; Su, Sheng; Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. ► The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. ► The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO 2 . - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO 2 on gas-phase Hg 0 adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents’ BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 °C and 180 °C. The presence of NO or SO 2 could inhibit Hg 0 capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  13. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Huu Dat; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Dang, Thanh Duy; Thuy Mai, Thi Thanh; Phung Le, My Loan; Tran, Van Man; Dang, Tan Tai

    2013-01-01

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A and J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase. (paper)

  14. Mechanical Properties in a Bamboo Fiber/PBS Biodegradable Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Okada, Akihisa; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    In recent years, biodegradable plastics which have low effect on environment have been developed. However, many of them have lower mechanical properties than conventional engineering plastics. Reinforcing them with a natural fiber is one of reinforcing methods without a loss of their biodegradability. In the present study, we use a bamboo fiber as the reinforcement and polybutylenesuccinate (PBS) as the matrix. We fabricate long fiber unidirectional composites and cross-ply laminate with different fiber weight fractions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50wt%). We conduct tensile tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of these composites. In addition, we measure bamboo fiber strength distribution. We discuss the experimentally-obtained properties based on the mechanical properties of the constituent materials. Young's modulus and tensile strength in unidirectional composite and cross-ply laminate increase with increasing fiber weight fraction. However, the strain at fracture showed decreasing tendency. Young's modulus in fiber and fiber transverse directions are predictable by the rules of mixture. Tensile strength in fiber direction is lower than Curtin's prediction of strength which considers distribution of fiber strength. Young's modulus in cross-ply laminate is predictable by the laminate theory. However, analytical prediction of Poisson's ratio in cross-ply laminate by the laminate theory is lower than the experimental results.

  15. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided...... in this paper includes an overview of the laminate construction and initial data for the monotonic tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior and tension-tension fatigue life of panels formed by hot-pressing. In addition, a discussion of fracture resistance of the bamboo-poplar laminate, under Mode I...

  16. A revision of Ichneumonopsis Hardy, 1973 (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Gastrozonini, Oriental bamboo-shoot fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Freidberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ichneumonopsis Hardy,1973, a genus of oriental fruit flies, is revised and two new species, I. hancocki sp. nov. (from Peninsular Malaysia and I. taiwanensis sp. nov. (from Taiwan, are described. A key to the three species of Ichneumonopsis is presented. In northern Thailand larvae of I. burmensis Hardy, 1973 develop in bamboo shoots of Pseudoxytenanthera albociliata (Munro Nguyen and Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh Nees (Poaceae, not Melocalamus compactiflorus as previously reported. The recently discovered association of I. burmensis with bamboo substantiates our previous assumption assigning Ichneumonopsis to the primarily bamboo-inhabiting tribe Gastrozonini. Hence, we synonymize Ichneumonopsidini under Gastrozonini (syn. nov..

  17. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  18. Synthesis and application of dual functionalized task specific ionic liquid for bamboo dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Sultan Nor Shahroon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of dual functionalized imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL namely 3-(2-cyano-ethyl-1-(2-ethoxy-ethyl-3-imidazolium bromide [CNEIM][Br], was synthesized and characterized to study their potential in bamboo dissolution. The chemical structure for the IL was characterized using NMR (1H and 13C. Thermal properties, surface morphology and functional group of the native bamboo and IL treated bamboo were analyzed by Thermal Gravimetric Anaylysis (TGA, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The new IL was able to dissolve up to 5wt% of bamboo biomass within 48 hours and 100°C.

  19. Physiological traits contributing to carbon storage variation in Monastery bamboo and Pai Liang in northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Leksungnoen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at comparing the carbon storage ability of Monastery bamboo (Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble and Pai Liang (Dendrocalamus membranaceus × Thyrsostachys siamensis in terms of the different physiological responses to the microclimate. The stomatal conductance, leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (LAVPD, chlorophyll content, and water use efficiency (WUE were measured. Pai Liang had a greater dry biomass per culm than Monastery bamboo, resulting in more carbon storage. Monastery bamboo kept opening its stomata even when LAVPD increased, resulting in the loss of more water and a lower WUE leading to a lower rate of growth and carbon storage. Pai Liang contained higher amount of carbon and nitrogen in the leaf tissue, indicating a better WUE. With regards to the climate change, Pai Liang is recommended owing to a greater carbon fixation and more rapid growth rate compared to the Monastery bamboo.

  20. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  1. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of processing methods on the mechanical properties of engineered bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhavna; Gatóo, Ana; Ramage, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered bamboo is increasingly explored as a material with significant potential for structural applications. The material is comprised of raw bamboo processed into a laminated composite. Commercial methods vary due to the current primary use as an architectural surface material, with processing used to achieve different colours in the material. The present work investigates the effect of two types of processing methods, bleaching and caramelisation, to determine the effect on the mechanic...

  3. Sulfuryl fluoride as a quarantine treatment for Chlorophorus annularis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Chinese bamboo poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daojian; Barak, Alan V; Jiao, Yi; Chen, Zhinan; Zhang, Guiming; Chen, Zhilin; Kang, Lin; Yang, Weidong

    2010-04-01

    Bamboo (genera Bambusa and Phyllstachys) is one of the fastest growing and economically important plants in the world, and it is cultivated widely throughout southern China. China annually exports to the United States significant quantities of bamboo garden stakes (Bambusa spp.). In recent years, Plant Protection and Quarantine officers of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service have made numerous interceptions of the bamboo borer, Chlorophorus annularis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in bamboo products from China. This species is considered to have high pest risk potential in the trade of bamboo products. As a fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (SF) would be a practical alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation. Here, we report the results of SF fumigation tests for C. annularis in bamboo poles at three doses--96 g/m3 at 15.9 degrees C, 80 g/m3 at 21.5 degrees C, and 64 g/m3 at 26.0 degrees C--in glass test chambers. Commercial standard fumigations were also conducted in a standard 6.1-m-long, 33.2-m3 (standard height, 20-feet) marine general cargo container loaded to 80% (vol:vol) with similar bamboo poles, and sufficient levels of SF were obtained during the 24-h fumigations. During the course of these tests, 2424 larvae, 90 pupae, and 23 adults in total were killed, with no survivors. A treatment schedule using SF is proposed for bamboo as an alternative to MeBr at several temperatures tested.

  4. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study of bamboo waste treated by Echinodontium taxodii using a modified three-parallel-reactions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Liu, Fang; Ke, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of pretreatment with Echinodontium taxodii on thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of bamboo wastes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed fungal pretreatment can enhance the thermal degradation of bamboo. The negative effect of extractives in bamboo on the thermal decomposition can be decreased by the pretreatment. A modified three-parallel-reactions model based on isolated lignin was firstly proposed to study pyrolysis kinetics of bamboo lignocellulose. Kinetic analysis showed that with increasing pretreatment time fungal delignification was enhanced to transform the lignin component with high activation energy into that with low activation energy and raise the cellulose content in bamboo, making the thermal decomposition easier. These results demonstrated fungal pretreatment provided a potential way to improve thermal conversion efficiency of bamboo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PANELS MANUFACTURED WITH BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.-WOOD COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of derived products from bamboo for some countries and the wood shortage in some areas of Brazil, this work analyzed the quality of boards composed by particles of Eucalyptus sp. and bamboo strips (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.. The panels were produced with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ and 10% of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The influence of the epidermis on the properties of the panels was also evaluated. The panels were constituted by five layers: core (Eucalyptus sp. or bamboo particles, layers of reinforcement (bamboo strips and finish faces (particles of same nature as the core. The press time was 8 minutes, at 120ºC. None of the treatments satisfied the quality patterns established by A208.1 (ANSI, 1987 and DIN 68761 (1-1961, (3-1971 (GERMAN STANDARDS COMMITTEE, 1971 codes. However, particleboards produced exclusively by bamboo or combined with wood presented a similar behavior to those produced exclusively of wood, showing to be a viable alternative. The modulus of rupture (MOR and elasticity (MOE were approximately the same in all treatments due to the irregular distribution of the layers in the mattress. The absence of epidermis tended to reduce the thickness swelling (2 and 24 hours and internal bond strength, however, without significant statistical difference. Therefore, other parameters of production of boards using bamboo, such as density and adhesive content, should be investigated in order to check whether the removal of epidermis is a really advantageous procedure.

  6. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consideration on the delay of radiocesium concentration decrease in bamboo shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    After the large releases of radionuclides due to the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011, trees in wide areas were directly contaminated. The contaminated leaves (mostly ever green trees) fell in the late spring to early summer, newly emerged leaves contained some radiocesium which were translocated from tree branches and trunks, and from soil through roots. The concentrations of radiocesium in tree leaves are decreasing due to dilution effect. However, for the case of bamboo shoots, decrease in radiocesium concentration was not observed in some areas when 2011 and 2012 samples were compared. In order to understand the fate of radiocesium in bamboos, 137 Cs concentration changes in leaves and branches from bamboos and litter layer and soil samples in a bamboo forest were measured. It was found that the concentration was higher in the following order: litter > leaves > branches > soil on 9 May 2011, however, the order changed to litter > soil >> leaves, branches on 20 October 2011. Removal of contaminated leaves from the bamboo trees and decomposition of the litter layer to soil organic matter was suggested from the results. Since the root zone of bamboo shoots was in the soil organic layer, radiocesium was taken up through roots to the shoots, and thus the concentration would be high. (author)

  8. In vitro Propagation of Giant Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) and Arudinaria alpina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machua, J.; Sigu, G. Gathura M.; Nyingi, J

    2007-01-01

    The giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) is a multipurpose tree with uses and it has been widely cultivated in Asia while the indigenous bamboo (Arudinaria alpina) has a very low rate of domestication. The propagation and establishment of bamboo species is hampered by infrequent flowering, insufficient and irregular supply of seeds and inadequate knowledge of propagation technologies. The study aimed at developing in vitro techniques for mass propagation of the bamboo. Bamboo explant material was collected and and sterilized in a permutation of sterilizers over varying durations. The explants were further inoculated into matrix of hormonal concentrations. Successful sterilization of both Dendrocalamous giganteous and Arudinaria alpina was achieved in 25% v/v formaldehyde for 20 minutes resulting in a 75% survival. On the other hand sterilization with sodium hypochlorite was found to be ineffective for both species. Root initiation was not achieved after six weeks in varying concentrations of IBA (indolebutyric acid), NAA (+ n aphthalene acetic acid) and a blanket application of 0.3mgl -1 BAP, by which time most microshoots had overgrown the culture tubes. In conclusion, 25% v/v formaldehyde for 20 minutes is adequate for bamboo explant sterilization while microshoots induction could be achieved though varying BAP concentrations while the culture conditions were optimal for toot initiation

  9. Bamboo shoot preservation for enhancing its business potential and local economy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Lalit M; Singhal, Poonam; Satya, Santosh; Naik, S N; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo shoot as food has been used in traditional ways by the tribal community the world over. For enhancing its business potential, research on various aspects of bamboo shoot as food is being carried out in Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Asian countries and several products are available in the market. Bamboo shoots are used as a delicacy in human food, are a good source of dietary fiber, low in fat and calories. The research studies included in this review paper focus on post-harvest preservation of bamboo shoot. In view of the seasonal availability of bamboo shoot, the post-harvest preservation system for handling cynogenic toxicity in raw shoot while keeping nutrients intact and enhancement of shelf life of the value added products assume great significance for the business potential of this natural product. A yardstick of assessing the "Shelf life-Quality Matrix" developed in this review paper would give a new perspective of quality control in case of preservation of bamboo shoot. Also, knowledge gaps identified in this paper would give impetus to new academic and R&D activities, in turn generating an innovative job profile in the food industry as well as rural entrepreneurship.

  10. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Green Bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro Keng f. for Dissolving Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the sustained growth of dissolving pulp demand all over the world, the search for alternative bamboo materials has come into focus in China due to the shortage of wood and the abundance of bamboo resources. In this study, to obtain updated information concerning green bamboo growing in southeastern China and to develop its processing technologies for dissolving pulp, the fiber morphology, chemical composition, elemental composition, degree of polymerization (DP of cellulose, and crystallinity index (CrI of cellulose were investigated. The experimental results show that green bamboo has potential for use as dissolving pulp because it has a lower Runkel ratio and fines content than moso bamboo, and a much lower lignin content and similar α-cellulose and hemicellulose contents compared to softwoods and hardwoods. Compared to the cortex and culm, the node had the shortest fibers and more than 30% of fines, the highest content of extractives and lignin, and the lowest α-cellulose content. As a result, a de-knotting operation prior to cooking can contribute to the production of high-grade dissolving pulp. The DP and CrI of cellulose from the node were much lower than that of cellulose from the culm and cortex. Moreover, green bamboo had the high content of ash, primarily distributed in the cortex. The concentration of Si was 4487 ppm in the cortex, nearly five times higher than that in the culm and node.

  11. Effect of 60Co radiation-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate on mechanical properties of bamboo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Zhou Liang; Liu Shengquan; Qian Liangcun; Fei Benhua; Jiang Zehui

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of radiation grafting on mechanical properties of bamboo, the original and carbonized bamboo soaked with monomer MMA were radiation grafted by 60 Co γ rays with the doses of 60-220 kGy. The results showed that compared with original blanks, treated with MMA and irradiated with the dose of 180 kGy the specific gravity, bending strength modulus of elasticity of original bamboo increased by 6.7%, 4.4%, and 28%, meanwhile its oven-dried radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage decreased by 38.9%, 47.4%, and 32.9%, respectively. What is more, treated with MMA and irradiated with the doses of 140 kGy the specific gravity and modulus of elasticity of carbonized bamboo increased by 6.8% and 20%, while its oven-dried radial, tangential, volumetric shrinkage decreased by 11%, 4.6% and 12%, respectively. The study reveals that mechanical properties of original and carbonized bamboo can be enhanced by radiation grafting copolymerization with suitable absorbed doses, which may be valuable for the further research of developing new bamboo plastic composites. (authors)

  12. Variation in Anatomical Characteristics of Bamboo, Bambusa rigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing-Yan, H.; Jin-Qiu, Q.; Jiu-Long, X.; Jian-Feng, H.; Bai-Dong, Q.; Si-Min, C.

    2015-01-01

    The culms of bamboo Bambusa rigida ranging from 1, 3 and 5 year old were obtained and investigated for anatomical characteristics in different ages, heights and zones in radial direction of culm wall thickness. The vascular bundles were denser and smaller at the top portion and outer zone of all age groups. No significant differences in vascular bundle frequency and size were found among the tree age groups. Metaxylem vessels did not vary significantly among ages. Fibre and parenchyma were longer in the middle portion of the height and middle zone in radial direction of culms wall. No significant differences in fibre and parenchyma length were observed in all age groups. The wall thicknesses of fibre and parenchyma were thicker in the top portion and outer zone. Furthermore, the wall thicknesses of fibre and parenchyma increased significantly from 1 to 3 year, showing that there is a maturing progress from 1 to 3 year. (author)

  13. Takano bamboo industry: The style material for the residence where bamboo charcoal was used; Takano chikuko: chikutan wo tsukatta jutakuyo choshitsuzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-30

    Takano bamboo industry sold the style material 'Takebayashi, Saga' for the residence where bamboo charcoal was used. It is said that it can get equal effect in the amount of about 1 in three minutes even if it is compared with charcoal by the thing which it made use of the nature of the bamboo charcoal which it begins to vomit if water is inhaled and it is low for if humidity is pure. A back with the bamboo charcoal 1kg is laid 6 per 1m. It is laid under the floor of the house residence and the condominium, and it can be used easily in the errand, the existent residence as well. It was the space when the air humidity was 40-90%, and indoor humidity showed the numerical value, which faced though there was a change and which became stable in 60-70% as a result of actually doing an experiment in the house residence condominium. (translated by NEDO)

  14. [Effects of mulching management of Phyllostachys heterocycla forests on the characteristics of soil infiltration and biometrics in southwest Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Kun; Jin, Ai Wu; Fang, Sheng Zuo

    2017-05-18

    Soil infiltration, soil physical and chemical properties, root length density and soil fauna diversity were studied in Phyllostachys heterocycla forests with different mulching times in southwest Zhejiang Province, China. Significant differences of soil infiltration capability were found among the forests with different mulching times and among soil layers. Soil infiltration capability generally declined in the deeper soil layers. With mulching management, soil infiltration capability increased under the first mulching, and then declined with the increase of mulching times. The Kostiakov model was suitable for simulating soil infiltration process. With the extending of mulching times (4 to 6 years), soil pH and total/non-capillary porosity decreased, while soil bulk density, soil orga-nic matter and total nitrogen contents increased significantly. Soil initial, steady, and average infiltration rates as well as the cumulative infiltration amount correlated closely with the length density of roots with diameter from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, showing a decreasing tendency with the decrease in root length density. Soil fauna density was highest in the forest under the first mulching, and was lowest after third mulching. The decreased numbers of large and meso-arthropods, including Symphyla, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Hymenoptera and pseudoscorpions, and the micro-arthropods, including Oribatida, Mesostigmata, Onychiuridae, Neanuridae, Cyphoderidae, and Entomobryidae, showed negative effects on soil infiltration. In conclusion, long-term mulching changed soil physical and chemical properties, decreased soil infiltration capability, and suppressed the development of soil fauna, which might cause the decline ofP. heterocycla forests.

  15. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2 often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO43’s, Na2SO4’s, Na2S2O8’s, S’s, and Na2SO3’s optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO43, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 and 2925 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the

  16. High Per formance and Flexible Supercapacitors based on Carbonized Bamboo Fibers for Wide Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zequine, Camila; Ranaweera, C. K.; Wang, Z.; Singh, Sweta; Tripathi, Prashant; Srivastava, O. N.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Ramasamy, K.; Kahol, P. K.; Dvornic, P. R.; Gupta, Ram K.

    2016-08-01

    High performance carbonized bamboo fibers were synthesized for a wide range of temperature dependent energy storage applications. The structural and electrochemical properties of the carbonized bamboo fibers were studied for flexible supercapacitor applications. The galvanostatic charge-discharge studies on carbonized fibers exhibited specific capacity of ~510F/g at 0.4 A/g with energy density of 54 Wh/kg. Interestingly, the carbonized bamboo fibers displayed excellent charge storage stability without any appreciable degradation in charge storage capacity over 5,000 charge-discharge cycles. The symmetrical supercapacitor device fabricated using these carbonized bamboo fibers exhibited an areal capacitance of ~1.55 F/cm2 at room temperature. In addition to high charge storage capacity and cyclic stability, the device showed excellent flexibility without any degradation to charge storage capacity on bending the electrode. The performance of the supercapacitor device exhibited ~65% improvement at 70 °C compare to that at 10 °C. Our studies suggest that carbonized bamboo fibers are promising candidates for stable, high performance and flexible supercapacitor devices.

  17. A Study of Polishing Feature of Ultrasonic-Assisted Vibration Method in Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Min Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the feature of porosity in bamboo charcoal, this study applies the ultrasonic-assisted vibration method to perform surface polishing of the silicon wafer workpiece. The self-developed bamboo charcoal polishing spindle and ultrasonic- assisted vibration mechanism are attached to a single lapping machine. In the machining process, ultrasonic vibration enables the diamond slurry to smoothly pass through the microscopic holes of bamboo charcoal; the end of the bamboo charcoalis able to continue machining on the surface of the workpiece through the grasping force which exists in the microscopic holes. Under the polishing and machining parameters of ultrasonic-assisted vibration, with a diamond slurry concentration of 0.3%, the experimental results show a polishing time of 20 min, a loading of 25 N on the workpiece surface, a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a vibration frequency of 30 kHz and the original surface roughness value of Ra 0.252 μm equals that of a mirror-like surface at Ra 0.017 μm. These research results prove that by using bamboo charcoal and ultrasonic-assisted vibration for polishing, a very good improvement can be achieved on the workpiece surface.

  18. Structural behavior of lightweight bamboo reinforced concrete slab with EPS infill panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Ari; Wijatmiko, Indradi; Nainggolan, Christin Remayanti

    2017-09-01

    Eco-friendly, green, and natural materials have become increasingly important issues in supporting sustainable development, for the substitution of nonrenewable materials such as steel. Bamboo has been considered in many studies to replace steel in reinforced concrete elements. Further investigation has been carried out to obtain lightweight and eco-friendly reinforced concrete slabs by using bamboo bars as reinforcement and recycled materials such as EPS (expanded polystyrene) as infill panel. The flexural loading test on full scale one-way slabs test has been conducted. The results showed that the flexural strength of specimens decreased marginally of about 6% but with the weight advantage of 27% less compared with those of steel rebar reinforced concrete slab with the same dimension. Two type shear-connectors comprising of concrete and bamboo studs were also investigated which showed that the bamboo stud provided better ductility compared to that of slab with concrete as shear connector. Overall, the reinforced concrete slab with bamboo reinforcement and EPS infill panel showed reasonably good performance compared to slabs with steel rebar.

  19. Kinetic Study of Water Contaminants Adsorption by Bamboo Granular Activated and Non-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opololaoluwa Oladimarun Ijaola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive capacity of metal ions from surface water with activated and non-activated carbon derived from bamboo was investigated. The validation of adsorption kinetics of Cl, PO4 and Pb was done by pseudo-first and second order model while adsorption isotherms was proved by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model for activated and non- activated bamboo granular carbon. Generally, the amount of metal ions uptake increases with time and activation levels and the pH of bamboo granular carbon increase with activation. Similarly, the pore space of the activated carbon also increases with activation levels. The correlation coefficients (R2 show that the pseudo-second order model gave a better fit to the adsorption process with 0.9918 as the least value and 1.00 as the highest value as compared with the pseudo-first order with 0.813 as the highest value and 0 as the least. The Freundlich isotherm was more favorable when compared with the Langmuir isotherm in determining the adsorptive capacity of bamboo granular activated carbon. The study has shown that chemical activation increases the pore space, surface area and the pH of bamboo granular carbon which ultimately increases the adsorption rate of metal ions in the contaminated surface water.

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Tingxing Hu; Jinqiu Qi; Todd F. Shupe

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combinedwith chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction couldeliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7 min, andthe cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by...

  2. Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: zafuqfsun@163.com [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of the Bamboo Sharks (Chiloscyllium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haslina Masstor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiloscyllium, commonly called bamboo shark, can be found inhabiting the waters of the Indo-West Pacific around East Asian countries such as Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List has categorized them as nearly threatened sharks out of their declining population status due to overexploitation. A molecular study was carried out to portray the systematic relationships within Chiloscyllium species using 12S rRNA and cytochrome b gene sequences. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian were used to reconstruct their phylogeny trees. A total of 381 bp sequences’ lengths were successfully aligned in the 12S rRNA region, with 41 bp sites being parsimony-informative. In the cytochrome b region, a total of 1120 bp sites were aligned, with 352 parsimony-informative characters. All analyses yield phylogeny trees on which C. indicum has close relationships with C. plagiosum. C. punctatum is sister taxon to both C. indicum and C. plagiosum while C. griseum and C. hasseltii formed their own clade as sister taxa. These Chiloscyllium classifications can be supported by some morphological characters (lateral dermal ridges on the body, coloring patterns, and appearance of hypobranchials and basibranchial plate that can clearly be used to differentiate each species.

  4. Assessment of hydrothermal carbonization and coupling washing with torrefaction of bamboo sawdust for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Su, Yinhai; Xu, Dan; Zhu, Shuguang; Zhang, Houlei; Liu, Xinzhi

    2018-06-01

    Two kinds of biofuels were produced and compared from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and coupling washing with torrefaction (CWT) processes of bamboo sawdust in this study. The mass and energy yields, mass energy density, fuel properties, structural characterizations, combustion behavior and ash behavior during combustion process were investigated. Significant increases in the carbon contents resulted in the improvement of mass energy density and fuel properties of biofuels obtained. Both HTC and CWT improved the safety of the biofuels during the process of handling, storing and transportation. The ash-related issues of the biofuels were significantly mitigated and combustion behavior was remarkably improved after HTC and CWT processes of bamboo sawdust. In general, both HTC and CWT processes are suitable to produce biofuels with high fuel quality from bamboo sawdust. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorptive removal of SO{sub 2} from coal burning by bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Xiang, Jun; Zeng, Hancai [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) is an environmentally friendly, low-cost and renewable bioresource with porous structure. The adsorption property of bamboo charcoal for sulfur dioxide was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed and mechanism study by BET, XPS, and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD). The varying parameters investigated include particle size of BC, moisture, oxygen, nitric oxide. The experimental data suggest that BC has a good adsorption potential for SO{sub 2}, which removal efficiency is greatly dependent upon the operation conditions. This study provides a good reference for BC to be used for SO{sub 2} removal in the actual flue gas over a wide range of conditions and further provided the preliminary experimental studies and theoretical discussion for bamboo charcoal to be used in multiple pollutants removing.

  6. The influence of bamboo-packed configuration to mixing characteristics in a fixed-bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detalina, M.; Pradanawati, S. A.; Widyarani; Mamat; Nilawati, D.; Sintawardani, N.

    2018-03-01

    Fixed-bed reactors are commonly used as bioreactors for various applications, including chemicals production and organic wastewater treatment. Bioreactors are fixed with packing materials for attaching microorganisms. Packing materials should have high surface area and enable sufficient fluid flow in the reactor. Natural materials e.g. rocks and fibres are often used as packing materials. Commercially, packing materials are also produced from polymer with the advantage of customizable shapes. The objective of this research was to study the mixing pattern in a packed-bed reactor using bamboo as packing material. Bamboo was selected for its pipe-like and porous form, as well as its abundant availability in Indonesia. The cut bamboo sticks were installed in a reactor in different configurations namely vertical, horizontal, and random. Textile dye was used as a tracer. Our results show that the vertical configuration gave the least liquid resistant flow. Yet, the random configuration was the best configuration during mixing process.

  7. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Bamboo-Charcoal-Supported Nano-ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong ZHOU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were prepared by precipitation with bamboo charcoal as support. Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS. Photocatalytic degradation processes of methyl orange were studied. The results indicate that the structure of nano-ZnO is of the wurtzite type and the grain size is about 19-54 nm. The best preparation temperature for these composites is 500℃. The composites have better photocatalytic degradation ability than pure ZnO under UV irradiation. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with the composites obeys first-order kinetics, and the composites can be recycled.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17397

  8. Effect of iron(III) ion on moso bamboo pyrolysis under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Li, Xiangqian; Wang, Zhaoyu; Bi, Yanhong; Yang, Rongling; Zhang, Jinfeng; Luo, Hongzhen; Niu, Miaomiao; Qi, Bo; Lu, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The effect of iron(III) ion on microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo was investigated. Hydrofluoric acid washing was used as a pilot process to demineralize moso bamboo in order to eliminate the influences of the other inorganics contained in moso bamboo itself. The results indicated that the addition of iron(III) ion increased the maximal reaction temperatures under microwave condition dependent on the amount of the added iron(III) ion. The production of the non-condensable gases was promoted by the addition of iron(III) ion mainly at the expense of liquid products. Iron(III) ion exhibited the positive effect for syngas production and inhibited the formation of CO 2 and CH 4 . The formation of Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 was found during microwave pyrolysis and the mechanism of the two metallic oxides formation was described in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing the Isolation of Microfibrillated Bamboo in High Pressure Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sri Aprilia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bleached bamboo fiber was treated with a high pressure enzymatic hydrolysis (HPEH process in order to produce microfibrillated bamboo fiber (MBF. Mixture design of experiments was utilized to determine the optimal constituents of fiber, enzymes, and water for the HPEH process on the isolation yield of the MBF. Results showed the optimal combination for the maximal yield isolation of the MBF was 1 g fiber, 1 g enzyme, and 1 L water at 90 MPa and 70 °C. The influence of the reaction time of the HPEH process (6 to 48 h was also evaluated in this study. Morphological and thermal property analyses of untreated and treated bamboo fibers revealed that the HPEH process was effective for removing non-cellulosic components from the fibers. Thus, the HPEH process is an effective method for the isolation of the MBF, with the benefits of elevated crystallinity and thermal stability.

  10. Removal of nitrate using Paracoccus sp. YF1 immobilized on bamboo carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Gan, Li [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian Province (China); Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@unisa.edu.au [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian Province (China); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paracoccus sp. immobilized on bamboo carbon used for the denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rate of denitrification increased using the immobilized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 99.8% denitrification was maintained after 10-cycle reuse. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrating an excellent reusability and a potential technique. - Abstract: Paracoccus sp. strain YF1 immobilized on bamboo carbon was developed for the denitrification. The results show that denitrification was significantly improved using immobilized cells compared to that of free cells, where denitrification time decreased from 24 h (free cells) to 15 h (immobilized cells). The efficiency of denitrification increased from 4.57 mg/(L h) (free cells) to 6.82 mg/(L h) (immobilized cells). Kinetics studies suggest that denitrification by immobilized YF1 cells fitted well to the zero-order model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that firstly, the bacteria became stable on the inside and exterior of the bamboo carbon particles and secondly, they formed biofilm after adhesion. Various factors and their influences on biological denitrification were investigated, namely temperature, pH, initial nitrate concentrations and carbon sources. The immobilized cells exhibited more nitrate removal at various conditions compared to free cells since bamboo carbon as a carrier protects cells against changes in environmental conditions. Denitrification using the YF1 immobilized in bamboo carbon was also maintained 99.8% after the tenth cycle reuse, thus demonstrating excellent reusability. Finally, wastewater was treated using the immobilized cells and the outcome was that nitrogen was completely removed by bamboo-immobilized YF1.

  11. Removal of nitrate using Paracoccus sp. YF1 immobilized on bamboo carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Gan, Li; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Paracoccus sp. immobilized on bamboo carbon used for the denitrification. ►The rate of denitrification increased using the immobilized cells. ► 99.8% denitrification was maintained after 10-cycle reuse. ► Demonstrating an excellent reusability and a potential technique. - Abstract: Paracoccus sp. strain YF1 immobilized on bamboo carbon was developed for the denitrification. The results show that denitrification was significantly improved using immobilized cells compared to that of free cells, where denitrification time decreased from 24 h (free cells) to 15 h (immobilized cells). The efficiency of denitrification increased from 4.57 mg/(L h) (free cells) to 6.82 mg/(L h) (immobilized cells). Kinetics studies suggest that denitrification by immobilized YF1 cells fitted well to the zero-order model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that firstly, the bacteria became stable on the inside and exterior of the bamboo carbon particles and secondly, they formed biofilm after adhesion. Various factors and their influences on biological denitrification were investigated, namely temperature, pH, initial nitrate concentrations and carbon sources. The immobilized cells exhibited more nitrate removal at various conditions compared to free cells since bamboo carbon as a carrier protects cells against changes in environmental conditions. Denitrification using the YF1 immobilized in bamboo carbon was also maintained 99.8% after the tenth cycle reuse, thus demonstrating excellent reusability. Finally, wastewater was treated using the immobilized cells and the outcome was that nitrogen was completely removed by bamboo-immobilized YF1.

  12. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Bamboo Fibre-reinforced Semi-Metallic Brake Friction Materials for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three friction material formulations composed of bamboo fiber along with binder, friction modifiers and filler have been prepared through powder metallurgy process. Sample F1 and F2 are composed of 10 wt. % of copper and barium, respectively, while the other ingredients in both formulations have the same wt. %. The wt. % of bamboo fiber in sample F3 is, however, increased by 100%, while the compositions of the other ingredients are proportionally decreased. The samples were examined for their porosity, hardness, and friction and wear properties using hot bath, Rockwell hardness tester, and CHASE friction dynamometer, respectively. The test results are compared with those of a commercial sample as the benchmark. Normal and hot frictions of all the three samples developed comply with the requirements specified by Automotive Manufacturer Equipment Companies Agency (AMECA. However, sample F3 which is composed of 20 wt. % of bamboo fiber does not comply with the minimum requirement of friction coefficient. Whereas, sample F2, which is composed of 10 wt. % of bamboo fiber and 10 wt. % of barium, has lower friction coefficient than the commercial sample, and has a sudden drop in friction coefficient at a temperature of 500°F. Out of three developed samples, sample F1, which is composed of 10 wt. % of bamboo fiber and 10 wt. % of copper, complies with all the requirements and has higher friction coefficient than the commercial sample, and has higher fade resistance. Thus, it could be postulated that bamboo fiber could be used as a reinforcing fiber with composition of 10 wt. %.

  14. Influence of Laundering on the Quality of Sewn Cotton and Bamboo Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the effect of laundering on the quality of sewn cotton and bamboo plain woven fabrics was investigated considering both the textile parameters and the type of chemical treatment. Quality parameters of sewn cotton and bamboo woven fabrics such as: fabric strength, seam strength and seam slippage at the moment of 4 mm seam opening were evaluated before and after washing with “Tide” washing powder without softeners or with softeners: “Surcare” and “Pflege Weicspuler”. There was also determined surface density, warp and weft densities as well as thicknesses under the pressures 0.625 kPa and 3.125 kPa, and calculated the comparative thickness that was considered as softness or porosity of fabrics. Notwithstanding that both the investigated fabrics were cellulosic their behavior after laundering was different. Under the tested conditions, unwashed and laundered with or without chemical softeners cotton fabric didn’t demonstrate seam slippage. The seam slippage resistance of laundered without or with softener specimens of bamboo fabric was increased in respect to control fabric. The larger changes in seam efficiency and seam strength because of laundering were determined for bamboo woven fabric then for cotton fabric. They could be influenced by the higher changes in bamboo fabric’s structure. The highest difference between the structure parameters of both fabrics was determined for comparative thickness. It was significantly increased for cotton fabric and decreased for bamboo fabric after chemical softening comparing to untreated fabrics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3831

  15. Gamma radiation processed bamboo polymer composites. III. Possible applications for tensile reinforcement of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adur, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Three species of bamboo were converted to bamboo-polymer composites by vacuum impregnation with monomer and in situ polymerization using gamma irradiation. Resistance of the composites to various chemicals present in concrete was tested. Resistance to termites, fungus and other forms of biological attack was examined. Strength-to-weight ratios were calculated based on mechanical tests performed earlier (paper II of this three-part series). Possible application for tensile reinforcement of concrete is discussed in considerable detail. 2 figures, 4 tables

  16. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  17. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bamboo fiberboards and attapulgite : does it lead to an improvement of humidity control in buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. M.; Grillet, A. C.; Goldin, T.; Hanh Diep, T. M.; Woloszyn, M.

    2018-04-01

    In order to save energy used to heat or cool buildings and to improve the inhabitants comfort, control of humidity inside buildings must be improved. This can be done by using buffering materials able to absorb and release moisture when necessary. Natural fibers and mineral absorbent are good candidates to manufacture such materials. The aim of this research is to mix bamboo fibers with attapulgite to evaluate the influence of this mineral absorbent on the hygric behavior of the fiberboards. The hygric properties are slightly improved by the attapulgite and thus bamboo fiberboards can be used as building insulation materials able to participate to the indoor moisture control.

  19. Suction generation in white-spotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    After the divergence of chondrichthyans and teleostomes, the structure of the feeding apparatus also diverged leading to alterations in the suction mechanism. In this study we investigated the mechanism for suction generation during feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and compared it with that in teleosts. The internal movement of cranial elements and pressure in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities that are directly responsible for suction generation was quantified using sonomicrometry and pressure transducers. Backward stepwise multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between expansion and pressure, accounting for 60-96% of the variation in pressure among capture events. The progression of anterior to posterior expansion in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities is accompanied by the sequential onset of subambient pressure in these cavities as prey is drawn into the mouth. Gape opening triggers the onset of subambient pressure in the oropharyngeal cavities. Peak gape area coincides with peak subambient buccal pressure. Increased velocity of hyoid area expansion is primarily responsible for generating peak subambient pressure in the buccal and hyoid regions. Pharyngeal expansion appears to function as a sink to receive water influx from the mouth, much like that of compensatory suction in bidirectional aquatic feeders. Interestingly, C. plagiosum generates large suction pressures while paradoxically compressing the buccal cavity laterally, delaying the time to peak pressure. This represents a fundamental difference from the mechanism used to generate suction in teleost fishes. Interestingly, pressure in the three cavities peaks in the posterior to anterior direction. The complex shape changes that the buccal cavity undergoes indicate that, as in teleosts, unsteady flow predominates during suction feeding. Several kinematic variables function together, with great variation over long gape cycles to

  20. Impact resistance performance of green construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced bamboo concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muda, Z C; Usman, F; Beddu, S; Alam, M A; Thiruchelvam, S; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Saadi, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete with varied bamboo reinforcement content for the concrete slab of 300mm x 300mm size reinforced with different thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the amount of bamboo reinforcement and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against bamboo diameters and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the bamboo reinforcement diameter for a constant spacing for various slab thickness using 0.45 OPS and 0.6 OPS bamboo reinforced concrete. The increment in bamboo diameter has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Increment in slab thickness of the slab has more effect on the crack resistance as compare to the increment in the diameter of the bamboo reinforcement.

  1. Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelena L de Carvalho

    Full Text Available We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km(2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27-28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km(2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon.

  2. Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Anelena L; Nelson, Bruce W; Bianchini, Milton C; Plagnol, Daniela; Kuplich, Tatiana M; Daly, Douglas C

    2013-01-01

    We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp) in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km(2) of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27-28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km(2). Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon.

  3. Study on the compatibility of unbleached and bleached bamboo-fiber with LLDPE matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available analysis. The results suggested that BBF are more compatible with matrix than the unbleached ones. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows no change in the intensity peak position of matrix in the presence of bamboo fibers. Morphological studies were done...

  4. Sustainable value chains for bamboo working communities : Integrating the tenets of sustainability through the Rhizome Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reubens, R.R.R.; Brezet, J.C.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand globally for products which impact sustainability positively. Bamboo fulfills these criteria, since it is a highly renewable timber replacement material which does not cause deforestation. It simultaneously has the potential to create livelihood opportunities for both the

  5. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120

  6. Reduction of time for producing and acclimatizing two bamboo species in a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aquino Gasparetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available China has been investing in bamboo cultivation in Brazilian lands. However, there’s a significant deficit of seedling production for civil construction and the charcoal and cellulose sectors, something which compromises a part of the forestry sector. In order to contribute so that the bamboo production chain solves this problem, this study aimed to check whether the application of indole acetic acid (IAA could promote plant growth in a shorter cultivation time. In the study, Bambusa vulgaris and B. vulgaris var. vitatta stakes underwent two treatments (0.25% and 5.0% of IAA and they were grown on washed sand in a greenhouse. Number of leaves, stem growth, rooting, and chlorophyll content were investigated. There was no difference with regard to stem growth, root length, and number of leaves for both species in the two treatments (0.25% and 5% IAA. The chlorophyll content variation between the two species may constitute a quality parameter of forest seedling when compared to other bamboo species. After 43 days, the seedlings are ready for planting in areas of full sun. For the species studied here, the average time to the seedling sale is from 4 to 6 months, with no addition of auxin. Using this simple and low cost technique, several nurserymen will produce bamboo seedlings with reduced time, costs, and manpower.

  7. Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lindner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key actors along the value chain. Results revealed distinctive differences in proportion of cash income, value chain structure, and management engagement among the districts. Percentages of cash income were 60.15, 42.60, and 9.48 at Awi, Sidam, and Sheka, respectively. Differences were statistically significant between Sheka and both other districts (p = 0.05, but not between Awi and Sidama. The value chain structure showed that compared with Sheka, Awi and Sidama have a relatively large number of actors involved. The major factors explaining commercialization differences among regions were distance to market and presence of alternative forest products. Within Sheka, households with larger family size, higher education attainment, and access to training reportedly engaged more in commercial extraction. Therefore, we conclude that development of infrastructure for linking resource and consumer centers and expansion of extension education among producers may enhance the commercial engagement of producers and improve the accessibility of bamboo resources for commercial production.

  8. Adsorption of malachite green dye from aqueous solution on the bamboo leaf ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntari, Priwidyanjati, Dessyntha Anggiani

    2017-12-01

    Bamboo leaf ash has been developed as an adsorbent material for removal malachite green from aqueous solution. Adsorption parameters have studied are contact time and initial pH. The effect of contact time and pH were examined in the batch adsorption processes. The physicochemical characters of bamboo leaf ash were investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Malachite green concentration was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FT-IR spectrogram of bamboo leaf ash shows that typical fingerprint of adsorbent material with Si-O-Si or Al-O-Al group. The X-ray diffractograms of bamboo leaf ash show that adsorbent material has a highly amorphous nature. The percentage of adsorption was showed raised with increasing contact time. The optimum removal of malachite green when the initial dye concentration, initial pH, weight of adsorbent and contact time was 20 mg/L, 7, 0.25 g and 75 minutes respectively.

  9. Characteristics of Ampel bamboo as a biomass energy source potential in Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipta, M.; Putra Negara, D. N. K.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.; Surata, I. W.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, non-renewable fossil energy dominates utilization of the world energy need for many applications. Efforts has been developed to find alternative renewable energy sources, due to fossil energy availability is diminishing. And one of renewable energy source is from biomass. The aim of this research is to determine characteristics of the Ampel bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as an energy potential of biomass. The Ampel bamboo’s characteristics possessed are evaluated based on its chemical composition; moisture, volatile, ash, and fixed carbon through proximate analysis; and also carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content through ultimate analysis. From the Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that Ampel bamboo contains of about 18.10% hemicelluloses, 47.75% cellulose and 18.86% lignin. While from the ultimate analysis results in the content of carbon, hydrogen, and Nitrogen of Ampel bamboo are 39.75%, 5.75% and 0% respectively. With such characteristics, it indicates that Ampel bamboo has an attractive potential as a renewable energy source.

  10. Improvement of the computing speed of the FBR fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code 'BAMBOO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masahiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki

    2005-04-01

    JNC has developed a coupled analysis system of a fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code 'BAMBOO' and a thermal hydraulics analysis code ASFRE-IV' for the purpose of evaluating the integrity of a subassembly under the BDI condition. This coupled analysis took much computation time because it needs convergent calculations to obtain numerically stationary solutions for thermal and mechanical behaviors. We improved the computation time of the BAMBOO code analysis to make the coupled analysis practicable. 'BAMBOO' is a FEM code and as such its matrix calculations consume large memory area to temporarily stores intermediate results in the solution of simultaneous linear equations. The code used the Hard Disk Drive (HDD) for the virtual memory area to save Random Access Memory (RAM) of the computer. However, the use of the HDD increased the computation time because Input/Output (I/O) processing with the HDD took much time in data accesses. We improved the code in order that it could conduct I/O processing only with the RAM in matrix calculations and run with in high-performance computers. This improvement considerably increased the CPU occupation rate during the simulation and reduced the total simulation time of the BAMBOO code to about one-seventh of that before the improvement. (author)

  11. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzuo Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF: phenolics (TP and triterpenoid (TT of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  12. Effects of Walking in Bamboo Forest and City Environments on Brainwave Activity in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Japan, “Shinrin-yoku” or forest bathing (spending time in forests is a major practice used for relaxation. However, its effects on promoting human mental health are still under consideration. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological relaxation effects of forest walking on adults. Sixty participants (50% males; 50% females were trained to walk 15-minute predetermined courses in a bamboo forest and a city area (control. The length of the courses was the same to allow comparison of the effects of both environments. Blood pressure and EEG results were measured to assess the physiological responses and the semantic differential method (SDM and STAI were used to study the psychological responses. Blood pressure was significantly decreased and variation in brain activity was observed in both environments. The results of the two questionnaires indicated that walking in the bamboo forest improves mood and reduces anxiety. Moreover, the mean meditation and attention scores were significantly increased after walking in a bamboo forest. The results of the physiological and psychological measurements indicate the relaxing effects of walking in a bamboo forest on adults.

  13. Early resistance change and stress/electromigration evolution in near bamboo interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, V.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Dima, G.; Govoreanu, B.; Mitrea, O.; Profirescu, M.

    1997-01-01

    A complete description for early resistance change and mechanical stress evolution in near-bamboo interconnects, related to the electromigration, is given in this paper. The proposed model, for the first time, combines the stress/vacancy concentration evolution with the early resistance change of

  14. Influence of solvent type on microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Tingxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo in glycerol, polyethylene glycerol (PEG), methanol, ethanol, and water were comparatively investigated by evaluating the temperature-dependence for conversion and liquefied residue characteristics. The conversion for the liquefaction in methanol, ethanol, and water increased with an increase in reaction temperature, while that...

  15. Optimisation of mechanical properties of bamboo fibre reinforced-PLA biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnadia M., J.; Fazita, M. R. Nurul; Abdul Khalil H. P., S.; Mohamad Haafiz M., K.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of the raw materials that have been widely used in industries are petroleum-based. Growing environmental awareness, the depletion of fossil fuels, and climate change are the key drivers to seek more ecologically friendly materials, such as natural fibres to replace synthetic fibres in polymeric composite. Among the natural fibres available, bamboo fibre has relatively high strength. Poly (lactic) acid (PLA), one of the well-known biopolymers, has been used as a matrix in order to produce totally biodegradable biocomposites. In this study, bamboo fibres were compounded with PLA by a twin screw extruder. The bamboo fibre reinforced PLA composites were then manufactured via the compression moulding method. The influences of screw speed and die temperature during extrusion on the mechanical properties, the tensile and flexural of the biocomposites, were studied. The effects of fibre content and fibre length were also investigated. Taguchi experimental design approach was adopted to determine the optimum set of conditions to achieve the "best" mechanical properties of the composites. Tensile and flexural properties were characterised based on the D638-10 and D790-10 standards, respectively. It was observed that the fibre aspect ratio and fibre content significantly affected the mechanical performance of bamboo fibres reinforced PLA composites.

  16. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  17. Surface properties, solubility and dissolution kinetics of bamboo phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, Fabrice; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2006-04-01

    Although phytoliths, constituted mainly by micrometric opal, exhibit an important control on silicon cycle in superficial continental environments, their thermodynamic properties and reactivity in aqueous solution are still poorly known. In this work, we determined the solubility and dissolution rates of bamboo phytoliths collected in the Réunion Island and characterized their surface properties via electrophoretic measurements and potentiometric titrations in a wide range of pH. The solubility product of "soil" phytoliths ( pKsp0=2.74 at 25 °C) is equal to that of vitreous silica and is 17 times higher than that of quartz. Similarly, the enthalpy of phytoliths dissolution reaction (ΔHr25-80°C=10.85kJ/mol) is close to that of amorphous silica but is significantly lower than the enthalpy of quartz dissolution. Electrophoretic measurements yield isoelectric point pH IEP = 1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.5 ± 0.2 for "soil" (native) and "heated" (450 °C heating to remove organic matter) phytoliths, respectively. Surface acid-base titrations allowed generation of a 2-p K surface complexation model. Phytoliths dissolution rates, measured in mixed-flow reactors at far from equilibrium conditions at 2 ⩽ pH ⩽ 12, were found to be intermediate between those of quartz and vitreous silica. The dissolution rate dependence on pH was modeled within the concept of surface coordination theory using the equation: R=k1·{>SiOH2+}n+k2·{>SiOH0}+k3·{>SiO-}m, where {> i} stands for the concentration of the surface species present at the SiO 2-H 2O interface, ki are the rate constants of the three parallel reactions and n and m represent the order of the proton- and hydroxy-promoted reactions, respectively. It follows from the results of this study that phytoliths dissolution rates exhibit a minimum at pH ˜ 3. This can explain their good preservation in the acidic soil horizons of Réunion Island. In terms of silicon biogeochemical cycle, phytoliths represent a large buffering reservoir

  18. Removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water using a bamboo-based charcoal adsorbent modified with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Zhu, Guoying; Jia, Xiuying; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Mi; Gao, Qing; Hu, Ciming; Xu, Shuying

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of low-cost syntactic adsorbent from bamboo charcoal and chitosan was developed for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water. Removal efficiency was higher for the syntactic adsorbent when the amount of bamboo charcoal was increased. The optimum dose ratio of bamboo charcoal to chitosan was 6:4, and the optimum amount was 15 mg/L; equilibrium time was 6 hr. The adsorption isotherm was non-linear and could be simulated by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9337). Adsorption efficiency was strongly affected by pH and natural organic matter (NOM). Removal efficiency was 16% higher at pH 3 than at pH 9. Efficiency rate was reduced by 15% with 25 mg/L NOM (UV254 = 0.089 cm(-1)) in drinking water. This study demonstrated that the bamboo charcoal modified with chitosan can effectively remove microcystin-LR from drinking water.

  19. An effective protocol for micropropagation of edible bamboo species (Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera) through nodal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Louis, Bengyella

    2014-01-01

    High demand for edible bamboo shoots of Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera in many Asian ethnic groups has led to the need for developing intensive bamboo farming. To achieve this, in vitro regeneration of bamboo plantlets is needed due to the long and irregular bamboo flowering cycle and scarcity of bamboo seeds. An effective protocol for plantlets regeneration in B. tulda and M. baccifera from nodal explants following validation of the species using the sequence of trnL-F intergenic spacer region is described. Effective axillary bud breaking was achieved at 3 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in MS medium. Importantly, combining 2 mg/L of kinetin (Kn) with 3 mg/L of BAP produced a synergistic effect for shoot multiplication in B. tulda and M. baccifera. Under optimized conditions in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 10 mg/L of coumarin, and 3% sucrose, profuse production of dark-brown rhizome in B. tulda and abundant rooting (81.67%, P < 0.05, F = 15.46) for M. baccifera within 30 days were achieved. The established protocol and the validation of the reported species at the molecular level will be of help to stakeholders in edible bamboo trade to conserve gene-pool and increase productivity.

  20. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  1. Non-indigenous bamboo along headwater streams of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: leaf fall, aquatic leaf decay and patterns of invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAUL J. O' CONNOR; ALAN P. COVICH; F. N. SCATENA; LLOYD L. LOOPE

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of bamboo to montane rain forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico in the 1930s and 1940s has led to present-day bamboo monocultures in numerous riparian areas. When a non-native species invades a riparian ecosystem, in-stream detritivores can be affected. Bamboo dynamics expected to in¯uence stream communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest...

  2. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi, E-mail: paryanto-ds@yahoo.com; Sugiman,; Saputra, Yudhi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mataram, Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  4. Biodegradable Paper Sheeting as Agricultural Covering with Incorporation of Bamboo Pulp Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Gui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the manufacturing process for biodegradable paper sheeting with incorporation of bamboo paper sludge, fibers of poplar woods, and viscose fibers by wet-laid nonwoven technology. The best process conditions included a basis weight of 30 g/m2, a bamboo paper sludge content of 10 wt%, and a polyvinyl alcohol concentration of 4 wt%. The burst strength, tearing resistance, tensile properties, resistance to water, and degradation rate were 220.65 kPa, 60.00 N, 46.10 N, 153 Pa, and 56.18%, respectively, under the best process conditions. The biodegradable paper sheeting can satisfy the demand for replacement of agricultural plastic sheeting used for such purposes as moisture retention of soil and promotion of plant growth.

  5. Novel bamboo structured TiO2 nanotubes for energy storage/production applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, J. J.; Beh, K. P.; Cheong, Y. L.; Yusuf, W. A. A.; Yam, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 received much attention owing to its high surface-to-volume ratio, which can be advantageous in energy storage and production applications. However, the increase in energy consumption at present and possibly the foreseeable future has demanded energy storage and production devices of even higher performance. A direct approach would be manipulating the physical aspects of TiO2 nanostructures, particularly, nanotubes. In this work, dual voltage anodization system has been implemented to fabricate bamboo shaped TiO2 nanotubes, which offers even greater surface area. This unique nanostructure would be used in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) fabrication and its performance will be evaluated and compared along other forms of TiO2 nanotubes. The results showed that bamboo shaped nanotubes indeed are superior morphologically, with an increase of efficiency of 107% at 1.130% efficiency when compared to smooth walled nanotubes at 0.546% efficiency.

  6. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  7. Assessment of Dust Emission and Working Conditions in the Bamboo and Wooden Furniture Industries in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the dust emission and working conditions in the bamboo and rubberwood furniture manufacturing industries in Malaysia. The emission of wood dust arising from these industries was measured in each main work station in the mills. Meanwhile, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 5900 workers in 45 companies to obtain information on the occupational accidents that occurred in the mills. The data were collected, compiled, and analyzed using the SPSS package. The highest dust emission from the sanding operation resulted in respiratory ailments among workers. The occurrence of injuries particularly to the hand, wrist, fingers and forearm was due to the prevailing working conditions, safety climate and workers characteristics. The dust exposure levels and working conditions were much more severe in the bamboo furniture manufacturing industry. As a result, a review of existing of dust exposure levels in the woodworking industry is warranted.

  8. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, S.; Arias, N.P.; Giraldo, O.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O.

    2012-01-01

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in NaOH or NH 4 OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  10. Synthesis of Composit From Bamboo Fiber, Zeolite and Epoxy for Room Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan Muhammad, Dhany; Basuki, Kris Tri; Wasito, Bangun; Suroso

    2018-01-01

    This research aims is to search a subtitute of the asbestos for the separator rontgen room using bamboo fiber filled with zeolite; which harden using epoxy it is all caused because the hazard of the asbestos to the human body. Bamboo stem degenerated using NaOH (20%) to get the bamboo fiber. Bamboo fiber added with CS2 (10 mL) to form xanthate cellulose. Xanthate Cellulose mixed with filler zeolite and harden of epoxy, layer by layer until getting the right width. The variant of the mass composition is 3: 0:1; 3: 0.25:0.75; 3 :0.5:0.5; 3: 0.75:0.25; 3: 1:0, and the variant of the temperature 28 °C 40 °C 60 °C 80 °C and 100 °C. The sample tested using microscopic method, impact test with Charpy method, corrosivity method, Electricity conduct method, thermal conduct method, and radiation resistance or attenuation method. The result shown the optimum composition of the composite it is at the variant 3 :0.5:0.5, with the optimum temperature is 40°C with the density of the sample is 1.5789 g/cm3. Impact resistance of the sample is 44 Joule. The Radiation resistance is 0.46, with the thermal conductivity of the sample is 0.016 Kkal/m.s.c. it shown that the sample is isolator. From the result is shown that the sample is can be a substitute for asbestos as material of the separator in the Rontgen room.

  11. A moso bamboo WRKY gene PeWRKY83 confers salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Liu, Huanlong; Han, Guomin; Cai, Ronghao; Pan, Feng; Xiang, Yan

    2017-09-15

    The WRKY family are transcription factors, involved in plant development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo is an important bamboo that has high ecological, economic and cultural value and is widely distributed in the south of China. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of WRKY members in moso bamboo and identified 89 members. By comparative analysis in six grass genomes, we found the WRKY gene family may have experienced or be experiencing purifying selection. Based on relative expression levels among WRKY IIc members under three abiotic stresses, PeWRKY83 functioned as a transcription factor and was selected for detailed analysis. The transgenic Arabidopsis of PeWRKY83 showed superior physiological properties compared with the WT under salt stress. Overexpression plants were less sensitive to ABA at both germination and postgermination stages and accumulated more endogenous ABA under salt stress conditions. Further studies demonstrated that overexpression of PeWRKY83 could regulate the expression of some ABA biosynthesis genes (AtAAO3, AtNCED2, AtNCED3), signaling genes (AtABI1, AtPP2CA) and responsive genes (AtRD29A, AtRD29B, AtABF1) under salt stress. Together, these results suggested that PeWRKY83 functions as a novel WRKY-related TF which plays a positive role in salt tolerance by regulating stress-induced ABA synthesis.

  12. Hydrological Implication of Bamboo And Mixed Garden In The upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chay Asdak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of important factors affecting runoff and erosion was carried out by collecting runoff and soil loss from four runoff/erosion plots. The runoff/erosion plots were set up in sloping areas of about 40% slope in the upper area of Ciwidey sub-watershed (upper Citarum watershed, West Java. The plots (6 x 10 m were established in the following four sets of conditions: bamboo plantation, mixed garden, small shrub, and agricultural field with different species and stand structures. After 20 rainfall events, a treatment in the form of removing undergrowth and litter were applied to bamboo and mixed garden plots. The result of this before and after treatment are the following: runoff from bamboo plantation was increased from 0.40 to 1.02 litre/m2 and erosion was increased from 1.47 to 11.65 gr/m2. While the runoff and erosion in mixed garden were increased from 0.36 to 1.65 litre/m2 and from 1.36 to 10.88 65 gr/m2, respectively. When this compared to the runoff and soil loss in the agricultural plot, the soil erosion is much higher, 50.5 gr/m2 (about 50 times higher. Stand/canopy structure appeared to be the important factors that determine the magnitude of soil erosion. While the role of these factors were less significant compared to rainfall in determining the magnitude of runoff.

  13. Identification of putative orthologous genes for the phylogenetic reconstruction of temperate woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Na; Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2014-09-01

    The temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) are highly diverse in morphology but lack a substantial amount of genetic variation. The taxonomy of this lineage is intractable, and the relationships within the tribe have not been well resolved. Recent studies indicated that this tribe could have a complex evolutionary history. Although phylogenetic studies of the tribe have been carried out, most of these phylogenetic reconstructions were based on plastid data, which provide lower phylogenetic resolution compared with nuclear data. In this study, we intended to identify a set of desirable nuclear genes for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. Using two different methodologies, we identified 209 and 916 genes, respectively, as putative single copy orthologous genes. A total of 112 genes was successfully amplified and sequenced by next-generation sequencing technologies in five species sampled from the tribe. As most of the genes exhibited intra-individual allele heterozygotes, we investigated phylogenetic utility by reconstructing the phylogeny based on individual genes. Discordance among gene trees was observed and, to resolve the conflict, we performed a range of analyses using BUCKy and HybTree. While caution should be taken when inferring a phylogeny from multiple conflicting genes, our analysis indicated that 74 of the 112 investigated genes are potential markers for resolving the phylogeny of the temperate woody bamboos. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Smith

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running" bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata, wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  15. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  16. Adsorption characteristics of sulfur powder by bamboo charcoal to restrain sulfur allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxi Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 may influence the risk of birth defects and make you allergic, which causes serious harm to human health. Bamboo charcoal can adsorb harmful substances,that was of benefitto people’s health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorbtion condition and the intrinsic change of bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal blast time was 80 min of Na2SO3, 100 min of Na2S2O8, 20 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO43 and 60 min or 100 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that bamboo charcoal had five characteristic peaks of SS stretch, H2O stretch, OH stretch, CO stretch or CC stretch, and NO2 stretch at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1, respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Fe2(SO43, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 120 min. For S, the peaks at 3850 cm−1 and 3740 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min, the peaks at 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. It proved that bamboo charcoal could remove sulfur powder from air to restrain sulfur allergies.

  17. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  18. Penelitian Pembuatan Arang Bambu (Bamboo Charcoal pda Suhu Rendah untuk Produk Kerajinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suheryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakProses pengarangan terjadi bila ada suatu benda yang dipanasi sampai mencapai titik bakarnya sehingga benda terlihat membara, kemudian pemasukan oksigen dihentikan atau dibatasi agar benda tersebut tidak terbakar menjadi abu. Untuk melakukan uji coba penelitiaan pengarangan bambu menggunakan 2 jenis tungku, yaitu: tungku Tipe-1 tungku pengarangan suhu rendah (<120°C, dan tungku Tipe-2 tungku pengarangan suhu menengah 120°C -260°C, yang terbuat dari drum dengan Ǿ 35 cm. Bahan bambu yang digunakan terdiri dari 3 jenis bambu, yaitu; bambu cendani, petung, dan legi, dan produk bambu setengan jadi. Prosedur pengerjaan meliputi, penyiapan bahan (pemotongan dan seleksi, pengeringan, pengukuanr kandungan air awal, pengarangan, pengamatan proses pengarangan, dan identifikasi tingkat keberhasilan pengarangan. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor yang mempengaruhi proses pengarangan dan kinerja tungku suhu rendah dan menengah. Dari hasil pengukuran kandungan air awal dari ke 3 jenis bambu yaitu dibawah 15%, sedangkan dari hasil pengamatan dan identifikasi pengarangan, pengarangan dengan menggunakan tungku Tipe-1, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 107,4 ºC dalam waktu 5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 60 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 73 %;  dengan tungku Tipe-2, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 112,8 ºC dalam waktu 3,5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 50 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 81 %. Kata kunci: arang bambu (bamboo charcoal, pengarangan, suhu, tungku pengarangan ABSTRACTA charcoal formation process occurs when an object is being heated until it reaches its burning point and smoldered, then the oxygen intake is stopped or restricted, so the object will not get burned into ashes. In this research, there are two tipes of furnaces being used, those are: Furnace Tipe-1, with low temperature (120°C and Furnace Tipe-2, with medium temperature (120°C 260

  19. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  20. Phytosterols elevation in bamboo shoot residue through laboratorial scale solid-state fermentation using isolated Aspergillus niger CTBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X X; Chen, R S; Shen, Y; Yin, Z Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus niger CTBU isolated from local decayed bamboo shoot residue was employed to solid-state fermentation (SSF) of bamboo shoot residue to elevate the content of phytosterols. Strain acclimatization was carried out under the fermentation condition using bamboo shoot as substrate for fermentation performance improvement. The optimal fermentation temperature and nitrogen level were investigated using acclimatized strain, and SSF was carried out in a 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask feeding 300-mg bamboo shoot residue chips under the optimal condition (33 °C and feeding 4 % urea), and 1,186 mg (100 g)(-1) of total phytosterol was attained after 5-day fermentation, in comparison, only 523 mg (100 g)(-1) of phytosterol was assayed in fresh shoots residue. HPLC analysis of the main composition of total phytosterols displays that the types of phytosterols and composition ratio of main sterols keep steady. This laboratorial scale SSF unit could be scaled up for raw phytosterols production from discarded bamboo shoot residue and could reduce its cost.

  1. Preparation and Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppression Properties of Bamboo-Wood Hybrid Scrimber Filled with Calcium and Magnesium Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of bamboo-wood hybrid scrimber filled with different loadings of nanoparticles were studied. The effects of nanoparticles on flame retardant and smoke suppression properties of bamboo-wood hybrid scrimber were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimeter (CONE, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that the physical and mechanical properties of bamboo-wood hybrid scrimber were improved by adding a moderate loading of nanoparticles; the optimal loading of nanoparticles was 10%. The heat transfer in bamboo-wood hybrid scrimber was prevented and the escaping channel of combustible gas was blocked by the uniformly filling effect of nanoparticles. The gas concentration was diluted by the noncombustible gas produced by pyrolysis of nanoparticles; the combustion chain reaction was suppressed by highly reactive free radicals produced by pyrolysis of nanoparticles. The residual mass of bamboo-wood hybrid scrimber filled with nanoparticles in thermogravimetric (TG curve at 900 s and burned by method of cone calorimeter (CONE at 600 s was increased compared to that of untreated one, which showed that inorganic mineral powder has the effect of catalytic charring.

  2. Silicon Conversion From Bamboo Leaf Silica By Magnesiothermic Reduction for Development of Li-ion Baterry Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Silviana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is a promising alternative material for the anode Lithium ion Battery (LIB. Si has a large theoretical capacity about 3579 mA hg-1, ten times greater than the commercial graphite anode (372 mA hg-1. Bamboo is a source of organic silica (bio-silica. Most part biogenetic content of SiO2 is obtained in bamboo leaves. This paper aims to investigate the synthesis nano Si from bamboo leaves through magnesiothermic reduction after silica extraction using sol–gel method and to observe nano Si of bamboo leaf as mixed material for lithium ion baterry. Silica and silicon content was determined using XRF. Silica product has 96,3 wt. % yield of extraction from bamboo leaf, while silicon yield was obtained 61.2 wt. %. The XRD pattern revealed that silica and silicon product were amourphous. The extracted silica and silicon from bambo leaf has spherical shape and agglomerated form. As anoda material for LIB, silicon product achieved 0,002 mAh capacity for 22 cycle.

  3. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the

  4. Fabrication of Robust Super hydrophobic Bamboo Based on ZnO Nano sheet Networks with Improved Water-, UV-, and Fire-Resistant Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Sun, Q.; Yao, Q.; Wang, J.; Han, Sh.; Jin, Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo with water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties was desirable in modern society. In this paper, the original bamboo was firstly treated with ZnO sol and then hydrothermally the ZnO nano sheet networks grow onto the bamboo surface and subsequently modified with fluoro alkyl silane (FAS-17). The FAS-17 treated bamboo substrate exhibited not only robust super hydrophobicity with a high contact angle of 161° but also stable repellency towards simulated acid rain (ph = 3) with a contact angle of 152°. Except for its robust super hydrophobicity, such a bamboo also presents superior water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties.

  5. Fabrication of Robust Superhydrophobic Bamboo Based on ZnO Nanosheet Networks with Improved Water-, UV-, and Fire-Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo with water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties was desirable in modern society. In this paper, the original bamboo was firstly treated with ZnO sol and then hydrothermally the ZnO nanosheet networks grow onto the bamboo surface and subsequently modified with fluoroalkyl silane (FAS-17. The FAS-17 treated bamboo substrate exhibited not only robust superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle of 161° but also stable repellency towards simulated acid rain (pH = 3 with a contact angle of 152°. Except for its robust superhydrophobicity, such a bamboo also presents superior water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties.

  6. Comparison of Bending Creep Behavior of Bamboo-based Composites Manufactured by Two Types of Stacking Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Ma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of viscoelastic and mechano-sorptive creep on bamboo laminated veneer lumber (BLVL and bamboo/poplar plywood (BPP is described in this paper. Bending creep tests parallel to the grain were carried out on two bamboo-based composites for a length of 90 days. The specimens measured 500 mm × 20 mm × 12 mm. Based on the experimental data, the creep curves of two boards were evaluated. The results are summarized as follows: (1 the anti-creep property of BLVL was better than that of BPP; (2 two creep curves were successfully approximated using the Burgers model and the power law model. The required experimental term for the creep test to estimate an accurate long-term curve is 2 or 3 years when the power law is used for the estimation; and (3 compared with the creep curve in a constant environment, the creep deformation changed more dramatically under varying environment.

  7. Cross-Linked ZnO Nanowalls Immobilized onto Bamboo Surface and Their Use as Recyclable Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel recyclable photocatalyst was fabricated by hydrothermal method to immobilize the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls on the bamboo surface. The resultant samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR techniques. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the cross-linked wurtzite ZnO nanowalls and bamboo surface were interconnected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Meanwhile, the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls modified bamboo (CZNB presented a superior photocatalytic ability and could be recycled at least 3 times with a photocatalytic efficiency up to 70%. The current research provides a new opportunity for the development of a portable and recycled biomass-based photocatalysts which can be an efficiently degraded pollutant solution and reused several times.

  8. No rainbow for grey bamboo sharks: evidence for the absence of colour vision in sharks from behavioural discrimination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Rick, I P; Plischke, K

    2014-11-01

    Despite convincing data collected by microspectrophotometry and molecular biology, rendering sharks colourblind cone monochromats, the question of whether sharks can perceive colour had not been finally resolved in the absence of any behavioural experiments compensating for the confounding factor of brightness. The present study tested the ability of juvenile grey bamboo sharks to perceive colour in an experimental design based on a paradigm established by Karl von Frisch using colours in combination with grey distractor stimuli of equal brightness. Results showed that contrasts but no colours could be discriminated. Blue and yellow stimuli were not distinguished from a grey distractor stimulus of equal brightness but could be distinguished from distractor stimuli of varying brightness. In addition, different grey stimuli were distinguished significantly above chance level from one another. In conclusion, the behavioural results support the previously collected physiological data on bamboo sharks, which mutually show that the grey bamboo shark, like several marine mammals, is a cone monochromate and colourblind.

  9. Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2013-11-01

    Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a

  10. Effects of application of composted water-bamboo leaves on soil nutrients and vegetable quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Lu, Xinzhe; Luo, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Liantang Town of Qingpu District in the western suburbs of Shanghai is known as a land of water-bamboo, where the cultivation of water-bamboo attains more than 2000 ha in area. A huge amount of water-bamboo leaves, approximately 1.5×108 kg, are produced annually in the town and become a headachy agricultural waste. The leaves of water-bamboo are difficult to be biodegraded, and will adversely affect the growth of next crops if being directly returned to the fields due to its high C/N ratio. We transformed these water-bamboo leaves into organic manure through fermenting and composting. Total N, total P and total K of this fermented manure are 23.7 g kg-1, 6.39 g kg-1 and 44.3 g kg-1, respectively. To study the fertilizer efficiency of this organic manure, four field experiments on vegetables were carried out in the suburb of Shanghai. Each experiment designed the same four treatments of fertilization, including a lower amount of the fermented manure (LM), 3750 kg ha-1; a higher amount of the manure (HM), 7500 kg ha-1; synthetic chemical fertilizer (CF), 750 kg ha-1; non-fertilized CK. Each treatment has three replicate plots, and each plot was 9 m2 in area. The results indicated that the application of the fermented manure increased the contents of organic matter and nutrients in the soils significantly. Compared with CK, the content of organic matter in the soils treated with HM increased by 16.0%, and those of alkali-hydrolyzable N, available P, available K, total N, total P and total K in the soils increased by 14.5%, 4.8%, 12.8%, 16.7%, 48.0% and 9.1%, respectively. Compared with CF and CK, the application of the fermented manure, both LM and HM, increased the numbers of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes and improved the activities of urease and phosphatase in the soils significantly. The study also indicated that the contents of soluble sugar and Vitamin C in green peppers and tomatoes treated with HM increased by 62.8% and 14.8%, respectively, compared with

  11. A Mathematical Model with Pulse Effect for Three Populations of the Giant Panda and Two Kinds of Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yun Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the relationship between the populations of giant pandas and two kinds of bamboo is established. We use the impulsive perturbations to take into account the effect of a sudden collapse of bamboo as a food source. We show that this system is uniformly bounded. Using the Floquet theory and comparison techniques of impulsive equations, we find conditions for the local and global stabilities of the giant panda-free periodic solution. Moreover, we obtain sufficient conditions for the system to be permanent. The results provide a theoretical basis for giant panda habitat protection.

  12. Temperature and vital effect controls on Bamboo coral (Isididae) isotopegeochemistry: A test of the "lines method"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T M; Spero, H J; Guilderson, T P; LaVigne, M; Clague, D; Macalello, S; Jang, N

    2011-03-01

    Deep-sea bamboo corals hold promise as long-term climatic archives, yet little information exists linking bamboo coral geochemistry to measured environmental parameters. This study focuses on a suite of 10 bamboo corals collected from the Pacific and Atlantic basins (250-2136 m water depth) to investigate coral longevity, growth rates, and isotopic signatures. Calcite samples for stable isotopes and radiocarbon were collected from the base the corals, where the entire history of growth is recorded. In three of the coral specimens, samples were also taken from an upper branch for comparison. Radiocarbon and growth band width analyses indicate that the skeletal calcite precipitates from ambient dissolved inorganic carbon and that the corals live for 150-300 years, with extension rates of 9-128 {micro}m/yr. A linear relationship between coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C indicates that the isotopic composition is influenced by vital effects ({delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope of 0.17-0.47). As with scleractinian deep-sea corals, the intercept from a linear regression of {delta}{sup 18}O versus {delta}{sup 13}C is a function of temperature, such that a reliable paleotemperature proxy can be obtained, using the 'lines method.' Although the coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope is maintained throughout the coral base ontogeny, the branches and central cores of the bases exhibit {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C values that are shifted far from equilibrium. We find that a reliable intercept value can be derived from the {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C regression of multiple samples distributed throughout one specimen or from multiple samples within individual growth bands.

  13. Chemical Constituents and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Four Typical Bamboo Species Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd. Munro (PN, P. vivax McClure (PV, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi Makino (CQ, and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1–32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29–No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB contained 2–3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%–34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2–3 fold higher than in No. 1–No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 or β-(1→6glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds.

  14. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  15. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayawong, Nakorn; Saengow, Nakarin; Chaiya, Ekarin

    2010-07-01

    There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  16. A Case of endoscopic retrieval of a long bamboo stick from a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Ko, Minho; Cho, Hyun Kee; Kang, Byung-Jae; Choi, Jung Hoon; Chung, Jin-Young

    2017-02-28

    An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps. A long bamboo stick (29 × 1 cm) was removed from the stomach, and the penguin fully recovered.

  17. The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

  18. Induction and inhibition of film yeast from fermented bamboo shoot by seasoning plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Maneesri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of fermented bamboo shoot taken from a village in Amphur Kokpho, Pattani Province, were microbiologically examined. Total viable count was between at 104-105 cfu/ml while pH range was between 3.4-4.4. Isolation and identification of film yeast on surface of fermented liquid revealed Saccharomyces cerevisiae J1, Candida krusei J2 and Candida krusei J3. When film yeast was cultivated in liquid culture with different NaCl concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% (w/v, all species tolerated 2.5% NaCl addition. However, growth decreased depending on NaCl concentration. S. cerevisiae J1 grew faster than C. krusei J2 and C. krusei J3. The cultivation of film yeast in medium with different agar concentrations (0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/v within 24 h showed that 0.3% was the optimal agar concentration. Seasoning plants (garlic, ginger, galangal, lemon grass, lesser galangal, clove, kaffir lime, garcinia and shallot were extracted with water (3% (w/v and tested for growth inhibition. Results showed the clove extract inhibited all yeast strains within 12 h and after that the efficiency of inhibition was decreased. At low concentration of 0.75% (w/v clove extract could inhibit film yeast in fermented bamboo shoot.

  19. Preliminary study for acetylation of cassava bagasse starch and microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Silviana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio composite matrixes have been developed from several biomaterials, such as starch. One of potential resources is starch isolated from cassava bagasse still consisting 30-50% of starch. Reinforcement material may be inserted into bio composite to tough and reduce the drawback of the starch-based bio composite or bio plastic. Microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo (MFC can be used as toughening filler for composite matrix. However, surface modification of material could be employed to alter its properties, such as acetylation of starch-based bio composite and microfibrillated cellulose. The acetylation was executed by using glacial acetic acid (GAA catalyzed with sodium hydroxide. This paper investigates optimum condition of acetylation for bagasse starch (BS and bamboo MFC in different weight ratio of GAA to BS or MFC (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:2, 1:3, temperature range of 30°C to 70°C, and pH range of 7 to 11. Data were resulted from degree of susbtitution for each running. The optimum condition of acetylation of BS was obtained at temperature of 50°C (for BS and 30°C (for MFC, pH of 9, and 2:1 ratio. This acetylation was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope.

  20. Distinctive diet-tissue isotopic discrimination factors derived from the exclusive bamboo-eating giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Wei, Wei; Nie, Yonggang; Zhou, Wenliang; Hu, Yibo; Wu, Qi; Wei, Fuwen

    2016-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis is very useful in animal ecology, especially in diet reconstruction and trophic studies. Differences in isotope ratios between consumers and their diet, termed discrimination factors, are essential for studies of stable isotope ecology and are species-specific and tissue-specific. Given the specialized bamboo diet and clear foraging behavior, here, we calculated discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopes from diet to tissues (tooth enamel, hair keratin and bone collagen) for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), a species derived from meat-eating ancestors. Our results showed that carbon discrimination factor obtained from giant panda tooth enamel (ε 13 C diet-enamel = 10.0‰) and nitrogen discrimination factors from hair keratin (Δ 15 N diet-hair = 2.2‰) and bone collagen (Δ 15 N diet-collagen = 2.3‰) were lower, and carbon discrimination factors from hair keratin (Δ 13 C diet-hair = 5.0‰) and bone collagen (Δ 13 C diet-collagen = 6.1‰) were higher than those of other mammalian carnivores, omnivores and herbivores. Such distinctive values are likely the result of a low-nutrient and specialized bamboo diet, carnivore-like digestive system and exceptionally low metabolism in giant pandas. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. Exceptionally low daily energy expenditure in the bamboo-eating giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yonggang; Speakman, John R; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Hu, Yibo; Xia, Maohua; Yan, Li; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, Lu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinguo; Wei, Fuwen

    2015-07-10

    The carnivoran giant panda has a specialized bamboo diet, to which its alimentary tract is poorly adapted. Measurements of daily energy expenditure across five captive and three wild pandas averaged 5.2 megajoules (MJ)/day, only 37.7% of the predicted value (13.8 MJ/day). For the wild pandas, the mean was 6.2 MJ/day, or 45% of the mammalian expectation. Pandas achieve this exceptionally low expenditure in part by reduced sizes of several vital organs and low physical activity. In addition, circulating levels of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) averaged 46.9 and 64%, respectively, of the levels expected for a eutherian mammal of comparable size. A giant panda-unique mutation in the DUOX2 gene, critical for thyroid hormone synthesis, might explain these low thyroid hormone levels. A combination of morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic adaptations, leading to low energy expenditure, likely enables giant pandas to survive on a bamboo diet. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  3. Mechanical properties evaluation of single and hybrid composites polyester reinforced bamboo, PALF and coir fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihayat, T.; Suryani, S.; Fauzi, T.; Agusnar, H.; Wirjosentono, B.; Syafruddin; Helmi; Zulkifli; Alam, P. N.; Sami, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the composition fiber natural of bamboo, pineapple leaf and coir in single and hybrid composite to see the best characteristics of tensile strength and flexural test by using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and observe the effect on the microstructure of the composite through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Bamboo, Palf and coir have synthesis from natural fiber was used as reinforcement in polyester composite using hand lay up or a hot-compression moulding while filler:matrix was used (45%:55wt.%, 70%:30wt.% and 15%:85wt.%). From the variation of the volume fraction between filler and matrix show that mechanical properties of composites increased with increasing amount of filler in the matrix. This is evidenced by the high mechanical properties A:B:C/Ps in compositions 45%: 55wt.% 136 Mpa while flexural strength 93 N and good structure surface morphology. This research has produced a hybrid composite materials that have high mechanical properties and bending compared with conventional synthetic fibers and other materials.

  4. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  5. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bamboo Pulp Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Ren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites reinforced by bamboo pulp fibers (BPF. Using a twin-screw extruder, polymer composites were fabricated using BPF and bamboo flour (BF as the reinforcement and HDPE as the matrix. Tensile and flexural tests of the HDPE composites were performed to determine the mechanical properties under different conditions. The thermal properties of HDPE composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The results showed that BPF improved the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer composites more than did BF. The tensile and flexural strength of composites with 30 wt% BPF were increased by 61.46% and 22.94%, respectively, while the tensile and flexural modulus were increased by 84.52% and 27.30%, respectively. Compared to composites with 50 wt% BF, the T5% of composites with 50 wt% BPF increased by 20.18 °C. As the BPF content increased, the storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” initially increased, followed by a decrease. Compared to the BF/HDPE composites, BPF/HDPE composites reinforced at 30 wt% had a higher storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” and lower damping parameter (tanδ.

  6. Water Absorption Properties of Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber and High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanxing Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To modify water absorption properties of bamboo fiber (BF and high density polyethylene (HDPE composites, heat treatment of BFs was performed prior to compounding them with HDPE to form the composites. The moisture sorption property of the composites was measured and their diffusion coefficients (Dm were evaluated using a one-dimensional diffusion model. Moisture diffusion coefficient values of all composites were in the range of 0.115x10-8 to 1.267x10-8 cm2/s. The values of Dm decreased with increasing BF heat-treatment temperature, and increased with increasing BF loading level. The Dm value of 40 wt% bamboo fiber/HDPE composites with BFs treated with 100 oC was the greatest (i.e., 1.267x10-8cm2/s. Morphology analysis showed increased fiber-matrix interfacial bonding damage due to fiber swelling and shrinking from water uptaking and drying. The mechanism of water absorption of the composite, indicated a general Fickian diffusion process.

  7. Electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles on bamboo shaped carbon nanotubes for ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zanzan; Wang Jianlong; Munir, Ahsan; Zhou, H. Susan

    2010-01-01

    Recently, bamboo shaped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) have received increased attention for its bamboo shaped structure associated properties and its application in direct methanol/ethanol fuel cell. In this work, the potential to use BCNTs as the support material of high loaded Pt nanoparticles for improving the efficiency of ethanol/methanol fuel cell is explored. The structure and nature of the resulting Pt-BCNTS composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectrum, it was found that Pt nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the BCNTs surfaces with 23.5% by weight. Cyclic voltammogram (CV) indicated that the Pt-BCNTs catalyst displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability toward ethanol oxidation. The excellent performance may be attributed to the high dispersion of nanoscale Pt catalysts and the unique nature of BCNTs. The results imply that doping N atom introduces some defective sites and active sites onto the surface of CNTs. In general, this paper demonstrates that BCNTs are promising support material for Pt-nanoparticles catalyst and can be used to enhance the efficiency of fuel cell.

  8. Flexible architecture: bamboo as a tool for children to play in urban kampung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, D.; Widyarko; Ilmiani, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Due to the dense population and increase of development, urban kampung in Indonesia is facing a problem of limited children’s play spaces. Flexible architecture with its movable principle is expected to be a solution by creating children’s playing tool that is built among the dense urban kampung. Bamboo is the staple material because it is local, able to regenerate quickly, lightweight, and affordable. By using the exploratory method, this research tries to reveal the previously hidden aspects by evaluating all processes of design-build of three created children’s playing tools. These playing tools can be built in the kampung after three processes of apart-and-reassemble. However, there are several questions which need to be discussed further; the right configuration between the component and the joint of the bamboo, to make apart-and-reassemble process more effective in a dense urban kampung, and also how to make bamboo’s structure able to survive better under rainy seasons and surface humidity.

  9. Experiment on Behavior of a New Connector Used in Bamboo (Timber Frame Structure under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwen Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection is an important part of the bamboo and timber structure, and it directly influences the overall structural performance and safety. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical performance of several wood connections, a new connector for the bamboo (timber frame joint was proposed in this paper. Three full-scale T-type joint specimens were designed to study the mechanical performance under cyclic loading. The thickness of the hollow steel column was different among three specimens. The specimens were loaded under displacement control with a rate of 10 mm per minute until the specimens reach failure. It was observed that the failures of three specimens were caused by the buckling of flanges in the compression and that the steel of connections does not yield. The load-displacement hysteretic curve for three specimens is relatively plump, and the stiffness of connection degenerates with the increasing of cyclic load. The maximum rotation is 0.049 rad, and the energy dissipation coefficient is 1.77. The thickness of the hollow steel column of the connector has significant impact on the energy dissipation capacity and the strength of the connection. A simplified moment-rotation hysteresis model for the joint was proposed.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris FOR PESTICIDE REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Mateus Santana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the water scarcity problems facing many countries, the need for water reuse can make activated carbon (AC an essential product for modern society. In this context, to contribute with better activated carbons that could be used to serve in water treatment, this article discusses these materials production, using bamboo as raw material, and analyses their application effectiveness. The bamboo was collected, transformed into activated carbon, by simultaneous chemical and physical activations, and named H3PO4/H2OAC. The obtained material was characterized by its yield, apparent density, ash content, thermogravimetric analysis, surface area, methylene blue and iodine indexes, pH and point of zero charge analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Boehm titration method. The AC was used as adsorbent for removing the metribuzin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and furadan pesticides. The H3PO4/H2OAC had a surface area of 1196.30 m².g-1 and the obtained adsorption capacity was elevated for furadan (868.98 mg.g-1, metribuzin (756.47 mg.g-1 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (274.70 mg.g-1.

  11. Morphological Responses Explain Tolerance of the Bamboo Yushania microphylla to Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of tolerance of the bamboo Y. microphylla to ungulate herbivory were investigated by measuring above- and belowground morphogenetic traits and biomass allocation patterns of the bamboo Y. microphylla under grazed and ungrazed conditions in a Himalayan mixed conifer forest. Data were collected from 5 populations consisting of 10 ramets each in adjacent grazed and ungrazed plots. Compared with ungrazed ramets, the aboveground morphological modifications of grazed ramets were higher culm density, shorter and thinner culms, shorter internode, and shorter top leaf. The belowground morphological modifications for the grazed ramets were thinner rhizomes, lower rhizome biomass and dry matter, more nodes, and shorter internodes. Despite the lower biomass and dry matter, the root-to-shoot ratio was higher for grazed ramets. Results suggest that Y. microphylla subjected to herbivory shows aboveground overcompensation in terms of densification at the cost of belowground biomass, but at the same time maintains a higher proportion of belowground reserves, as compared to ungrazed conditions. These responses provide adequate evidence to conclude that Y. microphylla tolerates ungulate herbivory through above- and belowground morphological modifications.

  12. [Effect of seasonal high temperature and drought on carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem in subtropical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Hong; Niu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Jin-meng; Liu, Yu-li; Fang, Cheng-yuan

    2016-02-01

    The carbon flux of subtropical bamboo forest ecosystem was continuously measured using eddy covariance technique in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, China. The monthly net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) data from 2011 to 2013 were selected to analyze the impacts of seasonal high temperature and drought on the carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem. The results showed that there were big differences among annual NEP of bamboo forest from 2011 to 2013. Because of the asynchronization of precipitation and heat, the seasonal high temperature and drought in July and August of 2013 caused significant decline in NEP by 59.9% and 80.0% when compared with the same months in 2011. Correlation analysis of the NEP, Re, GEP and environmental factors suggested that the atmosphere temperatures were significantly correlated with Re and GEP in 2011 and 2013 (P<0.05). However, to air and soil moisture, Re and GEP had different responses, that was, GEP was more vulnerable by the decrease of the soil moisture compared with Re. Besides, the raising of saturation vapour pressure promoted the Re modestly but inhibited the GEP, which was supposed to be the main reason for NEP decrease of bamboo forest ecosystem in Anji, from July to August in 2013.

  13. Caterpillar assembalges on Chusquea bamboos in southern Ecuador: abundance, guild structure, and the influence of host plant quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, L.; Bodner, F.; Fiedler, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2016), s. 698-706 ISSN 0307-6946 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bamboo * feeding guild * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/een.12345/abstract

  14. A lucrative chemical processing of bamboo leaf biomass to synthesize biocompatible amorphous silica nanoparticles of biomedical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraj, Suriyaprabha; Venkatachalam, Rajendran

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of silica nanoparticles from natural resources/waste via cost effective route is presently one of the anticipating strategies for extensive applications. This study reports the low-cost indigenous production of silica nanoparticles from the leftover of bamboo (leaf biomass) through thermal combustion and alkaline extraction, and examination of physico-chemical properties and yield percentage using comprehensive characterization tools. The outcome of primed silica powder exhibits amorphous particles (average size: 25 nm) with high surface area (428 m2 g-1) and spherical morphology. Despite the yield percentage of silica nanoparticles from bamboo leave ash is 50.2%, which is less than rice husk ask resources (62.1%), the bamboo waste is only an inexpensive resource yielding high purity (99%). Synthesis of silica nanoparticles from natural resources/waste with the help of lucrative route is at present times one of the anticipating strategies for extensive applications. In vitro study on animal cell lines (MG-63) shows non-toxic nature of silica nanoparticles up to 125 µg mL-1. Hence, this study highlights the feasibility for the mass production of silica nanoparticles from bamboo leave waste rather using chemical precursor of silica for drug delivery and other medical applications.

  15. Adsorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution by a new low-cost adsorbent-Bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Hui, E-mail: wanghui@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma Jianwei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted for the adsorption of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution by bamboo charcoal. The results showed that the adsorption of Cd (II) ions was very fast initially and the equilibrium time was 6 h. High pH ({>=}8.0) was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Cd (II) ions. Higher initial Cd concentrations led to lower removal percentages but higher adsorption capacity. As the adsorbent dose increased, the removal of Cd increased, while the adsorption capacity decreased. Adsorption kinetics of Cd (II) ions onto bamboo charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Cd (II) ions fitted Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich isotherms well, but followed Langmuir isotherm most precisely, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.08 mg/g. EDS analysis confirmed that Cd (II) was adsorbed onto bamboo charcoal. This study demonstrated that bamboo charcoal could be used for the removal of Cd (II) ions in water treatment.

  16. Comparative study on microwave and conventional hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo sawdust: Hydrochar properties and its pyrolysis behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Leilei; He, Chao; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Yu, Zhenting; Zhou, Yue; Fan, Liangliang; Duan, Dengle

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two pretreatments affect differently the hydrochar properties and its pyrolysis behaviors. • Hydrochar by conventional hydrothermal pretreatment shows higher thermal stability. • Microwave hydrothermal pretreatment removes more acetyl. • Hydrochar by microwave hydrothermal pretreatment produces more glucopyranose and less acids. - Abstract: Comparative study on microwave and conventional hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo sawdust was carried out in this study. Microwave and conventional hydrothermal pretreatment both improved the hydrochar properties and its pyrolysis behaviors. Proximate and elemental analyses show that the properties of hydrochar from microwave hydrothermal pretreatment are better than conventional hydrothermal pretreatment in terms of calorific value and oxygen content except for 150 °C. Microwave hydrothermal pretreatment removes more acetyl groups in hemicellulose compared to conventional hydrothermal pretreatment, which may be attributed to the hot spot effect of microwave irradiation. The peaks of thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetric curves of pretreated samples always shifted to higher temperature region. Also, the conventional hydrothermal pretreated samples are more thermally stable than those by microwave heating. In addition, the glucopyranose content in pyrolysis vapors of microwave hydrothermal pretreated bamboo sawdust (190 °C) was 9.82% higher than that from conventional hydrothermal pretreated bamboo sawdust. However, the acids content from microwave hydrothermal pretreated bamboo sawdust (150 °C) was 4.12% lower. In this regard, microwave hydrothermal pretreatment is more suitable for upgrading the pyrolysis oil quality than conventional hydrothermal pretreatment.

  17. Effect of lignin derivatives in the bio-polyols from microwave liquefied bamboo on the properties of polyurethane foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo residues were subjected to a microwave-assisted liquefaction process for the production of crude bio-polyols (CBP). The fractionated bio-polyols (FBP) were obtained by the removal of lignin derivatives from the crude bio-polyols (CBP) using a simple method. Polyurethane (PU) foams were successfully prepared from both CBP and FBP. The object of this study was to...

  18. Quantifying bamboo coral growth rate nonlinearity with the radiocarbon bomb spike: A new model for paleoceanographic chronology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, M. M.; LaVigne, M.; Miller, H. R.; Hill, T. M.; McNichol, A.; Gaylord, M. Lardie

    2017-07-01

    Bamboo corals, long-lived cold water gorgonin octocorals, offer unique paleoceanographic archives of the intermediate ocean. These Isididae corals are characterized by alternating gorgonin nodes and high Mg-calcite internodes, which synchronously extend radially. Bamboo coral calcite internodes have been utilized to obtain geochemical proxy data, however, growth rate uncertainty has made it difficult to construct precise chronologies for these corals. Previous studies have relied upon a single tie point from records of the anthropogenic Δ14C bomb spike preserved in the gorgonin nodes of live-collected corals to calculate a mean radial extension rate for the outer 50 years of skeletal growth. Bamboo coral chronologies are typically constructed by applying this mean extension rate to the entire coral record, assuming constant radial extension with coral age. In this study, we aim to test this underlying assumption by analyzing the organic nodes of six California margin bamboo corals at high enough resolution (bomb spike, including two tie points at 1957 and 1970, plus the coral collection date (2007.5) for four samples. Radial extension rates between tie points ranged from 10 to 204 μm/year, with a decrease in growth rate evident between the 1957-1970 and 1970-2007.5 periods for all four corals. A negative correlation between growth rate and coral radius (r =-0.7; p=0.04) was determined for multiple bamboo coral taxa and individuals from the California margin, demonstrating a decline in radial extension rate with specimen age and size. To provide a mechanistic basis for these observations, a simple mathematical model was developed based on the assumption of a constant increase in circular cross sectional area with time to quantify this decline in radial extension rate with coral size between chronological tie points. Applying the area-based model to our Δ14C bomb spike time series from individual corals improves chronology accuracy for all live-collected corals

  19. Negative correlation between rates of molecular evolution and flowering cycles in temperate woody bamboos revealed by plastid phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Fei; Vorontsova, Maria S; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina Prisca; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Haevermans, Thomas; Li, De-Zhu

    2017-12-21

    Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution are universal across the tree of life, posing challenges for phylogenetic inference. The temperate woody bamboos (tribe Arundinarieae, Poaceae) are noted for their extremely slow molecular evolutionary rates, supposedly caused by their mysterious monocarpic reproduction. However, the correlation between substitution rates and flowering cycles has not been formally tested. Here we present 15 newly sequenced plastid genomes of temperate woody bamboos, including the first genomes ever sequenced from Madagascar representatives. A data matrix of 46 plastid genomes representing all 12 lineages of Arundinarieae was assembled for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using different sequences (e.g., coding and noncoding) combined with different data partitioning schemes, revealing conflicting relationships involving internodes among several lineages. A great difference in branch lengths were observed among the major lineages, and topological inconsistency could be attributed to long-branch attraction (LBA). Using clock model-fitting by maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, we furthermore demonstrated extensive rate variation among these major lineages. Rate accelerations mainly occurred for the isolated lineages with limited species diversification, totaling 11 rate shifts during the tribe's evolution. Using linear regression analysis, we found a negative correlation between rates of molecular evolution and flowering cycles for Arundinarieae, notwithstanding that the correlation maybe insignificant when taking the phylogenetic structure into account. Using the temperate woody bamboos as an example, we found further evidence that rate heterogeneity is universal in plants, suggesting that this will pose a challenge for phylogenetic reconstruction of bamboos. The bamboos with longer flowering cycles tend to evolve more slowly than those with shorter flowering cycles, in accordance

  20. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liuyun, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Su, Shengpei [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  1. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-01-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  2. SiN/bamboo like carbon nanotube composite electrodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katar, Sri Lakshmi; Hernandez, Dionne; Biaggi Labiosa, Azlin; Mosquera-Vargas, Edgar; Fonseca, Luis; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    A dual stage technique employing hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) and radio frequency sputtering was used to synthesize SiN/BCNTs (bamboo like carbon nanotubes) on copper substrates. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Electron field emission studies (EFE), charge-discharge, and cyclic voltammetry. The comprehensive characterization is consistent with a nanolayer of amorphous SiN on BCNTs. Field emission experiments confirm the excellent contact of the SiN nanolayer with the surface of the BCNTs necessary for fabrication of a coin cell. Electrochemical testing shows that SiN/BCNT electrode can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2000 mAh g -1 which is higher than the capacity of graphite and the reversible capacity after ten cycles is 300 mAh g -1 . The cyclic voltammetry results suggest good reversibility with Li during cycling.

  3. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic) Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Jayaraman, Krishnan; Bhattacharyya, Debes; Mohamad Haafiz, M.K.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Hussin, M. Hazwan; H.P.S., Abdul Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic) acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites. PMID:28773558

  4. Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of bamboo charcoal/silver biological protective material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.-C. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, K.-H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: khwu@ccit.edu.tw; Liu, M.-J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.-P. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, M.-K. [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) was prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution, silver ion (Ag{sup +}) release and antibacterial properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed that the Ag particles were distributed uniformly on the BC matrix. The Ag particle size was found to be less than 150 nm based on TEM. The Ag content and surface morphology of the BC/Ag composites depended on the initial concentration of AgNO{sub 3}, and the higher the Ag content, the smaller the specific surface area obtained on the BC. The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and by the plate-counting method, and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered.

  5. Synthesis of Silver Particle onto Bamboo Charcoal by Tripropylene Glycol and the Composites Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hsuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tripropylene glycol was used as a reducting agent in the polyol process to reduce silver nitrate to the form of silver particles deposited onto the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC. The reduction temperature and time were critical parameters as they control the size of the silver particles formed as well as their distribution onto the surface of the BC. The reduction of silver nitrate by the tripropylene glycol occurred at a temperature of 120 °C for 3 h, and the silver particles, which had a face-centered cubic lattice structure, were distributed onto the surface of the BC. These synthesis conditions should work well with tripropylene glycol as reducing agent that can be helpful in the convenient preparation of Ag/BC particles. When Ag/BC powders were manufactured using 3 g of silver nitrate content, the prepared composites had the largest thermal conductivity at 0.2490 W/(m·K.

  6. Oxidation of lignin-carbohydrate complex from bamboo with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by Co(salen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of salen complexes toward hydrogen peroxide has been long recognized. Co(salen was tested as catalyst for the aqueous oxidation of a refractory lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC isolated from sweet bamboo (Dendrocalamushamiltonii in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Co(salen catalyzed the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with LCC. From the spectra analyses, lignin units in LCC were undergoing ring-opening, side chain oxidation, demethoxylation, β-O-4 cleavage with Co(salen catalytic oxidation. The degradation was also observed in the carbohydrate of LCC. The investigation on the refractory LCC degradation catalyzed by Co(salen may be an important aspect for environmentally-oriented biomimetic bleaching in pulp and paper industry.

  7. ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) Catalyst in Biodiesel Conversion of Rice Bran Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Taushiyah, Ana; Badriatun Najah, Fitri; Azmi, Ulil

    2018-04-01

    Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) catalyst for conversion of rice bran oil to biodiesel have been investigated. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method of ZrOCl2 as ZrO2 precursor with BLA at a theoretical content of 20% wt. followed by calcination. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst material were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and surface acidity measurement. Activity test of materials in biodiesel conversion of rice bran oil was used by reflux method and microwave (MW) assisted method. Reaction variables studied in the investigation were the effect of catalyst weight and time of MW irradiation compared with the use reflux method. The results showed that ZrO2/BLA catalyst exhibited competitively effective and efficient processes for the production of biodiesel. The reflux method demonstrated an higher conversion (%) compared to MW method, however MW method showed the better reusable properties.

  8. Multi-response parametric optimization in drilling of bamboo/Kevlar fiber reinforced sandwich composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thingujam Jackson; Samanta, Sutanu

    2016-09-01

    In the present work an attempt was made towards parametric optimization of drilling bamboo/Kevlar K29 fiber reinforced sandwich composite to minimize the delamination occurred during the drilling process and also to maximize the tensile strength of the drilled composite. The spindle speed and the feed rate of the drilling operation are taken as the input parameters. The influence of these parameters on delamination and tensile strength of the drilled composite studied and analysed using Taguchi GRA and ANOVA technique. The results show that both the response parameters i.e. delamination and tensile strength are more influenced by feed rate than spindle speed. The percentage contribution of feed rate and spindle speed on response parameters are 13.88% and 81.74% respectively.

  9. Proposal of an Embedded Methodology that uses Organizational Diagnosis and Reengineering: Case of bamboo panel company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Selene Hernández Gress

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is an extension of the Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Applications, which presented some of the phases of Reengineering applied to Bamboo Panel Company; the results were Strategic planning, Systemic Diagnosis and Performance Indicators through the Balanced Scorecard. Now, the main purpose of this article is to present a methodology that embedding Organizational Diagnosis and Reengineering, which emphasizes the incorporation of culture, context, management style, and knowledge as well as inner and outer actors. The results of the proposed methodology applied to the case study are included, up to the moment of the writing of this article. Future work consists on the development of strategies for Innovation as a strategy planned in the Balanced Scorecard and derived from the embedded methodology.

  10. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2017-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342) in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406), with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17), more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  11. Correlations and adsorption mechanisms of aromatic compounds on a high heat temperature treated bamboo biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kun; Yang, Jingjing; Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Wenhao; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrobenzenes, phenols, and anilines, on a bamboo biochar produced at 700 °C (Ba700) was investigated with the mechanism discussion by isotherm fitting using the Polanyi-theory based Dubinin–Ashtakhov (DA) model. Correlations of adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) of organic compounds with their molecular sizes and melting points, as well as correlations of adsorption affinity (E) with their solvatochromic parameters (i.e., π* and α m ), on the biochar, were developed and indicating that adsorption is captured by the pore filling mechanism and derived from the hydrophobic effects of organic compounds and the forming of π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions of organic molecules with surface sites of the biochar. The effects of organic molecular sizes and melting points on adsorption capacity are ascribed to the molecular sieving effect and the packing efficiency of the organic molecules in the biochar pores, respectively. These correlations can be used to quantitatively estimate the adsorption of organic compounds on biochars from their commonly physicochemical properties including solvatochromic parameters, melting points and molecular cross-sectional area. The prediction using these correlations is important for assessing the unknown adsorption behaviors of new organic compounds and also helpful to guide the surface modification of biochars and make targeted selection in the environmental applications of biochars as adsorbents. - Highlights: • Adsorption of organic chemicals on biochars are captured by pore filling mechanism. • Adsorption is derived from Van der Waals force, π-π EDA and H-bonding interactions. • Adsorption capacity is negatively correlated with organic molecular sizes/melting points. • Adsorption capacity is restricted by molecular sieving effect and packing efficiency. • Adsorption affinity has a LSER with chemical

  12. In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Jasmine; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro propagation protocol using mature seeds of D. membranaceus was successfully established. Scarcity of seeds in bamboos because of their long flowering periods and irregular seed set resulting in low viability and germination potential, motivated us to undertake the present study. The effects of sterilants, light conditions, exogenous application of plant growth regulators and temperature in overcoming germination barriers in ageing seeds of bamboo were studied. It was found that HgCl2 (0.1%) along with bleach (15%) was more effective in raising aseptic cultures. Dark conditions, high temperatures around 30 degrees C and soaking of seeds in GA3 solution (50 ppm) overnight stimulated high percent of seed germination with corresponding increase in shoot length (2.7 +/- 0.7 mm) and number of sprouts (2.1 +/- 0.7) per explants during culture initiation. 6-benzylaminopurine acted synergistically with kinetin to give optimum germination rate of 70 +/- 13.9% as compared to 63.13% when used individually. For prolonged maintenance of cultures, 2% sucrose was found to be suitable for promoting photomixotrophic micropropagation. Following this procedure, about 65% survival of plantlets could be achieved during hardening. Biochemically seeds consume starchy endosperm for emergence of radicle which is taken as a sign of germination as also evident from the present study. Loss of viability and vigour after a year was confirmed by Tetrazolium chloride test. Micropropagation protocol developed here will ensure regeneration of large number of plants in a relatively short time. Conclusively, in vitro propagation protocol developed in D. membranaceus using mature seeds as an explants is reported for the first time.

  13. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Fei

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342 in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406, with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17, more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  14. Lab-scale co-firing of virgin and torrefied bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth as a fuel substitute in coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryda, Lydia; Daza, Claudia; Pels, Jan; Janssen, Arno; Zwart, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production as it presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the combustion behaviour of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth, virgin as well as torrefied, in blends with coal or pure, comparing with other biomass feedstocks such as wood and herbaceous biomass. The bamboo pre-treatment and the combustion experiments were carried out at dedicated installations at ECN, including a laboratory scale batch torrefaction reactor and a combustion simulation test facility. The results on combustion and co-firing reveal that in terms of fouling, the untreated bamboo shows behaviour closer to herbaceous biomass rather than to wood, with specific fouling factors of wood, bamboo and herbaceous biomass of 0.91·10 −3 , 2.9·10 −3 , 3.1·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. Dry torrefaction improves its physical properties by increasing the density and grindability without improving significantly its fouling behaviour while the fouling behaviour of wet torrefied bamboo is similar to woody biomass; the specific fouling factors of dry torrefied and wet torrefied bamboo are 2.4·10 −3 and 0.89·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. The fouling behaviour of biomass and coal blends lies between the fuels of the blend. Alternative bamboo species were evaluated using the alkali index A i based on their fuel composition. It appears that the fouling behaviour of alternative species is better than for G. angustifolia, therefore these should be further analysed. - Highlights: • Bamboo species Guadua angustifolia is a promising feedstock for power generation. • Dry and wet torrefaction of selected samples were carried out at ECN. • Virgin (untreated) and pretreated samples were fired pure or in coal blends. • Pretreated bamboo is suitable for large scale power

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimizing selective cutting strategies for maximum carbon stocks and yield of Moso bamboo forest using BIOME-BGC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Pingheng; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2017-04-15

    The selective cutting method currently used in Moso bamboo forests has resulted in a reduction of stand productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. Given the time and labor expense involved in addressing this problem manually, simulation using an ecosystem model is the most suitable approach. The BIOME-BGC model was improved to suit managed Moso bamboo forests, which was adapted to include age structure, specific ecological processes and management measures of Moso bamboo forest. A field selective cutting experiment was done in nine plots with three cutting intensities (high-intensity, moderate-intensity and low-intensity) during 2010-2013, and biomass of these plots was measured for model validation. Then four selective cutting scenarios were simulated by the improved BIOME-BGC model to optimize the selective cutting timings, intervals, retained ages and intensities. The improved model matched the observed aboveground carbon density and yield of different plots, with a range of relative error from 9.83% to 15.74%. The results of different selective cutting scenarios suggested that the optimal selective cutting measure should be cutting 30% culms of age 6, 80% culms of age 7, and all culms thereafter (above age 8) in winter every other year. The vegetation carbon density and harvested carbon density of this selective cutting method can increase by 74.63% and 21.5%, respectively, compared with the current selective cutting measure. The optimized selective cutting measure developed in this study can significantly promote carbon density, yield, and carbon sink capacity in Moso bamboo forests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  18. Nitrogen distribution and cycling through water flows in a subtropical bamboo forest under high level of atmospheric deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Li-hua; Xiao, Yin-long; Chen, Gang; Hu, Hong-ling; Liu, Li; Zheng, Jiang-kun; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Chen, Liang-hua

    2013-01-01

    The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N) in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood. In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP), throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), surface runoff (SR), forest floor leachate (FFL), soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1) and 100 cm (SW2) were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0-1 m) were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha(-1). Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4(+), N-NO3(-) and dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3(-) and DON but not N-NH4(+). The flux of total dissolved N (TDN) to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1. The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.

  19. Nitrogen distribution and cycling through water flows in a subtropical bamboo forest under high level of atmospheric deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP, throughfall (TF, stemflow (SF, surface runoff (SR, forest floor leachate (FFL, soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1 and 100 cm (SW2 were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0-1 m were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha(-1. Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4(+, N-NO3(- and dissolved organic N (DON accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3(- and DON but not N-NH4(+. The flux of total dissolved N (TDN to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.

  20. Characterization of microwave liquefied bamboo residue and its potential use in the generation of nanofibrillated cellulosic fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Chunjie Li; Todd F. Shupe; Tingxing Hu; Jinqiu Qi; Cornelis F. De Hoop

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo raw feedstocks with large particle size (20−80 mesh) were subjected to a microwave liquefaction system, and the liquefied products were separated into biopolyols and liquefied residues. Biopolyols were first analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC−MS), and the main components were sugar derivatives with 2−4 hydroxyl groups and phenolic compounds...

  1. Fabrication and tribological response of aluminium 6061 hybrid composite reinforced with bamboo char and boron carbide micro-fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chethan, K. N.; Pai, Anand; Keni, Laxmikant G.; Singhal, Ashish; Sinha, Shubham

    2018-02-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have a wide scope of industrial applications and triumph over conventional materials due to their light weight, higher specific strength, good wear resistance and lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The present study aims at establishing the feasibility of using Bamboo charcoal particulate and boron carbide as reinforcements in Al-6061 alloy matrix and to investigate their effect on the wear of composites taking into consideration the interfacial adhesion of the reinforcements in the alloy. Al-6061 alloy was chosen as a base metallic alloy matrix. Sun-dried bamboo canes were used for charcoal preparation with the aid of a muffle furnace. The carbon content in the charcoal samples was determined by EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy). In present study, stir casting technique was used to prepare the samples with 1%, 2%, and 3% weight of bamboo charcoal and boron carbide with Al-6061. The fabricated composites were homogenised at 570°C for 6 hours and cooled at room temperature. Wear studies were carried out on the specimens with different speed and loads. It was found that wear rate and coefficient of friction decreased with increase in the reinforcement content.

  2. Experimental Study on Bond-Slip Behavior of Bamboo Bolt-Modified Slurry Interface under Pull-Out Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of bamboo bolt-modified slurry interfaces based on 26 in situ axial pull-out tests intended to highlight the mechanical behavior of interface under a fracture mode. Three impact factors are analyzed: anchorage length, bolt diameter, and bolt hole diameter, using the same materials of bamboo and modified slurry. The result shows that the interface between the bamboo bolt and anchoring agent is the control interface of an anchorage system, and the local behavior of the interface involves four stages: elastic, soften, friction, and decoupling. Distribution law and change trend of slippage, stress, and strain of anchoring interface along with the axial direction of an anchor bolt were analyzed. The result shows that there is effective anchoring length limit in this kind of interface, and that the complete decoupling phenomenon should not be neglected. Through a comparative analysis of the existing bond-slip model and interface bond-slip curve, and considering the correspondence of the strain-slip curve and trilinear bond-slip model simultaneously, a modified trilinear bond-slip model has been proposed. The friction section of this model is limited, and shearing stress in the complete decoupling section is zero.

  3. Metal-Embedded Porous Graphitic Carbon Fibers Fabricated from Bamboo Sticks as a Novel Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Zhong, Yu; Xia, Xinhui; Xia, Yang; Wang, Donghuang; Zhou, Cheng'ao; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Wu, J B; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-04-25

    Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are deemed to be among the most prospective next-generation advanced high-energy batteries. Advanced cathode materials fabricated from biological carbon are becoming more popular due to their unique properties. Inspired by the fibrous structure of bamboo, herein we put forward a smart strategy to convert bamboo sticks for barbecue into uniform bamboo carbon fibers (BCF) via a simple hydrothermal treatment proceeded in alkaline solution. Then NiCl 2 is used to etch the fibers through a heat treatment to achieve Ni-embedded porous graphitic carbon fibers (PGCF/Ni) for LSBs. The designed PGCF/Ni/S electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performances including high initial capacity (1198 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C), prolonged cycling life (1030 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C after 200 cycles), and improved rate capability. The excellent properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of 3D porous graphitic carbon fibers with highly conductive Ni nanoparticles embedded.

  4. Granular bamboo-derived activated carbon for high CO(2) adsorption: the dominant role of narrow micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haoran; Deng, Shubo; Hu, Bingyin; Chen, Zhenhe; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Cost-effective biomass-derived activated carbons with a high CO(2) adsorption capacity are attractive for carbon capture. Bamboo was found to be a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation through KOH activation. The bamboo size in the range of 10-200 mesh had little effect on CO(2) adsorption, whereas the KOH/C mass ratio and activation temperature had a significant impact on CO(2) adsorption. The bamboo-derived activated carbon had a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for CO(2) , and also the adsorption process was highly reversible. The adsorbed amount of CO(2) on the granular activated carbon was up to 7.0 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 1 bar, which was higher than almost all carbon materials. The pore characteristics of activated carbons responsible for high CO(2) adsorption were fully investigated. Based on the analysis of narrow micropore size distribution of several activated carbons prepared under different conditions, a more accurate micropore range contributing to CO(2) adsorption was proposed. The volume of micropores in the range of 0.33-0.82 nm had a good linear relationship with CO(2) adsorption at 273 K and 1 bar, and the narrow micropores of about 0.55 nm produced the major contribution, which could be used to evaluate CO(2) adsorption on activated carbons. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Dynamic changes in soil respiration components and their regulating factors in the Moso bamboo plantation in subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-jia; Li, Yong-fu; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Liu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic changes (from April 2013 to March 2014) in soil respiration components were investigated by Li-8100 in the Moso bamboo plantation in Lin' an City, Zhejiang Province. Results showed that the average annual values for the soil total respiration rate, heterotrophic respiration rate, and autotrophic respiration rate in the Moso bamboo plantation were 2.93, 1.92 and 1.01 imol CO2 . m-2 . s-1, respectively. The soil respiration rate and its components exhibited strongly a seasonal dynamic pattern. The maximum appeared in July 2013, and the minimum appeared in January 2014. The annual cumulative CO2 emissions through soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration, and autotrophic respiration were 37.25, 24.61 and 12.64 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1, respectively. The soil respiration and its components showed a close relation with soil temperature of 5 cm depth, and the corresponding Q10, values at 5 cm depth were 2.05, 1.95 and 2.34, respectively. Both the soil respiration and heterotrophic respiration were correlated to soil water soluble organic C (WSOC) content, but no significant relationship between autotrophic respiration and WSOC was observed. There were no significant relationships between soil respiration components and soil moisture content or microbial biomass C. The seasonal changes in soil respiration components in the Moso bamboo plantation were predominantly controlled by the soil temperature, and the soil WSOC content was an important environmental factor controlling total soil respiration and soil heterotrophic respiration.

  6. Development of a FBR fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code 'BAMBOO' . Development of a dispersion model and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Asaga, Takeo

    2002-03-01

    Bundle Duct Interaction (BDI) is one of the life limiting factors of a FBR fuel subassembly. Under the BDI condition, the fuel pin dispersion would occur mainly by the deviation of the wire position due to the irradiation. In this study the effect of the dispersion on the bundle deformation was evaluated by using the BAMBOO code and following results were obtained. (1) A new contact analysis model was introduced in BAMBOO code. This model considers the contact condition at the axial position other than the nodal point of the beam element that composes the fuel pin. This improvement made it possible in the bundle deformation analysis to cause fuel pin dispersion due to the deviations of the wire position. (2) This model was validated with the results of the out-of-pile compression test with the wire deviation. The calculated pin-to-duct and pin-to-pin clearances with the dispersion model almost agreed with the test results. Therefore it was confirmed that the BAMBOO code reasonably predicts the bundle deformation with the dispersion. (3) In the dispersion bundle the pin-to-pin clearances widely scattered. And the minimum pin-to-duct clearance increased or decreased depending on the dispersion condition compared to the no-dispersion bundle. This result suggests the possibility that the considerable dispersion would affect the thermal integrity of the bundle. (author)

  7. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, R R; Toledo, J J

    2016-01-01

    Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  8. FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control. Fresh and barkless large (betung bamboo chips of 2 year's old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO; P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC; P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV; and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO.After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for

  9. Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses resolve deep-level relationships of an intractable bamboo tribe Arundinarieae (poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    The temperate woody bamboos constitute a distinct tribe Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) with high species diversity. Estimating phylogenetic relationships among the 11 major lineages of Arundinarieae has been particularly difficult, owing to a possible rapid radiation and the extremely low rate of sequence divergence. Here, we explore the use of chloroplast genome sequencing for phylogenetic inference. We sampled 25 species (22 temperate bamboos and 3 outgroups) for the complete genome representing eight major lineages of Arundinarieae in an attempt to resolve backbone relationships. Phylogenetic analyses of coding versus noncoding sequences, and of different regions of the genome (large single copy and small single copy, and inverted repeat regions) yielded no well-supported contradicting topologies but potential incongruence was found between the coding and noncoding sequences. The use of various data partitioning schemes in analysis of the complete sequences resulted in nearly identical topologies and node support values, although the partitioning schemes were decisively different from each other as to the fit to the data. Our full genomic data set substantially increased resolution along the backbone and provided strong support for most relationships despite the very short internodes and long branches in the tree. The inferred relationships were also robust to potential confounding factors (e.g., long-branch attraction) and received support from independent indels in the genome. We then added taxa from the three Arundinarieae lineages that were not included in the full-genome data set; each of these were sampled for more than 50% genome sequences. The resulting trees not only corroborated the reconstructed deep-level relationships but also largely resolved the phylogenetic placements of these three additional lineages. Furthermore, adding 129 additional taxa sampled for only eight chloroplast loci to the combined data set yielded almost identical

  10. Bamboo Classification Using WorldView-2 Imagery of Giant Panda Habitat in a Large Shaded Area in Wolong, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2 imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA. Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification. Four regular object-based classification methods were applied based on both sets of training data. The results show that the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN method produced the greatest accuracy. A geostatistically-weighted k-NN classifier, accounting for the spatial correlation between classes, was then applied to further increase the accuracy. It achieved 82.65% and 93.10% of the producer’s and user’s accuracies respectively for the bamboo class. The canopy densities were estimated to explain the result. This study demonstrates that the WV-2 image can be used to identify small patches of understory bamboos given limited known samples, and the resulting bamboo distribution facilitates the assessments of the habitats of giant pandas.

  11. Effect of incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot on physicochemical and microbial quality of pork pickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, D M; Hazarika, M; Brahma, M L; Hazarika, R A; Rahman, Z

    2015-02-01

    Replacement of commercial chemical preservative (Vinegar) by incorporating fermented bamboo shoot (FBS) products partially or completely and their effect on physicochemical, microbial and shelf life qualities on pork pickle products was studied. Different FBS products such as FBS extract, paste and powder were incorporated in the pork pickle products at the level of 50 to 100 % with or without vinegar and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Highest pH values and lowest titrable acidity was recorded in products with 50 and 100 % FBS powder. No significant differences were observed with respect to proximate composition i.e. percent moisture, protein, fat and ash contents among the products except the product with 100 % FBS powder which had significantly (p acid (TBA) values were found to be increasing as the storage periods were advancing. Except the product with 100 % FBS powder which could be stored for 30 days only, other products could be stored upto 90 days without any physicochemical and microbial problems. It can be concluded from this study that natural and organic FBS extract and paste can be used successfully replacing the conventional chemical preservative (Vinegar) for preparation of pork pickle products and preserved more than 90 days at room temperature. However, FBS powder can be used for preservation of the pickle products for a short period (30 days).

  12. Production of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Antigens in Plants Using Bamboo Mosaic Virus-Based Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is among the major threats to public health in Asia. For disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against JEV is in urgent need. In this study, we produced a plant-made JEV vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (CVP strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV for epitope presentation. The chimeric virus, designated BJ2A, was constructed by fusing JEV envelope protein domain III (EDIII at the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein, with an insertion of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A peptide to facilitate the production of both unfused and epitope-presenting for efficient assembly of the CVP vaccine candidate. The strategy allowed stable maintenance of the fusion construct over long-term serial passages in plants. Immuno-electron microscopy examination and immunization assays revealed that BJ2A is able to present the EDIII epitope on the surface of the CVPs, which stimulated effective neutralizing antibodies against JEV infection in mice. This study demonstrates the efficient production of an effective CVP vaccine candidate against JEV in plants by the BaMV-based epitope presentation system.

  13. Removal of Organic Dyes by Nanostructure ZnO-Bamboo Charcoal Composites with Photocatalysis Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of nanostructure zinc oxide (nano-ZnO and bamboo charcoal (BC were successfully prepared via impregnation-precipitation method. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDS. Rhodamine B (RhB and acid fuchsin (AF were selected as the organic dyes of photocatalysis degradation under the irradiation of ultraviolet light (UV. The influence of particle size of BC, irradiation time, pH value of the solution, and additive amount of H2O2 on removal of the dyes has been studied. The results show that smaller particle size of BC in the composites has a better removal effect. The composites possess the highest removal capacity for RhB and AF under the conditions of pH = 2 and pH = 5.4, respectively. The optimum additive amount of H2O2 for 5 mL RhB and AF was 0.050 mL and 0.1 mL, with a removal rate of 93% and 99%, respectively.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural bamboo charcoal (BC powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10−2 S·cm−1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and mKOH:mPVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g−1.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Embedding Strength Perpendicular to Grain of Parallel Strand Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwen Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel strand bamboo (PSB is a latest construction material; to know more about mechanical properties of PSB, 5 groups of specimens with difference only in bolt diameter were designed to study the impact of the fastener diameter on embedding strength perpendicular to grain of PSB. Based on the tested result, the feasibility for PSB of the theoretical equation in the American code and European code on embedding strength predication was assessed. A controlled displacement was used to load till specimen failure, the stress-displacement curve of all specimens was obtained in terms of the tested results, and the yielding tested strength based on 5% bolt diameter offset proposed by the American code was found. The tested results showed that the yielding strength perpendicular to grain of PSB was stable, the variable coefficient was between 5.88% and 13.34%, and the average yielding strength values were 80.84 MPa, 77.40 MPa, 76.52 MPa, 74.20 MPa, and 67.01 MPa, respectively, which decreased with the increase of bolt diameter, and the average yielding strength values are larger than the calculated results using theoretical formula. Therefore, the theoretical equation on embedding yielding strength of wood in the American code and European code applies to PSB.

  16. Enhanced adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate by bamboo-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Nie, Yao; Du, Ziwen; Huang, Qian; Meng, Pingping; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-23

    A bamboo-derived granular activated carbon with large pores was successfully prepared by KOH activation, and used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from aqueous solution. The granular activated carbon prepared at the KOH/C mass ratio of 4 and activation temperature of 900°C had fast and high adsorption for PFOS and PFOA. Their adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 24h, which was attributed to their fast diffusion in the micron-sized pores of activated carbon. This granular activated carbon exhibited the maximum adsorbed amount of 2.32mmol/g for PFOS and 1.15mmol/g for PFOA at pH 5.0, much higher than other granular and powdered activated carbons reported. The activated carbon prepared under the severe activation condition contained many enlarged pores, favorable for the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. In addition, the spent activated carbon was hardly regenerated in NaOH/NaCl solution, while the regeneration efficiency was significantly enhanced in hot water and methanol/ethanol solution, indicating that hydrophobic interaction was mainly responsible for the adsorption. The regeneration percent was up to 98% using 50% ethanol solution at 45°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of nano bamboo charcoal on PAHs-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bojia; Tao, Xueqin; Huang, Ting; Lu, Guining; Zhou, Zhili; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Nano bamboo charcoal (NBC) has been commonly used in the production of textiles, plastics, paint, etc. However, little is known regarding their effects towards the microorganisms. The effects of NBC on phenanthrene degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B were investigated in the present study. Results showed that the addition of NBC could improve the phenanthrene removal by Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, with removal efficiencies increased by 10.29-18.56% in comparison to the control at 24h, and phenanthrene was almost completely removed at 48h. With the presence of low dose of NBC (20 and 50mgL(-1)), strain GY2B displayed a better growth at 6h, suggesting that NBC was beneficial to the growth of GY2B and thus resulting in the quick removal of phenanthrene from water. However, the growth of strain GY2B in high dose of NBC (200mgL(-1)) was inhibited at 6h, and the inhibition could be attenuated and eliminated after 12h. NBC-effected phenanthrene solubility experiment suggested that NBC makes a negligible contribution to the solubilization of phenanthrene in water. Results of electronic microscopy analysis (SEM and TEM) indicated NBC may interact with the cell membrane, causing the enhanced membrane permeability and then NBC adsorbed on the membrane would enter into the cells. The findings of this work would provide important information for the future usage and long-term environmental risk assessment of NBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and products properties of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Effects of heating rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and products properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing heating rate. The heating rate has different effects on the pyrolysis products properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, heating value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Density Polyethylene and Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber Composites: Nonisothermal Crystallization Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat-treated bamboo fibers (BFs on nonisothermal crystallization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under nitrogen. The Avrami-Jeziorny model was used to fit the measured crystallization data of the HDPE/BF composites and to obtain the model parameters for the crystallization process. The heat flow curves of neat HDPE and HDPE/heat-treated BF composites showed similar trends. Their crystallization mostly occurred within a temperature range between 379 K and 399 K, where HDPE turned from the liquid phase into the crystalline phase. Values of the Avrami exponent (n were in the range of 2.8~3.38. Lamellae of neat HDPE and their composites grew in a three-dimensional manner, which increased with increased heat-treatment temperature and could be attributed to the improved ability of heterogeneous nucleation and crystallization completeness. The values of the modified kinetic rate constant (KJ first increased and then decreased with increased cooling rate because the supercooling was improved by the increased number of nucleating sites. Heat-treated BF and/or a coupling agent could act as a nucleator for the crystallization of HDPE.

  20. Effect of Operating Conditions on Catalytic Gasification of Bamboo in a Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasit Wongsiriamnuay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic gasification of bamboo in a laboratory-scale, fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of reactor temperature (400, 500, and 600°C, gasifying medium (air and air/steam, and catalyst to biomass ratio (0 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1.5 : 1 on product gas composition, H2/CO ratio, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, and tar conversion. From the results obtained, it was shown that at 400°C with air/steam gasification, maximum hydrogen content of 16.5% v/v, carbon conversion efficiency of 98.5%, and tar conversion of 80% were obtained. The presence of catalyst was found to promote the tar reforming reaction and resulted in improvement of heating value, carbon conversion efficiency, and gas yield due to increases in H2, CO, and CH4. The presence of steam and dolomite had an effect on the increasing of tar conversion.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lidan; Wang, Mengyue; Zhang, Zhen; Qin, Gang; Hu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Qiang

    2018-04-26

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC) impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10 −2 S·cm −1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and m KOH : m PVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g −1 .

  2. Waste water purification using new porous ceramics prepared by recycling waste glass and bamboo charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tetsuaki; Morimoto, Akane; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kubuki, Shiro

    2017-12-01

    New porous ceramics (PC) prepared by recycling waste glass bottle of soft drinks (80 mass%) and bamboo charcoal (20 mass%) without any binder was applied to the waste water purification under aeration at 25 °C. Artificial waste water (15 L) containing 10 mL of milk was examined by combining 15 mL of activated sludge and 750 g of PC. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed a marked decrease from 178 to 4.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 7 days, which was equal to the Environmental Standard for the river water (class A) in Japan. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 158 to 3.6 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.2 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 9 days, which was less than the Environmental Standard for the Seawater (class B) in Japan: 3.0 mg L-1. These results prove the high water purification ability of the PC, which will be effectively utilized for the purification of drinking water, fish preserve water, fish farm water, etc.

  3. Effects of Bamboo Shoot Dietary Fiber on Mechanical Properties, Moisture Distribution, and Microstructure of Frozen Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of Bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF on the mechanical properties, moisture distribution, and microstructure of frozen dough were investigated. The state and distribution of water in frozen dough was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LNMR spectroscopy. The microstructure of frozen dough was studied. The structure of the gluten protein network found in wheat flour dough was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The result showed that the BSDF could significantly improve the viscoelasticity and extensibility of frozen dough after thawing in a dose-dependent manner. It was significantly improved with the increase in the addition amount of BSDF (P<0.05. DSC analysis showed that the freezable water content and thermal stability of frozen dough were increased after the addition of BSDF. LNMR analysis showed that the appropriate (<0.1% addition amount of BSDF could significantly (P<0.05 decline the contents of bound water. Meanwhile, the loose bound water and free water were raised significantly (P<0.05 after the addition of BSDF. Moreover, the addition of BSDF induces arrangement of starch granule and gluten network in frozen dough. BSDF can be used as a novel quality improver of frozen dough.

  4. Variability in hematology of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) in different living environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lily A; Alexander, Amy B; Campbell, Terry W

    2017-07-01

    Elasmobranch hematology continues to reveal new peculiarities within this specialized field. This report compares total hematologic values from the same white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) housed in different environments. We compared the hemograms one year apart, using a standardized Natt-Herrick's technique. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts of the sharks were statistically different between the two time points (initial median total WBC count = 18,920 leukocytes/μl, SD = 8,108; 1 year later total WBC count = 1,815 leukocytes/μl, SD = 1,309). The packed cell volumes were additionally found to be statistically different (19%, SD = 2.9 vs. 22%, SD = 2.0). Analysis revealed the only differences between the time points were the temperature and stocking densities at which these sharks were housed. This report emphasizes the need for a thorough understanding of the husbandry of an elasmobranch prior to interpretation of a hemogram and suggests that reference intervals should be created for each environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dual function of the pectoral girdle for feeding and locomotion in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Scott, Bradley; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-07-26

    Positioned at the intersection of the head, body and forelimb, the pectoral girdle has the potential to function in both feeding and locomotor behaviours-although the latter has been studied far more. In ray-finned fishes, the pectoral girdle attaches directly to the skull and is retracted during suction feeding, enabling the ventral body muscles to power rapid mouth expansion. However, in sharks, the pectoral girdle is displaced caudally and entirely separate from the skull (as in tetrapods), raising the question of whether it is mobile during suction feeding and contributing to suction expansion. We measured three-dimensional kinematics of the pectoral girdle in white-spotted bamboo sharks during suction feeding with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology, and found the pectoral girdle consistently retracted about 11° by rotating caudoventrally about the dorsal scapular processes. This motion occurred mostly after peak gape, so it likely contributed more to accelerating captured prey through the oral cavity and pharynx, than to prey capture as in ray-finned fishes. Our results emphasize the multiple roles of the pectoral girdle in feeding and locomotion, both of which should be considered in studying the functional and evolutionary morphology of this structure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Nanofibrillated Cellulose from Bamboo Fiber via Ultrasonication Assisted by Repulsive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs have recently drawn much attention because of their exceptional physicochemical properties. However, the existing preparation procedures either produce low yields or severely degrade the cellulose and, moreover, are not energy efficient. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel process using ultrasonic homogenization to isolate fibrils from bamboo fiber (BF with the assistance of negatively charged entities. The obtained samples were characterized by the degree of substitution (DS of carboxymethyl, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results showed that an NFC yield could be obtained above 70% through this route. The enzyme hydrolysis could enhance the surface charge of the fiber, and mechanical activation facilitates an increase in the DS. The disintegrating efficiency of the cellulose fibrils significantly depended on the input power of ultrasonication and the DS. FT-IR spectra confirmed the occurrence of the carboxymethylation reaction based on the appearance of the characteristic signal for the carboxyl group. From XRD analysis, it was observed that the presence of the carboxyl groups makes the isolation more efficient attributed to the ionic repulsion between the carboxylate groups of the cellulose chains.

  7. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. El tablero de bambú prensado, una nueva propuesta tecnológica The bamboo mat board, a new technological proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Mora Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un estudio que propone el uso de bambú como una nueva tecnología de madera laminada. La tecnología usa tejidos de bambú dispuestos de manera ortogonal formando tableros que pueden reemplazar a la madera tradicional en ciertos elementos estructurales. Tableros de bambú prensados, hechos con Bambusa Vulgaris Schrab y diferentes presiones y temperaturas durante la fabricación, son caracterizados en el laboratorio mediante ensayos mecánicos.This paper presents a study that proposes the use of bamboo as a new laminated wood technology. The technology uses pressed fabrics of bamboo placed in orthogonal directions to build mat boards that can replace wood in certain structural elements. Bamboo mat boards, made with Bambusa Vulgaris Schrab using different temperatures and pressure during fabrication, are characterized in the lab by means of mechanical testing.

  9. Comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com ripas de bambu cravejadas de pinos Structural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with pinned bamboo-splints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Braga Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma das deficiências do bambu reforçando vigas de concreto armado está relacionada com deslocamentos relativos entre os dois materiais. A investigação aqui reportada teve como objetivo avaliar experimentalmente a possibilidade de se melhorar o trabalho conjunto bambu-concreto, através do cravejamento de pinos nas ripas de bambu usadas como reforço. Para tanto, oito vigas de concreto foram ensaiadas, das quais seis foram reforçadas com ripas de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro cravejadas de pinos e duas armadas com ripas de bambu sem a presença dos pinos, como referência. Usaram-se dois tipos de pino: de aço ou de bambu, em número de dois, três ou quatro pinos entre nós. Curvas força-deslocamento e força-deformação dos materiais são apresentadas e discutidas, em que os resultados mostraram que a cravação dos pinos produziu um aumento de rigidez das vigas; contudo, o furo feito para colocação do pino reduziu localmente a seção transversal da ripa de bambu e, consequentemente, a resistência última das vigas. Finalmente, resultados similares foram obtidos em vigas reforçadas com pino de aço ou de bambu.One drawback of bamboo as concrete reinforcement beams is the relative displacement between the two materials. The research reported in this paper aimed to experimentally investigate the improvement of bamboo-concrete-bond by means of nailing. Eight concrete beams were tested, six of them reinforced with Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro nailed bamboo-splints and two reference beams, reinforced with bamboo-splints without pins. Steel pins or bamboo pins were used. Two, three and four pins were nailed between bamboo nodes. Load-displacement and load-strain curves are presented and discussed. The results showed that the pins improved the beam stiffness; nevertheless, they reduced locally the transversal section of the bamboo splint and, consequently, the ultimate load. Finally, similar results were showed by beams reinforced

  10. Bifunctional bamboo-like CoSe2 arrays for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor and electrocatalytic oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian; Li, Songzhan; Gui, Pengbin; Wen, Jian; Fu, Xuemei; Fang, Guojia

    2018-05-01

    Bifunctional bamboo-like CoSe2 arrays are synthesized by thermal annealing of Co(CO3)0.5OH grown on carbon cloth in Se atmosphere. The CoSe2 arrays obtained have excellent electrical conductivity, larger electrochemical active surface areas, and can directly serve as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). When tested as a supercapacitor electrode, the CoSe2 delivers a higher specific capacitance (544.6 F g‑1 at current density of 1 mA cm‑2) compared with CoO (308.2 F g‑1) or Co3O4 (201.4 F g‑1). In addition, the CoSe2 electrode possesses excellent cycling stability. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is also assembled based on bamboo-like CoSe2 as a positive electrode and active carbon as a negative electrode in a 3.0 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Owing to the unique stucture and good electrochemical performance of bamboo-like CoSe2, the as-assembled ACS can achieve a maximum operating voltage window of 1.7 V, a high energy density of 20.2 Wh kg‑1 at a power density of 144.1 W kg‑1, and an outstanding cyclic stability. As the catalyst for the OER, the CoSe2 exhibits a lower potential of 1.55 V (versus RHE) at current density of 10 mA cm‑2, a smaller Tafel slope of 62.5 mV dec‑1 and an also outstanding stability.

  11. Why Does Not the Leaf Weight-Area Allometry of Bamboos Follow the 3/2-Power Law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principle of similarity (Thompson, 1917 states that the weight of an organism follows the 3/2-power law of its surface area and is proportional to its volume on the condition that the density is constant. However, the allometric relationship between leaf weight and leaf area has been reported to greatly deviate from the 3/2-power law, with the irregularity of leaf density largely ignored for explaining this deviation. Here, we choose 11 bamboo species to explore the allometric relationships among leaf area (A, density (ρ, length (L, thickness (T, and weight (W. Because the edge of a bamboo leaf follows a simplified two-parameter Gielis equation, we could show that A ∝ L2 and that A ∝ T2. This then allowed us to derive the density-thickness allometry ρ ∝ Tb and the weight-area allometry W ∝ A(b+3/2 ≈ A9/8, where b approximates −3/4. Leaf density is strikingly negatively associated with leaf thickness, and it is this inverse relationship that results in the weight-area allometry to deviate from the 3/2-power law. In conclusion, although plants are prone to invest less dry mass and thus produce thinner leaves when the leaf area is sufficient for photosynthesis, such leaf thinning needs to be accompanied with elevated density to ensure structural stability. The findings provide the insights on the evolutionary clue about the biomass investment and output of photosynthetic organs of plants. Because of the importance of leaves, plants could have enhanced the ratio of dry material per unit area of leaf in order to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis, relative the other parts of plants. Although the conclusion is drawn only based on 11 bamboo species, it should also be applicable to the other plants, especially considering previous works on the exponent of the weight-area relationship being less than 3/2 in plants.

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN BAMBOO UTILIZATION AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOME CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WITH COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR IN MAINTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineu Indrianeu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 Jayapura Village was hit by an earthquake with a strength of 7.3 on the Richter Scale. Many homes were damaged by the quake. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the utilization of bamboo as a home building material with environmental preservation behavior of Jayapura Village residents. The study population was 1,367 heads of households with a sample of 137 families. The method used in this research is using sequential mixed methods. The result of the research shows that there is a correlation between the two things which is indicated by the correlation value of 0,501 (medium correlation.

  13. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

  14. Drinking water decontamination by biological denitrification using fresh bamboo as inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucco, Samuel; Padoin, Natan; Netto, Willibaldo Schmidell; Soares, Hugo Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a serious problem in many Brazilian regions. European countries started to deal with this issue in the 1980s, mainly caused by the extensive usage of nitrogenous fertilizers and the absence of domestic wastewater treatment. Due to its high solubility, nitrate readily passes through the soil and reaches the aquifer. Thereafter, this ion moves, following groundwater flow, and can be found several kilometers from the area where the pollution occurred. Concern about nitrate contamination is due to the link found between this contaminant and various human health diseases, such as methemoglobin and cancer. Studies carried out in France enabled the design and implementation of several biological denitrification plants throughout the country, in order to remove nitrate from its contaminated groundwater. Heterotrophic denitrification facilities shown to be adequate to treat high water flows with satisfactory nitrate removal efficiency, especially when static media supports are employed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the existence of denitrifying microorganisms in bamboo (Bambusa tuldóides) and verify the feasibility of their use to inoculate a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor. The support material selected to fill the bioreactor bed was commercial polypropylene Pall rings, since such support has a high porosity associated with a wide superficial area. The bioreactor was able to produce and retain a large amount of cells. Using ethanol as carbon source, nitrate (N-NO3(-)) removal efficiency of the bioreactor stood around 80 % for a maximum nitrogen loading rate of approximately 6.5 mg N-NO3 (-) L(-1) h(-1).

  15. Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Three novel isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces, designated JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T, were isolated from bamboo forest soil in Damyang, Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains JR-35T and JR-46 showed highest similarities with Streptomyces olivochromogenes NBRC 3178T (99.1 %), Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.9 %), Streptomyces chartreusis NBRC 12753T (98.9 %), Streptomyces resistomycificus NRRL ISP-5133T (98.9 %) and Streptomyces bobili JCM 4627T (98.8 %), and strain WH-9Tshowed highest sequence similarities with Streptomyces. bobili JCM 4627T (99.2 %), Streptomyces phaeoluteigriseus NRRL ISP-5182T (99.2 %), Streptomyces alboniger NBRC 12738T (99.2 %), Streptomyces galilaeus JCM 4757T (99.1 %) and Streptomyces pseudovenezuelae NBRC 12904T (99.1 %). The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 for strains JR-35T and JR-46 and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 for strain WH-9T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strains JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T were 69.4, 74.4 and 74.1 mol%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the three strains are assigned to two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. (type stain JR-35T=KACC 17181T=NBRC 109807T) and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov. (type strain WH-9T=KACC 17197T=NBRC 109810T) are proposed.

  16. Methylobacterium pseudosasae sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from the bamboo phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj

    2014-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, Gram negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain BL44(T), was isolated from bamboo leaves and identified as a member of the genus Methylobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity values of 98.7-97.0 % with closely related type strains and showed highest similarity to Methylobacterium zatmanii DSM 5688(T) (98.7 %) and Methylobacterium thiocyanatum DSM 11490(T) (98.7 %). Methylotrophic metabolism in this strain was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mxaF gene coding for the α-subunit of methanol dehydrogenase. Strain BL44(T) produced three known quorum sensing signal molecules with similar retention time to C8, C10 and C12-HSLs when characterized by GC-MS. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C18:1 ω7c, iso-3OH C17:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), which supported the grouping of the isolate in the genus Methylobacterium. The DNA G+C content was 66.9 mol%. DNA relatedness of the strain BL44(T) to its most closely related strains ranged from 12-43.3 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain BL44(T) is assigned to a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium for which the name Methylobacterium pseudosasae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain BL44(T) = NBRC 105205(T) = ICMP 17622(T)).

  17. Thermogravimetric pyrolysis kinetics of bamboo waste via Asymmetric Double Sigmoidal (Asym2sig) function deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuihan; Miao, Wei; Zhou, Cheng; Wu, Hongjuan

    2017-02-01

    Thermogravimetric kinetic of bamboo waste (BW) pyrolysis has been studied using Asymmetric Double Sigmoidal (Asym2sig) function deconvolution. Through deconvolution, BW pyrolytic profiles could be separated into three reactions well, each of which corresponded to pseudo hemicelluloses (P-HC), pseudo cellulose (P-CL), and pseudo lignin (P-LG) decomposition. Based on Friedman method, apparent activation energy of P-HC, P-CL, P-LG was found to be 175.6kJ/mol, 199.7kJ/mol, and 158.4kJ/mol, respectively. Energy compensation effects (lnk 0, z vs. E z ) of pseudo components were in well linearity, from which pre-exponential factors (k 0 ) were determined as 6.22E+11s -1 (P-HC), 4.50E+14s -1 (P-CL) and 1.3E+10s -1 (P-LG). Integral master-plots results showed pyrolytic mechanism of P-HC, P-CL, and P-LG was reaction order of f(α)=(1-α) 2 , f(α)=1-α and f(α)=(1-α) n (n=6-8), respectively. Mechanism of P-HC and P-CL could be further reconstructed to n-th order Avrami-Erofeyev model of f(α)=0.62(1-α)[-ln(1-α)] -0.61 (n=0.62) and f(α)=1.08(1-α)[-ln(1-α)] 0.074 (n=1.08). Two-steps reaction was more suitable for P-LG pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-combustion performance of coal with rice husks and bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, P.C.W.; Chao, C.Y.H.; Wang, J.H.; Cheung, C.W.; Kendall, G. [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Biomass has been regarded as an important form of renewable energy due to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission such as carbon dioxide. An experimental study of co-combustion of coal and biomass was performed in a laboratory-scale combustion facility. Rice husks and bamboo were the selected biomass fuels in this study due to their abundance in the Asia-Pacific region. Experimental parameters including the biomass blending ratio in the fuel mixture, relative moisture content and biomass grinding size were investigated. Both energy release data and pollutant emission information were obtained. Due to the decrease in the heating value from adding biomass in the fuel mixture, the combustion temperature and energy output from the co-firing process were reduced compared with coal combustion. On the other hand, gaseous pollutant emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were reduced and minimum energy-based emission factors were found in the range of 10-30% biomass blending ratio. With an increase in the moisture content in the biomass, decreases in combustion temperature, SO{sub 2}, NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions were observed, while an increase in CO emissions was found. It has also been observed that chemical kinetics may play an important role compared to mass diffusion in the co-firing process and the change in biomass grinding size does not have much effect on the fuel burning rate and pollutant emissions tinder the current experimental conditions.

  19. Development of ion-exchange properties of bamboo charcoal modified with concentrated nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, S.; Kuba, T.; Toyohara, Y.; Kamida, S.; Uchikawa, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The surface chemistry and the structural properties of activated carbon can be altered by the acidic modification. The objective of this study is to investigate the changes occurring in bamboo charcoal (BC) during activation with concentrated nitric acid. Low temperature (500°C) carbonized BC has been prepared and oxidized with 70% concentrated boiling nitric acid (BC-AC). The porous properties of the BC are analyzed with nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K. The surface structure is observed by Field emission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM) and the surface functional groups are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the pH of the point of zero charge (pHPZC). The results reveal that severe oxidation with HNO3 considerably decreases the surface area of BC with enhanced pore widening and FESEM observation demonstrates the erosive effect of oxidation. The FTIR analysis detects that some absorption bands are assigned for carboxyl, aldehyde and ketone groups on BC-AC. The XPS analysis also clearly shows that the ratio of oxygen and acidic functional groups has been enriched significantly on the BC-AC. The low pHPZC value of BC-AC confirms that the surface is highly acidic for the fixation of acidic functional groups on surface. In general, the existence of the abundant amount of acidic functional groups on adsorbents enhances the sorption of heavy metals ions in aqueous solution. Therefore, it is strongly expected that the modified BC, activated under the proposed conditions would be a promising ion exchanger in aqueous solution and can be applied for the adsorption of different heavy metal ions and radioactive materials from effluent.

  20. Potent Anti-Inflammatory and Antiadipogenic Properties of Bamboo (Sasa coreana Nakai) Leaves Extract and Its Major Constituent Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hye; Choi, Moon-Hee; Yang, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sam Seok; Park, Su Jung; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2017-08-09

    The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antiadipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, the EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p 0.05). Similar to leaf extracts of other bamboo species, we identified that SCN contained several flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, and vitexin; these compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production (p flavonoids of SCN also inhibited adipogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes stimulated macrophage chemotaxis, whereas medium from adipocytes treated with SCN significantly inhibited macrophage migration. Therefore, SCN is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of inflammation and obesity.

  1. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  2. Optimizing the use of bamboo biomass for energy and fiber from small-scale plantations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Haruthaithanasan, Maliwan; Atkla, Wanida; Phudphong, Tepa; Thanavat, Eakpong; Haruthaithanasan, Kasem

    2014-05-01

    Farmers in Thailand have recently started to establish bamboo plantations on marginal land, aiming at utilizing them for bioenergy and fiber. On two sites in eastern Thailand, first-year yield data of Bambusa beecheyana and Dendrocalamus membranaceus plantations indicated vast differences between sites (1 vs. 18 t*ha-1*a-1), but none between species. In terms of feedstock quality for power plants, High Heating Values (19.2 to 19.5 MJ*t-1) did not, but culm moisture contents did differ between species (51% for B. beecheyana vs. 45% for D. membranaceus), and culm sections (38% wet base at top vs. 55% at bottom). This gradient was stronger in D. membranaceus, which additionally showed significantly higher moisture content in internodes, as compared to nodes (46% vs. 43%). Analysis of fiber yield and quality indicated better suitability of D. membranaceus as opposed to B. beecheyana to be used in the textile industry. Our results provide guidance on increasing value addition to bamboo biomass by optimizing the allotment of different species and biomass compartments to different uses (bioenergy, fibers).

  3. Removal of elemental mercury by bamboo charcoal impregnated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengqiang Tan; Jianrong Qiu; Hancai Zeng; Hao Liu; Jun Xiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2011-04-15

    Mercury emission from coal combustion is an increasing environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and activated carbon (AC) adsorption has been proven an effective mercury-control method, with high-cost limit. The renewable bioresource of bamboo constitutes an important precursor for activated carbon, and the bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as low-cost sorbent used in the mercury-control. The adsorptive potential of BC and modified BC using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for elemental mercury was investigated for the first time through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed. The effects of pore structure and surface chemistry were investigated based on BET, XPS. Which suggest that BC materials have excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury, especially after modified by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The modification using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} altered the physical and chemical properties of BC materials, making the sorbents more effective in mercury adsorption even at a relative higher temperature, and the enhancing-effect was more obvious with increasing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. 32 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, G A; Cruz, R A; Chávez, A M

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves

  5. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  6. RNA-sequencing analysis of fungi-induced transcripts from the bamboo wireworm Melanotus cribricollis (Coleoptera: Elateridae larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Huan Ye

    Full Text Available Larvae of Melanotus cribricollis, feed on bamboo shoots and roots, causing serious damage to bamboo in Southern China. However, there is currently no effective control measure to limit the population of this underground pest. Previously, a new entomopathogenic fungal strain isolated from M. cribricollis larvae cadavers named Metarhizium pingshaense WP08 showed high pathogenic efficacy indoors, indicated that the fungus could be used as a bio-control measure. So far, the genetic backgrounds of both M. cribricollis and M. pingshaense WP08 were blank. Here, we analyzed the whole transcriptome of M. cribricollis larvae, infected with M. pingshaense WP08 or not, using high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. In addition, the transcriptome sequencing of M. pingshaense WP08 was also performed for data separation of those two non-model species. The reliability of the RNA-Seq data was also validated through qRT-PCR experiment. The de novo assembly, functional annotation, sequence comparison of four insect species, and analysis of DEGs, enriched pathways, GO terms and immune related candidate genes were operated. The results indicated that, multiple defense mechanisms of M. cribricollis larvae are initiated to protect against the more serious negative effects caused by fungal infection. To our knowledge, this was the first report of transcriptome analysis of Melanotus spp. infected with a fungus, and it could provide insights to further explore insect-fungi interaction mechanisms.

  7. Structural and electrical characterization of bamboo-shaped C–N nanotubes–poly ethylene oxide (PEO) composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ram Manohar; Dobal, Pramod S.

    2012-01-01

    We have prepared bamboo-shaped C–N nanotubes–polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite films by solution cast technique and investigated their structural/microstructural and electrical properties and developed a correlation between them. The formation of clean compartmentalized bamboo-shaped C–N nanotubes was confirmed by TEM. SEM investigations revealed a homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes in PEO matrix. Enhanced electrical conductivity was observed for the C–N nanotubes–PEO composites than bare PEO. The conductivity measurements on the C–N nanotubes–PEO composite films with ∼20 wt % concentration of C–N nanotubes showed an increase of eight orders (∼7.5 × 10 −8 to 6.2 S cm −1 ) of magnitude in conductivity from bare PEO film. Raman spectra showed the stress-free nature of the composites and established the bonding of nanotubes with PEO, which resulted in the variation of Raman parameters. The Raman data of composites corroborate the findings of variation in electrical conductivity.

  8. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N•ha-1•yr-1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.

  9. Adsorption characteristics of trace levels of bromate in drinking water by modified bamboo-based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chuang, Yen Hsun; Hsu, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Winn-Jung

    2017-09-19

    This study was undertaken to investigate the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromate (BrO 3 - ) on bamboo charcoals that are activated with nitrogen and water vapor. Bamboo-based activated carbon (AC) was dipped in acid and oxidized in a mixture of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. Oxidation treatment considerably improved the physicochemical properties of AC, including purity, pore structure and surface nature, significantly enhancing BrO 3 - adsorption capacity. AC with many oxygenated groups and a high mesopore volume exhibited a particularly favorable tendency for BrO 3 - adsorption. Its adsorption of BrO 3 - is best fitted using Langmuir isotherm, and forms a monolayer. A kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of BrO 3 - by the ACs involved chemical sorption and was controlled by intra-particle diffusion. The competitive effects of natural organic matter (NOM) on AC were evaluated, and found to reduce the capacity of carbon to adsorb BrO 3 - . Residual dissolved ozone reacted with AC, reducing its capacity to absorb BrO 3 - . Proper dosing and staging of the ozonation processes can balance the ozone treatment efficiency, BrO 3 - formation, and the subsequent removal of BrO 3 - .

  10. Preconcentration and Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs in Water Samples by Bamboo Charcoal-Based Solid-Phase Extraction Prior to Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Hui Deng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, bamboo charcoal was used as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the enrichment of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in environmental water samples before liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The specific porous structure, high specific surface area, high porosity, and stability of bamboo charcoal were characterized. Several experimental parameters which considerably affect extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized in detail. The experimental data exhibited low limits of detection (LODs (0.01–1.15 ng/L, wide linear range (2–3 orders of magnitude and R ≥ 0.993 within the concentration range of 0.1–1000 ng/L, and good repeatability (2.7–5.0%, n = 5 intraday and 4.8–8.3%, n = 5 interday and reproducibility (5.3–8.0%, n = 3. Bamboo charcoal was successfully used for the enrichment and determination of PFAAs in real environmental water samples. The bamboo charcoal-based solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis possessed great potential in the determination of trace PFAA levels in environmental water samples.

  11. Verification of the FBR fuel bundle-duct interaction analysis code BAMBOO by the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Nemoto, Junichi; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Katsuyama, Kozo

    2014-09-01

    The BAMBOO computer code was verified by results for the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pin bundle deformation under the bundle-duct interaction (BDI) condition. The pin diameters of the examined test bundles were 8.5 mm and 10.4 mm, which are targeted as preliminary fuel pin diameters for the upgraded core of the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR) and for demonstration and commercial FBRs studied in the FaCT project. In the bundle compression test, bundle cross-sectional views were obtained from X-ray computer tomography (CT) images and local parameters of bundle deformation such as pin-to-duct and pin-to-pin clearances were measured by CT image analyses. In the verification, calculation results of bundle deformation obtained by the BAMBOO code analyses were compared with the experimental results from the CT image analyses. The comparison showed that the BAMBOO code reasonably predicts deformation of large diameter pin bundles under the BDI condition by assuming that pin bowing and cladding oval distortion are the major deformation mechanisms, the same as in the case of small diameter pin bundles. In addition, the BAMBOO analysis results confirmed that cladding oval distortion effectively suppresses BDI in large diameter pin bundles as well as in small diameter pin bundles.

  12. Verification of the FBR fuel bundle–duct interaction analysis code BAMBOO by the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki, E-mail: uwaba.tomoyuki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ito, Masahiro; Nemoto, Junichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ichikawa, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-1, Shiraki, Tsuruga-shi, Fukui 919-1279 (Japan); Katsuyama, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The BAMBOO computer code was verified by results for the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pin bundle deformation under the bundle–duct interaction (BDI) condition. The pin diameters of the examined test bundles were 8.5 mm and 10.4 mm, which are targeted as preliminary fuel pin diameters for the upgraded core of the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR) and for demonstration and commercial FBRs studied in the FaCT project. In the bundle compression test, bundle cross-sectional views were obtained from X-ray computer tomography (CT) images and local parameters of bundle deformation such as pin-to-duct and pin-to-pin clearances were measured by CT image analyses. In the verification, calculation results of bundle deformation obtained by the BAMBOO code analyses were compared with the experimental results from the CT image analyses. The comparison showed that the BAMBOO code reasonably predicts deformation of large diameter pin bundles under the BDI condition by assuming that pin bowing and cladding oval distortion are the major deformation mechanisms, the same as in the case of small diameter pin bundles. In addition, the BAMBOO analysis results confirmed that cladding oval distortion effectively suppresses BDI in large diameter pin bundles as well as in small diameter pin bundles.

  13. Reproductive Behavior and Basic Biology of the Oriental Bamboo-Inhabiting Anoplomus rufipes and a Comparison with Frugivorous Dacinae Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kovac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive behaviors and mating systems of the fruit-infesting species of the Dacinae tribes Ceratitidini and Dacini are increasingly well understood, while in the non-frugivorous tribe Gastrozonini, data are lacking. In the present study, the reproductive behavior of Anoplomus rufipes from North Thailand was studied in the field, other behaviors also in the laboratory. A. rufipes mated on young bamboo plants growing in areas destroyed by fire. Exudates of extrafloral nectaries produced by the young bamboo plants provided food for the females. Factors affecting the choice of the mating site were favorable microclimatic conditions and food. Courtship behavior was performed on the upper sides of bamboo leaves and included pheromone calling (abdominal elevation, anal pouch eversion, abdominal pleural distention, anal dabbing, looping flights and a specific lofting/body swaying behavior. The males searched individually for females or formed leks containing up to four males. The reproductive behaviors and lek formation of A. rufipes are compared to other Dacinae (Ceratitis, Bactrocera, and their functions are discussed. Hitherto unknown data on the general biology of A. rufipes are also included. A. rufipes larvae infested living bamboo shoots of Cephalostachyum pergracile, and the observed behaviors of the adults included locomotion, grooming, feeding, oral droplet deposition, bubbling and agonistic behavior.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of 21 tropical bamboo species reconstructed by integrating non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) sequences and their consensus secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayadri Sekhar; Bhattacharya, Samik; Pal, Amita

    2017-06-01

    The unavailability of the reproductive structure and unpredictability of vegetative characters for the identification and phylogenetic study of bamboo prompted the application of molecular techniques for greater resolution and consensus. We first employed internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2) sequences to construct the phylogenetic tree of 21 tropical bamboo species. While the sequence alone could grossly reconstruct the traditional phylogeny amongst the 21-tropical species studied, some anomalies were encountered that prompted a further refinement of the phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we integrated the secondary structure of the ITS sequences to derive individual sequence-structure matrix to gain more resolution on the phylogenetic reconstruction. The results showed that ITS sequence-structure is the reliable alternative to the conventional phenotypic method for the identification of bamboo species. The best-fit topology obtained by the sequence-structure based phylogeny over the sole sequence based one underscores closer clustering of all the studied Bambusa species (Sub-tribe Bambusinae), while Melocanna baccifera, which belongs to Sub-Tribe Melocanneae, disjointedly clustered as an out-group within the consensus phylogenetic tree. In this study, we demonstrated the dependability of the combined (ITS sequence+structure-based) approach over the only sequence-based analysis for phylogenetic relationship assessment of bamboo.

  15. Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodical fluctuating diameter: Homogeneous synthesis, synergistic growth mechanism, and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jian [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266061 (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zhenjiangli@qust.edu.cn [School of Sino-German Science and Technology, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China (China); Yu, Hongyuan [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266061 (China); Wang, Yaqi [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266042 (China); Meng, Alan, E-mail: alanmengqust@163.com [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266042 (China); Li, Qingdang [School of Sino-German Science and Technology, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China (China)

    2016-11-15

    Herein, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires have been successfully fabricated on homogeneous 6H-SiC substrate by a simple chemical vapor reaction (CVR) approach. The obtained 3C-SiC nanostructure with periodical fluctuating diameter, is composed of two alternating structure units, the typical normal-sized stem segment with perfect crystallinity and obvious projecting nodes segment having high-density stacking faults. The formation of the interesting morphology is significantly subjected to the peculiar growth condition provided by the homogeneous substrate as well as the varying growth elastic energy. Furthermore, the photoluminescence (PL) performance measured on the bamboo-like SiC nanowire shows an intensive emission peaks centered at 451 nm and 467 nm, which has been expected to make a positive progress toward the optical application of the SiC-based one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, such as light emission diode (LED). - Graphical abstract: Based on the synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. The blue-violet light emission properties of the bamboo-like nanowires have also been investigated for exploring their peculiar optical application. - Highlights: • Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. • A synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy has been proposed firstly. • The blue-violet light emission properties of the products displayed peculiar optical application.

  16. Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodical fluctuating diameter: Homogeneous synthesis, synergistic growth mechanism, and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Zhenjiang; Yu, Hongyuan; Wang, Yaqi; Meng, Alan; Li, Qingdang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires have been successfully fabricated on homogeneous 6H-SiC substrate by a simple chemical vapor reaction (CVR) approach. The obtained 3C-SiC nanostructure with periodical fluctuating diameter, is composed of two alternating structure units, the typical normal-sized stem segment with perfect crystallinity and obvious projecting nodes segment having high-density stacking faults. The formation of the interesting morphology is significantly subjected to the peculiar growth condition provided by the homogeneous substrate as well as the varying growth elastic energy. Furthermore, the photoluminescence (PL) performance measured on the bamboo-like SiC nanowire shows an intensive emission peaks centered at 451 nm and 467 nm, which has been expected to make a positive progress toward the optical application of the SiC-based one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, such as light emission diode (LED). - Graphical abstract: Based on the synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. The blue-violet light emission properties of the bamboo-like nanowires have also been investigated for exploring their peculiar optical application. - Highlights: • Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. • A synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy has been proposed firstly. • The blue-violet light emission properties of the products displayed peculiar optical application.

  17. Effects of phosphorus application on photosynthetic carbon and nitrogen metabolism, water use efficiency and growth of dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa) subjected to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenggang; Wang, Yanjie; Pan, Kaiwen; Jin, Yanqiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), one of the staple foods for the endangered giant pandas, is highly susceptible to water deficit due to its shallow roots. In the face of climate change, maintenance and improvement in its productivity is very necessary for the management of the giant pandas' habitats. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant responses to water deficit are poorly known. To investigate the effects of P application on photosynthetic C and N metabolism, water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of dwarf bamboo under water deficit, a completely randomized design with two factors of two watering (well-watered and water-stressed) and two P regimes (with and without P fertilization) was arranged. P application hardly changed growth, net CO2 assimilation rate (P(n)) and WUE in well-watered plants but significantly increased relative growth rate (RGR) and P(n) in water-stressed plants. The effect of P application on RGR under water stress was mostly associated with physiological adjustments rather than with differences in biomass allocation. P application maintained the balance of C metabolism in well-watered plants, but altered the proportion of nitrogenous compounds in N metabolism. By contrast, P application remarkably increased sucrose-metabolizing enzymes activities with an obvious decrease in sucrose content in water-stressed plants, suggesting an accelerated sucrose metabolism. Activation of nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes in water-stressed plants was attenuated after P application, thus slowing nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation. P application hardly enlarged the phenotypic plasticity of dwarf bamboo in response to water in the short term. Generally, these examined traits of dwarf bamboo displayed weak or negligible responses to water-P interaction. In conclusion, P application could accelerate P(n) and sucrose metabolism and slow N metabolism in water-stressed dwarf bamboo, and as a result improved RGR and alleviated damage from soil

  18. A Bamboo Joint-Like Appearance is a Characteristic Finding in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Crohn's Disease Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sakatani, Aki; Dokoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Gotoh, Takuma; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Yokota, Kinnichi; Watari, Jiro; Saitoh, Yusuke; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    The clinical importance of Crohn's disease (CD)-specific lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GIT) has not been sufficiently established. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate the characteristic findings of CD in the upper GIT. In 2740 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University between April 2011 and December 2012, 81 CD patients, 81 gender- and age-matched non-IBD patients, and 66 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were investigated in the present study. (1) The diagnostic ability and odds ratio of each endoscopic finding (a bamboo joint-like appearance in the cardia, erosions, and/or ulcers in the antrum, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum) were compared between the CD and non-IBD patients or UC patients. (2) The interobserver agreement of the diagnosis based on the endoscopic findings was evaluated by 3 experienced and 3 less-experienced endoscopists. The incidence of detecting a bamboo joint-like appearance, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum was significantly higher in the CD patients than in the non-IBD and UC patients. In addition, the diagnostic ability and odds ratio of a bamboo joint-like appearance for CD were higher than those for the other findings. Kendall's coefficients of concordance in the group of experienced and less-experienced endoscopists were relatively high for a bamboo joint-like appearance (0.748 and 0.692, respectively). A cardiac bamboo joint-like appearance is a useful finding for identifying high-risk groups of CD patients using only gastroduodenoscopy.

  19. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Husna Mohd Hassan; Suhaimi Muhammed

    2013-01-01

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m 2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m 2 /g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m 2 /g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m 2 / g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m 2 / g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  20. Oviposition responses of Aedes mosquitoes to bacterial isolates from attractive bamboo infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Wesson, Dawn M; Arellano, Consuelo; Apperson, Charles S

    2015-09-23

    The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are vectors of pathogenic viruses that cause major human illnesses including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. Both mosquito species are expanding their geographic distributions and now occur worldwide in temperate and tropical climates. Collection of eggs in oviposition traps (ovitraps) is commonly used for monitoring and surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes populations by public health agencies charged with managing mosquito-transmitted illness. Addition of an organic infusion in these traps increases the number of eggs deposited. Gravid females are guided to ovitraps by volatile chemicals produced from the breakdown of organic matter by microbes. We previously isolated and cultured 14 species of bacteria from attractive experimental infusions, made from the senescent leaves of canebrake bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea). Cultures were grown for 24 h at 28 °C with constant shaking (120 rpm) and cell densities were determined with a hemocytometer. Behavioral responses to single bacterial isolates and to a mix of isolates at different cell densities were evaluated using two-choice sticky-screen bioassay methods with gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In behavioral assays of a mix of 14 bacterial isolates, significantly greater attraction responses were exhibited by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to bacterial densities of 10(7) and 10(8) cells/mL than to the control medium. When we tested single bacterial isolates, seven isolates (B1, B2, B3, B5, B12, B13 and B14) were significantly attractive to Ae. aegypti, and six isolates (B1, B5, B7, B10, B13 and B14) significantly attracted Ae. albopictus. Among all the isolates tested at three different cell densities, bacterial isolates B1, B5, B13 and B14 were highly attractive to both Aedes species. Our results show that at specific cell densities, some bacteria significantly influence the attraction of gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females to

  1. Effect of Growth Temperature on Bamboo-shaped Carbon–Nitrogen (C–N Nanotubes Synthesized Using Ferrocene Acetonitrile Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobal PramodSingh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation deals with the effect of growth temperature on the microstructure, nitrogen content, and crystallinity of C–N nanotubes. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS study reveals that the atomic percentage of nitrogen content in nanotubes decreases with an increase in growth temperature. Transmission electron microscopic investigations indicate that the bamboo compartment distance increases with an increase in growth temperature. The diameter of the nanotubes also increases with increasing growth temperature. Raman modes sharpen while the normalized intensity of the defect mode decreases almost linearly with increasing growth temperature. These changes are attributed to the reduction of defect concentration due to an increase in crystal planar domain sizes in graphite sheets with increasing temperature. Both XPS and Raman spectral observations indicate that the C–N nanotubes grown at lower temperatures possess higher degree of disorder and higher N incorporation.

  2. Multifunctional properties of Ag/TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal composites: Preparation and examination through several characterization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas, E-mail: kritapasl@gmail.com; Pookboonmee, Sudarat

    2013-10-01

    Composite materials consisting of silver, titanium dioxide, and bamboo charcoal have been prepared from stepwise methods including sol–gel synthesis, wet impregnation, and electrochemical deposition. These as-fabricated composites are investigated for the possibility in multi-application that includes adsorption, photocatalysis, and anti-microorganism. Characterization methods such as scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, gas adsorption, and X-ray diffraction are employed to prove the existence of all three components and their hybrid structure. The adsorption and photocatalysis are determined as the methylene blue molecules are removed continually under the absence and presence of 366 nm UV light. Bactericidal efficacy is also studied to demonstrate the disinfection potential for hygienic purpose.

  3. Selective Semihydrogenation of Alkynes Catalyzed by Pd Nanoparticles Immobilized on Heteroatom-Doped Hierarchical Porous Carbon Derived from Bamboo Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guijie; Duan, Yanan; Zhang, Shaochun; Fei, Benhua; Chen, Xiufang; Yang, Yong

    2017-09-11

    Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) immobilized on heteroatom-doped hierarchical porous carbon supports (N,O-carbon) with large specific surface areas are synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method. The N,O-carbon derived from naturally abundant bamboo shoots is fabricated by a tandem hydrothermal-carbonization process without assistance of any templates, chemical activation reagents, or exogenous N or O sources in a simple and ecofriendly manner. The prepared Pd/N,O-carbon catalyst shows extremely high activity and excellent chemoselectivity for semihydrogenation of a broad range of alkynes to versatile and valuable alkenes under ambient conditions. The catalyst can be readily recovered for successive reuse with negligible loss in activity and selectivity, and is also applicable for practical gram-scale reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in banded Persian bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium arabicum) from the Persian Gulf: A food safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Copat, Chiara; Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Babazadeh, Mehdi; Ferrante, Margherita

    2018-03-01

    Persian bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium arabicum) was collected from two sites of the Khozestan province, northern basin of Persian Gulf, with the aim to identify differences in metal concentrations between fishing areas as well as the risk for human health due to consumption of the selected species. We analyzed Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd and Ni in muscle and liver tissues of specimens from both areas of study using atomic adsorption spectrometry. Statistical elaborations revealed higher bioaccumulation of metals in livers than muscle as well as in the site of worthy of Musa as regards Zn, Pb and Ni than the site of worthy of Darvis, due to the more intensive anthropogenic input. The risk for consumers is low for the most of metals, with the exception of the THQ for Hg, which resulted next to the level of risk with high frequencies of consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus. I: análise experimental Concrete beams reinforced with bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus. I: experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se e se discute um estudo experimental sobre o comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu. Ensaiaram-se dez vigas de concreto armado, sendo oito vigas armadas longitudinalmente com varas de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus e duas vigas de referência, armadas com barras de aço. Duas variáveis foram estudadas: a taxa de armadura longitudinal (1,6 e 3,2% e a relação área/perímetro das varas de bambu (0,25 e 0,33 cm. Para cada combinação de variáveis foram confeccionadas duas vigas. Curvas força vs. deslocamento e força vs. deformação dos materiais são apresentadas e discutidas. Constatou-se que o comportamento estrutural das vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu segue a teoria de flexão de Bernoulli-Kirchoff, sendo possível a aplicação dos procedimentos usuais de dimensionamento do concreto armado no projeto desses elementos. Observou-se, também, que a capacidade de carga dessas vigas se assemelha à das vigas de aço; contudo, estas são mais rígidas que aquelas.In this paper, an experimental study about bamboo reinforced concrete beams is presented and discussed. Ten reinforced concrete beams were tested, where eight of them were reinforced with Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo-splint and two reference beams were reinforced with steel bars. Two factors were studied: the longitudinal reinforcement ratio (1.6 and 3.2% and the area/perimeter ratio of the bamboo-splint (0.25 and 0.33 cm. For each factor combination, two beams were cast. Force vs. displacement and force vs. strain curves are presented and discussed. It was found out that the structural behaviour of bamboo-concrete beams follow the Bernoulli-Kirchoff bending theory. Therefore, the usual design procedures of reinforced concrete can be used to design the bamboo-concrete beams. The load capacity of the bamboo-concrete beams is almost the same as that of reinforced with steel; nevertheless, are more stiffer than those

  6. Electromigration-induced drift in damascene and plasma-etched Al(Cu). II. Mass transport mechanisms in bamboo interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proost, Joris; Maex, Karen; Delacy, Luc

    2000-01-01

    We have discussed electromigration (EM)-induced drift in polycrystalline damascene versus reactive ion etched (RIE) Al(Cu) in part I. For polycrystalline Al(Cu), mass transport is well documented to occur through sequential stages : an incubation period (attributed to Cu depletion beyond a critical length) followed by the Al drift stage. In this work, the drift behavior of bamboo RIE and damascene Al(Cu) is analyzed. Using Blech-type test structures, mass transport in RIE lines was shown to proceed both by lattice and interfacial diffusion. The dominating mechanism depends on the Cu distribution in the line, as was evidenced by comparing as-patterned (lattice EM) and RTP-annealed (interface EM) samples. The interfacial EM only occurs at metallic interfaces. In that case, Cu alloying was observed to retard Al interfacial mass transport, giving rise to an incubation time. Although the activation energy for the incubation time was found similar to the one controlling Al lattice drift, for which no incubation time was observed, lattice EM is preferred over interfacial EM because it is insensitive to enhancing geometrical effects upon scaling. When comparing interfacial electromigration in RIE with bamboo damascene Al(Cu), with the incubation time rate controlling for both, the higher EM threshold observed for damascene was shown to be insufficient to compensate for its significantly increased Cu depletion rate, contrary to the case of polycrystalline Al(Cu) interconnects. Two factors were demonstrated to contribute. First, there are more metallic interfaces, intrinsically related to the use of wetting or barrier layers in recessed features. Second, specific to this study, the additional formation of TiAl3 at the trench sidewalls further enhanced the Cu depletion rate, and reduced the rate-controlling incubation time. A separate drift study on RIE via-type test structures indicated that it is very difficult to suppress interfacial mass transport in favor of lattice EM

  7. Reverse chemical ecology: Olfactory proteins from the giant panda and their interactions with putative pheromones and bamboo volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao; Arena, Simona; Spinelli, Silvia; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Cambillau, Christian; Scaloni, Andrea; Wang, Guirong; Pelosi, Paolo

    2017-11-14

    The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca belongs to the family of Ursidae; however, it is not carnivorous, feeding almost exclusively on bamboo. Being equipped with a typical carnivorous digestive apparatus, the giant panda cannot get enough energy for an active life and spends most of its time digesting food or sleeping. Feeding and mating are both regulated by odors and pheromones; therefore, a better knowledge of olfaction at the molecular level can help in designing strategies for the conservation of this species. In this context, we have identified the odorant-binding protein (OBP) repertoire of the giant panda and mapped the protein expression in nasal mucus and saliva through proteomics. Four OBPs have been identified in nasal mucus, while the other two were not detected in the samples examined. In particular, AimelOBP3 is similar to a subset of OBPs reported as pheromone carriers in the urine of rodents, saliva of the boar, and seminal fluid of the rabbit. We expressed this protein, mapped its binding specificity, and determined its crystal structure. Structural data guided the design and preparation of three protein mutants bearing single-amino acid replacements in the ligand-binding pocket, for which the corresponding binding affinity spectra were measured. We also expressed AimelOBP5, which is markedly different from AimelOBP3 and complementary in its binding spectrum. By comparing our binding data with the structures of bamboo volatiles and those of typical mammalian pheromones, we formulate hypotheses on which may be the most relevant semiochemicals for the giant panda.

  8. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Properties of Phyllostachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant extract components were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). DPPH (1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to measure the radical scavenging activity of the compounds . Results: We isolated fourteen compounds including ...

  9. Catalytic Graphitization for Preparation of Porous Carbon Material Derived from Bamboo Precursor and Performance as Electrode of Electrical Double-Layer Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Toshiki; Maguchi, Yuta; Kamimura, Sunao; Ohno, Teruhisa; Yasuoka, Takehiro; Nishida, Haruo

    2015-12-01

    The combination of addition of Fe (as a catalyst for graphitization) and CO2 activation (a kind of gaseous activation) was applied to prepare a porous carbon material from bamboo powder (a waste product of superheated steam treatment). Regardless of the heat treatment temperature, many macropores were successfully formed after the heating process by removal of Fe compounds. A turbostratic carbon structure was generated in the Fe-added sample heated at 850°C. It was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a template for pore formation. Moreover, it was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a catalyst for graphitization. The resulting electrochemical performance as the electrode of an electrical double-layer capacitor, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and charge-discharge testing, could be explained based on the graphitization and activation effects. Addition of Fe could affect the electrical properties of carbon material derived from bamboo.

  10. Comparison of dwarf bamboos (Indocalamus sp.) leaf parameters to determine relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sandhu, Hardev S; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yu-Long; Li, Hua-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between spatial density and size of plants is an important topic in plant ecology. The self-thinning rule suggests a -3/2 power between average biomass and density or a -1/2 power between stand yield and density. However, the self-thinning rule based on total leaf area per plant and density of plants has been neglected presumably because of the lack of a method that can accurately estimate the total leaf area per plant. We aimed to find the relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant. We also attempted to provide a novel model for accurately describing the leaf shape of bamboos. We proposed a simplified Gielis equation with only two parameters to describe the leaf shape of bamboos one model parameter represented the overall ratio of leaf width to leaf length. Using this method, we compared some leaf parameters (leaf shape, number of leaves per plant, ratio of total leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and total leaf area per plant) of four bamboo species of genus Indocalamus Nakai (I. pedalis (Keng) P.C. Keng, I. pumilus Q.H. Dai and C.F. Keng, I. barbatus McClure, and I. victorialis P.C. Keng). We also explored the possible correlation between spatial density and total leaf area per plant using log-linear regression. We found that the simplified Gielis equation fit the leaf shape of four bamboo species very well. Although all these four species belonged to the same genus, there were still significant differences in leaf shape. Significant differences also existed in leaf area per plant, ratio of leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and leaf length. In addition, we found that the total leaf area per plant decreased with increased spatial density. Therefore, we directly demonstrated the self-thinning rule to improve light interception.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation and adsorption of methylene blue via TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals supported on graphene-like bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fangjun; Liu, Wei, E-mail: wlscau@163.com; Qiu, Jielong; Li, Jinzhen; Zhou, Wuyi; Fang, Yueping; Zhang, Shuting, E-mail: zhangshuting@gmail.com; Li, Xin, E-mail: Xinliscau@yahoo.com

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this study, a novel efficient photocatalytic nanomaterial, TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals supported on graphene-like bamboo charcoal, has been successfully synthesized via a facile multi-step process. The structural and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL), Raman spectra and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities under sunlight were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results indicated that the ternary hybrid photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities toward the degradation of MB than the pure TiO{sub 2} under UV light irradiation. Moreover, the optimum weight content of graphene-like bamboo charcoal in composite photocatalysts was 6 wt% for achieving the maximum photocatalytic degradation rate. The apparent rate constant of the best sample (0.0509 min{sup −1}) was about 3 times greater than that of the commercial P25 (0.0170 min{sup −1}). The adsorption and degradation kinetics of MB can be described by the pseudo-first-order model and apparent first-order kinetics model, respectively. The highly enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the synergetic effect of graphene-like carbon and bamboo charcoal, which lead to the promoted charge separation and reduction reaction of oxygen, and enhanced adsorption capacities of MB, respectively. The composite photocatalysts displayed a high photochemical stability under repeated irradiation. This work may provide new insights and understanding on the graphene-like bamboo charcoal as an excellent support for photocatalyst nanoparticles to enhance their visible-light photocatalytic activity.

  12. Characteristics of Vanadium Doped And Bamboo Activated Carbon Coated LiFePO4 And Its Performance For Lithium Ion Battery Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrijon Sofyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium doped and bamboo activated carbon coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 used for lithium ion battery cathode has been successfully prepared. Lithium iron phosphate was prepared through a wet chemical method followed by a hydrothermal process from the starting materials of LiOH, NH4H2PO4, and FeSO4.7H2O. The dopant variations of 0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 7 wt.% of vanadium and a fixed 3 wt.% of bamboo activated carbon were carried out via a solid-state reaction process each by using NH4VO3 as a source of vanadium and carbon pyrolyzed from bamboo tree, respectively. The characterization was carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD for the phase formed and its crystal structure, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM for the surface morphology, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS for the conductivity, and battery analyzer for the performance of lithium ion battery cathode. The XRD results show that the phase formed has an olivine based structure with an orthorhombic space group. Morphology examination revealed that the particle agglomeration decreased with the increasing level of vanadium concentrations. Conductivity test showed that the impedance of solid electrolyte interface decreased with the increase of vanadium concentration indicated by increasing conductivity of 1.25 x 10-5 S/cm, 2.02 x 10-5 S/cm, 4.37 x 10-5 S/cm, and 5.69 x 10-5 S/cm, each for 0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 7 wt.% vanadium, respectively. Vanadium doping and bamboo activated carbon coating are promising candidate for improving lithium ion battery cathode as the initial charge and discharge capacity at 0.5C for LiFePO4/C at 7 wt.% vanadium is in the range of 8.0 mAh/g.

  13. Fabrication and Performance of a Glue-Pressed Engineered Honeycomb Bamboo (GPEHB Structure with Finger-jointed Ends as a Potential Substitute for Wood Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing scarcity of wood as a natural resource, bamboo has become a popular substitute for wood. The present work developed a high-strength original state multi-reorganization material (GPEHB, without the use of a hot press or traditional assembly. The original bamboo units were polygonized into outer contours and milled into finger-joints on each ending. The GPEHB was organized and assembled under an external press, using industrial adhesives. The mechanical properties and thermal insulation of GPEHB were characterized. Moreover, the overall GPEHB unit bending strength was 73.15 MPa, and the parallel-to-grain compression was 55.22 MPa (higher than that of Pinus sylvestris lumber, though less than that of glued laminated bamboo. The GPEHB unit overall density was 0.24 g/cm³, 76% lower than that of glued laminated bamboo, and 50% lower than Pinus sylvestris lumber. The compressive strength of GPEHB (7 units was 170.5 kN, while the compressive strength of GPEHB for 14 units was 493.5 kN, which meet the requirements of GB 50005 (2003. The bending strength of GPEHB 7 units was 12 kN, while that of 14 units was 37 kN. The heat conductivity coefficient for GPEHB was 0.25 W/mK, which is better than concrete and steel. The GPEHB has taken full advantage of its honeycomb-structured material, which allows it to avoid stress concentration in the regular polygonal corners.

  14. The enhancement of the hydrolysis of bamboo biomass in ionic liquid with chitosan-based solid acid catalysts immobilized with metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Dezhou; Qin, Dandan; Si, Wenqing; Tan, Yunfei; Wei, Shun'an; Wang, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Three kinds of sulfonated cross-linked chitosan (SCCR) immobilized with metal ions of Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) individually were synthesized and firstly used as solid acid catalysts in the hydrolysis of bamboo biomass. FTIR spectra showed that metal ions had been introduced into SCCR and the N-metal ions coordinate bound was formed. The particle sizes of these catalysts were about 500-1000μm with a pore size of 50-160μm. All of the three kinds of catalysts performed well for bamboo hydrolysis with 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride used as solvent. The most effective one was sulfonated cross-linked chitosan immobilized with Fe(3+) (Fe(3+)-SCCR). TRS yields were up to 73.42% for hydrolysis of bamboo powder in [C4mim]Cl with Fe(3+)-SCCR at 120°C and 20RPM after 24h. These novel chitosan-based metal ions immobilized solid acid catalysts with ionic liquids as the solvent might be promising to facilitate cost-efficient conversion of biomass into biofuels and bioproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Análise mecânica de pilares mistos bambu-concreto Mechanical analysis of hybrid bamboo-concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de pilares de bambu da espécie Dendrocalamus giganteus com e sem o preenchimento interior de concreto. Foram ensaiados, a compressão axial, 18 pilares com comprimentos de 1, 1,5 e 2 m e, para cada comprimento, tal como 6 pilares, sendo 3 mistos de bambu-concreto e 3 formados apenas por colmos de bambu. Os resultados foram analisados através da teoria da instabilidade de casca cilíndrica e das propriedades mecânicas dos materiais. Curvas força vs. deformação, teóricas e experimentais, são apresentadas e a influência do comprimento dos pilares sobre as últimas forças resistentes foi avaliada por meio de análise de variância. Os pilares mistos bambu-concreto apresentaram comportamento não-linear e, em média, suas últimas forças resistentes mostraram valor da ordem de 50% da obtida pela Teoria da Resistência dos Materiais; já os pilares formados apenas por colmos de bambu, indicaram comportamento linear e suas últimas forças diferiram apenas 5% das teóricas, calculadas pela Teoria da Resistência dos Materiais. Verifica-se que a utilização de pilares de bambu sem preenchimento de concreto apresenta maior viabilidade estrutural e econômica, podendo ser utilizada em obras de pequeno porte e de baixo custo.This work aimed to investigate the mechanical behaviour of Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo columns filled with concrete. Eighteen columns were tested under axial compression. The columns were 1, 1.5 and 2 m high and, for each height, 6 columns were studied, in which three were filled with concrete and three were made only with the bamboo culms. The results were analysed by the instability theory of cylindrical shell and by the mechanical properties of the material. Theoretical and experimental load versus strain curves are presented and the influence of column height on the columns load capacity were evaluated by variance analysis. The bamboo-concrete columns presented a

  16. The bamboo-eating giant panda harbors a carnivore-like gut microbiota, with excessive seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Menghui; Fei, Lisong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Huang, He; Bridgewater, Laura C; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhihe

    2015-05-19

    The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears. It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes. To find out whether this endangered mammalian species, like other herbivores, has successfully developed a gut microbiota adapted to its fiber-rich diet, we conducted a 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling of the giant panda fecal microbiota. Forty-five captive individuals were sampled in spring, summer, and late autumn within 1 year. Significant intraindividual variations in the diversity and structure of gut microbiota across seasons were observed in this population, which were even greater than the variations between individuals. Compared with published data sets involving 124 gut microbiota profiles from 54 mammalian species, these giant pandas, together with 9 captive and 7 wild individuals investigated previously, showed extremely low gut microbiota diversity and an overall structure that diverged from those of nonpanda herbivores but converged with those of carnivorous and omnivorous bears. The giant panda did not harbor putative cellulose-degrading phylotypes such as Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides bacteria that are typically enriched in other herbivores, but instead, its microbiota was dominated by Escherichia/Shigella and Streptococcus bacteria. Members of the class Clostridia were common and abundant in the giant panda gut microbiota, but most of the members present were absent in other herbivores and were not phylogenetically related with known cellulolytic lineages. Therefore, the giant panda appears not to have evolved a gut microbiota compatible with its newly adopted diet, which may adversely influence the coevolutionary fitness of this herbivore. The giant panda, an endangered mammalian species endemic to western China, is well known for its unique bamboo diet. Unlike other herbivores that have successfully evolved

  17. Determinação da tensão de aderência do bambu-concreto Determination of the bamboo-concrete bond stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia P. Mesquita

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se e se discute, neste trabalho, o estudo da aderência entre o bambu e o concreto; através de dois estudos baseados em uma programação estatística de experimento, em que no primeiro se investigaram as influências da dimensão da seção transversal das varetas de bambu e da resistência do concreto na aderência bambu-concreto e, no segundo, avaliou-se o efeito da colocação de pinos artificiais nas varetas de bambu. Em cada estudo realizaram-se 10 réplicas para cada combinação de fatores, resultando no total de 159 ensaios de arrancamento. Curvas tensão de aderência versus deslocamento relativo bambu-concreto, são apresentadas e discutidas, e a tensão de aderência de cálculo é calculada e comparada com os valores sugeridos por normas internacionais para barras lisas de aço. Constatou-se, na primeira fase da investigação, que apenas a resistência do concreto influencia na aderência bambu-concreto e que esta tensão é apenas 20% inferior que a do aço liso-concreto; já na segunda fase verificou-se que os pinos de bambu e de aço elevam a capacidade de transferência de tensões bambu-concreto, de forma significativa.This paper presents and discusses a study about the bamboo-concrete bond stress. Based on a statistical design of experiment, the investigation was divided in two steps: the first one, where the effects of the concrete compressive strength and the dimensions of the bamboo-splint cross-section were investigated; and the second, where the effect of artificial pins studding in the bamboo splints were evaluated. In both steps, ten replicates for each factor combination were done, resulting in 159 push-out tests. Bond stress versus relative displacement curves were presented and discussed. In addition, the design bond stresses of bamboo-concrete were calculated and their values were compared with those specified by International Building Codes for smooth steel and concrete. In the first step, it was

  18. Improvement of computer programs 'BAMBOO' and 'ASFRE-IV' for coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a high burn-up fuel subassembly of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Imai, Yasutomo

    2003-04-01

    A simulation system of a deformed fuel subassembly is being developed for the structure integrity of high burn-up wire-spacer-type fuel subassemblies of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report describes a computer program improvement work for coupling analyses of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a fuel subassembly as part of the simulation system development. In this work, a function of data conversion as an interface between a bundle deformation analysis program BAMBOO and a thermal hydraulic analysis program ASFRE-IV was incorporated to each program. BAMBOO was improved to accept the coolant temperature data from ASFRE-IV and to offer bundle deformation data to ASFRE-IV. ASFRE-IV was also improved to offer the coolant temperature data to BAMBOO and to obtain the bundle deformation data from BAMBOO. Improved BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV were applied to an analysis of 169-pin bundle for the program verification. It was confirmed that the coupling analysis gave the physically reasonable results on both deformation and thermal hydraulic behaviors in the fuel subassembly. (author)

  19. Oriented particleboard made from tali bamboo (Gigantochloa Apus): effect of particle length on physical and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswanto, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Strength properties are one of the problems of particleboard. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of particle length on physical and mechanical properties oriented particleboard (OPB). The variation particle length size in this experiment namely 3, 5, and 7 cm. The width and thickness size of all bamboo particles were 1 and 0.1 cm respectively. 12% mixed resin of UF and MDI (70/30 %w/w) used for binding. Board size fabricated in 25 by 25 cm2 with thickness and density target of 1 cm and 0.75 gcm-3. The OPB layers for face and back layers aligned perpendicular to the core layer. The weight ratio of the face-to-core-to-back layers were set at 1:2:1. Mat was pressed at 160 °C under 30 kgcm-2 as the pressure for 10 minutes. The results showed that 7 cm length particle produced of the best strength and dimensional stability. The increase of particle length resulted in increasing of strength properties. Over all the parameters of physical and mechanical properties fulfill requirements of JIS A 5908 (2003) excepted of thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity.

  20. A transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Lee, Chin-Wei; Cho, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Feng-Chao; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. We generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (VP1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Antigens accumulated to high levels in BdT38 and BdT19 transgenic cell lines co-expressing silencing suppressor protein P38 or P19. BaMV chimeric virus particles (CVPs) were subsequently purified from the respective cell lines (1.5 and 2.1 mg CVPs/20 g fresh weight of suspended biomass, respectively), and the resulting CVPs displayed VP1 epitope on the surfaces. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified CVPs produced humoral antibodies. This study represents an important advance in the large-scale production of immunopeptide vaccines in a cost-effective manner using a plant cell-suspension culture system. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt% and 20wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinshang, E-mail: sanmaosound@163.com; Zhao, Heng, E-mail: hengzhao2000@gmail.com; Chen, Yeyu, E-mail: cyyleaf@126.com; Luo, Huiying, E-mail: luohuiying@caas.cn; Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@caas.cn

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.

  3. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of bamboo charcoal on fouling and microbial diversity in a flat-sheet ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Xiaoning; Wang, Dunqiu; Jin, Yue

    2017-11-01

    Membrane fouling is a problem in full-scale membrane bioreactors. In this study, bamboo charcoal (BC) was evaluated for its efficacy in alleviating membrane fouling in flat-sheet membrane bioreactors treating municipal wastewater. The results showed that BC addition markedly improved treatment performance based on COD, NH 4 + -N, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus levels. Adding BC slowed the increase in the trans-membrane pressure rate and resulted in lower levels of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances detected in the flat-sheet membrane bioreactor. BC has a porous structure, and a large quantity of biomass was detected using scanning electron microscopy. The microbial community analysis results indicated that BC increased the microbial diversity and Aminomonas, Anaerofustis, uncultured Anaerolineaceae, Anaerolinea, and Anaerotruncus were found in higher abundances in the reactor with BC. BC addition is an effective method for reducing membrane fouling, and can be applied to full-scale flat-sheet membrane bioreactors to improve their function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional Elastic Knits Made of Bamboo Charcoal and Quick-Dry Yarns: Manufacturing Techniques and Property Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horng Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional sportswear fabrics are functional textiles that can mitigate the impaired muscles caused by exercises for the wearers, but they can also cause discomfort and skin allergy. This study proposes combining two yarns to form functional composite yarns, by using a twisting or wrapping process. Moreover, a different twist number is used in order to adjust the performance of functional composite yarns. A crochet machine is used to make the functional composite yarns into functional elastic knits that are suitable for use in sportswear. The test results show that, in comparison to the non-processed yarns, using the twisted or wrapped yarns can considerably decrease the water vapor transmission rate of functional elastic knits by 38%, while also improving their far infrared emissivity by 13%, water absorption rate by 39%, and air permeability by 136%. In particular, the functional elastic knits that are made of B-wrapped yarns (bamboo charcoal- wrapped yarns, composed of 20 twists per inch, have the optimal diverse functions.

  6. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qingsong; Zheng Tong; Li Nan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang Peng, E-mail: pwang73@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Abulikemu, Gulizhaer [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-03-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N{sub 2} adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH{sub pzc} value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  7. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Zheng, Tong; Li, Nan; Wang, Peng; Abulikemu, Gulizhaer

    2010-03-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N 2 atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N 2 adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH pzc) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH pzc value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  8. Bioelectrochemical sensing of promethazine with bamboo-type multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in calf-thymus double stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano N; Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    We report the quantification of promethazine (PMZ) using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with bamboo-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes (bCNT) dispersed in double stranded calf-thymus DNA (dsDNA) (GCE/bCNT-dsDNA). Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrated that PMZ presents a thin film-confined redox behavior at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA, opposite to the irreversibly-adsorbed behavior obtained at GCE modified with bCNT dispersed in ethanol (GCE/bCNT). Differential pulse voltammetry-adsorptive stripping with medium exchange experiments performed with GCE/bCNT-dsDNA and GCE modified with bCNTs dispersed in single-stranded calf-thymus DNA (ssDNA) confirmed that the interaction between PMZ and bCNT-dsDNA is mainly hydrophobic. These differences are due to the intercalation of PMZ within the dsDNA that supports the bCNTs, as evidenced from the bathochromic displacement of UV-Vis absorption spectra of PMZ and quantum dynamics calculations at DFTB level. The efficient accumulation of PMZ at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA made possible its sensitive quantification at nanomolar levels (sensitivity: (3.50±0.05)×10(8) μA·cm(-2)·M(-1) and detection limit: 23 nM). The biosensor was successfully used for the determination of PMZ in a pharmaceutical product with excellent correlation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinshang; Zhao, Heng; Chen, Yeyu; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish

  10. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  11. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingsong; Zheng Tong; Li Nan; Wang Peng; Abulikemu, Gulizhaer

    2010-01-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N 2 atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N 2 adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH pzc value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  12. Population explosion in the yellow-spined bamboo locust Ceracris kiangsu and inferences for the impact of human activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Fan

    Full Text Available Geographic distance and geographical barriers likely play a considerable role in structuring genetic variation in species, although some migratory species may have less phylogeographic structure on a smaller spatial scale. Here, genetic diversity and the phylogenetic structure among geographical populations of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu, were examined with 16S rDNA and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. In this study, no conspicuous phylogeographical structure was discovered from either Maximum parsimony (MP and Neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses. The effect of geographical isolation was not conspicuous on a large spatial scale.At smaller spatial scales local diversity of some populations within mountainous areas were detected using Nei's genetic distance and AMOVA. There is a high level of genetic diversity and a low genetic differentiation among populations in the C. kiangsu of South and Southeast China. Our analyses indicate that C. kiangsu is a monophyletic group. Our results also support the hypothesis that the C. kiangsu population is in a primary differentiation stage. Given the mismatch distribution, it is likely that a population expansion in C. kiangsu occurred about 0.242 Ma during the Quaternary interglaciation. Based on historical reports, we conjecture that human activities had significant impacts on the C. kiangsu gene flow.

  13. Place learning prior to and after telencephalon ablation in bamboo and coral cat sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum and Atelomycterus marmoratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Theodora; Bleckmann, Horst; Schluessel, Vera

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed complex spatial learning and memory in two species of shark, the grey bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium griseum) and the coral cat shark (Atelomycterus marmoratus). It was hypothesized that sharks can learn and apply an allocentric orientation strategy. Eight out of ten sharks successfully completed the initial training phase (by locating a fixed goal position in a diamond maze from two possible start points) within 14.9 ± 7.6 sessions and proceeded to seven sets of transfer tests, in which sharks had to perform under altered environmental conditions. Transfer tests revealed that sharks had oriented and solved the tasks visually, using all of the provided environmental cues. Unintentional cueing did not occur. Results correspond to earlier studies on spatial memory and cognitive mapping in other vertebrates. Future experiments should investigate whether sharks possess a cognitive spatial mapping system as has already been found in several teleosts and stingrays. Following the completion of transfer tests, sharks were subjected to ablation of most of the pallium, which compromised their previously acquired place learning abilities. These results indicate that the telencephalon plays a crucial role in the processing of information on place learning and allocentric orientation strategies.

  14. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The giant panda has an interesting bamboo diet unlike the other species in the order of Carnivora. The umami taste receptor gene T1R1 has been identified as a pseudogene during its genome sequencing project and confirmed using a different giant panda sample. The estimated mutation time for this gene is about 4.2 Myr. Such mutation coincided with the giant panda's dietary change and also reinforced its herbivorous life style. However, as this gene is preserved in herbivores such as cow and horse, we need to look for other reasons behind the giant panda's diet switch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since taste is part of the reward properties of food related to its energy and nutrition contents, we did a systematic analysis on those genes involved in the appetite-reward system for the giant panda. We extracted the giant panda sequence information for those genes and compared with the human sequence first and then with seven other species including chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, cat, horse, and cow. Orthologs in panda were further analyzed based on the coding region, Kozak consensus sequence, and potential microRNA binding of those genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch.

  15. [Simulating of carbon fluxes in bamboo forest ecosystem using BEPS model based on the LAI assimilated with Dual Ensemble Kalman Filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue Jian; Mao, Fang Jie; Du, Hua Qiang; Zhou, Guo Mo; Xu, Xiao Jun; Li, Ping Heng; Liu, Yu Li; Cui, Lu

    2016-12-01

    LAI is one of the most important observation data in the research of carbon cycle of forest ecosystem, and it is also an important parameter to drive process-based ecosystem model. The Moso bamboo forest (MBF) and Lei bamboo forest (LBF) were selected as the study targets. Firstly, the MODIS LAI time series data during 2014-2015 was assimilated with Dual Ensemble Kalman Filter method. Secondly, the high quality assimilated MBF LAI and LBF LAI were used as input dataset to drive BEPS model for simulating the gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and total ecosystem respiration (TER) of the two types of bamboo forest ecosystem, respectively. The modeled carbon fluxes were evaluated by the observed carbon fluxes data, and the effects of different quality LAI inputs on carbon cycle simulation were also studied. The LAI assimilated using Dual Ensemble Kalman Filter of MBF and LBF were significantly correlated with the observed LAI, with high R 2 of 0.81 and 0.91 respectively, and lower RMSE and absolute bias, which represented the great improvement of the accuracy of MODIS LAI products. With the driving of assimilated LAI, the modeled GPP, NEE, and TER were also highly correlated with the flux observation data, with the R 2 of 0.66, 0.47, and 0.64 for MBF, respectively, and 0.66, 0.45, and 0.73 for LBF, respectively. The accuracy of carbon fluxes modeled with assimilated LAI was higher than that acquired by the locally adjusted cubic-spline capping method, in which, the accuracy of mo-deled NEE for MBF and LBF increased by 11.2% and 11.8% at the most degrees, respectively.

  16. Multisource Remote Sensing Imagery Fusion Scheme Based on Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD and Its Application to the Extraction of Bamboo Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most bamboo forests grow in humid climates in low-latitude tropical or subtropical monsoon areas, and they are generally located in hilly areas. Bamboo trunks are very straight and smooth, which means that bamboo forests have low structural diversity. These features are beneficial to synthetic aperture radar (SAR microwave penetration and they provide special information in SAR imagery. However, some factors (e.g., foreshortening can compromise the interpretation of SAR imagery. The fusion of SAR and optical imagery is considered an effective method with which to obtain information on ground objects. However, most relevant research has been based on two types of remote sensing image. This paper proposes a new fusion scheme, which combines three types of image simultaneously, based on two fusion methods: bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD and the Gram-Schmidt transform. The fusion of panchromatic and multispectral images based on the Gram-Schmidt transform can enhance spatial resolution while retaining multispectral information. BEMD is an adaptive decomposition method that has been applied widely in the analysis of nonlinear signals and to the nonstable signal of SAR. The fusion of SAR imagery with fused panchromatic and multispectral imagery using BEMD is based on the frequency information of the images. It was established that the proposed fusion scheme is an effective remote sensing image interpretation method, and that the value of entropy and the spatial frequency of the fused images were improved in comparison with other techniques such as the discrete wavelet, à-trous, and non-subsampled contourlet transform methods. Compared with the original image, information entropy of the fusion image based on BEMD improves about 0.13–0.38. Compared with the other three methods it improves about 0.06–0.12. The average gradient of BEMD is 4%–6% greater than for other methods. BEMD maintains spatial frequency 3.2–4.0 higher than

  17. Rapid sequencing of the bamboo mitochondrial genome using Illumina technology and parallel episodic evolution of organelle genomes in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Fei; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Compared to their counterparts in animals, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of angiosperms exhibit a number of unique features. However, unravelling their evolution is hindered by the few completed genomes, of which are essentially Sanger sequenced. While next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized chloroplast genome sequencing, they are just beginning to be applied to angiosperm mt genomes. Chloroplast genomes of grasses (Poaceae) have undergone episodic evolution and the evolutionary rate was suggested to be correlated between chloroplast and mt genomes in Poaceae. It is interesting to investigate whether correlated rate change also occurred in grass mt genomes as expected under lineage effects. A time-calibrated phylogenetic tree is needed to examine rate change. We determined a largely completed mt genome from a bamboo, Ferrocalamus rimosivaginus (Poaceae), through Illumina sequencing of total DNA. With combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly, 39.5-fold coverage Illumina reads were finally assembled into scaffolds totalling 432,839 bp. The assembled genome contains nearly the same genes as the completed mt genomes in Poaceae. For examining evolutionary rate in grass mt genomes, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree including 22 taxa based on 31 mt genes. The topology of the well-resolved tree was almost identical to that inferred from chloroplast genome with only minor difference. The inconsistency possibly derived from long branch attraction in mtDNA tree. By calculating absolute substitution rates, we found significant rate change (∼4-fold) in mt genome before and after the diversification of Poaceae both in synonymous and nonsynonymous terms. Furthermore, the rate change was correlated with that of chloroplast genomes in grasses. Our result demonstrates that it is a rapid and efficient approach to obtain angiosperm mt genome sequences using Illumina sequencing technology. The parallel episodic evolution of mt and chloroplast

  18. Morphological and functional alterations of female reproduction after regular exposure of bamboo shoots of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deotima Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of daily consumption of bamboo shoots (BS on the morphological features and functional status of the female reproductive system in adult with respect to thyroid.Methods: Adult female rats were divided into control and experimental groups of six each. Control group was given normal diet while experimental group was fed BS by 1/3rd replacement of 180 g of their food i.e. 60 g of BS containing 35 g of goitrogens of cyanogenic origin such that each rat likely consumed 6 mg/100 g of body weight per day for a period of 45 d. Morphological features like changes in body weight and organ weight were noted. Key steroidogenic enzyme levels viz Δ5 3 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD and 17 β HSD along with serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were measured. Estrous cyclicity of the animals monitored regularly followed by histological analysis of thyroid, ovary and uterus at the end of experimentation.Results: Increase in body weight, thyroid gland weight and thyroid stimulating hormone, decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine, a decrease in ovarian as well as uterine weight and the activity of steroidogenic enzymes Δ5 3 β HSD and β 17 β HSD along with diminished serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were noted; while histological plates showed prominent degenerative changes in both the ovary and uterus. Estrous cyclicity of the treated animals were irregular and almost stopped at diestrous stage of the cycle in the latter stage of the treatment as compared to control.Conclusions: Overall results indicates that BS rich in cyanogenic constituents induces biochemical hypothyroidism in the experimental animals that acts in corroboration to cause morphological and functional alteration of reproductive organs indicating its likely impact in fertility on continued use.

  19. Interfacial Properties of Bamboo Fiber-Reinforced High-Density Polyethylene Composites by Different Methods for Adding Nano Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to observe the effect of nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3 modification methods on bamboo fiber (BF used in BF-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites manufactured by extrusion molding. Two methods were used to introduce the nano CaCO3 into the BF for modification; the first was blending modification (BM and the second was impregnation modification (IM. In order to determine the effects of the modification methods, the water absorption, surface free energy and interfacial properties of the unmodified composites were compared to those of the composites made from the two modification methods. The results revealed that the percentage increase in the weight of the composite treated by nano CaCO3 decreased and that of the IMBF/HDPE composite was the lowest over the seven months of time. The results obtained by the acid-base model according to the Lewis and Owens-Wendt- Rabel-Kaelble (OWRK equations indicated that the surface energy of the composites was between 40 and 50 mJ/m2. When compared to the control sample, the maximum storage modulus (E′max of the BMBF/HDPE and IMBF/HDPE composites increased 1.43- and 1.53-fold, respectively. The values of the phase-to-phase interaction parameter B and the k value of the modified composites were higher than those of the unmodified composites, while the apparent activation energy Ea and interface parameter A were lower in the modified composites. It can be concluded that nano CaCO3 had an effect on the interfacial properties of BF-reinforced HDPE composites, and the interface bonding between IMBF and HDPE was greatest among the composites.

  20. Morphological and functional alterations of female reproduction after regular exposure of bamboo shoots of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deotima Sarkar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of daily consumption of bamboo shoots (BS on the morphological features and functional status of the female reproductive system in adult with respect to thyroid. Methods: Adult female rats were divided into control and experimental groups of six each. Control group was given normal diet while experimental group was fed BS by 1/3rd replacement of 180 g of their food i.e. 60 g of BS containing 35 g of goitrogens of cyanogenic origin such that each rat likely consumed 6 mg/100 g of body weight per day for a period of 45 d. Morphological features like changes in body weight and organ weight were noted. Key steroidogenic enzyme levels viz Δ5 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD and 17β HSD along with serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were measured. Estrous cyclicity of the animals monitored regularly followed by histological analysis of thyroid, ovary and uterus at the end of experimentation. Results: Increase in body weight, thyroid gland weight and thyroid stimulating hormone, decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine, a decrease in ovarian as well as uterine weight and the activity of steroidogenic enzymes Δ5 3β HSD and 17β HSD along with diminished serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were noted; while histological plates showed prominent degenerative changes in both the ovary and uterus. Estrous cyclicity of the treated animals were irregular and almost stopped at diestrous stage of the cycle in the latter stage of the treatment as compared to control. Conclusions: Overall results indicates that BS rich in cyanogenic constituents induces biochemical hypothyroidism in the experimental animals that acts in corroboration to cause morphological and functional alteration of reproductive organs indicating its likely impact in fertility on continued use.

  1. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  2. [RS estimation of inventory parameters and carbon storage of moso bamboo forest based on synergistic use of object-based image analysis and decision tree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hua Qiang; Sun, Xiao Yan; Han, Ning; Mao, Fang Jie

    2017-10-01

    By synergistically using the object-based image analysis (OBIA) and the classification and regression tree (CART) methods, the distribution information, the indexes (including diameter at breast, tree height, and crown closure), and the aboveground carbon storage (AGC) of moso bamboo forest in Shanchuan Town, Anji County, Zhejiang Province were investigated. The results showed that the moso bamboo forest could be accurately delineated by integrating the multi-scale ima ge segmentation in OBIA technique and CART, which connected the image objects at various scales, with a pretty good producer's accuracy of 89.1%. The investigation of indexes estimated by regression tree model that was constructed based on the features extracted from the image objects reached normal or better accuracy, in which the crown closure model archived the best estimating accuracy of 67.9%. The estimating accuracy of diameter at breast and tree height was relatively low, which was consistent with conclusion that estimating diameter at breast and tree height using optical remote sensing could not achieve satisfactory results. Estimation of AGC reached relatively high accuracy, and accuracy of the region of high value achieved above 80%.

  3. Development of a FBR fuel bundle-duct interaction analysis code-BAMBOO. Analysis model and verification by Phenix high burn-up fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2005-01-01

    The bundle-duct interaction analysis code ''BAMBOO'' has been developed for the purpose of predicting deformation of a wire-wrapped fuel pin bundle of a fast breeder reactor (FBR). The BAMBOO code calculates helical bowing and oval-distortion of all the fuel pins in a fuel subassembly. We developed deformation models in order to precisely analyze the irradiation induced deformation by the code: a model to analyze fuel pin self-bowing induced by circumferential gradient of void swelling as well as thermal expansion, and a model to analyze dispersion of the orderly arrangement of a fuel pin bundle. We made deformation analyses of high burn-up fuel subassemblies in Phenix reactor and compared the calculated results with the post irradiation examination data of these subassemblies for the verification of these models. From the comparison we confirmed that the calculated values of the oval-distortion and bowing reasonably agreed with the PIE results if these models were used in the analysis of the code. (author)

  4. Coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in a FBR fuel pin bundle using BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masahiro; Imai, Yasutomo; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2004-03-01

    The bundle-duct interaction may occur in sodium cooled wire-wrapped FBR fuel subassemblies in high burn-up conditions. JNC has been developing a bundle deformation analysis code BAMBOO (Behavior Analysis code for Mechanical interaction of fuel Bundle under On-power Operation), a thermal hydraulics analysis code ASFRE-IV (Analysis of Sodium Flow in Reactor Elements - ver. IV) and their coupling method as a simulation system for the evaluation on the integrity of deformed FBR fuel pin bundles. In this study, the simulation system was applied to a coupling analysis of deformation and thermal-hydraulics in the fuel pin-bundle under a steady-state condition just after startup for the purpose of the verification of the simulation system. The iterative calculations of deformation and thermal-hydraulics employed in the coupling analysis provided numerically unstable solutions. From the result, it was found that improvement of the coupling algorithm of BAMBOO and ASFRE-IV is necessary to reduce numerical fluctuations and to obtain better convergence by introducing such computational technique as the optimized under-relaxation method. (author)

  5. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  6. Bamboo vinegar decreases inflammatory mediator expression and NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and protein kinase C-α/δ activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lung Ho

    Full Text Available Bamboo vinegar (BV, a natural liquid derived from the condensation produced during bamboo charcoal production, has been used in agriculture and as a food additive, but its application to immune modulation has not been reported. Here, we demonstrated that BV has anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo. BV reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide levels in, and interleukin-6 secretion by, lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages without affecting tumor necrosis factor-α secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. The mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of BV involved decreased reactive oxygen species production and protein kinase C-α/δ activation. Furthermore, creosol (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol was indentified as the major anti-inflammatory compound in BV. Impaired cytokine expression and NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome activation was seen in mice treated with creosol. These findings provide insights into how BV regulates inflammation and suggest that it may be a new source for the development of anti-inflammatory agents or a healthy supplement for preventing and ameliorating inflammation- and NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases, including metabolic syndrome.

  7. [Retrieval of crown closure of moso bamboo forest using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remotely sensed imagery based on geometric-optical model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Xu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Shao-bo; Gao, Guo-long

    2015-05-01

    This research focused on the application of remotely sensed imagery from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with high spatial resolution for the estimation of crown closure of moso bamboo forest based on the geometric-optical model, and analyzed the influence of unconstrained and fully constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA) on the accuracy of the estimated results. The results demonstrated that the combination of UAV remotely sensed imagery and geometric-optical model could, to some degrees, achieve the estimation of crown closure. However, the different SMA methods led to significant differentiation in the estimation accuracy. Compared with unconstrained SMA, the fully constrained linear SMA method resulted in higher accuracy of the estimated values, with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.63 at 0.01 level, against the measured values acquired during the field survey. Root mean square error (RMSE) of approximate 0.04 was low, indicating that the usage of fully constrained linear SMA could bring about better results in crown closure estimation, which was closer to the actual condition in moso bamboo forest.

  8. Development of a Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Bundle Deformation Analysis Code - BAMBOO: Development of a Pin Dispersion Model and Verification by the Out-of-Pile Compression Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the wire-wrapped fast breeder reactor fuel pin bundle deformation under bundle/duct interaction conditions, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has developed the BAMBOO computer code. This code uses the three-dimensional beam element to calculate fuel pin bowing and cladding oval distortion as the primary deformation mechanisms in a fuel pin bundle. The pin dispersion, which is disarrangement of pins in a bundle and would occur during irradiation, was modeled in this code to evaluate its effect on bundle deformation. By applying the contact analysis method commonly used in the finite element method, this model considers the contact conditions at various axial positions as well as the nodal points and can analyze the irregular arrangement of fuel pins with the deviation of the wire configuration.The dispersion model was introduced in the BAMBOO code and verified by using the results of the out-of-pile compression test of the bundle, where the dispersion was caused by the deviation of the wire position. And the effect of the dispersion on the bundle deformation was evaluated based on the analysis results of the code

  9. A bamboo-inspired hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Ag/CuO/TiO_2 nanotube array for highly photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuhong; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Chengbin; Ding, Yangbin; Zhang, Shuqu; Zeng, Yunxiong; Liu, Yutang; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bamboo-like architecture of ternary photocatalyst. • High simulated solar light photocatalytic activity. • Integration of p-n heterojunction and Schottky junction. • Excellent stable recycling performance. - Abstract: The optimized geometrical configuration of muitiple active materials into hierarchical nanoarchitecture is essential for the creation of photocatalytic degradation system that can mimic natural photosynthesis. A bamboo-like architecture, CuO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles co-decorated TiO_2 nanotube arrays (Ag/CuO/TiO_2), was fabricated by using simple solution-immersion and electrodeposition process. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) photocatalytic degradation rate over Ag/CuO/TiO_2 was about 2.0, 1.5 and 1.2 times that over TiO_2 nanotubes, CuO/TiO_2 and Ag/TiO_2, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ternary Ag/CuO/TiO_2 photocatalyst was ascribed to improved light absorption, reduced carrier recombination and more exposed active sites. Moreover, the excellent stability and reliability of the Ag/CuO/TiO_2 photocatalyst demonstrated a promising application for organic pollutant removal from water.

  10. A bamboo-inspired hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array for highly photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuhong; Wang, Longlu [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ding, Yangbin; Zhang, Shuqu; Zeng, Yunxiong [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yutang, E-mail: liuyutang@126.com [Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Shenglian [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Bamboo-like architecture of ternary photocatalyst. • High simulated solar light photocatalytic activity. • Integration of p-n heterojunction and Schottky junction. • Excellent stable recycling performance. - Abstract: The optimized geometrical configuration of muitiple active materials into hierarchical nanoarchitecture is essential for the creation of photocatalytic degradation system that can mimic natural photosynthesis. A bamboo-like architecture, CuO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles co-decorated TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2}), was fabricated by using simple solution-immersion and electrodeposition process. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) photocatalytic degradation rate over Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} was about 2.0, 1.5 and 1.2 times that over TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, CuO/TiO{sub 2} and Ag/TiO{sub 2}, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ternary Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was ascribed to improved light absorption, reduced carrier recombination and more exposed active sites. Moreover, the excellent stability and reliability of the Ag/CuO/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst demonstrated a promising application for organic pollutant removal from water.

  11. Morphology and distribution of taste papillae and oral denticles in the developing oropharyngeal cavity of the bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. L. Atkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gustation in sharks is not well understood, especially within species that ingest food items using suction. This study examines the morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of taste papillae and oral denticles in the oropharynx of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum and compares their distribution during development. Taste papillae of C. punctatum are located throughout the oropharyngeal region and are most concentrated on the oral valves (2125-3483 per cm2 in embryos; 89-111 per cm2 in mature adults close to the tooth territories. Papillae appearance is comparable at all stages of development, with the exception of the embryos (unhatched specimens, where no microvilli are present. Oral valve papillae are comparable in structure to Type I taste buds of teleost fishes, whereas those of the rest of the oropharyngeal region are comparable to Type II. Both types of papillae show immunofluorescence for a number of markers of taste buds, including β-Catenin and Sox2. Taste papillae densities are highest in embryos with 420-941 per cm2 compared to 8-29 per cm2 in mature adults. The total number of papillae remains around 1900 for all stages of development. However, the papillae increase in diameter from 72±1 μm (mean±s.e.m. in embryos to 310±7 μm in mature individuals. Microvilli protrude in multiple patches at the apical tip of the papilla covering ∼0.5% of the papillar surface area. We further document the relationship between taste papillae and the closely associated oral denticles within the shark orophayngeal cavity. Oral denticles first break through the epithelium in the antero-central region of the dorsal oral cavity, shortly after the emergence of teeth, around time of hatching. Denticles are located throughout the oropharyngeal epithelium of both immature and mature stages, with the highest concentrations in the antero-dorsal oral cavity and the central regions of the pharynx. These denticle

  12. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature on photosynthesis and leaf traits of an understory dwarf bamboo in subalpine forest zone, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongping Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Xiaolu Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Korpelainenc, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Berningerd, F. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Forest Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    The dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), growing understory in subalpine dark coniferous forest, is one of the main foods for giant panda, and it influences the regeneration of subalpine coniferous forests in southwestern China. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, temperature and their combination, the dwarf bamboo plantlets were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient and double ambient CO{sub 2} concentration) and two temperatures (ambient and +2.2 deg. C) in growth chambers. Gas exchange, leaf traits and carbohydrates concentration were measured after the 150-day experiment. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate (A{sub net}), intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE{sub i}) and carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) and decreased stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) and total chlorophyll concentration based on mass (Chl{sub m}) and area (Chl{sub a}). On the other hand, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased specific leaf area (SLA), which was increased by elevated temperature. Elevated CO{sub 2} also increased foliar carbon concentration based on mass (C{sub m}) and area (C{sub a}), nitrogen concentration based on area (N{sub a}), carbohydrates concentration (i.e. sucrose, sugar, starch and non-structural carbohydrates) and the slope of the A{sub net}-N{sub a} relationship. However, elevated temperature decreased C{sub m}, C{sub a} and N{sub a}. The combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature hardly affected SLA, C{sub m}, C{sub a}, N{sub m}, N{sub a}, Chl{sub m} and Chl{sub a}. Variables A{sub net} and N{sub a} had positive linear relationships in all treatments. Our results showed that photosynthetic acclimation did not occur in dwarf bamboo at elevated CO{sub 2} and it could adjust physiology and morphology to enable the capture of more light, to increase WUE and improve nutritional conditions. (Author)

  13. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Bamboo-like Composites of V2O5/Polyindole and Activated Carbon Cloth as Electrodes for All-Solid-State Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Anqi; Xu, Jian; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2016-02-17

    A bamboo-like nanomaterial composed of V2O5/polyindole (V2O5/PIn) decorated onto the activated carbon cloth was fabricated for supercapacitors. The PIn could effectively enhance the electronic conductivity and prevent the dissolution of vanadium. And the activation of carbon cloth with functional groups is conducive to anchoring the V2O5 and improving surface area, which results in an enhancement of electrochemical performance and leads to a high specific capacitance of 535.5 F/g. Moreover, an asymmetric flexible supercapacitor based on V2O5/PIn@activate carbon cloth and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)@activate carbon cloth exhibits a high energy density (38.7 W h/kg) at a power density of 900 W/kg and good cyclic stability (capacitance retention of 91.1% after 5000 cycles). And the prepared device is shown to power the light-emitting diode bulbs efficiently.

  15. Sustainability of Social Housing in Asia: A Holistic Multi-Perspective Development Process for Bamboo-Based Construction in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Salzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the need for a more inclusive and sustainable development of social housing in rapidly developing countries of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. At the example of the Philippines, a multi-perspective development process for a bamboo-based building system is developed. Sustainability Assessment Criteria are defined through literature review, field observations and interviews with three stakeholder clusters: (1 Builders and users of traditional bamboo houses in the Philippines; (2 Stakeholders involved in using forest products for housing in other countries around the world; and (3 Stakeholders in the field of social housing in the Philippines. Through coding and sorting of data in a qualitative content analysis, 15 sustainability assessment criteria are identified clustered into the dimensions society, ecology, economy, governance, and technology. Guided by the sustainability criteria and four implementation strategies: (A Research about and (B Implementation of the building technology; (C Participation and Capacity Building of Stakeholders; and (D Sustainable Supply Chains, a strategic roadmap was created naming, in total, 28 action items. Through segmentation of the complex problem into these action items, the paper identifies one-dimensional methods leading to measurable, quantitative endpoints. In this way, qualitative stakeholder data is translated into quantitative methods, forming a pathway for a holistic assessment of the building technologies. A mid-point, multi-criteria, or pareto decision-making method comparing the 28 endpoints of the alternative to currently practiced conventional solutions is suggested as subject for further research. This framework paper is a contribution to how sustainable building practices can become more inclusive,  incorporating the building stock of low-income dwellers. It bridges the gap between theoretical approach and practical applications of sustainability and underlines the

  16. Object Signing in Bamboo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marion

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, many relying on e-commerce to conduct business including the transport of files...

  17. A molecular phylogenetic and fruit evolutionary analysis of the major groups of the paleotropical woody bamboos (Gramineae: Bambusoideae) based on nuclear ITS, GBSSI gene and plastid trnL-F DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Qi; Yang, Jun-Bo; Peng, Zhen-Hua; Gao, Jian; Yang, Yu-Ming; Peng, Sheng; Li, De-Zhu

    2008-09-01

    This study presented the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the major clades of woody bamboos of the Old World tropics based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences (ITS, GBSSI and trnL-F). Sequence data from 53 species, representing 17 paleotropical woody bamboo genera, were analyzed using the maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. All examined ingroup taxa were clustered into two clades, i.e., the Bambusinae+Dinochloa clade and the Melocanninae clade. The former clade included Bambusa, Bonia, Dendrocalamus, Dendrocalamopsis, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Molecalamus, Neomicrocalamus, Neosinocalamus, Oxytenanthera s. str. (sensu stricto), Racemobambos and Thyrsostachys. The Melocanninae clade consisted of Cephalostachyum, Leptocanna (better treated as part of Cephalostachyum), Melocanna, Pseudostachyum and Schizostachyum s. str. The subtribe Racemobambosinae and tribes Dendrocalameae and Oxytenanthereae were not supported and may be better placed in subtribe Bambusinae. The ovary characters seemed to be good criteria to distinguish these two clades. The reconstruction of ancestral fruit characters indicated that the bacoid caryopsis, namely, fleshy or berry-like fruits, was found to be scattered in three lineages of the examined paleotropical woody bamboos. Fruit characters are thus not reliable indicators of phylogeny and bacoid caryopsis likely represents a specialization for particular ecological conditions.

  18. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of bamboo salt soy sauce against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Noh, Min-Young; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Haiwon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) and soy sauce (SS) are traditional foods in Asia, which contain antioxidants that have cytoprotective effects on the body. The majority of SS products contain high levels of common salt, consumption of which has been associated with numerous detrimental effects on the body. However, BS may be considered a healthier substitute to common salt. The present study hypothesized that SS made from BS, known as bamboo salt soy sauce (BSSS), may possess enhanced cytoprotective properties; this was evaluated using a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced neuronal cell death rat model. Rat neuronal cells were pretreated with various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) of BSSS, traditional soy sauce (TRSS) and brewed soy sauce (BRSS), and were subsequently exposed to H 2 O 2 (100 µM). The viability of neuronal cells, and the occurrence of DNA fragmentation, was subsequently examined. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with TRSS and BRSS reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas neuronal cells pretreated with BSSS exhibited increased cell viability, as compared with non-treated neuronal cells. Furthermore, neuronal cells pretreated with 0.01% BSSS exhibited the greatest increase in viability. Exposure of neuronal cells to H 2 O 2 significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, poly (ADP-ribose), cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cytochrome c , apoptosis-inducing factor, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, in all cases. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with BSSS significantly reduced the levels of ROS generated by H 2 O 2 , and increased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Furthermore, the observed effects of BSSS could be blocked by administration of 10 µM LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. The results of the present study suggested that BSSS may exert positive neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2

  19. Tratamentos superficiais visando à melhoria da aderência entre gesso e taliscas de bambu Surface treatments aimed at improving the adhesion between plaster and bamboo slivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle G Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O gesso é um aglomerante com aplicações sobretudo na fabricação de placas de forro, elementos decorativos e em paredes divisórias. No entanto, utilizando-se de uma baixa relação água/gesso e procedimentos tais como vibração, torna-se possível obter resistências mecânicas compatíveis para outras aplicações na construção civil, como é o caso de elementos estruturais. A investigação reportada no presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, experimentalmente, a possibilidade de se melhorar o compósito estudado. Foram realizados tratamentos para redução da absorção de água pelas taliscas, por meio da utilização de extrato vegetal B Carbon, resina polimérica e piche. Na tentativa de melhorar a aderência na interface gesso/bambu foram utilizados adesivo epóxi, massa plástica e piche, além de confeccionados corpos de prova de gesso reforçados com taliscas de bambu, tratadas com diferentes produtos, cuja eficiência foi avaliada em ensaios mecânicos. Observou-se que, para ocorrer uma boa aderência na interface do compósito, são necessários tratamentos complementares que reduzam os efeitos da instabilidade dimensional.The gypsum is a binder with applications primarily in the manufacture of ceiling tile, decorative elements and partition walls. However, using a low water/plaster ratio and procedures such as vibration, it is possible to obtain mechanical strength compatible to other applications in construction as in the case of structural elements. The research reported in this study aimed to evaluate experimentally the possibility of improving the compound studied. Treatments were carried out to reduce water absorption by slivers through the use of plant extract B Carbon, polymer resin, and tar. In an attempt to improve the adhesion at the interface plaster/epoxy adhesive, bamboo, plastic and tar mass were used. Test specimens were made of plaster reinforced with slivers of bamboo, treated with different products

  20. Adsorption–photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yin [Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Bu, Yunjie; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal is prepared using a microwave-assisted sol–gel method. • HA degradation is achieved through synergistic BC adsorption and ZnO-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC has high photodegradation efficiency for HA under visible-light irradiation. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC is an effective photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants from water. -- Abstract: ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC) was prepared using the sol–gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO{sub 2} to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO{sub 2} particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO{sub 2}/BC was higher than that of TiO{sub 2}/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC fitted well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  1. Taquara bamboo control as an alternative to recovery of the Araucaria Forest Controle de taquaras como alternativa para a recuperação da Floresta com Araucária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sanquetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Native bamboos occur abundantly in forests with predominance of Araucaria angustifolia that were
    highly disturbed by anthropogenic causes. The occupation of the competitive space by these plants may indicate that there is a dependency relationship between the establishment of tree seedlings and bamboos in the ecosystem. This study aimed at evaluating the establishment of seedlings of tree species that appeared naturally in an area strongly dominated by bamboos in the understory. An  experiment of mechanical control of bamboos
    was established in the municipality of General Carneiro, southern Paraná State, with 1.00 hectare, following the
    completely randomized design. The results showed that felling of bamboos may be effective to stimulate the
    appearance of many species and also to increase seedling density. Mechanical bamboo control by felling,
    combined with its biomass removal and understory thinning, is effective to stimulate seedling establishment of the majority of species in the forest. In general, it can be concluded that response of the forest to management practices is quite quick. Few months after the effect of bamboo control on the regeneration of the tree species might be clearly noticed. This suggests that management practices may be very effective to the restoration of degraded ecosystems.Taquaras ocorrem abundantemente em florestas antropizadas com Araucaria angustifolia. Evidências
    levam a crer que existe uma relação de dependência entre a sua presença e o grau de estabelecimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o estabelecimento de plântulas espontaneamente regeneradas em áreas com forte presença de taquaras. Foi instalado um experimento no extremo sul do Paraná, com área de um hectare, por delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os resultados aos 18 meses revelaram que o corte das taquaras provocou o reaparecimento de

  2. Preparation and characterization of functional fabrics from bamboo charcoal/silver and titanium dioxide/silver composite powders and evaluation of their antibacterial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fu-Chu, E-mail: yfc580629@yahoo.com.tw [Army Command Headquarters, MND, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hui [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, NDU, No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jen-Wei [Department of Physics, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Horng, Deng-Nan; Liang, Chia-Feng [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Ming-Kuan [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) and titanium dioxide supporting silver (TiO{sub 2}/Ag) were prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution and antibacterial properties. The pore and surface properties were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered. Moreover, these composite powders were deposited via immersion coating onto fabrics (nonwoven and carbon fibers) to improve the antibacterial efficacy and to act as a biologically-protective material. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics supported by BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag were studied in zone of inhibition and plate counting tests against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ME/GM/TC Resistant, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosae (CTZ and EM and GM) Res. Clin. Isol., Escherichia coli Juhl, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that fabric-BC/Ag and fabric-TiO{sub 2}/Ag possess a strong antibacterial activity and an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bacteria and are therefore believed to have great potential for use as antibacterial fabrics.

  3. Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gang-Gang; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Kou, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Di, Jun-Hua; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na 2 S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na 2 S media could be obtained at 31.11 and 20.32g/L, respectively. Finally, the obtained BSS-hydrolysates containing alkalic salt NaClO/Na 2 S resulted in slightly negative effects on the ethanol production. Glucose in BSS-hydrolysates was fermented from 20.0 to 0.17g/L within 48h, and an ethanol yield of 0.41g/g glucose, which represents 80.1% of the theoretical yield, was obtained. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of BSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. pH Control in Fog and Rain in East Asia: Temporal Advection of Clean Air Masses to Mt. Bamboo, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Klemm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fog and rain was collected during an 18-day period in January 2011 at Mt. Bamboo, northern Taiwan. Almost 300 hourly fog samples and 16 daily rain samples were taken. One single fog sample (pH 3.17 was influenced by local volcanic activity, otherwise the pH ranged from 3.23 to 6.41 in fog and from 3.59 to 6.31 in rain. All the respective air masses arrived from the northeast, but exhibited two distinct groups: Group_1 had high concentrations of all ions (median interquartile range of total ion concentrations 3200–6200 µeq.·L−1 and low pHs (median 3.52, the respective air masses had travelled over densely populated and industrialized regions of mainland China. Group_2 was from air masses with long travel times over the ocean and relatively low total ion concentrations (80–570 µeq.·L−1 and higher pHs (median 4.80. The cleanest samples are among the cleanest reported in the literature of worldwide fog and rain. In both groups, the pH was governed by the balance of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and, in some cases, calcium. The variability of these ions was higher than the variability of 10−pH, which shows that the pH is a rather robust parameter in contrast to its drivers such as non-sea-salt sulfate.

  5. Comfort and Functional Properties of Far-Infrared/Anion-Releasing Warp-Knitted Elastic Composite Fabrics Using Bamboo Charcoal, Copper, and Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elastic warp-knitted composite fabrics with far-infrared emissivity and an anion-releasing property were prepared using bamboo charcoal (BC, copper (Cu, and phase-change material (PCM. The functional composite fabric, which was composed of self-made complex yarns with various twisting degrees and material composition, were created using a rotor twister and ring-spinning technique. The fabric structure was diversified by the feeding modes of weft yarn into a crochet-knitting machine. The twist number of complex yarns was optimized by tensile tenacity, twist contraction, and hairiness, and analysis showed that twisting at 12 twists per inch produced the highest tensile tenacity and appropriate twist contraction and hairiness. Comfort evaluation showed that the elastic composite fabrics with BC weft yarns exhibited higher water–vapor transmission rate and air permeability, reaching 876 g/m2∙ day and 73.2 cm3/s/cm2, respectively. Three structures of composite fabric with various weft yarns had >0.85 ε far-infrared emissivity and 350–420 counts/cm3 anion amount. The prepared elastic warp-knitted fabrics can provide a comfortable, dry, and breathable environment to the wearer and can thus be applied as health-care textiles in the future.

  6. Structural and mutational analyses of cis-acting sequences in the 5'-untranslated region of satellite RNA of bamboo mosaic potexvirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalai, Padmanaban; Hsu, Y.-H.; Liu, Y.-P.; Tsai, C.-H.; Lin, N.-S.

    2003-01-01

    The satellite RNA of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV) contains on open reading frame for a 20-kDa protein that is flanked by a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 159 nucleotides (nt) and a 3'-UTR of 129 nt. A secondary structure was predicted for the 5'-UTR of satBaMV RNA, which folds into a large stem-loop (LSL) and a small stem-loop. Enzymatic probing confirmed the existence of LSL (nt 8-138) in the 5'-UTR. The essential cis-acting sequences in the 5'-UTR required for satBaMV RNA replication were determined by deletion and substitution mutagenesis. Their replication efficiencies were analyzed in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and Chenopodium quinoa plants coinoculated with helper BaMV RNA. All deletion mutants abolished the replication of satBaMV RNA, whereas mutations introduced in most of the loop regions and stems showed either no replication or a decreased replication efficiency. Mutations that affected the positive-strand satBaMV RNA accumulation also affected the accumulation of negative-strand RNA; however, the accumulation of genomic and subgenomic RNAs of BaMV were not affected. Moreover, covariation analyses of natural satBaMV variants provide substantial evidence that the secondary structure in the 5'-UTR of satBaMV is necessary for efficient replication

  7. Tracer experiment administering L-phenylalanine-U-14C and L-tyrosine-U-14C to the tissue slices of bamboo shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozukue, E.; Mizuno, S.

    1987-01-01

    Uniformly 14 C-labeled L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine were administered to tissue slices of both top and base sections of bamboo shoots. Alcohol soluble substances were extracted and then separated into organic acid, sugar and amino acid fractions by ion exchange chromatography. The homogentisic acid fraction among the organic acids was collected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its radioactivity was measured, while the alcohol insoluble residue was used for the analysis of lignin aldehyde by the method of alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. 1. The two labeled amino acids were steadily incorporated into the tissues during incubation and rapidly converted to organic acid, sugar and alcohol insoluble residue, especially the latter. 2. On determining the amount of phenylalanine converted to tyrosine, it was found that this was extremely small. 3. The incorporation of phenylalanine-U- 14 C into alcohol insoluble residue was higher than that of tyrosine in both sections. 4. Although the conversion into lignin aldehyde from phenylalanine-U- 14 C was higher than that from tyrosine-U- 14 C, it was found that tyrosine incorporated into the shoots was converted to a remarkable extent for formation of lignin aldehyde. 5. The incorporation of phenylalanine and tyrosine into homogentisic acid was very low. From these results, we assume that the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine or of tyrosine to homogentisic acid is very small, and that a part of the high amount of tyrosine in the shoots may be used for formation of lignin

  8. Using bamboo biochar with compost for the stabilization and phytotoxicity reduction of heavy metals in mine-contaminated soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Guo, Di; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Xining; Jiang, Shuncheng; Guo, Zhanyu; Huang, Hui; Liang, Wen; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-06-02

    Anthropogenic activities have transformed the global geochemical cycling of heavy metals (HMs). Many physical, chemical and biological methods are used to reduce the toxicity of HMs to humans, plants and environment. This study aimed to investigate the immobilization and phytotoxicity reduction of HMs after application of bamboo biochar (BB) in mine-polluted soil in Feng county (FC) and Tongguan (TG). The results showed that BB application to contaminated soil immobilized HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu). The soil pH and EC increased and the bioavailability of HMs decreased in FC and TG, whereas Pb and Cu increased in TG soil. The addition of BB reduced HMs uptake in the shoot/root of Brassica juncea. Physiological responses showed that BB application improved the shoot/root growth, dry biomass, and enhanced the chlorophyll (a and b) and carotenoid concentrations in Brassica. The incorporation of BB improved the soil health and accelerated enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase and urease) in HMs polluted soils. Antioxidant activities (POD, PPO, CAT and SOD) were also used as biomarkers to determine the negative effects of HMs on the growth of Brassica. Overall, the immobilization potential and phytotoxicity reduction of HMs were confirmed by BCF, TF and MEA for both soils.

  9. Short-Term Response of Sasa Dwarf Bamboo to a Change of Soil Nitrogen Fertility in a Forest Ecosystem in Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehiro Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In forest ecosystems, a change of soil nitrogen (N cycling after disturbance is regulated by various factors. Sasa dwarf bamboo (hereafter referred to as Sasa is an understory plant that grows thickly on the forest floor in northern Hokkaido, Japan. However, the ecosystem function of Sasa after disturbances in the soil N cycling is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term response of Sasa to a change of soil N fertility. Biomass, litterfall, litter decomposition, soil N pool, and N leaching from soil were measured in control, and low- (5 g N m−2 year−1 and high-N (15 g N m−2 year−1 addition plots. Sasa immobilized much N as the soil N fertility increased. However, the leaf N concentration in aboveground biomass did not increase, suggesting that the N in leaves was maintained because of the increase of leaf biomass. As a result, the decomposition and mineralization rates of the produced litter before and after N addition were comparable among plots, even though the soil inorganic N fertility increased greatly. These results suggest that immediate response of Sasa to an increase of soil inorganic N mitigates the excess N leaching from soil.

  10. Vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus. II: modelagem e critérios de dimensionamento Concrete beams reinforced with Dendrocalamus giganteus bamboo. II: modeling and design criterions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho corresponde à segunda parte de uma publicação sobre o comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu, na qual se apresenta e discute a modelagem dessas estruturas para, em seguida, serem apresentadas sugestões e hipóteses para o dimensionamento desses elementos estruturais. Para tanto, utilizou-se um modelo computacional baseado no Método dos Elementos Finitos, ao qual foram incorporadas sub-rotinas com as leis constitutivas do bambu e do concreto. Para calibração do modelo lançou-se mão dos dados experimentais de oito vigas de concreto reforçadas com bambu. Os resultados obtidos com o modelo computacional foram comparados com os experimentais, observando-se grande concordância. Finalmente, sugerem-se critérios de dimensionamento, os quais foram aplicados em um exemplo prático.This paper corresponds to the second part of a publication concerning the structural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with bamboo. Modelling of concrete beams reinforced with bamboo-splint are presented and discussed. In addition, some design suggestions and hypotheses are presented. To perform the study, a Finite Element Program was used and some procedures were programmed and linked to it. The program was calibrated with the experimental data of eight concrete beams reinforced with bamboo-splint, whose results presented great accuracy. Finally, some design procedures were suggested and a practical example is given.

  11. Vigas mistas de madeira de reflorestamento e bambu laminado colado: análise teórica e experimental Composite beams of reforestation wood and glue-laminated bamboo: theoretical and experimental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C. Lima Júnior

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se e se discute a análise teórica e experimental de vigas de madeira, reforçadas com bambu. Para tanto, o comportamento mecânico de cinco vigas mistas e duas de madeira foi estudado. A parte interna das vigas mistas foi constituída de Pinus elliottii e o reforço de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus; este reforço foi disposto tanto na parte inferior como na superior das vigas, além de analisadas diferentes espessuras de reforço. São apresentadas curvas carga vs. deslocamentos e carga vs. deformação. Observou-se aumento da ordem de 50% na rigidez das vigas de Pinus elliottii, quando da presença do reforço de bambu. Finalmente, um estudo numérico em que se utilizou o método dos elementos finitos é apresentado, observando-se boa correlação entre os valores numéricos e experimentais.This paper presents and discusses the experimental and theoretical analyses of layer composite beams of wood strengthened with bamboo. For this, the mechanical behavior of five composite beams and two wood beams was studied. The beam's stuffing was composed of Pinus elliottii and the reinforcement of bamboo Dendrocalamus giganteus. The bamboo reinforcement was placed on the top and at the bottom of the beams. Different thicknesses of reinforcement were investigated. Curves of load vs. displacement and load vs. strain are presented. An increase of 50% was observed in the stiffness, when the composite beams are compared with the wood one. Finally, a numerical study was carried out applying the finite element method and a good agreement was observed between the theoretical and experimental values.

  12. Mapping the transition from catalyst-pool to bamboo-like growth-mechanism in vertically-aligned free-standing films of carbon nanotubes filled with Fe3C: The key role of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo S. Boi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The control of carbon nanotube growth has challenged researchers for more than a decade due to the complex parameters-control necessary in the commonly used CVD approaches. Here we show that a direct transition from the catalyst-pool growth mechanism characterized by graphene-caps in the direction of growth to a bamboo-shaped mechanism characterized by the repetition of periodic elongated graphitic compartments is present when controlled quantities of water are added to ferrocene/dichlorobenzene. Our results suggest that water-addition allows enhancing the level of stress accumulated under the graphitic nanotubes-cap.

  13. Mapping the transition from catalyst-pool to bamboo-like growth-mechanism in vertically-aligned free-standing films of carbon nanotubes filled with Fe3C: The key role of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Filippo S.; Wang, Shanling; He, Yi

    2016-08-01

    The control of carbon nanotube growth has challenged researchers for more than a decade due to the complex parameters-control necessary in the commonly used CVD approaches. Here we show that a direct transition from the catalyst-pool growth mechanism characterized by graphene-caps in the direction of growth to a bamboo-shaped mechanism characterized by the repetition of periodic elongated graphitic compartments is present when controlled quantities of water are added to ferrocene/dichlorobenzene. Our results suggest that water-addition allows enhancing the level of stress accumulated under the graphitic nanotubes-cap.

  14. Molecular cloning of the alpha subunit of complement component C8 (CpC8α) of whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Conghui; Ye, Boping; Hua, Zichun

    2013-12-01

    Complement-mediated cytolysis is the important effect of immune response, which results from the assembly of terminal complement components (C5b-9). Among them, α subunit of C8 (C8α) is the first protein that traverses the lipid bilayer, and then initiates the recruitment of C9 molecules to form pore on target membranes. In this article, a full-length cDNA of C8α (CpC8α) is identified from the whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) by RACE. The CpC8α cDNA is 2183 bp in length, encoding a protein of 591 amino acids. The deduced CpC8α exhibits 89%, 49% and 44% identity with nurse shark, frog and human orthologs, respectively. Sequence alignment indicates that the C8α is well conserved during the evolution process from sharks to mammals, with the same modular architecture as well as the identical cysteine composition in the mature protein. Phylogenetic analysis places CpC8α and nurse shark C8α in cartilaginous fish clade, in parallel with the teleost taxa, to form the C8α cluster with higher vertebrates. Hydrophobicity analysis also indicates a similar hydrophobicity of CpC8α to mammals. Finally, expression analysis revealed CpC8α transcripts were constitutively highly expressed in shark liver, with much less expression in other tissues. The well conserved structure and properties suggests an analogous function of CpC8α to mammalian C8α, though it remains to be confirmed by further study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the mobility and redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kouping; Yang, Xing; Gielen, Gerty; Bolan, Nanthi; Ok, Yong Sik; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Xu, Song; Yuan, Guodong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokai; Liu, Dan; Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Xingyuan; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-15

    Biochar has emerged as an efficient tool to affect bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Although partially understood, a carefully designed incubation experiment was performed to examine the effect of biochar on mobility and redistribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sandy loam soil collected from the surroundings of a copper smelter. Bamboo and rice straw biochars with different mesh sizes (Heavy metal concentrations in pore water were determined after extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 . Phytoavailable metals were extracted using DTPA/TEA (pH 7.3). The European Union Bureau of Reference (EUBCR) sequential extraction procedure was adopted to determine metal partitioning and redistribution of heavy metals. Results showed that CaCl 2 -and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were significantly (p soils, especially at 5% application rate, than those in the unamended soil. Soil pH values were significantly correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations (p metal fractions, and the effect was more pronounced with increasing biochar application rate. The effect of biochar particle size on extractable metal concentrations was not consistent. The 5% rice straw biochar treatment reduced the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the order of Cd metals were mainly bound in the soil organic matter fraction. The results demonstrated that the rice straw biochar can effectively immobilize heavy metals, thereby reducing their mobility and bioavailability in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue-Almqvist, Jesusa; Jin, Xuelin; Li, Xia; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3) we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals that consume

  17. Tracer experiment administering L-phenylalanine-U-{sup 14}C and L-tyrosine-U-{sup 14}C to the tissue slices of bamboo shoots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozukue, E. [Kenmei Women' s Junior Coll., Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mizuno, S.

    1987-09-15

    Uniformly {sup 14}C-labeled L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine were administered to tissue slices of both top and base sections of bamboo shoots. Alcohol soluble substances were extracted and then separated into organic acid, sugar and amino acid fractions by ion exchange chromatography. The homogentisic acid fraction among the organic acids was collected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its radioactivity was measured, while the alcohol insoluble residue was used for the analysis of lignin aldehyde by the method of alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. 1. The two labeled amino acids were steadily incorporated into the tissues during incubation and rapidly converted to organic acid, sugar and alcohol insoluble residue, especially the latter. 2. On determining the amount of phenylalanine converted to tyrosine, it was found that this was extremely small. 3. The incorporation of phenylalanine-U-{sup 14}C into alcohol insoluble residue was higher than that of tyrosine in both sections. 4. Although the conversion into lignin aldehyde from phenylalanine-U-{sup 14}C was higher than that from tyrosine-U-{sup 14}C, it was found that tyrosine incorporated into the shoots was converted to a remarkable extent for formation of lignin aldehyde. 5. The incorporation of phenylalanine and tyrosine into homogentisic acid was very low. From these results, we assume that the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine or of tyrosine to homogentisic acid is very small, and that a part of the high amount of tyrosine in the shoots may be used for formation of lignin.

  18. Graft copolymerization of acrylo–nitrile onto delignified native bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris cellulosic and its utilization potential for heavy metal uptake from aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. EKEBAFE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto delingnified cellulosic material obtained from Nigeria grown bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris could be initiated by a ceric ammonium nitrate redox system. Optimization of grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material was performed by varying the reaction conditions, such as the duration of soaking of cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution, concentration of ceric ammonium nitrate solution, polymerization time, temperature of reaction, and acrylonitrile concentration and saponification time, in order to study their influence on percent grafting yield and grafting efficiency. The resulting cellulosic-g-polyacrylonitrile (PAN copolymers were fractionated by extraction at 33 C with N,N’-dimethylformamide. Fractions were characterized by determining both the % add-on and the free polymer. Saponification of grafted copolymer was done by reaction with sodium hydroxide followed by methanol precipitation. The absorbent polymer so produced gave fair water retention values. The optimum reaction conditions obtained were: 20 mmol/L ceric ammonium nitrate solution in 1% nitric acid, soaking duration of 0.5 h at 40 C for a polymerization time of 2 h and saponification time of 3 h. The percent grafting was 167.89%, grafting efficiency was 93.52% and water retention value was 389 g/g. The grafting was confirmed using FTIR. Sorption of different metal ions in the mixture, e.g. Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb, by grafted cellulosic and the hydrogel was also investigated. Hydrolysis increases the sorption affinity of grafted cellulose toward water and metal ions.

  19. Combined modified atmosphere packaging and low temperature storage delay lignification and improve the defense response of minimally processed water bamboo shoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Chen, Hangjun; Gao, Haiyan; Fang, Xiangjun; Mu, Honglei; Yuan, Ya; Yang, Qian; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-09-04

    Minimally processed water bamboo shoot (WBS) lignifies and deteriorates rapidly at room temperature, which limits greatly its marketability. This study was to investigate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the sensory quality index, lignin formation, production of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activities of scavenging enzymes, membrane integrity and energy status of minimally processed WBS when packaged with or without the sealed low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags, and then stored at 20°C for 9 days or 2°C for 60 days. The sensory quality of minimally processed WBS decreased quickly after 6 days of storage at 20°C. Low temperature storage maintained a higher sensory quality index within the first 30 days, but exhibited higher contents of lignin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as compared with non-MAP shoots at 20°C. Combined MAP and low temperature storage not only maintained good sensory quality after 30 days, but also reduced significantly the increases in lignin content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production rate, H2O2 content and membrane permeability, maintained high activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and reduced the increase in activities of lipase, phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Furthermore, the minimally processed WBS under MAP condition exhibited higher energy charge (EC) and lower adenosine monophosphate (AMP) content by the end of storage (60 days) at 2°C than those without MAP or stored for 9 days at 20°C. These results indicated that MAP in combination with low temperature storage reduced lignification of minimally processed WBS, which was closely associated with maintenance of energy status and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as reduced alleviation of membrane damage caused by ROS.

  20. [Effect of bamboo leaf biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux and labile organic carbon pool in a Chinese chestnut plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Lei; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux in a typical Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation in Lin'an, Zhejiang Province, China was investigated from July 2012 to July 2013 by the static closed chamber-GC technique. Soil temperature, soil moisture, WSOC and MBC concentrations were determined as well. Results showed that soil CO2 efflux exhibited a strong sea- sonal pattern. Compared with the control (without biochar application), the biochar treatment increased the soil CO2 efflux only in the first month since application, and then the effect diminished thereafter. There were no significant differences in the annual cumulative value of soil CO2 efflux between the biochar and control treatments. The annual mean value in soil MBC concentration (362 mg · kg(-1)) in the biochar treatment was higher than that (322 mg · kg(-1)) in the control. However, no significant difference in the soil WSOC concentration was found between the biochar and control treatments. Strong exponential relationships between soil temperature and soil CO2 efflux were observed regardless of the treatment and soil layer. The apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil CO2 efflux in the biochar treatment was higher than that in the control. Soil CO2 efflux was related to soil WSOC concentration but not with soil MBC or moisture content. To conclude, the application of bamboo leaf biochar did not affect the annual cumulative CO2 emission in the Chinese chestnut plantation but increased the Q10, and the CO2 efflux was predominantly controlled by the soil temperature and soil WSOC level.

  1. Application of EDTA-functionalized bamboo activated carbon (BAC) for Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Jiasheng; Yang, Kunlun; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Shams Ali; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel bamboo activated carbon (BAC) with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) functionality was prepared by direct grafting in the presence of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a crosslinking agent. The BAC@SiO2-EDTA was characterized by SEM, TEM, TGA, FTIR, XPS and its adsorption property for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) under various experimental conditions was also investigated. The characterization results reflected that EDTA was successfully assembled on the surface of the BAC and average pore size increased from 4.10 to 4.83 nm as BAC grafted with EDTA. Adsorption data fitted very well in Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As compared with the raw BAC, the maximum adsorption capacities of BAC@SiO2-EDTA for the Pb(II) and Cu(II) increased from 45.45 to 123.45 mg g-1 and from 6.85 to 42.19 mg g-1, since the existence of EDTA on modified BAC promoted the formation of chemical complex. The removal of heavy metal ions mainly depended on the complexation with EDTA and the electrostatic attractions with negatively charged surface of BAC@SiO2-EDTA. The adsorption of Pb(II)/Cu(II) on the BAC@SiO2-EDTA was pH dependent and pH 5-6 was considered an optimum. However, lower temperature favored the adsorption and the maximum adsorption was recorded at 20 °C. In addition, BAC@SiO2-EDTA had an excellent reusability with about 40% decline in the adsorption capacity for Pb(II) after fifth reuse. Insignificant influences of co-existing cations and natural organic matter (NOM) were found on the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II). All the results demonstrate that BAC@SiO2-EDTA is a potential adsorbent for metal ions in wastewater.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of cassava wastewater in fixed bed reactor using bamboo medium support; Digestao anaerobica de agua residuaria de fecularia em reator de leito fixo utilizando meio suporte de aneis de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watthier, Elisangela; Andreani, Cristiane L.; Silva, Jefferson L.G. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: eliswa@hotmail.com; Gomes, Simone D. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento Ambiental

    2012-11-01

    Cassava wastewater causes damage to the environment due to high organic loads and presence of cyanide and hydrocyanic acid. An alternative treatment anaerobic which add value for biogas production. To allow use of higher load sand reducing the TDH support means are used. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the anaerobic treatment of liquid effluent of cassava industry, using bamboo as support media. The wastewater used was derived from starch factory located in Toledo. Was used PVC reactor with a diameter of 15 cm and length 90 cm. Were used as support means 52 bamboo rings and useful reactor volume 61. A total of 13 load increasing, from 1,675 to 15.158 g.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}, until reaching the maximum load bearable. For each load data was collected for 15 days by daily samples at entrance and exit of the reactors. The samples were analyzed: DQO, alkalinity, volatile acidity and biogas production. There was a system instability in 12,394 g.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}, with values of AV/AT above 0.5, but the system began to show signs of stability in the next load. The reactor showed biogas production up 1.57 L.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Comparison between two different supporting media at the manipueira anaerobic treatment: bamboo and polyurethane; Comparacao entre dois diferentes meios de suportes no tratamento anaerobico da manipueira: bambu e poliuretano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Douglas Guedes Batista; Citolin, Antonio Carlos; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Alcantara, Michael Steinhorst; Mendonca, Elisabete Ferro [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: simoned@unioeste.br

    2009-07-01

    It was compared the anaerobic bio digestion for the processing starch waste water in natura at horizontal reactors with continuous flux, 15 cm diameter and 90 cm, using two supporting media: bamboo and polyurethane, varying the load rate. The organic load evaluated were 0.548, 1.156, 1.471, 3.049 gCOD.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1} and it was shown that there wasn't supporting media influence on the total and volatile solid removals, with greatest reductions 85 % and 93 %, significantly equals by the Tukey test, for the 1.156 and 1.471 gDQO.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1} loads. The biogas production was greatest at the bio digestion with bamboo acting as supporting media, resulting in 1.696 L{sub biogas}.gSV{sub consumida}{sup -1} for the organic load value of 3.049 gDQO.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1}. (author)

  4. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Jiang

    Full Text Available A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3 we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals

  5. EVALUASI UNJUK KERJA TURBIN AIR PELTON TERBUAT DARI KAYU DAN BAMBU SEBAGAI PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK RAMAH LINGKUNGAN UNTUK PEDESAAN (Performance Evaluation of Hydraulic Pelton Turbine Made of Wood and Bamboo as Environmentally Friendly Electric Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Kamal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pemanfaatan energi air di Indonesia, khususnya untuk pembangkit listrik skala kecil di pedesaan masih perlu diprioritaskan untuk ditingkatkan dalam program memperoleh energi bersih yang ramah lingkungan. Pemanfaatan tersebut masih terkendala oleh biaya investasi yang relatif tinggi serta teknologi yang sesuai. Pemerintah mendorong pemanfaatan energi baru dan terbarukan melalui program Desa Mandiri Energi dengan menggunakan potensi dan sumber daya yang tersedia di pedesaan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi unjuk kerja turbin air Pelton untuk pembangkit listrik skala kecil dengan sudu terbuat dari bambu dan roda turbin dari kayu. Data yang terkumpul menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi pembangkitan mampu mencapai sekitar 28% untuk debit aliran 28 liter/detik dan tinggi jatuh efektif 7 m menggunakan nosel berpenampang empat persegi panjang. Walaupun dari aspek teknik dan lingkungan penggunaan bambu sebagai sudu turbin adalah baik dan sesuai untuk digunakan di pedesaan, namun unjuk kerja yang diperoleh masih perlu ditingkatkan dibanding dengan umumnya turbin Pelton yang terbuat dari logam. Hal ini diperkirakan karena bentuk alamiah lengkung bambu yang tidak optimum untuk sudu serta bentuk penampang nosel yang masih harus disesuaikan.   ABSTRACT The use of hydroenergy in Indonesia, especially for small electric generation in rural areas is still to be priority increased in a program to find a clean and environmentally friendly energy.  The use is still limited by relatively high investation cost and appropriate technology. Government has pushed the use of new and renewable energy through the Village Self-Relliant Energy Supply Program by using potential and available resources in the village. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a hydraulic Pelton turbine for small electric generation with the buckets are made of bamboo and the runner is made of wood. Data collected from the study show that the efficiency of the

  6. Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil over an ex-situ dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5: Analytical PY-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Deng, Aidong; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil was conducted. • MgO was beneficial to deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation. • Dual catalytic bed system exhibited prominent deoxygenation and aromatization. • A HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely increased the yield of aromatics. • Waste lubricating oil leads hydrocarbon pool towards the formation of hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) of bamboo residual (BR) and waste lubricating oil (WLO) over dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5 were carried out in an analytical PY-GC/MS. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst types, HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio and WLO percentage on products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were investigated. Experimental results revealed that 600 °C promoted the total peak area of volatile matters and accelerated the yields of furans and phenols. Compared to HZSM-5, MgO exhibited pronounced deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation reactions as the minimum yield of acids (2.116%) and the maximum yield of ketones (28.805%) could be obtained. Furthermore, given the selectivity of phenols, MgO not only spurred the increase of overall phenols yield, but also facilitated the selectivity of light phenols like phenol and 4-methyl-phenol. With respect to the co-CFP of BR and WLO, a HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely accelerated the yield of aromatics via Diels-Alder reaction. Simultaneously, the WLO percentage played a vital role in the yield of hydrocarbons (i.e. aromatics + olefins & alkanes), and the maximum yield (70.305%) could be attained at the percentage of 60% as a function of significant activation of hydrocarbon pool.

  7. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  8. Plunder behind the bamboo curtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denniston, D.

    1993-01-01

    Significant environmental degradation has occurred in Tibet as China has stripped forests and minerals from the ground. Uranium, borax, lithium, copper, iron, chromite are all being exploited. High pasture is being overgrazed because fertile valleys are being inhabited by workers. Shortages of timber and paper pulp in China have meant cutting of dense stands of spruce, fir, larch, oak maple, and pine. Ground and surface waters are contaminated from mining, severe erosion is increasing from deforestation, overgrazing and mining on the high plateau. Importation of large numbers of Chinese workers has further threatened the Tibetian culture

  9. Caracterização bromatológica e mineral dos resíduos de broto de bambu, visando a sua utilização como alimento animal Mineral and bromatologic characterization of bamboo shoot residues as animal food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisio Azzini

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse estudo, realizado em 1992, nos Institutos Agronômico, de Tecnologia de Alimentos e de Zootecnia, procedeu-se à caracterização bromatológica e mineral dos resíduos de broto de bambu (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro, a fim de utilizá-los como alimento animal. Os resultados mostraram que tais resíduos, constituídos basicamente por bainhas e pedaços tenros de colmo, apresentaram elevados teores de proteína (131,4 g/kg, açúcares (115,3 g/kg, fibras (235,4 g/kg e ácido cianídrico (213 mg/kg. Essa concentração de ácido cianídrico pode causar efeito tóxico em animais, devendo-se, portanto, eliminá-lo, adotando o mesmo procedimento utilizado para a fração comestível do broto, o qual se resume no cozimento em água fervente durante 20 minutos. Após esse tratamento, os resíduos de broto de bambu podem ser utilizados como alimento animal.The mineral and bromatologic characterization of bamboo shoot residues (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were determined as animal food. The results showed that the bamboo shoot residues (sheaths and pieces of soft culms presented hight contents of protein (131.4 g/kg, sugars (115.3 g/kg, fibers (235.4 g/kg and hydrocyanic acid (213 mg/kg. This hydrocyanic acid concentration can be toxic for animals, then this cyanogenic componed must be eliminated using boiling water during 20 minutes. This treatment is similar to the treatment used for edible parts of bamboo shoot. After this treatment for hydrocyanic acid elimination the bamboo shoot residues can be used as animal food.

  10. The efficacy of bamboo charcoal in comparison with smectite to reduce the detrimental effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro rumen fermentation of a hay-rich feed mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ya-Hui; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hong-Jian; Chen, Ying

    2014-07-10

    Two commercial materials, a bamboo charcoal (BC) and a smectite clay (SC), were assessed in vitro with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in an equilibrium adsorption test. The adsorption capacity and proportion adsorbed (0.381 μg/mg, 0.955) for BC were greater than for SC (0.372 μg/mg, 0.931). The effects of in vitro ruminal fermentation of hay-rich feed incubated with 1.0 μg/mL AFB1 for 0-10 g/L doses of BC and SC were measured at 39 °C for 72 h. The BC and SC binders increased AFB1 loss at dosages ≥1.0 g/L (p < 0.0001). Average AFB1 loss (p < 0.0001) was greater for SC (0.904) than BC (0.881). Both SC and SC addition increased in vitro dry matter loss, and the average dry matter losses were similar. Asymptotic gas volume and volatile fatty acid production were greater for BC than for SC (p < 0.0001). Thus, BC may be as effective as SC in removing aflatoxin B1's detrimental effects on rumen degradability and fermentation under the occurrence of microbial aflatoxin degradation.

  11. The Efficacy of Bamboo Charcoal in Comparison with Smectite to Reduce the Detrimental Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation of a Hay-Rich Feed Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial materials, a bamboo charcoal (BC and a smectite clay (SC, were assessed in vitro with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in an equilibrium adsorption test. The adsorption capacity and proportion adsorbed (0.381 μg/mg, 0.955 for BC were greater than for SC (0.372 μg/mg, 0.931. The effects of in vitro ruminal fermentation of hay-rich feed incubated with 1.0 μg/mL AFB1 for 0–10 g/L doses of BC and SC were measured at 39 °C for 72 h. The BC and SC binders increased AFB1 loss at dosages ≥1.0 g/L (p < 0.0001. Average AFB1 loss (p < 0.0001 was greater for SC (0.904 than BC (0.881. Both SC and SC addition increased in vitro dry matter loss, and the average dry matter losses were similar. Asymptotic gas volume and volatile fatty acid production were greater for BC than for SC (p < 0.0001. Thus, BC may be as effective as SC in removing aflatoxin B1’s detrimental effects on rumen degradability and fermentation under the occurrence of microbial aflatoxin degradation.

  12. Activity in SRL Nagoya Coated Conductor Center for YBCO Coated Conductor by IBAD+ PLD Method -Long, high Ic conductor and a new bamboo-like nanostructure for efficient pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Miyata, Seiki; Watanabe, Tomonori; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-01-01

    In SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC), long buffered substrate tapes and YBCO coated conductors have been successfully fabricated by using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. For the buffered tape, the PLD-CeO2 method, what we call the 'Self-Epitaxial' method, realized the high degree of in-plane texturing around 4 degrees along the length of 220 m. For YBCO deposition, we have recently introduced new reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD). This system succeeded in fabricating a long coated conductor with a high critical current, Ic, of 245 A and length of 212 m. Ic xL (length) reached the world record of 51940 Am. Furthermore, the introduction of artificial pinning center and RE 123 materials were also studied for improving flux pinning and enhancing Ic. A new columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO3/Y123 layer-stacked structure) was found in Y123+YSZ sample. This columnar structure and the stacking faults in Gd123 were found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties. Using these techniques, we have succeeded in increasing Ic at 0 T to 480 A/cm and also enhancing Ic in a magnetic field

  13. Production and purification of anti-bacterial biometabolite from wild-type Lactobacillus, isolated from fermented bamboo shoot: future suggestions and a proposed system for secondary metabolite onsite recovery during continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-02-01

    Wild-type lactobacillus isolated form Khorisa, a fermented bamboo shoot product of Assam, India were evaluated for production anti-bacterial secondary biometabolites, against Staphylococcus aureus. Submerged fermentation technique was used for the production of secondary anti-microbial biometabolite by a single wild-type lactobacillus strain, which tested positive for the release of anti-bacterial factor(s). Crude cell-free supernatant was obtained, followed by extraction in water-immiscible solvents viz., chloroform, hexane, petroleum ether. Chloroform extract of cell-free crude supernatant showed maximum yield (0.054 g/ml) and inhibited all indicator bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Yields of hexane and petroleum ether extract were 0.052 and 0.026 g/ml, respectively. Minimum lethal dose concentration assay of the chloroform extract showed LDmin values at 27, 1.68, and 1.68 mg/ml for E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus, respectively. Kill time for all the indicator bacterial strains were less than 12 h. The efficacy of the anti-bacterial substance seemed to depend on the presence of organic acids, particularly lactic acid. Conceptual-based suggestion for the development of an onsite secondary metabolites recovery system during continuous fermentation has also been attempted.

  14. Avaliação de estrutura de bambu como elemento construtivo para casa de vegetação Evaluation of the bamboo structure use as constructive element for greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Mary

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso da tecnologia do cultivo protegido no Brasil, para a produção de hortaliças e plantas ornamentais, passou por diversas fases de adaptação, visando a atender às necessidades de oferta e de qualidade dos produtos, com a preocupação de minimizar os custos de produção e os efeitos negativos do clima. A grande maioria dessas adaptações partiu da iniciativa dos próprios agricultores, utilizando-se de diferentes materiais e de outros artifícios para contornar problemas cotidianos. O experimento foi realizado na área da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/UNICAMP, no período compreendido entre dezembro de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, com o objetivo de avaliar as deformações do sistema construtivo de estrutura de bambu para utilização em casa de vegetação, em diferentes espaçamentos entre colunas e sob diferentes esforços verticais de cargas. Testou-se o uso de vigas e colunas construídas com colmos de bambu da espécie Bambusa tuldoides Munro e estruturadas com espaçadores de plástico, especialmente projetados para facilitar e padronizar a construção, conferindo-lhe maior resistência e estabilidade. Foram avaliados três espaçamentos entre colunas (2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 m sob diferentes esforços de carga, dos quais o melhor resultado foi obtido com o espaçamento de 2,5 m.The use of technology to protect and produce vegetables and ornamental plants was developed over several adaptation phases that supported the demand for quality and amount of products. These developments also reduced production costs and climate damage to the crops. Many of these adaptations were carried out by farmers on their own initiative, using different materials and devices to solve their problems. This study was carried out at Agricultural Engineering College - Campinas University/UNICAMP, from December 2002 to January 2003, with the objective of evaluating the deformations of the constructive system of bamboo structure for greenhouses, submitted to

  15. Functional analysis of the cloverleaf-like structure in the 3' untranslated region of bamboo mosaic potexvirus RNA revealed dual roles in viral RNA replication and long distance movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I-H.; Meng Hsiao; Hsu, Y.-H.; Tsai, C.-H.

    2003-01-01

    The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) RNA was identified to fold into a tertiary structure comprising a cloverleaf-like structure designated ABC domain followed by a major stem-loop D, which in turn is followed by a pseudoknot E and a poly(A) tail. The coat protein accumulation level of the mutant, BaMV40A/ΔABC, lacking ABC domain was just 15% that of wild-type when inoculated into protoplasts of Nicotiana benthamiana. This suggested that ABC domain might play an important role in BaMV RNA replication. To define the precise role of each of the three stem-loops of ABC domain in RNA replication, three mutants BaMV40B and C each lacking stem-loop A, B, and C, respectively, were created. Our results showed that accumulation of viral products of mutants BaMV40B and C were not as efficient as wild-type. On the contrary, level of accumulation of viral products of BaMVA was similar to that of wild-type in protoplasts and inoculated leaves. Interestingly, the accumulation of viral products was not as efficient as that of wild-type in systemic leaves, implying that stem-loop A is dispensable for replication, but signifies a role in systemic accumulation. Using UV cross-linking and competition experiments, it was demonstrated that the E. coli expressed helicase domain of BaMV ORF1 can preferentially interact with the ABC domain

  16. Gastro-intestinal handling of water and solutes in three species of elasmobranch fish, the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nos